Infinitive.—The following are the endings added to the tense-stem to make the infinitive.
a. -εν: in present and 2 aorist active of ω-verbs, all futures active. Thus, λύ_ειν, τι_μᾶν, λιπεῖν, λύ_σειν, φανεῖν from λύ_ε-εν, τι_μάε-εν, λιπέ-εν, λύ_σε-εν, φανέε-εν.
b. -αι: in 1 aor. active, as λῦσαι, παιδεῦσαι, δεῖξαι.
c. -ναι: (1) present, 2 perf. of μι-verbs, the two passive aorists, as τιθέ-ναι, ἑστάναι, λυθῆ-ναι, φανῆ-ναι; (2) perfect active, λελυκέ-ναι, and εἰδέ-ναι from εἰδ-ε (οἶδα).
N. 1.—The ending εναι appears in the 2 aor. of μι-verbs, as δοῦναι from δό-εναι, θεῖναι from θέ-εναι.
d. -σθαι: in other cases.
N. 2.—The infinitives are old cases of substantives, those in -αι being datives, the others locatives.469D
-εν appears also in Hom. ἰδέεν (miswritten ἰδέειν). Hom. has no case of -εναι (for ἰέναι write ἴμεναι). For -εν or -ναι Hom. often uses -μεναι (also Aeolic) and -μεν (which is also Doric); both endings show the accent on the preceding syllable, as ζευγνύμεναι, ἔμμεναι ( = εἶναι), φιλήμεναι, στήμεναι, ἑστάμεναι, ἀξέμεναι, ὁμοιωθήμεναι, δαήμεναι; τιθέμεν, ἔμμεν, ἴμεν, θέμεν, ἐλθέμεν, ἀξέμεν. Doric has -μεν in the aorist passive, as αἰσχυνθῆμεν. -μεν is preceded by a short syllable and generally stands before a vowel. -ναι always follows a long vowel. Doric has -ην and -εν in the present. Aeolic has -ην in the present and 2 aorist.470
Participles.—The stem of the participle is formed by adding the following endings to the tense stem.
a. -ντ-: in all active tenses except the perfect, and in 1 and 2 aor. passive ( cross301).
b. -οτ-: in the perfect active (for -ϝοτ-); masc. -ώς, fem. -υῖα, neut. -ός ( cross301 c).
c. -μενο-: in the middle, and in the passive except in the aorist.471
Verbal Adjectives.—Most of the verbals in -τός and -τέος are formed by adding these suffixes to the verbal stem of the aorist passive (first or second). Thus, φιλητός, -τέος (ἐ-φιλή-θην); πειστός, -τέος (ἐ-πείς-θην); τελεστός, -τέος (ἐ-τελές-θην); σταλτός, -τέος (ἐ-στάλ-ην); βλητός, -τέος (ἐ-βλή-θην). On the accent of compound verbals, see cross425 c.
a. Some are derived from other stem forms (pres. and fut.), as φερ-τός, ί-τέον, δυνα-τός; μενετός (cp. μενέ-ω μενῶ fut.).472
Verbals in -τός, -τή, -τόν either (1) have the meaning of a perfect passive participle, as κρυπτός
a. Usually passive in meaning are verbals from deponent verbs, as μι_μητός
b. Usually active in meaning are compounds derived from transitive active verbs; but some intransitive verbs make active verbals, as ῥυτός
c. Many are active or passive, others only active: μεμπτός
Verbals in -τέος, -τέα_, -τέον express necessity (cp. the Lat. gerundive in
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].