Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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465aD

Hom. has βούλεαι, perf. μέμνηαι, but pres. δύνασαι, παρίστασαι; ὄψει is unique (for ὄψεαι); subj. δύνηαι. Doric often contracts, as οἴῃ for οἴε-αι. Aeolic generally leaves εαι open (κείσε-αι). Hdt. has open -εαι, -ηαι.

b. 2 Sing.—-σο stays in all plups. and in the imperf. of μι-verbs. Elsewhere it loses its ς, as in ἐλύ_ου from ἐλύ_ε-σο, ἐλύ_σω from ἐλύ_σα-σο, ἐφήνω from ἐφήνα-σο, ἐλίπου from ἐλίπε-σο, ἔθου from ἔθε-σο, ἐπρίω from ἐπρία-σο, ἐτι_μῶ from ἐτι_μάε-σο, ἐφιλοῦ from ἐφιλέε-σο. In the optative, λύ_οιο, λίποιο, τιθεῖο, εἷο, λύ_σαιο, from λύ_οι-σο, etc.; τι_μῷο from τι_μάοι-σο.

N. 1.—ἐδύνω or ἠδύνω and ἠπίστω are commoner than ἐδύνασο and ἠπίστασο from δύναμαι am able and ἐπίσταμαι understand.

N. 2.—After a diphthong or a long vowel in the 2 aor. indic. mid. -σο is retained, as εἷσο (ἵ_ημι send), ὤνησο (ὀνίνημι benefit).

b. Hom., Doric, and Aeolic have generally open forms, as Hom. βάλλε-ο (rarely βάλλευ), ὠδύσα-ο. ἔρειο, σπεῖο are from -εεο. Hom. has ἐμάρναο for Attic ἐμάρνασο, and may drop ς even in the pluperfect (ἔσσυο). When Doric contracts αο we have α_. In Hdt. αο, εο are open, but the writing ευ for εο is found.

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c. Dual.—The 1 pl. is used for the 1 dual except in the three poetic forms περιδώμεθον, λελείμμεθον, ὁρμώμεθον. Hom. has -σθον for -σθην in θωρήσσεσθον.

d. 1 Pl.—In epic and dramatic poetry -μεσθα is often used for -μεθα for metrical reasons (βουλόμεσθα, ἐπιστάμεσθα).

e. 2 Pl.—On the loss of ς in σθε (ἔσταλθε), see cross103.

f. 3 Pl.—After vowel stems -νται, -ντο are preserved. After stems ending in a consonant -νται, -ντο became -αται, -ατο by 35 b. These forms were retained in prose till about 400 B.C. (e.g. τετάχαται, ἐτετάχατο).

f. -αται, -ατο occur in Hom. regularly in the perfect and pluperfect of consonant stems, as τετράφαται, ἕαται for ἑς-νται, ἥατο for ἡς-ντο from ἧμαι (ἡσμαι); also in stems ending in , as ἐφθίατο. -αται, -ατο were transferred to vocalic stems, as βεβλήαται, βεβλήατο, Hdt. δυνέαται. Hom. has -δ-αται in ἐληλάδαται from ἐλαύνω drive. In the opt. -ατο always (γενοίατο for γένοιντο). In Hdt. η before -αται, -ατο is shortened, as perf. ἡγέαται for ἡγή-αται ἥγηνται, ἐβεβλέατο for -ηατο. For κεῖνται, Hom. κείαται and κέαται, Hdt. has κέαται. In the opt. Hdt. has -ατο: βουλοίατο, δεξαίατο. In Hdt. -αται, -ατο occur even in the present system, τιθέαται, δυνέαται, ἱ_στέατο.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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