Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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373

The verb-stem may show numerous modifications in form.

Thus, corresponding to the gradations in sing, sang, sung ( cross35), the verb λείπ-ω leave shows the stems λειπ-, λοιπ- (2 perf. λέ-λοιπ-α), λιπ- (2 aor. ἔ-λιπ-ο-ν); the verb φεύγ-ω flee shows φευγ- and φυγ- (2 aor. ἔ-φυγ-ο-ν). In ῥήγνυ_μι break we find the three stems ῥηγ, ῥωγ (2 perf. ἔρρωγα), ῥαγ (2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην). στέλλ-ω send has the stems στελ- and σταλ- (perf. ἔ-σταλ-κα, 2 fut. pass. σταλ-ήσομαι).

a. When the fundamental stem shows modifications, it is customary for convenience to call its shorter (or shortest) form the verb-stem, and to derive the other forms from it. The student must, however, beware of assuming that the short forms are older than the other forms.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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