The Tense-stems.—The tenses fall into nine classes called
|I.||Present,||including||present and imperfect.|
|II.||Future,||“||future active and middle.|
|III.||First aorist,||“||first aorist active and middle.|
|IV.||Second aorist,||“||second aorist active and middle.|
|V.||First perfect,||“||first perfect, first pluperfect, and fut. perf., active.|
|VI.||Second perfect,||“||second perfect and second pluperfect active.|
|VII.||Perfect middle,||“||perfect and pluperfect middle (|
|VIII.||First passive,||“||first aorist and first future passive.|
|IX.||Second passive,||“||second aorist and second future passive.|
The tense-stems are explained in detail in 497-597.
a. Since few verbs have both the first and second form of the same tense ( cross361), most verbs have only six of these nine systems; many verbs do not even have six. Scarcely any verb shows all nine systems.
b. There are also secondary tense-stems for the future passive, the pluperfect, and the future perfect.
c. The tense-stems assume separate forms in the different moods.
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].