Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The Greek verb shows distinctions of voice, mood, verbal noun, tense, number, and person.

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Voices.—There are three voices: active, middle, and passive.

a. The middle usually denotes that the subject acts on himself or for himself, as λούομαι wash myself, ἀμύ_νομαι defend myself (lit. ward off for myself).

b. The passive borrows all its forms, except the future and aorist, from the middle.

c. Deponent verbs have an active meaning but only middle (or middle and passive) forms. If its aorist has the middle form, a deponent is called a middle deponent (χαρίζομαι gratify, ἐχαρισάμην); if its aorist has the passive form, a deponent is called a passive deponent (ἐνθυ_μέομαι reflect on, ἐνεθυ_μήθην). Deponents usually prefer the passive to the middle forms of the aorist.


Moods.—Four moods, the indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, are called finite, because the person is defined by the ending ( cross366). The infinitive, strictly a verbal noun ( cross358), is sometimes classed as a mood.


Verbal Nouns.—Verbal forms that share certain properties of nouns are called verbal nouns. There are two kinds of verbal nouns.

1. Substantival: the infinitive.

N.—The infinitive is properly a case form (chiefly dative, rarely locative), herein being like a substantive.

2. Adjectival (inflected like adjectives):

a. Participles: active, middle, and passive.

b. Verbal adjectives:

In -τός, denoting possibility, as φιλητός lovable, or with the force of a perfect passive participle, as γραπτός written.

In -τέος, denoting necessity, as γραπτέος that must be written.


Tenses.—There are seven tenses in the indicative: present, imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. The future perfect commonly has a passive force, but it may be active or middle in meaning (see cross581).

The subjunctive has three tenses: present, aorist, and perfect.

The optative and infinitive have five tenses: present, future, aorist, perfect, and future perfect.

The imperative has three tenses: present, aorist, and perfect.


Hom. does not use the future or future perfect in the optative.


Primary and Secondary Tenses.—There are two classes of tenses in the indicative: (1) Primary (or Principal) tenses, the present and perfect expressing present time, the future and future perfect expressing future time; (2) Secondary (or Historical) tenses, the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist expressing past time. The secondary tenses have an augment ( cross428) prefixed.

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Second Aorists, etc.—Some verbs have tenses called second aorists (active, middle, and passive), second perfects and pluperfects (active only), and second futures (passive). The meaning of these tenses ordinarily corresponds to that of the first aorist, etc.; but when a verb has both forms in any tense (which is rarely the case), the two forms usually differ in meaning. Sometimes one form is poetical, the other used in prose.


No single Greek verb shows all the tenses mentioned in 359 and 361; and the paradigms are therefore taken from different verbs.


Number.—There are three numbers: the singular, dual, and plural.


Person.—There are three persons (first, second, and third) in the indicative, subjunctive, and optative. The imperative has only the second and third persons.

a. Except in a few cases in poetry ( cross465 c) the first person plural is used for the first person dual.


Inflection.—The inflection of a verb consists in the addition of certain endings to the different stems.


Endings.—The endings in the finite moods ( cross357) show whether the subject is first, second, or third person; and indicate number and voice. See cross462 ff.

a. The middle has a different set of endings from the active. The passive has the endings of the middle except in the aorist, which has the active endings.

b. The indicative has two sets of endings in the active and in the middle: one for primary tenses, the other for secondary tenses.

c. The subjunctive uses the same endings as the primary tenses of the indicative; the optative uses the same as those of the secondary tenses.


A Greek verb has two kinds of stems: (1) the tense-stem, to which the endings are attached, and (2) a common verb-stem (also called theme) from which all the tense-stems are derived. The tense-stem is usually made from the verb-stem by prefixing a reduplication-syllable ( cross439), and by affixing signs for mood ( cross457, cross459) and tense ( cross455). A tense-stem may be identical with a verbstem.


The Tense-stems.—The tenses fall into nine classes called tense-systems. Each tense-system has its own separate tense-stem.

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I.Present,includingpresent and imperfect.
II.Future,future active and middle.
III.First aorist,first aorist active and middle.
IV.Second aorist,second aorist active and middle.
V.First perfect,first perfect, first pluperfect, and fut. perf., active.
VI.Second perfect,second perfect and second pluperfect active.
VII.Perfect middle,perfect and pluperfect middle (pass.), future perfect.
VIII.First passive,first aorist and first future passive.
IX.Second passive,second aorist and second future passive.

The tense-stems are explained in detail in 497-597.

a. Since few verbs have both the first and second form of the same tense ( cross361), most verbs have only six of these nine systems; many verbs do not even have six. Scarcely any verb shows all nine systems.

b. There are also secondary tense-stems for the future passive, the pluperfect, and the future perfect.

c. The tense-stems assume separate forms in the different moods.


The principal parts of a verb are the first person singular indicative of the tense-systems occurring in it. These are generally six: the present, future, first aorist, first (or second) perfect active, the perfect middle, and the first (or second) aorist passive. The future middle is given if there is no future active. The second aorist (active or middle) is added if it occurs. Thus:

λύ_ω loose, λύ_σω, ἔλυ_σα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην.

λείπω leave, λείψω, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 aor. ἔλιπον.

γράφω write, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐγράφην.

σκώπτω jeer, σκώψομαι, ἔσκωψα, ἐσκώφθην.


The principal parts of deponent verbs ( cross356 c) are the present, future, perfect, and aorist indicative. Both first and second aorists are given if they occur.

βούλομαι wish, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην (passive deponent).

γγνομαι become, γενήσομαι, γεγένημαι, 2 aor. ἐγενόμην (middle deponent).

ἐργάζομαι work, ἐργάσομαι, εἰργασάμην, εἴργασμαι, εἰργάσθην.


Verb-stem (or Theme).—The tense-stems are made from one fundamental stem called the verb-stem (or theme).

This verb-stem may be a root ( cross193) as in τί_-ω honour, or a root to which a derivative suffix has been appended, as in τι_-μά-ω honour.


A verb forming its tense-stems directly from a root is called a primitive verb. A denominative verb forms its tense-stems from a longer verb-stem, originally a noun-stem; as δουλόω enslave from δοῦλος slave. Verbs in μι ( cross379), and verbs in ω of two syllables (in the present indicative active, as λέγ-ω speak) or of three syllables

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(in the middle, as δέχομαι receive) are generally primitive. Others are denominative.


The verb-stem may show numerous modifications in form.

Thus, corresponding to the gradations in sing, sang, sung ( cross35), the verb λείπ-ω leave shows the stems λειπ-, λοιπ- (2 perf. λέ-λοιπ-α), λιπ- (2 aor. ἔ-λιπ-ο-ν); the verb φεύγ-ω flee shows φευγ- and φυγ- (2 aor. ἔ-φυγ-ο-ν). In ῥήγνυ_μι break we find the three stems ῥηγ, ῥωγ (2 perf. ἔρρωγα), ῥαγ (2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην). στέλλ-ω send has the stems στελ- and σταλ- (perf. ἔ-σταλ-κα, 2 fut. pass. σταλ-ήσομαι).

a. When the fundamental stem shows modifications, it is customary for convenience to call its shorter (or shortest) form the verb-stem, and to derive the other forms from it. The student must, however, beware of assuming that the short forms are older than the other forms.


The verb-stem may also show modifications in quantity, as present λύ_-ω loose, perfect λέ-λυ-κα.

N.—Various causes produce this variation. λύ_ω has υ_ from analogy to λύ_-σω, ἔ-λυ_-σα where the verb-stem λυ has been regularly lengthened ( cross534, cross543). For Attic φθάνω anticipate Hom. has φθά_νω for φθανϝω ( cross28, cross147 D.).


ω Inflection and μι Inflection.—There are two slightly different methods of inflecting verbs, the first according to the common, the second according to the μι system. The names ω-verbs and μι verbs (a small class) refer to the ending of the first person singular active of the present tense indicative only: λύ_-ω loose, τίθη-μι place.

a. In the ω inflection the tense-stem ends in the thematic vowel. To this form belong all futures, and the presents, imperfects, and second aorists showing the thematic vowel.


According to the ending of the verb-stem, ω-verbs are termed:

1. Vowel (or pure) verbs:

a. Not contracted: those that end in υ or ι, as λύ_-ω loose, παιδεύ-ω educate, χρί_-ω anoint. Such verbs retain the final vowel of the stem unchanged in all their forms.

b. Contracted: those that end in α, ε, ο, as τι_μῶ honour from τι_μά-ω, ποιῶ make from ποιέ-ω, δηλῶ manifest from δηλό-ω.

2. Consonant verbs, as:

Liquid or nasal verbs: δέρ-ω flay, μέν-ω remain.

Verbs ending in a stop (or mute), as ἄγ-ω lead, πείθ-ω persuade.

N.—Verbs ending in a stop consonant are called labial, dental, or palatal verbs. Consonant verbs do not retain the final consonant of the stem unchanged in all their forms. The final consonant may be assimilated to a following consonant, or may form with it a double consonant.


Thematic Vowel.—Some tense-stems end in a vowel which varies between ο and ε (or ω and η) in certain forms. This is called the thematic (or variable) vowel. Thus λύ_ο-μεν λύ_ε-τε, λύ_ω-μεν λύ_η-τε,

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λύ_σο-μεν λύ_σε-τε. The thematic vowel is written όε or ώη, as λυ_όε-, γραφώη-. See cross456.


ο is used before μ or ν in the indicative, and in the optative, ω before μ or ν in the subjunctive, elsewhere ε is used in the indicative (η in the subjunctive).


In the μι inflection no thematic vowel is employed, and the endings are attached directly to the tense-stem. The μι form is used only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist. In the other tenses, verbs in μι generally show the same inflection as ω-verbs. For further explanation of the ω and the μι inflection see cross602ff., 717ff.


Meanings of the Tenses and Moods.—In the synopsis ( cross382) meanings are given wherever these are not dependent on the use of the various forms in the sentence. The meanings of the subjunctive and optative forms and the difference between the tenses can be learned satisfactorily only from the syntax. Some of these meanings may here be given:

a. Subjunctive: λύ_ωμεν or λύ_σωμεν let us loose, (ἐὰ_ν) λύ_ω or λύ_σω (if) I loose, (ἵνα) γράφω (that) I may write.

b. Optative: (εἴθε) λύ_οιμι or λύ_σαιμι (would) that I may loose! (εἰ) λύ_οιμεν or λύ_σαιμεν (if) we should loose.


I. Verbs in ω:

A. Vowel verbs not contracted:

Synopsis and conjugation of λύ_ω (pp. 112- cross118).

Second aorist (active and middle) of λείπω (p. cross119).

Second perfect and pluperfect (active) of λείπω.

B. Vowel verbs contracted:

Present and imperfect of τι_μάω, ποιέω, δηλόω (pp. 120- cross123).

C. Consonant verbs:

Liquid and nasal verbs: future and first aorist (active and middle), second aorist and second future passive of φαίνω (pp. 128- cross129).

Labial, dental, and palatal verbs: perfect and pluperfect, middle (passive) of λείπω, γράφω, πείθω, πρά_ττω, ἐλέγχω (p. cross130). Perfect of the liquid verbs ἀγγέλλω, φαίνω; and perfect of τελέω (p. cross131).

II. Verbs in μι.

A. Present, imperfect, and 2 aorist of τίθημι, ἵστημι, δίδωμι (pp. 135 ff.).

Second aorist middle of ἐπριάμην (p. cross138).

B. Present and imperfect of δείκνυ_μι (p. cross140).

Second aorist: ἔδυ_ν (p. cross140).

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ACTIVE:Present and ImperfectFuture1 Aorist
Indic.λύ_ω I loose or amλύ_σω I shall loose
ἔλυ_ον I was loos-ἔλυ_σα I loosed
Imper.λῦε looseλῦσον loose
Infin.λύ_ειν to looseλύ_σειν to be about toλῦσαι to loose or to
loosehave loosed
Part.λύ_ων loosingλύ_σων about to looseλύ_σα_ς having loosed
Indic.λύ_ομαι I loose (forλύ_σομαι I shall loose
myself) (for myself)
ἐλυ_όμην I wasἐλυ_σάμην I loosed (for
loosing (formyself)
Imper.λύ_ου loose (for thy-λῦσαι loose (for thy-
self) self)
Infin.λύ_εσθαι to loose (forλύ_σεσθαι to be about toλύ_σασθαι to loose or to
one's self) loose (for one's self) have loosed (for
one's self)
Part.λυ_όμενος loosing (forλυ_σόμενος about toλυ_σάμενος having
one's self) loose (for one's self) loosed (for one's self)

Indic.λύ_ομαι I am ) (being)
ἐλυ_όμην ) loosed
I was )
Subj.Like Middle
Opt.“ “
Imper.“ “
Infin.“ “
Part.“ “
1 Future1 Aorist
λυθήσομαι I shall be
loosedἐλύθην I was loosed
λυθῶ (for λυθέω)
λύθητι be loosed
λυθήσεσθαι to be aboutλυθῆναι to be loosed or
to be loosedto have been loosed
λυθησόμενος about toλυθείς having been
be loosedloosed

Verbal adjectives: ( λυτός that may be loosed, loosed

( λυτέος that must be loosed, (requiring) to be loosed

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λύ_ω (λυ, λυ_) loose
1 Perfect and Pluperfect Active
λέλυκα I have loosed
ἐλελύκη I had loosed
λελυκὼς ὦ or λελύκω
λελυκὼς εἴην or λελύκοιμι
λελυκὼς ἴσθι or [λέλυκε] [3] cross
λελυκέναι to have loosed
λελυκώς having loosed
Perfect and Pluperfect Middle
λέλυμαι I have loosed (for myself)
ἐλελύμην I had loosed (for myself)
λελυμένος ὦ
λελυμένος εἴην
λέλυσο ( cross712, cross714)
λελύσθαι to have loosed (for one's self)
λελυμένος having loosed (for one's self)

Perfect and Pluperfect PassiveFuture Perfect Passive
λέλυμαι I have ( beenλελύ_σομαι I shall have
ἐλελύμην I had ( loosedbeen loosed
Like Middle
“ “λελυ_σοίμην
“ “
“ “λελύ_σεσθαι
“ “λελυ_σόμενος

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INDICATIVE.S. 1. λύ_ωἔλυ_ονλύ_σω
2. λύ_ειςἔλυ_εςλύ_σεις
3. λύ_ειἔλυ_ελύ_σει
D. 2. λύ_ετονἐλύ_ετονλύ_σετον
3. λύ_ετονἐλυ_έτηνλύ_σετον
P. 1. λύ_ομενἐλύ_ομενλύ_σομεν
2. λύ_ετεἐλύ_ετελύ_σετε
3. λύ_ουσιἔλυ_ονλύ_σουσι
2. λύ_ῃς
3. λύ_ῃ
D. 2. λύ_ητον
3. λύ_ητον
P. 1. λύ_ωμεν
2. λύ_ητε
3. λύ_ωσι
OPTATIVE.S. 1. λύ_οιμιλύ_σοιμι
2. λύ_οιςλύ_σοις
3. λύ_οιλύ_σοι
D. 2. λύ_οιτονλύ_σοιτον
3. λυ_οίτηνλυ_σοίτην
P. 1. λύ_οιμενλύ_σοιμεν
2. λύ_οιτελύ_σοιτε
3. λύ_οιενλύ_σοιεν
3. λυ_έτω
D. 2. λύ_ετον
3. λυ_έτων
P. 2. λύ_ετε
3. λυ_όντων
PARTICIPLE.λύ_ων, λύ_ουσα,λύ_σων, λύ_σουσα,
λῦον ( cross305) λῦσον ( cross305)

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1 Aorist1 Perfect1 Pluperfect
IND.S. 1. ἔλυ_σαλέλυκαἐλελύκη
2. ἔλυ_σαςλέλυκαςἐλελύκης
3. ἔλυ_σελέλυκεἐλελύκει (ν)
D. 2. ἐλύ_σατονλελύκατονἐλελύκετον
3. ἐλυ_σάτηνλελύκατονἐλελυκέτην
P. 1. ἐλύ_σαμενλελύκαμενἐλελύκεμεν
2. ἐλύ_σατελελύκατεἐλελύκετε
3. ἔλυ_σανλελύκα_σιἐλελύκεσαν
SUBJ.S. 1. λύ_σωλελυκὼς ὦ ( cross691) orλελύκω ( cross692)
2. λύ_σῃςλελυκὼς ᾖςλελύκῃς
3. λύ_σῃλελυκὼς ᾖλελύκῃ
D. 2. λύ_σητονλελυκότε ἦτονλελύκητον
3. λύ_σητονλελυκότε ἦτονλελύκητον
P. 1. λύ_σωμενλελυκότες ὦμενλελύκωμεν
2. λύ_σητελελυκότες ἦτελελύκητε
3. λύ_σωσιλελυκότες ὦσιλελύκωσι
OPT.S. 1. λύ_σαιμιλελυκὼς εἴην ( cross694) orλελύκοιμι, -οίην
2. λύ_σαις, λύ_σειας ( cross668) λελυκὼς εἴηςλελύκοις, -οίης
3. λύ_σαι, λύ_σειε ( cross668) λελυκὼς εἴηλελύκοι, -οίη
D. 2. λύ_σαιτονλελυκότε εἴητον, εἶτονλελύκοιτον
3. λυ_σαίτηνλελυκότε εἰήτην, εἴτηνλελυκοίτην
P. 1. λύ_σαιμενλελυκότες εἴημεν, εἶμενλελύκοιμεν
2. λύ_σαιτελελυκότες εἴητε, εἶτελελύκοιτε
3. λύ_σαιεν, λύ_σειαν ( cross668) λελυκότες εἴησαν, εἶενλελύκοιεν
IMP.S. 2. λῦσονλελυκὼς ἴσθι ( cross697) or[λέλυκε ( cross697)
3. λυ_σάτωλελυκὼς ἔστωλελυκέτω
D. 2. λύ_σατονλελυκότε ἔστονλελύκετον
3. λυ_σάτωνλελυκότε ἔστωνλελυκέτων
P. 2. λύ_σατελελυκότες ἐστέλελύκετε]
3. λυ_σάντωνλελυκότες ὄντων
PART.λύ_σα_ς, λύ_σα_σα,λελυκώς, λελυκυῖα,
λῦσαν ( cross306) λελυκός ( cross309)

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2. MIDDLE [4]

INDICATIVE.S. 1. λύ_ομαιἐλυ_όμηνλύ_σομαι
2. λύ_ῃ, λύ_ει ( cross628) ἐλύ_ουλύ_σῃ, λύ_σει ( cross628)
3. λύ_εταιἐλύ_ετολύ_σεται
D. 2. λύ_εσθονἐλύ_εσθονλύ_σεσθον
3. λύ_εσθονἐλυ_έσθηνλύ_σεσθον
P. 1. λυ_όμεθαἐλυ_όμεθαλυ_σόμεθα
2. λύ_εσθεἐλύ_εσθελύ_σεσθε
3. λύ_ονταιἐλύ_οντολύ_σονται
SUBJUNCTIVE.S. 1. λύ_ωμαι
2. λύ_ῃ
3. λύ_ηται
D. 2. λύ_ησθον
3. λύ_ησθον
P. 1. λυ_ώμεθα
2. λύ_ησθε
3. λύ_ωνται
OPTATIVE.S. 1. λυ_οίμηνλυ_σοίμην
2. λύ_οιολύ_σοιο
3. λύ_οιτολύ_σοιτο
D. 2. λύ_οισθονλύ_σοισθον
3. λυ_οίσθηνλυ_σοίσθην
P. 1. λυ_οίμεθαλυ_σοίμεθα
2. λύ_οισθελύ_σοισθε
3. λύ_οιντολύ_σοιντο
IMPERATIVE.S. 2. λύ_ου
3. λυ_έσθω
D. 2. λύ_εσθον
3. λυ_έσθων
P. 2. λύ_εσθε
3. λυ_έσθων
PARTICIPLE.λυ_όμενος, λυ_ομένη,λυ_σόμενος, ,
λυ_όμενον ( cross287) -ον ( cross287)

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1 AoristPerfectPluperfect
INDICATIVE.S. 1. ἐλυ_σάμηνλέλυμαιἐλελύμην
2. ἐλύ_σωλέλυσαιἐλέλυσο
3. ἐλύ_σατολέλυταιἐλέλυτο
D. 2. ἐλύ_σασθονλέλυσθονἐλέλυσθον
3. ἐλυ_σάσθηνλέλυσθονἐλελύσθη
P. 1. ἐλυ_σάμεθαλελύμεθαἐλελύμεθα
2. ἐλύ_σασθελέλυσθεἐλέλυσθε
3. ἐλύ_σαντολέλυνταιἐλέλυντο
SUBJUNCTIVE.S. 1. λύ_σωμαιλελυμένος ὦ ( cross599 f)
2. λύ_σῃλελυμένος ᾖς
3. λύ_σηταιλελυμένος ᾖ
D. 2. λύ_σησθονλελυμένω ἦτον
3. λύ_σησθονλελυμένω ἦτον
P. 1. λυ_σώμεθαλελυμένοι ὦμεν
2. λύ_σησθελελυμένοι ἦτε
3. λύ_σωνταιλελυμένοι ὦσι
OPTATIVE.S. 1. λυ_σαίμηνλελυμένος εἴην ( cross599 f)
2. λύ_σαιολελυμένος εἴης
3. λύ_σαιτολελυμένος εἴη
D. 2. λύ_σαισθονλελυμένω εἴητον or εἶτον
3. λυ_σαίσθηνλελυμένω εἰήτην or εἴτην
P. 1. λυ_σαίμεθαλελυμένοι εἴημεν or εἶμεν
2. λύ_σαισθελελυμένοι εἴητε or εἶτε
3. λύ_σαιντολελυμένοι εἴησαν or εἶεν
IMPERATIVE.S. 2. λῦσαιλέλυσο ( cross599 g)
3. λυ_σάσθωλελύσθω ( cross712)
D. 2. λύ_σασθονλέλυσθον
3. λυ_σάσθωνλελύσθων
P. 2. λύ_σασθελέλυσθε
3. λυ_σάσθωνλελύσθων
PARTICIPLE.λυ_σάμενος, , -ονλελυμένος, , -ον
( cross287) ( cross287)

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Future Perfect1 Aorist1 Future
INDICATIVE.S. 1. λελύ_σομαιἐλύθηνλυθήσομαι
2. λελύ_σῃ, λελύ_σειἐλύθηςλυθήσῃ, λυθήσει
3. λελύ_σεταιἐλύθηλυθήσεται
D. 2. λελύ_σεσθονἐλύθητονλυθήσεσθον
3. λελύ_σεσθονἐλυθήτηνλυθήσεσθον
P. 1. λελυ_σόμεθαἐλύθημενλυθησόμεθα
2. λελύ_σεσθεἐλύθητελυθήσεσθε
3. λελύ_σονταιἐλύθησανλυθήσονται
D. 2.λυθῆτον
P. 1.λυθῶμεν
OPTATIVE.S. 1. λελυ_σοίμηνλυθείηνλυθησοίμην
2. λελύ_σοιολυθείηςλυθήσοιο
3. λελύ_σοιτολυθείηλυθήσοιτο
D. 2. λελύ_σοισθονλυθεῖτον or λυθείητονλυθήσοισθον
3. λελυ_σοίσθηνλυθείτην or λυθειήτηνλυθησοίσθην
P. 1. λελυ_σοίμεθαλυθεῖμεν or λυθείημενλυθησοίμεθα
2. λελύ_σοισθελυθεῖτε or λυθείητελυθήσοισθε
3. λελύ_σοιντολυθεῖεν or λυθείησανλυθήσοιντο
IMPERATIVE.S. 2.λύθητι
D. 2.λύθητον
P. 2.λύθητε
PARTICIPLE.λελυ_σόμενος,λυθείς, λυθεῖσα,λυθησόμενος,
, -ον ( cross287) λυθέν ( cross307) , -ον ( cross287)

-- 119 --


As examples of the second aorist and second perfect systems ( cross368), the second aorist active and middle and the second perfect and pluperfect active of λείπω leave are here given.

2 Aorist Active2 Aorist Middle2 Perfect2 Pluperfect
IND.S. 1. ἔλιπονἐλιπόμηνλέλοιπαἐλελοίπη
2. ἔλιπεςἐλίπουλέλοιπαςἐλελοίπης
3. ἔλιπεἐλίπετολέλοιπεἐλελοίπει (ν)
D. 2. ἐλίπετονἐλίπεσθονλελοίπατονἐλελοίπετον
3. ἐλιπέτηνἐλιπέσθηνλελοίπατονἐλελοιπέτην
P. 1. ἐλίπομενἐλιπόμεθαλελοίπαμενἐλελοίπεμεν
2. ἐλίπετεἐλίπεσθελελοίπατεἐλελοίπετε
3. ἔλιπονἐλίποντολελοίπα_σιἐλελοίπεσαν
SUBJ.S. 1. λίπωλίπωμαιλελοιπὼς ὦ ( cross599 c) orλελοίπω ( cross692)
2. λίπῃςλίπῃλελοιπὼς ᾖςλελοίπῃς
3. λίπῃλίπηταιλελοιπὼς ἦλελοίπῃ
D. 2. λίπητονλίπησθονλελοιπότε ἦτονλελοίπητον
3. λίπητονλίπησθονλελοιπότε ἦτονλελοίπητον
P. 1. λίπωμενλιπώμεθαλελοιπότες ὦμενλελοίπωμεν
2. λίπητελίπησθελελοιπότες ἦτελελοίπητε
3. λίπωσιλίπωνταιλελοιπότες ὦσιλελοίπωσι
OPT.S. 1. λίποιμιλιποίμηνλελοιπὼς εἴην ( cross599 c) orλελοίποιμι ( cross695)
2. λίποιςλίποιολελοιπὼς εἴηςλελοίποις
3. λίποιλίποιτολελοιπὼς εἴηλελοίποι
D. 2. λίποιτονλίποισθονλελοιπότε εἴητον, εἶτονλελοίποιτον
3. λιποίτηνλιποίσθηνλελοιπότε εἰήτην, εἴτηνλελοιποίτην
P. 1. λίποιμενλιποίμεθαλελοιπότες εἴημεν, εἶμενλελοίποιμεν
2. λίποιτελίποισθελελοιπότες εἴητε, εἶτελελοίποιτε
3. λίποιενλίποιντολελοιπότες εἴησαν, εἶενλελοίποιεν
IMP.S. 2. λίπελιποῦ
3. λιπέτωλιπέσθω
D. 2. λίπετονλίπεσθον
3. λιπέτωνλιπέσθων
P. 2. λίπετελίπεσθε
3. λιπόντωνλιπέσθων
PART.λιπών, λιποῦ-λιπόμενος,λελοιπώς, -υῖα, -ός ( cross309)
σα, λιπόν, -ον
( cross305 a) ( cross287)

-- 120 --


Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω are contracted only in the present and imperfect. The principles of contraction are explained in 49-55. τι_μάω (τι_μα-) honour, ποιέω (ποιε-) make, and δηλόω (δηλο-) manifest are thus inflected in the present and imperfect of the active, middle and passive.

S. 1. (τι_μάω) τι_μῶ (ποιέω) ποιῶ (δηλόω) δηλῶ
2. (τι_μάεις) τι_μᾷς (ποιέεις) ποιεῖς (δηλόεις) δηλοῖς
3. (τι_μάει) τι_μᾷ (ποιέει) ποιεῖ (δηλόει) δηλοῖ
D. 2. (τι_μάετον) τι_μᾶτον (ποιέετον) ποιεῖτον (δηλόετον) δηλοῦτον
3. (τι_μάετον) τι_μᾶτον (ποιέετον) ποιεῖτον (δηλόετον) δηλοῦτον
P. 1. (τι_μάομεν) τι_μῶμεν (ποιέομεν) ποιοῦμεν (δηλόομεν) δηλοῦμεν
2. (τι_μάετε) τι_μᾶτε (ποιέετε) ποιεῖτε (δηλόετε) δηλοῦτε
3. (τι_μάουσι) τι_μῶσι (ποιέουσι) ποιοῦσι (δηλόουσι) δηλοῦσι

S. 1. (ἐτί_μαον) ἐτί_μων (ἐποίεον) ἐποίουν (ἐδήλοον) ἐδήλουν
2. (ἐτί_μαες) ἐτί_μα_ς (ἐποίεες) ἐποίεις (ἐδήλοες) ἐδήλους
3. (ἐτί_μαε) ἐτί_μα_ (ἐποίεε) ἐποίει (ἐδήλοε) ἐδήλου
D. 2. (ἐτι_μάετον) ἐτι_μᾶτον (ἐποιέετον) ἐποιεῖτον (ἐδηλόετον) ἐδηλοῦτον
3. (ἐτι_μαέτην) ἐτι_μά_την (ἐποιεέτην) ἐποιείτην (ἐδηλοέτην) ἐδηλούτην
P. 1. (ἐτι_μάομεν) ἐτι_μῶμεν (ἐποιέομεν) ἐποιοῦμεν (ἐδηλόομεν) ἐδηλοῦμεν
2. (ἐτι_μάετε) ἐτι_μᾶτε (ἐποιέετε) ἐποιεῖτε (ἐδηλόετε) ἐδηλοῦτε
3. (ἐτί_μαον) ἐτί_μων (ἐποίεον) ἐποίουν (ἐδήλοον) ἐδήλουν

S. 1. (τι_μάω) τι_μῶ (ποιέω) ποιῶ (δηλόω) δηλῶ
2. (τι_μάῃς) τι_μᾷς (ποιέῃς) ποιῇς (δηλόῃς) δηλοῖς
3. (τι_μάῃ) τι_μᾷ (ποιέῃ) ποιῇ (δηλόῃ) δηλοῖ
D. 2. (τι_μάητον) τι_μᾶτον (ποιέητον) ποιῆτον (δηλόητον) δηλῶτον
3. (τι_μάητον) τι_μᾶτον (ποιέητον) ποιῆτον (δηλόητον) δηλῶτον
P. 1. (τι_μάωμεν) τι_μῶμεν (ποιέωμεν) ποιῶμεν (δηλόωμεν) δηλῶμεν
2. (τι_μάητε) τι_μᾶτε (ποιέητε) ποιῆτε (δηλόητε) δηλῶτε
3. (τι_μάωσι) τι_μῶσι (ποιέωσι) ποιῶσι (δηλόωσι) δηλῶσι

-- 121 --

PRESENT OPTATIVE (see cross393)
S. 1. (τι_μαοίην) τι_μῴην (ποιεοίην) ποιοίην (δηλοοίην) δηλοίην
2. (τι_μαοίης) τι_μῴης (ποιεοίης) ποιοίης (δηλοοίης) δηλοίης
3. (τι_μαοίη) τι_μῴη (ποιεοίη) ποιοίη (δηλοοίη) δηλοίη
D. 2. (τι_μαοίητον) τι_μῴητον (ποιεοίητον) ποιοίητον (δηλοοίητον) δηλοίητον
3. (τι_μαοιήτην) τι_μῳήτην (ποιεοιήτην) ποιοιήτην (δηλοοιήτην) δηλοιήτην
P. 1. (τι_μαοίημεν) τι_μῴημεν (ποιεοίημεν) ποιοίημεν (δηλοοίημεν) δηλοίημεν
2. (τι_μαοίητε) τι_μῴητε (ποιεοίητε) ποιοίητε (δηλοοίητε) δηλοίητε
3. (τι_μαοίησαν) τι_μῴησαν (ποιεοίησαν) ποιοίησαν (δηλοοίησαν) δηλοίησαν
S. 1. (τι_μάοιμι) τι_μῷμι (ποιέοιμι) ποιοῖμι (δηλόοιμι) δηλοῖμι
2. (τι_μάοις) τι_μῷς (ποιέοις) ποιοῖς (δηλόοις) δηλοῖς
3. (τι_μάοι) τι_μῷ (ποιέοι) ποιοῖ (δηλόοι) δηλοῖ
D. 2. (τι_μάοιτον) τι_μῷτον (ποιέοιτον) ποιοῖτον (δηλόοιτον) δηλοῖτον
3. (τι_μαοίτην) τι_μῴτην (ποιεοίτην) ποιοίτην (δηλοοίτην) δηλοίτην
P. 1. (τι_μάοιμεν) τι_μῷμεν (ποιέοιμεν) ποιοῖμεν (δηλόοιμεν) δηλοῖμεν
2. (τι_μάοιτε) τι_μῷτε (ποιέοιτε) ποιοῖτε (δηλόοιτε) δηλοῖτε
3. (τι_μάοιεν) τι_μῷεν (ποιέοιεν) ποιοῖεν (δηλόοιεν) δηλοῖεν

S. 2. (τί_μαε) τί_μα_ (ποίεε) ποίει (δήλοε) δήλου
3. (τι_μαέτω) τι_μά_τω (ποιεέτω) ποιείτω (δηλοέτω) δηλούτω
D. 2. (τι_μάετον) τι_μᾶτον (ποιέετον) ποιεῖτον (δηλόετον) δηλοῦτον
3. (τι_μαέτων) τι_μά_των (ποιεέτων) ποιείτων (δηλοέτων) δηλούτων
P. 2. (τι_μάετε) τι_μᾶτε (ποιέετε) ποιεῖτε (δηλόετε) δηλοῦτε
3. (τιμαόντων) τι_μώντων (ποιεόντων) ποιούντων (δηλοόντων) δηλούντων

(τι_μάειν) τι_μᾶν (ποιέειν) ποιεῖν (δηλόειν) δηλοῦν

(τι_μάων) τι_μῶν (ποιέων) ποιῶν (δηλόων) δηλῶν

For the inflection of contracted participles, see cross310. For the infinitive, see cross469 a.

Attic prose always, and Attic poetry usually, use the contracted forms.

N. 1.—The open forms of verbs in -αω are sometimes found in Homer. Verbs in -εω often show the uncontracted forms in Homer; in Herodotus contraction properly takes place except before ο and ω. Verbs in -οω never appear in their uncontracted forms in any author.

N. 2.—ποιέω sometimes loses its ι ( cross43) except before ο sounds.

-- 122 --


S. 1. (τι_μάομαι) τι_μῶμαι (ποιέομαι) ποιοῦμαι (δηλόομαι) δηλοῦμαι
2. (τι_μάῃ, τι_μάει) τι_μᾷ (ποιέῃ, ποιέει) ποιῇ, ποιεῖ (δηλόῃ, δηλόει) δηλοῖ
3. (τι_μάεται) τι_μᾶται (ποιέεται) ποιεῖται (δηλόεται) δηλοῦται
D. 2. (τι_μάεσθον) τι_μᾶσθον (ποιέεσθον) ποιεῖσθον (δηλόεσθον) δηλοῦσθον
3. (τι_μάεσθον) τι_μᾶσθον (ποιέεσθον) ποιεῖσθον (δηλόεσθον) δηλοῦσθον
P. 1. (τι_μαόμεθα) τι_μώμεθα (ποιεόμεθα) ποιούμεθα (δηλοόμεθα) δηλούμεθα
2. (τι_μάεσθε) τι_μᾶσθε (ποιέεσθε) ποιεῖσθε (δηλόεσθε) δηλοῦσθε
3. (τι_μάονται) τι_μῶνται (ποιέονται) ποιοῦνται (δηλόονται) δηλοῦνται

S. 1. (ἐτι_μαόμην) ἐτι_μώμην (ἐποιεόμην) ἐποιούμην (ἐδηλοόμην) ἐδηλούμην
2. (ἐτι_μάου) ἐτι_μῶ (ἐποιέου) ἐποιοῦ (ἐδηλόου) ἐδηλοῦ
3. (ἐτι_μάετο) ἐτι_μᾶτο (ἐποιέετο) ἐποιεῖτο (ἐδηλόετο) ἐδηλοῦτο
D. 2. (ἐτι_μάεσθον) ἐτι_μᾶσθον (ἐποιέεσθον) ἐποιεῖσθον (ἐδηλόεσθον) ἐδηλοῦσθον
3. (ἐτι_μαέσθην) ἐτι_μά_σθην (ἐποιεέσθην) ἐποιείσθην (ἐδηλοέσθην) ἐδηλούσθην
P. 1. (ἐτι_μαόμεθα) ἐτι_μώμεθα (ἐποιεόμεθα) ἐποιούμεθα (ἐδηλοόμεθα) ἐδηλούμεθα
2. (ἐτι_μάεσθε) ἐτι_μᾶσθε (ἐποιέεσθε) ἐποιεῖσθε (ἐδηλόεσθε) ἐδηλοῦσθε
3. (ἐτι_μάοντο) ἐτι_μῶντο (ἐποιέοντο) ἐποιοῦντο (ἐδηλόοντο) ἐδηλοῦντο

S. 1. (τι_μάωμαι) τι_μῶμαι (ποιέωμαι) ποιῶμαι (δηλόωμαι) δηλῶμαι
2. (τι_μάῃ) τι_μᾷ (ποιέῃ) ποιῇ (δηλόῃ) δηλοῖ
3. (τι_μάηται) τι_μᾶται (ποιέηται) ποιῆται (δηλόηται) δηλῶται
D. 2. (τι_μάησθον) τι_μᾶσθον (ποιέησθον) ποιῆσθον (δηλόησθον) δηλῶσθον
3. (τι_μάησθον) τι_μᾶσθον (ποιέησθον) ποιῆσθον (δηλόησθον) δηλῶσθον
P. 1. (τι_μαώμεθα) τιμώμεθα (ποιεώμεθα) ποιώμεθα (δηλοώμεθα) δηλώμεθα
2. (τι_μάησθε) τι_μᾶσθε (ποιέησθε) ποιῆσθε (δηλόησθε) δηλῶσθε
3. (τι_μάωνται) τι_μῶνται (ποιέωνται) ποιῶνται (δηλόωνται) δηλῶνται

S. 1. (τι_μαοίμην) τι_μῴμην (ποιεοίμην) ποιοίμην (δηλοοίμην) δηλοίμην
2. (τι_μάοιο) τι_μῷο (ποιέοιο) ποιοῖο (δηλόοιο) δηλοῖο
3. (τι_μάοιτο) τι_μῷτο (ποιέοιτο) ποιοῖτο (δηλόοιτο) δηλοῖτο
D. 2. (τι_μάοισθον) τι_μῷσθον (ποιέοισθον) ποιοῖσθον (δηλόολισθον) δηλοῖσθον
3. (τι_μαοίσθην) τι_μῴσθην (ποιεοίσθην) ποιοίσθην (δηλοοίσθην) δηλοίσθην
P. 1. (τι_μαοίμεθα) τι_μῴμεθα (ποιεοίμεθα) ποιοίμεθα (δηλοοίμεθα) δηλοίμεθα
2. (τι_μάοισθε) τι_μῷσθε (ποιέοισθε) ποιοῖσθε (δηλόοισθε) δηλοῖσθε
3. (τι_μάοιντο) τι_μῷντο (ποιέοιντο) ποιοῖντο (δηλόοιντο) δηλοῖντο

-- 123 --


S. 2. (τι_μάου) τι_μῶ (ποιέου) ποιοῦ (δηλόου) δηλοῦ
3. (τι_μαέσθω) τι_μά_σθω (ποιεέσθω) ποιείσθω (δηλοέσθω) δηλούσθω
D. 2. (τι_μάεσθον) τι_μᾶσθον (ποιέεσθον) ποιεῖσθον (δηλόεσθον) δηλοῦσθον
3. (τι_μαέσθων) τι_μά_σθων (ποιεέσθων) ποιείσθων (δηλοέσθων) δηλούσθων
P. 2. (τι_μάεσθε) τι_μᾶσθε (ποιέεσθε) ποιεῖσθε (δηλόεσθε) δηλοῦσθε
3. (τι_μαέσθων) τι_μά_σθων (ποιεέσθων) ποιείσθων (δηλοέσθων) δηλούσθων

(τι_μάεσθαι) τι_μᾶσθαι (ποιέεσθαι) ποιεῖσθαι (δηλόεσθαι) δηλοῦσθαι

(τι_μαόμενος) τι_μώμενος (ποιεόμενος) ποιούμενος (δηλοόμενος) δηλούμενος


Examples of Contracted Verbs.

1. Verbs in -αω:
ἀπατάω deceive (ἀπάτη deceit) ὁρμάω set in motion (ὁρμή impulse)
βοάω shout (βοή shout) πειράομαι attempt (πεῖρα trial)
μελετάω practise (μελέτη practice) τελευτάω finish (τελευτή end)
νι_κάω conquer (νί_κη victory) τολμάω dare (τόλμα daring)
2. Verbs in -εω:
ἀδικέω do wrong (ἄδικος unjust) οἰκέω inhabit (οἶκος housë, poetic)
βοηθέω assist (βοηθός assisting) πολεμέω make war (πόλεμος war)
κοσμέω order (κόσμος order) φθονέω envy (φθόνος envy)
μι_σέω hate (μῖσος hate) φιλέω love (φίλος friend)
3. Verbs in -οω:
ἀξιόω think worthy (ἄξιος worthy) κυ_ρόω make valid (κῦρος authority)
δουλόω enslave (δοῦλος slave) πολεμόω make an enemy of (πόλεμος war)
ἐλευθερόω set free (ἐλεύθερος free) στεφανόω crown (στέφανος crown)
ζυγόω put under the yoke (ζυγόν yoke) ταπεινόω humiliate (ταπεινός humbled)


Principal parts of Contracted Verbs.


-- 124 --

388SYNOPSIS OF τι_μά-ω honour

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.Perf. Act.Plup. Act.
Sub.τι_μῶτι_μήσωτετι_μηκὼς ὦ
Opt.τι_μῴην, -ῷμιτι_μήσοιμιτι_μήσαιμιτετι_μηκὼς εἴην
Mid. Pass.MiddleMiddleMid. Pass.
Sub.τι_μῶμαιτι_μήσωμαιτετι_μημένος ὦ
Opt.τι_μῴμηντι_μησοίμηντι_μησαίμηντετι_μημένος εἴην
PassivePassiveFut. Perf. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:τι_μητός, τι_μητέος

389SYNOPSIS OF θηρά-ω hunt

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.Perf. Act.Plup. Act.
Sub.θηρῶθηρά_σωτεθηρα_κὼς ὦ
Opt.θηρῴην, -ῷμιθηρά_σοιμιθηρά_σαιμιτεθηρα_κὼς εἴην
Mid. Pass.MiddleMiddleMid. Pass.
Sub.θηρῶμαιθηρά_σωμαιτεθηρα_μένος ὦ
Opt.θηρῴμηνθηρα_σοίμηνθηρα_σαίμηντεθηρα_μένος εἴην
Passive (late)Passive
Ind.[θηρα_θήσομαι]ἐθηρά_θηνVerbal adjectives:

-- 125 --

390SYNOPSIS OF ποιέ-ω make

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.Perf. Act.Plup. Act.
Sub.ποιῶποιήσωπεποιηκὼς ὦ
Opt.ποιοίην, -οῖμιποιήσοιμιποιήσαιμιπεποιηκὼς εἴην
Mid. Pass.MiddleMiddleMid. Pass.
Sub.ποιῶμαιποιήσωμαιπεποιημένος ὦ
Opt.ποιοίμηνποιησοίμηνποιησαίμηνπεποιημένος εἴην
PassivePassiveFut. Perf. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:ποιητός, ποιητέος

391SYNOPSIS OF τελέ-ω complete

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.Perf. Act.Plup. Act.
Ind.τελῶἐτέλουντελῶ (τελέσω, cross488) ἐτέλεσατετέλεκαἐτετελέκη
Sub.τελῶτελέσωτετελεκὼς ὦ
Opt.τελοίην, -οῖμιτελοίην, -οῖμιτελέσαιμιτετελεκὼς εἴην
Mid. Pass.MiddleMiddleMid. Pass.
Sub.τελῶμαιτελέσωμαιτετελεσμένος ὦ
Opt.τελοίμηντελοίμηντελεσαίμηντετελεσμένος εἴην
Ind.τελεσθήσομαιἐτελέσθηνVerbal adjectives

-- 126 --

392SYNOPSIS OF δηλό-ω manifest

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.Perf. Act.Plup. Act.
Sub.δηλῶδηλώσωδεδηλωκὼς ὦ
Opt.δηλοίην, -οῖμιδηλώσοιμιδηλώσαιμιδεδηλωκὼς εἴην
Mid. Pass.MiddleMiddleMid. Pass.
(as pass., cross809)
Sub.δηλῶμαιδεδηλωμένος ὦ
Opt.δηλοίμηνδηλωσοίμηνδεδηλωμένος εἴην
PassivePassiveFut. Perf. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:δηλωτός, δηλωτέος


In the present optative active there are two forms: (1) that with the modal sign -ιη-, having in the 1 sing., and -σαν in the 3 pl.; (2) that with the modal sign -ι_-, having -μι in the 1 sing., and -εν in the 3 pl. The first form is more common in the singular, the second in the dual and plural.

τι_μῴην (rarely τι_μῷμι), τι_μῷτον (rarely τι_μῴητον), τι_μῷμεν (rarely τι_μῴημεν), ποιοίην (rarely ποιοῖμι), ποιοῖτον (rarely ποιοίητον), ποιοῖμεν (rarely ποιοίημεν), δηλοίην (rarely δηλοῖμι), δηλοῖτον (rarely δηλοίητον), δηλοῖμεν (rarely δηλοίημεν).


Ten verbs in -αω show η where we expect α_. These are διψῶ thirst, ζῶ live, πεινῶ hunger, κνῶ scrape, νῶ spin (rare), σμῶ wash, χοῶ give oracles, χοῶ am eager for (rare), χρῶμαι use, and ψῶ rub. See cross641,

-- 127 --


ζῶ live and χρῶμαι use are inflected as follows in the present indicative, subjunctive and imperative and in the imperfect.

Indic. and Subj.ImperativeImperfect
S. 1. ζῶχρῶμαιἔζωνἐχρώμην
2. ζῇςχρῇζῆχρῶἔζηςἐχρῶ
3. ζῇχρῆταιζήτωχρήσθωἔζηἐχρῆτο
D. 2. ζῆτονχρῆσθονζῆτονχρῆσθονἐζῆτονἐχρῆσθον
3. ζῆτονχρῆσθονζήτωνχρήσθωνἐζήτηνἐχρήσθην
P. 1. ζῶμενχρῶμεθαἐζῶμενἐχρώμεθα
2. ζῆτεχρῆσθεζῆτεχρῆσθεἐζῆτεἐχρῆσθε
3. ζῶσιχρῶνταιζώντωνχρήσθωνἔζωνἐχρῶντο
Infinitive:ζῆν, χρῆσθαιParticiple:ζῶν, χρώμενος


καίω burn, κλαίω weep, do not contract the forms in which ι has disappeared ( cross38). Thus, κά_ω, κά_εις, κά_ει, κά_ομεν, κά_ετε, κά_ουσι.


Verbs in -εω of two syllables do not contract ε with ο or ω. The present and imperfect indicative of πλέω sail are inflected as follows.


and so πλέω, πλέοιμι, πλεῖ, πλεῖν, πλέων, πλέουσα, πλέον. In like manner θέω run, πνέω breathe.

a. δέω need has δεῖς, δεῖ it is necessary, δέῃ, δέοι, δεῖν, τὸ δέον what is necessary; δέομαι want, request, has δέει, δεῖται, δεόμεθα, δέωμαι. But δέω bind is usually an exception, making δεῖς, δεῖ, δοῦμεν, ἔδουν bound, τὸ δοῦν that which binds, δοῦμαι, δοῦνται, but δεόμενον, δέον appear in some writers.

b. ξέω scrape contracts. βδέω, ξέω and τρέω have lost ς; πλέω, θέω, πνέω have lost w (ϝ); δέω need is for δευσω; δέω bind is for δεyω.


Two verbs in -οω, ἱδρόω sweat, ῥι_γόω shiver, may have ω and instead of ον and οι. See cross641.

Thus, indic. ῥι_γῶ, ῥι_γῷς, ῥι_γῷ (or ῥι_γοῖ), opt. ῥι_γῴην, inf. ῥι_γῶν (or ῥι_γοῦν), part. ῥι_γῶν. So ἱδρῶσι, opt. ἱδρώῃ (or ἱδροι_), part. ἱδρῶν (or ἱδροῦν).

a. λούω wash, when it drops its υ ( cross43), contracts like δηλόω. Thus, λούω, λούεις, λούει, but λοῦμεν (for λο (w) ο-μεν), λοῦτε, λοῦσι; and so in other forms, as ἔλου, λοῦται, λοῦσθαι, λούμενος.

b. οἵομαι think (imperfect ᾠόμην) has the parallel forms οἶμαι (ᾤμην).


Movable ν is never (in Attic) added to the contracted 3 sing. imperfect (ἐποίει, not ἐποίειν).

-- 128 --


Verbs whose stems end in a consonant are in general inflected like non-contracting ω-verbs in all tenses. The future active and middle of liquid and nasal verbs are inflected like contracted εω-verbs.


Liquid and Nasal Verbs: future active and middle of φαίνω show.

Future ActiveFuture Middle
INDICATIVE.S. 1. (φανέω) φανῶ (φανέομαι) φανοῦμαι
2. (φανέεις) φανεῖς (φανέῃ or -έει) φανῇ or -εῖ
3. (φανέει) φανεῖ (φανέεται) φανεῖται
D. 2. (φανέετον) φανεῖτον (φανέεσθον) φανεῖσθον
3. (φανέετον) φανεῖτον (φανέεσθον) φανεῖσθον
P. 1. (φανέομεν) φανοῦμεν (φανεόμεθα) φανούμεθα
2. (φανέετε) φανεῖτε (φανέεσθε) φανεῖσθε
3. (φανέουσι) φανοῦσι (φανέονται) φανοῦνται
OPTATIVE.S. 1. (φανεοίην) φανοίην (φανεοίμην) φανοίμην
2. (φανεοίης) φανοίης (φανέοιο) φανοῖο
3. (φανεοίη) φανοίη (φανέοιτο) φανοῖτο
D. 2. (φανέοιτον) φανοῖτον (φανέοισθον) φανοῖσθον
3. (φανεοίτην) φανοίτην (φανεοίσθην) φανοίσθην
P. 1. (φανέοιμεν) φανοῖμεν (φανεοίμεθα) φανοίμεθα
2. (φανέοιτε) φανοῖτε (φανέοισθε) φανοῖσθε
3. (φανέοιεν) φανοῖεν (φανέοιντο) φανοῖντο
S. 1. (φανέοιμι) φανοῖμι
2. (φανέοις) φανοῖς
3. (φανέοι) φανοῖ
D. 2. (φανέοιτον) φανοῖτον
3. (φανεοίτην) φανοῖτην
P. 1. (φανέοιμεν) φανοῖμεν
2. (φανέοιτε) φανοῖτε
3. (φανέοιεν) φανοῖεν
INFINITIVE. (φανέειν) φανεῖν (φανέεσθαι) φανεῖσθαι
PARTICIPLE. (φανέων, φανέουσα,φανῶν, φανοῦσα, (φανεόμενος,φανούμενος,
φανέον) φανοῦν-η, ον) , -ον
( cross310) ( cross287)

-- 129 --


Liquid and Nasal Verbs: first aorist active and middle, second aorist and second future passive of φαίνω show.

1 Aorist Active1 Aorist Middle2 Aorist Passive2 Future Passive
IND.S. 1. ἔφηναἐφηνάμηνἐφάνηνφανήσομαι
2. ἔφηναςἐφήνωἐφάνηςφανήσῃ, φανήσει
3. ἔφηνεἐφήνατοἐφάνηφανήσεται
D. 2. ἐφήνατονἐφήνασθονἐφάνητονφανήσεσθον
3. ἐφηνάτηνἐφηνάσθηνἐφανήτηνφανήσεσθον
P. 1. ἐφήναμενἐφηνάμεθαἐφάνημενφανησόμεθα
2. ἐφήνατεἐφήνασθεἐφάνητεφανήσεσθε
3. ἔφηνανἐφήναντοἐφάνησανφανήσονται
SUBJ.S. 1. φήνωφήνωμαιφανῶ
2. φήνῃςφήνῃφανῇς
3. φήνῃφήνηταιφανῇ
D. 2. φήνητονφήνησθονφανῆτον
3. φήνητονφήνησθονφανῆτον
P. 1. φήνωμενφηνώμεθαφανῶμεν
2. φήνητεφήνησθεφανῆτε
3. φήνωσιφήνωνταιφανῶσι
OPT.S. 1. φήναιμιφηναίμηνφανείηνφανησοίμην
2. φήναις or φήνειας ( cross668) φήναιοφανείηςφανήσοιο
3. φήναι or φήνειε ( cross668) φήναιτοφανείηφανήσοιτο
D. 2. φήναιτονφήναισθονφανεῖτον orφανήσοισθον
3. φηναίτηνφηναίσθηνφανείτην orφανησοίσθην
P. 1. φήναιμενφηναίμεθαφανεῖμεν orφανησοίμεθα
2. φήναιτεφήναισθεφανεῖτε orφανήσοισθε
3. φήναιεν or φήνειανφήναιντοφανεῖεν orφανήσοιντο
( cross668) φανείησαν
IMP.S. 2. φῆνονφῆναιφάνηθι
3. φηνάτωφηνάσθωφανήτω
D. 2. φήνατονφήνασθονφάνητον
3. φηνάτωνφηνάσθωνφανήτων
P. 2. φήνατεφήνασθεφάνητε
3. φηνάντωνφηνάσθωνφανέντων
PART.φήνα_ς, -α_σα, φῆνανφηνάμενος, ,φανείς,φανησόμενος, ,
( cross306) -ον ( cross287) φανεῖσα,-ον ( cross287)
φανέν ( cross307)

-- 130 --


In the perfect and pluperfect middle (and passive) of stems ending in a consonant certain euphonic changes ( cross409) occur upon the addition of the personal endings.


Several verbs with stems ending in a short vowel retain that vowel in the perfect (and in other tenses); such stems originally ended in ς; as τελέ-ω finish, from τέλος end (τελες-). This ς appears in the perfect middle stem (τετέλε-ς-μαι, τετέλε-ς-ται). In the second person singular and plural but one ς is found: τετέλε-σαι, τετέλε-σθε. By analogy some other verbs have a ς at the end of the verbal stem.


In the perfect and pluperfect middle the third person plural of stems ending in a consonant or of stems adding ς consists of the perfect middle participle with εἰσί are (in the perfect) and ἦσαν were (in the pluperfect).


Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of λείπω (λειπ-) leave, γράφω (γραφ-) write, πείθω (πειθ-) persuade, πρά_ττω (πρα_γ-) do.

Perfect Indicative
S. 1. λέλειμμαιγέγραμμαιπέπεισμαιπέπρα_γμαι
2. λέλειψαιγέγραψαιπέπεισαιπέπρα_ξαι
3. λέλειπταιγέγραπταιπέπεισταιπέπρα_κται
D. 2. λέλειφθονγέγραφθονπέπεισθονπέπρα_χθον
3. λέλειφθονγέγραφθονπέπεισθονπέπρα_χθον
P. 1. λελείμμεθαγεγράμμεθαπεπείσμεθαπεπρά_γμεθα
2. λέλειφθεγέγραφθεπέπεισθεπέπρα_χθε
3. λελειμμένοι εἰσίγεγραμμένοι εἰσίπεπεισμένοι εἰσίπεπρα_γμένοι εἰσί

S. 1. ἐλελείμμηνἐγεγράμμηνἐπεπείσμηνἐπεπρά_γμην
2. ἐλέλειψοἐγέγραψοἐπέπεισοἐπέπρα_ξο
3. ἐλέλειπτοἐγέγραπτοἐπέπειστοἐπέπρα_κτο
D. 2. ἐλέλειφθονἐγέγραφθονἐπέπεισθονἐπέπρα_χθον
3. ἐλελείφθηνἐγεγράφθηνἐπεπείσθηνἐπεπρά_χθην
P. 1. ἐλελείμμεθαἐγεγράμμεθαἐπεπείσμεθαἐπεπρά_γμεθα
2. ἐλέλειφθεἐγέγραφθεἐπέπεισθεἐπέπρα_χθε
3. λελειμμένοι ἦσανγεγραμμένοι ἦσανπεπεισμένοι ἦσανπεπρα_γμένοι ἦσαν

Perfect Subjunctive and Optative
λελειμμένος ὦγεγραμμένος ὦπεπεισμένος ὦπεπρα_γμένος ὦ
λελειμμένος εἴηνγεγραμμένος εἴηνπεπεισμένος εἴηνπεπρα_γμένος εἶην

-- 131 --

Perfect Imperative
S. 2. λέλειψογέγραψοπέπεισοπέπρα_ξο
3. λελείφθωγεγράφθωπεπείσθωπεπρά_χθω
D. 2. λέλειφθονγέγραφθονπέπεισθονπέπρα_χθον
3. λελείφθωνγεγράφθωνπεπείσθωνπεπρά_χθων
P. 2. λέλειφθεγέγραφθεπέπεισθεπέπρα_χθε
3. λελείφθωνγεγράφθωνπεπείσθωνπεπρά_χθων

Perfect Infinitive and Participle
λελειμμένος, , -ονγεγραμμένος, , -ονπεπεισμένος, , -ονπεπρα_γμένος, ,-ον


Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of ἐλέγχω (ἐλεγχ-) confute, ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ-) announce, φαίνω (φαν-) show, τελέω (τελε-) finish.

Perfect Indicative
S. 1. ἐλήλεγμαιἤγγελμαιπέφασμαιτετέλε-ς-μαι
2. ἐλήλεγξαιἤγγελσαι (πέφανσαι, 707 a)τετέλε-σαι
3. ἐλήλεγκταιἤγγελταιπέφανταιτετέλε-ς-ται
D. 2. ἐλήλεγχθονἤγγελθονπέφανθοντετέλε-σθον
3. ἐλήλεγχθονἤγγελθονπέφανθοντετέλε-σθον
P. 1. ἐληλέγμεθαἠγγέλμεθαπεφάσμεθατετελέ-ς-μεθα
2. ἐλήλεγχθεἤγγελθεπέφανθετετέλε-σθε
3. ἐληλεγμένοι εἰσίἠγγελμένοι εἰσίπεφασμένοι εἰσίτετελε-ς-μένοι εἰσί

Pluperfect Indicative
S. 1. ἐληλέγμηνἠγγέλμηνἐπεφάσμηνἐ-τετελέ-ς-μην
2. ἐλήλεγξοἤγγελσο (ἐπέφανσο, 707 a)ἐ-τετέλε-σο
3. ἐλήλεγκτοἤγγελτοἐπέφαντοἐ-τετέλε-ς-το
D. 2. ἐλήλεγχθονἤγγελθονἐπέφανθονἐ-τετέλε-σθον
3. ἐληλέγχθηνἠγγέλθηνἐπεφάνθηνἐ-τετελέ-σθην
P. 1. ἐληλέγμεθαἠγγέλμεθαἐπεφάσμεθαἐ-τετελέ-ς-μεθα
2. ἐλήλεγχθεἤγγελθεἐπέφανθεἐ-τετέλε-σθε
3. ἐληλεγμένοι ἦσανἠγγελμένοι ἦσανπεφασμένοι ἦσαντετελε-ς-μένοι ἦσαν

Perfect Subjunctive and Optative
ἐληλεγμένος ὦἠγγελμένος ὦπεφασμένος ὦτετελεσμένος ὦ
ἐληλεγμένος εἴηνἠγγελμένος εἴηνπεφασμένος εἴηντετελεσμένος εἴην

-- 132 --

Perfect Imperative
S. 2. ἐλήλεγξοἤγγελσο (πέφανσο, 712 a)τετέλε-σο
3. ἐληλέγχθωἠγγέλθωπεφάνθωτετελέ-σθω
D. 2. ἐλήλεγχθονἤγγελθονπέφανθοντετέλε-σθον
3. ἐληλέγχθωνἠγγέλθωνπεφάνθωντετελέ-σθων
P. 2. ἐλήλεγχθεἤγγελθεπέφανθετετέλε-σθε
3. ἐληλέγχθωνἠγγέλθωνπεφάνθωντετελέ-σθων

Perfect Infinitive and Participle
ἐληλεγμένος, ,ἠγγελμένος, ,πεφασμένος, ,τετελε-ς-μένος, ,


The periphrastic third plural is used instead of the forms derived directly from the union of the stem with the ending.

Thus, γεγραμμένοι εἰσί is used for γεγραφ-νται which would become γεγράφαται by 35 b, ν between consonants passing into α. The periphrastic form is also used in verbs adding ς to their stems, as τετελε-ς-μένοι εἰσί for τετελε-ς-νται. Stems in ν that drop ν in the perfect system form their perfect and pluperfect regularly; thus, κρί_νω (κριν-) judge has κέκρινται, ἐκέκριντο.

N.—On the retention of -αται, -ατο see cross465 f.


Euphonic Changes.—For the euphonic changes in these forms see cross82-87, 103.

a. Labial Stems.—λέλειμ-μαι is for λελειπ-μαι, λέλειφ-θον is for λελειπ-σθον, λέλειφθε is for λελειπ-σθε ( cross103). In the same manner are inflected other labial stems, as τρί_βω (τρι_β-) rub, ῥί_πτω (ῥι_π-) throw: τέτρι_μ-μαι for τετρι_β-μαι, τέτρι_ψαι for τετρι_β-σαι, etc. Stems ending in μπ drop π before μ, but retain it before other consonants. Thus,

πεπεμπ-σαιπέπεμψαιπεπεμπ-σθεπέπεμφθε ( cross103)

b. Dental Stems.—πέπεις-ται is for πεπειθ-ται ( cross83), πέπεις-θον is for πεπειθθον ( cross83), πέπεισθε is for πεπειθ- (ς) θε ( cross83, cross103). The ς thus produced was trans

-- 133 --

ferred to the first persons πέπεισμαι, πεπείσμεθα ( cross86, cross87). Like πέπεισμαι, etc., are formed and inflected ἔψευσμαι from ψεύδω (ψευδ-) deceive, πέφρασμαι from φράζω (φραδ-) declare, ἔσπεισμαι ( cross100) from σπένδω (σπενδ-) pour a libation.


Hom. has the original forms πεφραδμένος, κεκορυθμένος.

c. Palatal Stems.—πέπρα_ξαι is for πεπρα_γ-σαι ( cross97), πέπρα_κται is for πεπρα_γται ( cross82 a), πέπρα_χθε is for πεπρα_γ-σθε ( cross103). Like πέπρα_γμαι are inflected πλέκω (πλεκ-) weave πέπλεγ-μαι, ἄγω (ἀγ-) lead ἦγμαι, ἀλλάττω (ἀλλαγ-) exchange ἤλλαγμαι, ταράττω (ταραχ-) confuse τετάραγμαι. Stems in -γχ change χ before μ to γ and drop one γ (as in ἐλήλεγ-μαι for ἐληλεγγ-μαι, 85 and 85 b), but keep the second palatal before other consonants (as in ἐλήλεγξαι for ἐληλεγχ-σαι, 97; ἐλήλεγκ-ται for ἐληλεγχ-ται, cross82). On the reduplication see cross446.

d. Liquid and Nasal Stems.—Stems in λ or ρ are inflected like ἤγγελμαι, as στέλλω (στελ-, σταλ-) send ἔσταλμαι, αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise ἦρμαι, ἐγείρω (ἐγερ-) wake ἐγήγερμαι ( cross446). Stems in ν retaining the nasal are inflected like πέφασμαι, as σημαίνω (σημαν-) signify σεσήμασμαι. (For -σμαι see cross94 a and b.) Stems in ν dropping the nasal ( cross559 a) are inflected like λέλυμαι, as κρί_νω (κριν-) judge κέκριμαι.

e. Vowel Stems adding ς.—Here the stem ends in a vowel except before μ and τ; thus, τετέλε-σαι, τετέλε-σθον, τετέλε-σθε: but τετέλε-ς-μαι, τετελέ-ς-μεθα, τετέλε-ς-ται.

N.—Since the stem of τελέω is properly τελες- (τελες-yω, cross624), the original inflection is τετελες-σαι, whence τετέλε-σαι ( cross107); τετέλες-ται; τετελες-σθον, τετελες-σθε, whence τετέλεσθον, τετέλεσθε ( cross103). τετέλεσμαι and τετελέσμεθα are due to the analogy of the other forms.


The forms πέφανσαι, ἐπέφανσο, and πέφανσο are not attested. Cp. cross707 a.


The principal parts of the verbs in 406-407 are as follows:

ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-), ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα, ἤγγελκα, ἤγγελμαι, ἠγγέλθην.

γράφω write (γραφ-), γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐγράφην.

ἐλέγχω confute (ἐλεγχ-), ἐλέγξω, ἤλεγξα, ἐλήλεγμαι, ἠλέγχθην.

λείπω leave (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-), λείψω, 2 perf. λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 a. ἔλιπον.

πείθω persuade (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-), πείσω, ἔπεισα, 1 perf. πέπεικα I have persuaded, 2 perf. πέποιθα I trust, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην.

πρά_ττω do (πρα_γ-), πρά_ξω, ἐπρα_ξα, 2 perf. πέπρα_γα I have fared and I have done, πέπρα_γμαι, ἐπρά_χθην.

τελέω finish (τελε-ς-), τελῶ, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην.

φαίνω show (φαν-), φανῶ, ἔφηνα, 1 perf. πέφαγκα I have shown, 2 perf. πέφηνα I have appeared, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην I was shown, 2 aor. pass. ἐφάνην I appeared.

-- 134 --


The conjugation of μι-verbs differs from that of ω-verbs only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist active and middle; and (rarely) in the second perfect. The μι forms are made by adding the endings directly to the tense-stem without any thematic vowel, except in the subjunctive of all verbs, and in the optative of verbs ending in -νυ_μι.


Verbs having second aorists and second perfects of the μι form are, as a rule, ω-verbs, not μι-verbs, in the present. Thus, the second aorists: ἔβην (βαίνω go), ἔγνων (γιγνώσκω know); the second perfect: τέθναμεν (θνῄσκω die).


There are two main classes of μι-verbs.

A. The root class. This class commonly ends in -η-μι or -ω-μι (from stems in ε, α, or ο). The present stem is usually reduplicated, but may be the same as the verb-stem, which is a root.

Verb-stemPresent StemPresent
θε-, θη-τιθε-, τιθη- (for θιθε, θιθη, 125 a)τίθημι place
ἑ-, ἡ-ἱ_ε-, ἱ_η- (for σισε, σιση) ἵ_ημι send
στα-, στη-ἱστα-, ἱστη- (for σιστα, σιστη, cross119) ἵστημι set
δο-, δω-διδο-, διδω-δίδωμι give
φα-, φη-φα-, φη-φημί say

B. The -νυ_μι class. This class adds νυ (νυ_), after a vowel ννυ (ννυ_), to the verb-stem. In the subjunctive and optative regularly, and sometimes in the indicative, verbs in -νυ_μι are inflected like verbs in .

Verb-stemPresent StemPresent
δεικ-δεικνυ-, δεικνυ_-δείκνυ_μι show
ζευγ-ζευγνυ-, ζευγνυ_-ζεύγνυ_μι yoke
κερα-κεραννυ-, κεραννυ_-κεράννυ_μι mix
ῥηγ-ῥηγνυ-, ῥηγνυ_-ῥήγνυ_μι break
σβε-σβεννυ-, σβεννυ_-σβέννυ_μι extinguish

C. There are some (mostly poetic) verbs in -νημι, which add να-, νη- to form the present stem; as δάμ-νη-μι I subdue, δάμ-να-μεν we subdue.


All the possible μι forms do not occur in any single verb. τίθημι and δίδωμι are incomplete and irregular in the second aorist active; and ἔσβην went out from σβέννυ_μι is the only second aorist formed from νυ_μι-verbs. ἐπριάμην I bought, second aorist middle (from the stem πρια- with no present), is given in the paradigms in place of the missing form of ἵστημι; and ἔδυ_ν I entered from δύ_ω (but formed as if from δῦμι) in place of a second aorist of the νυ_μι-verbs.

-- 135 --


(A) Root Class.—Inflection of τίθημι place, ἵστημι set, δίδωμι give, in the present, imperfect, and second aorist tenses; and of ἐπριάμην I bought.

ACTIVEPresent Indicative
S. 1. τί-θη-μιἵ-στη-μιδί-δω-μι
2. τί-θη-ςἵ-στη-ςδί-δω-ς
3. τί-θη-σιἵ-στη-σιδί-δω-σι
D. 2. τί-θε-τονἵ-στα-τονδί-δο-τον
3. τί-θε-τονἵ-στα-τονδί-δο-τον
P. 1. τί-θε-μενἵ-στα-μενδί-δο-μεν
2. τί-θε-τεἵ-στα-τεδί-δο-τε
3. τι-θέ-α_σιἱ-στᾶσιδι-δό-α_σι

S. 1. ἐ-τί-θη-νἵ_-στη-νἐ-δί-δουν ( cross746 b)
2. ἐ-τί-θεις ( cross746 b) ἵ_-στη-ςἐ-δί-δους
3. ἐ-τί-θειἵ_-στηἐ-δί-δου
D. 2. ἐ-τί-θε-τονἵ_-στα-τονἐ-δί-δο-τον
3. ἐ-τι-θέ-τηνἱ_-στά-τηνἐ-δι-δό-την
P. 1. ἐ-τί-θε-μενἵ_-στα-μενἐ-δί-δο-μεν
2. ἐ-τί-θε-τεἵ_-στα-τεἐ-δί-δο-τε
3. ἐ-τί-θε-σανἵ_-στα-σανἐ-δί-δο-σαν

Present Subjunctive
S. 1. τι-θῶἱ-στῶδι-δῶ
2. τι-θῇ-ςἱ-στῇ-ςδι-δῷ-ς
3. τι-θῇἱ-στῇδι-δῷ
D. 2. τι-θῆ-τονἱ-στῆ-τονδι-δῶ-τον
3. τι-θῆ-τονἱ-στῆ-τονδι-δῶ-τον
P. 1. τι-θῶ-μενἱ-στῶ-μενδι-δῶ-μεν
2. τι-θῆ-τεἱ-στῆ-τεδι-δῶ-τε
3. τι-θῶ-σιἱ-στῶ-σιδι-δῶ-σι

Present Optative
S. 1. τι-θείη-νἱ-σταίη-νδι-δοίη-ν
2. τι-θείη-ςἱ-σταίη-ςδι-δοίη-ς
3. τι-θείηἱ-σταίηδι-δοίη
D. 2. τι-θεῖ-τονἱ-σταῖ-τονδι-δοῖ-τον
3. τι-θεί-τηνἱ-σταί-τηνδι-δοί-την
P. 1. τι-θεῖ-μενἱ-σταῖ-μενδι-δοῖ-μεν
2. τι-θεῖ-τεἱ-σταῖ-τεδι-δοῖ-τε
3. τι-θεῖε-νἱ-σταῖε-νδι-δοῖε-ν

-- 136 --

ACTIVE—ConcludedPresent Optative
or ( cross750) or ( cross750) or ( cross750)
D. 2. τι-θείη-τονἱ-σταίη-τονδι-δοίη-τον
3. τι-θειή-τηνἱ-σταιή-τηνδι-δοιή-την
P. 1. τι-θείη-μενἱ-σταίη-μενδι-δοίη-μεν
2. τι-θείη-τεἱ-σταίη-τεδι-δοίη-τε
3. τι-θείη-σανἱ-σταίη-σανδι-δοίη-σαν

Present Imperative
S. 2. τί-θει ( cross746 b) ἵ-στηδί-δου
3. τι-θέ-τωἱ-στά-τωδι-δό-τω
D. 2. τί-θε-τονἵ-στα-τονδί-δο-τον
3. τι-θέ-τωνἱ-στά-τωνδι-δό-των
P. 2. τί-θε-τεἵ-στα-τεδί-δο-τε
3. τι-θέ-ντωνἱ-στά-ντωνδι-δό-ντων

Present Infinitive

Present Participle
τι-θείς, -εῖσα, -έν ( cross307) ἱ-στά_ς, -ᾶσα, -άν ( cross306) δι-δούς, -οῦσα, -όν
( cross307)

MIDDLE AND PASSIVEPresent Indicative
S. 1. τί-θε-μαιἵ-στα-μαιδί-δο-μαι ( cross747 f)
2. τί-θε-σαιἵ-στα-σαιδί-δο-σαι
3. τί-θε-ταιἵ-στα-ταιδί-δο-ται
D. 2. τί-θε-σθονἵ-στα-σθονδί-δο-σθον
3. τί-θε-σθονἵ-στα-σθονδί-δο-σθον
P. 1. τι-θέ-μεθαἱ-στά-μεθαδι-δό-μεθα
2. τί-θε-σθεἵ-στα-σθεδί-δο-σθε
3. τί-θε-νταιἵ-στα-νταιδί-δο-νται

S. 1. ἐ-τι-θέ-μηνἱ_-στά-μηνἐ-δι-δό-μην ( cross747 f)
2. ἐ-τί-θε-σοἵ_-στα-σοἐ-δί-δο-σο
3. ἐ-τί-θε-τοἵ_-στα-τοἐ-δί-δο-το
D. 2. ἐ-τί-θε-σθονἵ_-στα-σθονἐ-δί-δο-σθον
3. ἐ-τι-θέ-σθηνἱ_-στά-σθηνἐ-δι-δό-σθην
P. 1. ἐ-τι-θέ-μεθαἱ_-στά-μεθαἐ-δι-δό-μεθα
2. ἐ-τί-θε-σθεἵ_-στα-σθεἐ-δί-δο-σθε
3. ἐ-τί-θε-ντοἵ_-στα-ντοἐ-δί-δο-ντο

-- 137 --

MIDDLE AND PASSIVE—Concluded Present Subjunctive

S. 1. τι-θῶ-μαιἱ-στῶ-μαιδι-δῶ-μαι
2. τι-θῇἱ-στῇδι-δῷ
3. τι-θῆ-ταιἱ-στῆ-ταιδι-δῶ-ται
D. 2. τι-θῆ-σθονἱ-στῆ-σθονδι-δῶ-σθον
3. τι-θῆ-σθονἱ-στῆ-σθονδι-δῶ-σθον
P. 1. τι-θώ-μεθαἱ-στώ-μεθαδι-δώ-μεθα
2. τι-θῆ-σθεἱ-στῆ-σθεδι-δῶ-σθε
3. τι-θῶ-νταιἱ-στῶ-νταιδι-δῶ-νται

Present Optative
S. 1. τι-θεί-μηνἱ-σταί-μηνδι-δοί-μην
2. τι-θεῖ-οἱ-σταῖ-οδι-δοῖ-ο
3. τι-θεῖ-τοἱ-σταῖ-τοδι-δοῖ-το
D. 2. τι-θεῖ-σθονἱ-σταῖ-σθονδι-δοῖ-σθον
3. τι-θεί-σθηνἱ-σταί-σθηνδι-δοί-σθην
P. 1. τι-θεί-μεθαἱ-σταί-μεθαδι-δοί-μεθα
2. τι-θεῖ-σθεἱ-σταῖ-σθεδι-δοῖ-σθε
3. τι-θεῖ-ντοἱ-σταῖ-ντοδι-δοῖ-ντο
S. 1. τι-θεί-μην
2. τι-θεῖ-ο
3. τι-θοῖ-το ( cross746 c)
D. 2. τι-θοῖ-σθον
3. τι-θοί-σθην
P. 1. τι-θοί-μεθα
2. τι-θοῖ-σθε
3. τι-θοῖ-ντο

Present Imperative
S. 2. τί-θε-σοἵ-στα-σοδί-δο-σο
3. τι-θέ-σθωἱ-στά-σθωδι-δό-σθω
D. 2. τί-θε-σθονἵ-στα-σθονδί-δο-σθον
3. τι-θέ-σθωνἱ-στά-σθωνδι-δό-σθων
P. 2. τί-θε-σθεἵ-στα-σθεδί-δο-σθε
3. τι-θέ-σθωνἱ-στά-σθωνδι-δό-σθων

Present Infinitive

Present Participle

-- 138 --


S. 1. (ἔθηκα, cross755) ἐ-θέ-μηνἔ-στη-ν stoodἐπριάμην ( cross415) (ἔδωκα, cross755) ἐ-δό-μην
( cross756 b)
2. (ἔθηκας) ἔ-θουἔ-στη-ςἐπρίω (ἔδωκας) ἔ-δου
3. (ἔθηκε) ἔ-θε-τοἔ-στηἐπρίατο (ἔδωκε) ἔ-δο-το
D. 2. ἔ-θε-τονἔ-θε-σθονἔ-στη-τονἐ-πρία-σθονἔ-δο-τονἔ-δο-σθον
3. ἐ-θέ-τηνἐ-θέ-σθηνἐ-στή-τηνἐ-πριά-σθηνἐ-δό-τηνἐ-δό-σθην
P. 1. ἔ-θε-μενἐ-θέ-μεθαἔ-στη-μενἐ-πριά-μεθαἔ-δο-μενἐ-δό-μεθα
2. ἔ-θε-τεἔ-θε-σθεἔ-στη-τεἐ-πρία-σθεἔ-δο-τεἔ-δο-σθε
3. ἔ-θε-σανἔ-θε-ντοἔ-στη-σανἐ-πρία-ντοἔ-δο-σανἔ-δο-ντο

S. 1. θῶθῶ-μαιστῶπρίω-μαι ( cross424, N.2)δῶδῶ-μαι
2. θῇ-ςθῇστῇ-ςπρίῃδῷ-ςδῷ
3. θῇθῆ-ταιστῇπρίη-ταιδῷδῶ-ται
D. 2. θῆ-τονθῆ-σθονστῆ-τονπρίη-σθονδῶ-τονδῶ-σθον
3. θῆ-τονθῆ-σθονστῆ-τονπρίη-σθονδῶ-τονδῶ-σθον
P. 1. θῶ-μενθώ-μεθαστῶ-μενπριώ-μεθαδῶ-μενδώ-μεθα
2. θῆ-τεθῆ-σθεστῆ-τεπρίη-σθεδῶ-τεδῶ-σθε
3. θῶ-σιθῶ-νταιστῶ-σιπρίω-νταιδῶ-σιδῶ-νται

S. 1. θείη-νθεί-μηνσταίη-νπριαί-μηνδοίη-νδοί-μην
2. θείη-ςθεῖ-οσταίη-ςπρίαι-ο ( cross424, N.2)δοίη-ςδοῖ-ο
3. θείηθεῖ-το, θοῖ-τοσταίηπρίαι-τοδοίηδοῖ-το
D. 2. θεῖ-τονθεῖ-σθονσταῖ-τονπρίαι-σθονδοῖ-τονδοῖ-σθον
3. θεί-τηνθεί-σθηνσταί-τηνπριαί-σθηνδοί-τηνδοί-σθην
P. 1. θεῖ-μενθεί-μεθασταῖ-μενπριαί-μεθαδοῖ-μενδοί-μεθα
2. θεῖ-τεθεῖ-σθεσταῖ-τεπρίαι-σθεδοῖ-τεδοῖ-σθε
3. θεῖε-νθεῖ-ντοσταῖε-νπρίαι-ντοδοῖε-νδοῖ-ντο
or ( cross758) or ( cross746 c) or ( cross758) or ( cross758)
D. 2. θείη-τονσταίη-τονδοίη-τον
3. θειή-τηνσταιή-τηνδοιή-την
P. 1. θείη-μενθοίμεθασταίη-μενδοίη-μεν
2. θείη-τεθοῖσθεσταίη-τεδοίη-τε
3. θείη-σανθοῖντοσταίη-σανδοίη-σαν

-- 139 --

SECOND AORIST—Concluded Imperative

S. 2. θέ-ςθοῦστῆ-θιπρίωδό-ςδοῦ
3. θέ-τωθέ-σθωστή-τωπριά-σθωδό-τωδό-σθω
D. 2. θέ-τονθέ-σθονστῆ-τονπρία-σθονδό-τονδό-σθον
3. θέ-τωνθέ-σθωνστή-τωνπριά-σθωνδό-τωνδό-σθων
P. 2. θέ-τεθέ-σθεστῆ-τεπρία-σθεδό-τεδό-σθε
3. θέ-ντωνθέ-σθωνστά-ντωνπριά-σθωνδό-ντωνδό-σθων


θείς, θεῖσα,θέ-μενος, ,στά_ς, στᾶσα,πριά-μενος,,δούς, δοῦσα,δό-μενος,
θέ-ν ( cross307) -ονστά-ν ( cross306) -ον ( cross287) δό-ν ( cross307) , -ον


A few verbs of the μι class have a second perfect and pluperfect. Only the dual and plural occur; for the singular, the first perfect and pluperfect are used. The second perfect and pluperfect of ἵστημι are inflected as follows:

S. 1. (ἕστηκα) standἑ-στῶἑ-σταίη-ν (poetic)
2. (ἕστηκας) ἑ-στῇ-ςἑ-σταίη-ςἕ-στα-θι (poetic)
3. (ἕστηκε) ἑ-στῇἑ-σταίηἑ-στά-τω
D. 2. ἕ-στα-τονἑ-στῆ-τονἑ-σταῖ-τον or -αίητον ( cross461 b) ἕ-στα-τον
3. ἕ-στα-τονἑ-στῆ-τονἑ-σταί-την or -αιήτηνἑ-στά-των
P. 1. ἕ-στα-μενἑ-στῶ-μενἑ-σταῖ-μεν or -αίημεν
2. ἕ-στα-τεἑ-στῆ-τεἑ-σταῖ-τε or -αίητεἕ-στα-τε
3. ἑ-στᾶσιἑ-στῶ-σιἑ-σταῖε-ν or -αίησανἑ-στά-ντων

INFINITIVEἑ-στά-ναιPARTICIPLEἑ-στώ-ς, ἑ-στῶσα, ἑ-στός ( cross309 a)

S. 1. (εἱστήκη) stoodD. 2. ἕ-στα-τονP. 1. ἕ-στα-μεν
2. (εἱστήκης) 3. ἑ-στά-την2. ἕ-στα-τε
3. (εἱστήκει) 3. ἕ-στα-σαν

For a list of second perfects of the μι form, see cross704-705.

-- 140 --


(B) -νυ_μι Class.—Inflection of the present system of δείκνύμι show and of the second aorist ἔδυ_ν entered.

PresentImperfectPresentImperfect2 Aorist
S. 1. δείκ-νυ_-μι ( cross746 a) ἐ-δείκ-νυ_-ν ( cross746 a) δείκ-νυ-μαιἐ-δεικ-νύ-μηνἔ-δυ_-ν ( cross415)
2. δείκ-νυ_-ςἐ-δείκ-νυ_-ςδείκ-νυ-σαιἐ-δείκ-νυ-σοἔ-δυ_-ς
3. δείκ-νυ_-σιἐ-δείκ-νυ_δείκ-νυ-ταιἐ-δείκ-νυ-τοἔ-δυ_
D. 2. δείκ-νυ-τονἐ-δείκ-νυ-τονδείκ-νυ-σθονἐ-δείκ-νυ-σθονἔ-δυ_-τον
3. δείκ-νυ-τονἐ-δεικ-νύ-τηνδείκ-νυ-σθονἐ-δεικ-νύ-σθηνἐ-δύ_-την
P. 1. δείκ-νυ-μενἐ-δείκ-νυ-μενδεικ-νύ-μεθαἐ-δεικ-νύ-μεθαἔ-δυ_-μεν
2. δείκ-νυ-τεἐ-δείκ-νυ-τεδείκ-νυ-σθεἐ-δείκ-νυ-σθεἔ-δυ_-τε
3. δεικ-νύ-α_σιἐ-δείκ-νυ-σανδείκ-νυ-νταιἐ-δείκ-νυ-ντοἔ-δυ_-σαν

S. 1. δεικνύωδεικνύωμαιδύω
2. δεικνύῃςδεικνύῃδύῃς
3. δεικνύῃδεικνύηταιδύῃ
D. 2. δεικνύητονδεικνύησθονδύητον
3. δεικνύητονδεικνύησθονδύητον
P. 1. δεικνύωμενδεικνυώμεθαδύωμεν
2. δεικνύητεδεικνύησθεδύητε
3. δεικνύωσιδεικνύωνταιδύωσι

S. 1. δεικνύοιμιδεικνυοίμην
2. δεικνύοιςδεικνύοιο
3. δεικνύοιδεικνύοιτο
D. 2. δεικνύοιτονδεικνύοισθον
3. δεικνυοίτηνδεικνυοίσθην
P. 1. δεικνύοιμενδεικνυοίμεθα
2. δεικνύοιτεδεικνύοισθε
3. δεικνύοιενδεικνύοιντο

S. 2. δείκ-νυ_ ( cross746 a) δείκ-νυ-σοδῦ-θι
3. δεικ-νύ-τωδεικ-νύ-σθωδύ_-τω
D. 2. δείκ-νυ-τονδείκ-νυ-σθονδῦ-τον
3. δεικνύ-τωνδεικ-νύ-σθωνδύ_-των
P. 2. δείκ-νυ-τεδείκ-νυ-σθεδῦ-τε
3. δεικ-νύ-ντωνδεικ-νύ-σθωνδύ_-ντων

δεικ-νύ-ναι ( cross746 a) δείκ-νυ-σθαιδῦ-ναι

δεικ-νύ_ς -ῦσα, -ύν ( cross308, cross746 a)δεικ-νύ-μενος, , -ονδύ_ς, δῦσα,
δύν ( cross308)

-- 141 --

419SYNOPSIS OF τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.1 Perf. Act.1 Plup. Act.
Sub.τιθῶθῶτεθηκὼς ὦ
Opt.τιθείηνθήσοιμιθείηντεθηκὼς εἴην
Pres. M. P.Impf. M. P.Fut. Mid.2 Aor. Mid.Perf. M. P.Plup. M. P.
Sub.τιθῶμαιθῶμαιτεθειμένος ὦ
1 Fut. Pass.1 Aor. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:θετός, θετέος.

420SYNOPSIS OF ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set (in perf. and 2 aor. stand)

Pres. Impf. Act.Fut. Act.1 Aor. Act.2 Aor. Act.Perf. Plup. Act.
Ind.ἵστημι setστήσω shall setἕστηκα stand
ἵστηνἔστησα setἔστην stoodεἱστήκη stood
Sub.ἱστῶστήσωστῶἑστήκω, ἑστῶ
Opt.ἱσταίηνστήσοιμιστήσαιμισταίηνἑστήκοιμι, ἑσταίην
Inf.ἱστάναιστήσεινστῆσαιστῆναιἑστηκέναι, ἑστάναι
Par.ἱστά_ςστήσωνστήσα_ςστά_ςἑστηκώς, ἑστώς

Pres. Impf. M. P.Fut. Mid.1 Aor. Mid.Fut. Perf. Act.
Ind.ἵσταμαι standστήσομαι (intrans.)ἑστήξω shall stand
ἱ_στάμηνἐστησάμην (trans.)
1 Fut. Pass.1 Aor. Pass.
Ind.σταθήσομαι shall beἐστάθην was set
Sub.set upσταθῶ
Verbal adjectives:στατός, στατέος.

-- 142 --

421SYNOPSIS OF δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.Aor. Act.1 Perf. Act.1 Plup. Act.
Sub.διδῶδῶδεδωκὼς ὦ
Opt.διδοίηνδώσοιμιδοίηνδεδωκὼς εἴην
Pres. M. P.Impf. M. P.Fut. Mid.2 Aor. Mid.Perf. M. P.Plup. M. P.
Sub.διδῶμαιδῶμαιδεδομένος ὦ
Opt.διδοίμηνδωσοίμηνδοίμηνδεδομένος εἴην
1 Fut. Pass.1 Aor. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:δοτός, δοτέος

422SYNOPSIS OF δείκνυ_μι (δεικ-) show

Pres. Act.Impf. Act.Fut. Act.1 Aor. Act.1 Perf. Act.1 Plup. Act.
Sub.δεικνύωδείξωδεδειχὼς ὦ
Opt.δεικνύοιμιδείξοιμιδείξαιμιδεδειχὼς εἴην
Pres. M. P.Impf. M. P.Fut. Mid.1 Aor. Mid.Perf. Mid.Plup. Mid.
Sub.δεικνύωμαιδείξωμαιδεδειγμένος ὦ
Opt.δεικνυοίμηνδειξοίμηνδειξαίμηνδεδειγμένος εἴην
Fut. Pass.1 Aor. Pass.
Verbal adjectives:δεικτός, δεικτέος

-- 143 --


Simple or compound verbs usually throw the accent as far back as the quantity of the last syllable permits (recessive accent, cross159).

λύ_ω, λύ_ομεν, ἐλυ_όμην; παιδεύω, παιδεύουσι, ἐπαιδευέτην; ἀποβάλλω, ἀπόβαλλε; ἀπολύ_ω, ἀπέλυ_ον; ἄπειμι, σύνεσμεν, σύμφημι, πάρεστι.


To this general rule there are exceptions.

a. Enclitics.—All the forms of φημί say, and εἰμί am, except φῄς and εἶ.

b. Imperatives.—(1) The second person sing. of the second aorist active imperative of five verbs is oxytone: εἰπέ say, ἐλθέ come, εὑρέ find, ἰδέ see, λαβέ take. Their plurals are accented εἰπέτε, ἐλθέτε, etc.; compounds have recessive accent: κάτειπε, ἄπελθε, ἔφευρε, παράλαβε.

(2) The second aorist middle (2 sing.) is perispomenon, as λαβοῦ, παραβαλοῦ, καθελοῦ.

c. Contracted verbs are only apparent exceptions: thus, e.g., τι_μᾷ for τι_μάει, δηλοῦσι for δηλόουσι, φιλεῖν for φιλέειν. So the subjunctive of the first and second aorist passive λυθῶ for λυθέω, φανῶ for φανέω; the optatives λυθεῖμεν from λυθέ-ι_-μεν, διδοῖμεν from διδό-ι_-μεν; the futures φανῶ for φανέω, φανοῖμι for φανέοιμι, φανεῖν for φανέειν, φανῶν for φανέων; λιπεῖν for λιπέεν; and the present and second aorist active and middle subjunctive of most μι-verbs, as τιθῶ for τιθέω, ἱστῶμαι, θῶμαι, perf. κεκτῶμαι. On διδοῦσι, τιθεῖσι, see cross463 d.

N. 1.—In athematic optatives the accent does not recede beyond the diphthong containing -ι_-, the sign of the optative mood: ἱσταῖο, ἱσταῖμεν, ἱσταῖτο, διδοῖτο; and so in λυθεῖμεν, λυθεῖεν.

N. 2.—δύναμαι am able, ἐπίσταμαι understand, κρέμαμαι hang, ὀνίνημι profit, and ἐπριάμην bought ( cross749 b, cross750 b, 757 a) have recessive accent in the subjunctive and optative (δύνωμαι, ἐπίστωμαι, δύναιτο, κρέμαιτο).

d. Poetic forms sometimes fail to follow the rule, as ἐών being.


Infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives are verbal nouns ( cross358), and hence do not regularly show recessive accent.

a. Infinitives.—The following infinitives accent the penult: all infinitives in -ναι, as λελυκέναι, λυθῆναι, ἱστάναι, στῆναι (except Epic -μεναι, as στήμεναι); in verbs in ω the first aorist active, as λῦσαι, παιδεῦσαι, the second aorist middle, as λιπέσθαι, the perfect (middle) passive, as λελύσθαι, πεπαιδεῦσθαι, πεποιῆσθαι.


The 2. aor. mid. inf. in Hom. is recessive in ἀγέρεσθαι (ἀγείρω assemble); so the perf. ἀλάλησθαι (ἀλάομαι wander), ἀκάχησθαι (ἄχνυμαι am distressed).

N.—The present inf. of contracted verbs and the second aorist active inf. of ω-verbs have the perispomenon by 424 c.

b. Participles.—(1) Oxytone: the masculine and neuter sing. of the second aorist active, as λιπών, λιπόν; and of all participles of the third declension ending in in the masculine (except the first aorist active), as λυθείς λυθέν, λελυκώς λελυκός, ἑστώς ἑστός, τιθείς τιθέν, διδούς διδόν, ἱστά_ς ἱστάν, δεικνύ_ς δεικνύν (but λύ_σα_ς, ποιήσα_ς). Also ἰών going from εἶμι.

-- 144 --

(2) Paroxytone: the perfect middle (passive): λελυμένος.

N.—Participles are accented like adjectives, not like verbs. The fem. and neuter nom. accent the same syllable as the masc. nom. if the quantity of the ultima permits, thus παιδεύων, παιδεύουσα, παιδεῦον (not παίδευον); ποιήσα_ς, ποιήσα_σα, ποιῆσαν (not ποίησαν); φιλῶν, φιλοῦσα, φιλοῦν (from φιλέον).


But Hom. has ἀλαλήμενος (ἀλάομαι wander), ἀκαχήμενος or ἀκηχέμενος (ἄχνυμαι am distressed), ἐσσύμενος (σεύω drive).

c. Verbal Adjectives.—The verbal adjective in -τος is accented on the ultima (λυτός); that in -τεος on the penult (λυτέος).

N.—Prepositional compounds in -τος denoting possibility generally accent the last syllable and have three endings ( cross286), as διαλυτός dissoluble, ἐξαιρετός removable. Such compounds as have the force of a perfect passive participle accent the antepenult and have two endings, as διάλυτος dissolved, ἐξαίρετος chosen. All other compounds in -τος accent the antepenult and have two endings, as ἄβατος impassable, χειροποίητος artificial.


Exceptions to the recessive accent of compound verbs.—a. The accent cannot precede the augment or reduplication: ἄπειμι am absent, ἀπῆν was absent, εἰς-ῆλθον they entered, ἀπ-ῆσαν they were absent; ἀφ-ῖκται arrived (cp. ἷκται).

N.—A long vowel or diphthong not changed by the augment receives the accent: ὑπ-εῖκε was yielding (indic. ὑπ-είκω, imper. ὕπ-εικε).

b. The accent cannot precede the last syllable of the preposition before the simple verb nor move back to the first of two prepositions: περίθες put around, συνέκδος give up together (not σύνεκδος), συγκάθες put down together (not σύγκαθες). Compounds of the second aorist active imperatives δός, ἕς, θές, and σχές are thus paroxytone: ἐπίθες set on, περίθες put around, ἐπίσχες hold on.

c. When compounded with a monosyllabic preposition, monosyllabic second aorist middle imperatives in -οῦ from μι-verbs retain the circumflex: προδοῦ betray, ἐνθοῦ put in. But the accent recedes when these imperatives prefix a dissyllabic preposition: ἀπόδου sell, κατάθου put down. The open forms always have recessive accent, as ἔνθεο, κατάθεο.

d. The accent of uncompounded infinitives, participles, aorist passive, perfect passive, and of the second aorist middle imperative (2. p. sing., but see cross426 c) is retained in composition.

e. ἀπέσται will be far from, ἐπέσται will be upon do not have recessive accent.

f. Compound subjunctives are differently accentuated in the Mss.: ἀποδῶμαι and ἀπόδωμαι, ἐπιθῆται and ἐπίθηται; the aorist of ἵ_ημι has προῶμαι and πρόωμαι. ἀπέχω has ἀπόσχωμαι. Compound optatives retain the accent of the primitives: ἀποδοῖτο, as δοῖτο. For συνθοῖτο, προσθοῖσθε ( cross746 c) the Mss. occasionally have σύνθοιτο, πρόσθοισθε; and so πρόοιτο.


Final -αι (and -οι) are regarded as long in the optative ( cross169), elsewhere as short. Hence distinguish the forms of the first aorist.

3. Sing. Opt. Act.Infin. Act.2. Sing. Imper. Mid.

-- 145 --


The augment (increase) denotes past time. It appears only in the secondary or past tenses of the indicative mood, namely, imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. The augment has two forms, the syllabic and the temporal.


Syllabic Augment.—Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix ε as the augment, which thus increases the word by one syllable. In the pluperfect ε is prefixed to the reduplication.


a. Verbs beginning with ρ double the ρ after the augment. ῥί_πτω throw, ἔ-ρρι_πτον, ἔ-ρρι_ψα, ἐ-ρρί_φθην; ῥήγνυ_μι break, ἔ-ρρηξα, ἐ-ρράγην.

N.—ρρ is here due to assimilation of ϝρ, as in Hom. ἔρρεξα did (and ἔρεξα); of σρ in ἔρρεον flowed. Cp. cross80 a.


Hom. has ἔλλαβε took (for ἐ-σλαβε), ἔννεον swam (for ἐ-σνεον), ἐσσείοντο shook (for ἐ-τϝειοντο), ἔδδεισε feared (for ἐ-δϝεισε). ἔμμαθε learned is due to analogy.


βούλομαι wish, δύναμαι am able, μέλλω intend augment with ε or with η (especially in later Attic); thus, ἐβουλόμην and ἠβουλόμην, ἐδυνάμην and ἠδυνάμην, ἐδυνήθην and ἠδυνήθην.

a. These forms seem to be due to parallelism with ἤθελον (from ἐθέλω wish) and ἔθελον (from θέλω).


Some verbs beginning with a vowel take the syllabic augment because they formerly began with a consonant. Thus,

ἄγνυ_μι break (Ϝάγνυ_μι), ἔα_ξα, aor. pass. ἐά_γην.

ἁλίσκομαι am captured (Ϝαλίσκομαι), imperf. ἡλισκόμην, aor. ἑά_λων (with temporal augment) or ἥλων.

ἁνδάνω please (Ϝανδάνω), aor. ἕαδον (Ionic).

ἀν-οίγω open (Ϝοίγνυ_μι), imperf. ἀν-έῳγον.

ἐάω permit (σεϜαω), εἴων, εἴα_σα, εἰά_θην.

ἑζόμαι sit (for σεδιομαι), εἱσάμην.

ἐθίζω accustom (ςϜεθίζω, cp. cross123), εἴθιζον, εἴθισα, εἰθίσθην.

ἐλίττω roll (Ϝελίττω), εἴλιττον, εἴλιξα, εἰλίχθην.

ἕλκω or ἑλκύω draw (σελκω), εἷλκον, εἵλκυσα, εἱλκύσθην.

ἕπομαι follow (σεπομαι), εἱπόμην.

ἐργάζομαι work (Ϝεργάζομαι), εἰργασάμην.

ἕρπω creep (σερπω), εἷρπον.

ἑστιάω entertain (Ϝεστίαω), εἱστίων, εἱστία_σα, εἱστιά_θην.

-- 146 --

ἔχω hold (σεχω), εἶχον.

ἵημι send (σισημι), aor. du. εἷτον for ἐ-ἑ-τον, εἵθην for ἐ-ἑ-θην.

ἵστημι put (σιστημι), plup. εἱστήκη for ἐ-σε-στηκη.

ὁράω see (Ϝοράω), ἑώρων, ἑώρα_κα or ἑόρα_κα.

ὠθέω push (Ϝωθέω), ἐώθουν, ἔωσα, ἐώσθην.

ὠνέομαι buy (Ϝωνέομαι), ἐωνούμην, ἐωνήθην.

εἶδον saw, 2 aor. of ὁράω (for ἐ-Ϝιδον).

εἷλον took, 2 aor. of αἱρέω (for ἐ-ἑλον).


Syllabic augment in Homer before a vowel is a sure proof of initial ϝ in ἔειπον and some other verbs. Similar Ionic and poetic forms occur from εἶδον, εἴλω, εἴρω, ἔλπω, ἕννυ_μι, ἔρδω, οἰνοχοέω, etc.


Some forms of some verbs in 431 are augmented as if no consonant had preceded the first vowel, as ἠργαζόμην (and εἰργαζόμην).


Since ϝ disappeared early, many augmented forms show no trace of its existence, as, ᾤκουν from οἰκέω dwell (ϝοῖκος). Besides ε, η was also used as the syllabic augment. This appears in Hom. ἠ-είδεις (-ης?), Attic ᾔδεις you knew.


The verbs ἄγνυ_μι, ἁλίσκομαι, (ἀν) οίγνυ_μι, ὁράω, which began originally with ϝ, show forms that appear to have a double augment; as ἐά_γην, ἑά_λων, (ἀν) ἐῳγον (rarely ἤνοιγον), ἑώρων, ἑώρα_κα (and ἑόρα_κα). These forms appear to be due to transference of quantity ( cross34) from ἠ-ϝαγην, ἠ-ϝοιγον, ἠ-ϝορων (cp. cross433).


Temporal Augment.—Verbs beginning with a vowel take the temporal augment by lengthening the initial vowel. The temporal augment is so called because it usually increases the time required to pronounce the initial syllable. Diphthongs lengthen their first vowel.

α becomes η:ἄγω leadἦγονἦχαἤχη
εη:ἐλπίζω hopeἤλπιζονἤλπισαἤλπικαἠλπίκη
ιι_:ἱκετεύω supplicateἱ_κέτευονἱ_κέτευσαἱ_κέτευκαἱ_κετεύκη
οω:ὁρίζω mark offὥριζονὥρισαὥρικαὡρίκη
υυ_:ὑβρίζω insultὕ_βριζονὕ_βρισαὕ_βρικαὑ_βρίκη
αι:αἱρίω seizeᾕρουνᾕρηκαᾑρήκη
αυηυ:αὐλέω play the fluteηὔλουνηὔλησαηὔληκαηὐλήκη
ει:εἰκάζω likenᾔκαζονᾔκασα
ευηυ:εὔχομαι prayηὐχόμηνηὐξάμηνηὖγμαιηὔγμην
οι:οἰκέω dwellᾤκουνᾤκησαᾤκηκαᾠκήκη


Initial α becomes α_ in Doric and Aeolic; initial αι and αυ remain.


Initial becomes : ᾄδω sing, ᾖδον. Initial η, ι_, υ_, ω remain unchanged. Initial α_ usually becomes η: ἀ_ριστάω breakfast, ἠρίστησα. ἀνα_λίσκω and ἀνα_λόω expend form ἀνά_λωσα and ἀνήλωσα, ἀνα_λώθην and ἀνηλώθην.


Initial diphthongs are sometimes unaugmented: αυ in αὑαίνομαι dry; ει: εἴκαζον, ᾔκαζον; ευ: εὑρέθην and ηὑρέθην from εὑρίσκω find, εὐξάμην and ηὐξάμην from εὔχομαι pray; ου is never augmented, since it is never a pure diphthong when standing at the beginning of a verb-form.

-- 147 --


Omission of the Augment.—a. In Attic tragedy the augment is sometimes omitted in choral passages, rarely in the dialogue parts (messengers' speeches), which are nearer akin to prose.

b. In χρῆν (from χρὴ ἦν) the augment is strictly unnecessary, but is often added (ἐχρῆν) since the composition of χρῆν was forgotten.

c. In Homer and the lyric poets either the syllabic or the temporal augment is often absent; as φάτο and ἔφατο, βῆν and ἔβην, ἔχον and εἶχον. Iteratives ( cross495) in Hom. usually have no augment (ἔχεσκον).

N.—In Homer the absence of the augment represents the usage of the parent language, in which the augment was not necessarily added to mark past time. It is therefore erroneous, historically, to speak of the omission of the augment in Homer.

d. In Herodotus the syllabic augment is omitted only in the case of pluperfects and iteratives in σκον; the temporal augment is generally preserved, but it is always omitted in verbs beginning with αι, αυ, ει, ευ, οι, and in ἀγι_νέω, ἀεθλέω, ἀνώγω, ἔρδω, ἐάω, ὁρμέω, etc.; in others it is omitted only in some forms (as ἀγορεύω, ἄγω, ἕλκω, ὁρμάω), and in others it is variable (ἀγγέλλω, ἅπτω, ἄρχω, ἐπίσταμαι, ἀνέχομαι); in cases of Attic reduplication the augment is never added. Hdt. omits the augment for the reduplication in the above verbs.


Reduplication is the doubling of the sound standing at the beginning of a word. It is used in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses in all the moods, to denote completed action. It is sometimes found also in the present and second aorist.


Reduplication (or the augment for the reduplication) is generally retained in Hom. Exceptions are ἔρχαται and ἔρχατο from ἔργω shut, ἄνωγα order, ἕσται from ἕννυ_μι clothe. On δέχαται await, ἐδέγμην was expecting cp. cross634.


Verbs beginning with a simple consonant (except ρ) or with a stop and a liquid (λ, μ, ν, ρ) place the initial consonant with ε before the stem. λύ_ω loose, λέ-λυκα, λε-λυκέναι, λέ-λυμαι, λε-λύ_σομαι; γράφω write, γέ-γραφα; κλί_νω incline, κέ-κλικα; βλάπτω injure, βέ-βλαφα; πρί_ω saw, πέ-πρι_σμαι.

a. Exceptions: verbs beginning with γν, most of those with γλ, and some with βλ. Thus, γνωρίζω recognize, ἐ-γνώρικα; γι-γνώσκω know, ἔ-γνωκα; γλύφω carve, ἔ-γλυφα; βλαστάνω sprout, ἐ-βλάστηκα (usu. βεβλάστηκα).


An initial aspirate is reduplicated by the corresponding smooth stop: φονεύω murder, πε-φόνευκα; θύ_ω sacrifice, τέ-θυκα; χορεύω dance, κε-χόρευκα.


In all other cases the reduplication is formed like the augment.

a. Verbs beginning with a short vowel lengthen the vowel, as ἄγω lead, ἦχα; ὀρθόω set upright, ὤρθωκα; ἀγγέλλω announce, ἤγγελκα.

b. Verbs beginning with two or more consonants (except a stop with a liquid), a double consonant, and ρ simply prefix ε. ρ is here doubled (cp. cross429 a).

-- 148 --

Thus, κτίζω found, ἔ-κτικα; σπείρω sow, ἔ-σπαρμαι; στρατηγέω am general, ἐ-στρατήγηκα; ζητέω seek, ἐ-ζήτηκα; ψαύω touch, ἔ-ψαυκα; ῥί_πτω throw, ἔρρι_φα.

N.—μιμνῄσκω remind and κτάομαι acquire are exceptions: μέ-μνημαι, ἐ-μεμνήμην; κέ-κτημαι, ἐ-κε-κτήμην.


Hom. has ῥε-ρυπωμένος (ῥυπόω soil), ἔμμορε (μείρομαι obtain) for ἐ-σμορε 445 a, ἔσσυμαι (σεύω urge) for ἐ-κyυ-μαι; Ionic has ἔκτημαι.


The verbs mentioned in 431 which originally began with a consonant now lost, reduplicate regularly. Since the reduplicated consonant has disappeared only ε is left, and this often contracts with the initial vowel of the theme. Thus, ἔα_γα for ϝε-ϝα_γα from ϝάγνυ_μι break; ἔωσμαι for ϝε-ϝωσμαι from ϝωθέω push; ἕστηκα for σεστηκα from ἵστημι set; εἷκα for σεσεκα from ἵ_ημι (σι-σημι) send.


Pluperfect.—The pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augment ε to the reduplicated perfect beginning with a consonant; when the perfect stem begins with a vowel the pluperfect retains the prefix of the perfect.

Thus perf. λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, plup. ἐ-λελύκη, ἐ-λελύμην; perf. ἔ-σταλκα, ἔ-σταλμαι, plup. ἐ-στάλκη, ἐ-στάλμην from στέλλω send; perf. ἠγόρευκα, plup. ἠγορεύκη from ἀγορεύω harangue; perf. ᾕρηκα, plup. ᾑρήκη from αἱρέω seize.

a. Verbs showing ‘Attic’ reduplication ( cross446), in almost all cases augment the pluperfect.

b. The verbs of 431 follow the perfects of 443; as ἐά_γη (ἄγνυ_μι), ἐώσμην (ὠθέω), εἵμην (ἵ_ημι), ἐρρώγη from (ϝ) ρήγνυ_μι. ἵστημι forms εἱστήκη ( = ἐ- (ς) εστηκη), Ion. and poet. ἑστήκη (rare in Att. prose). ἔοικα am like forms ἐῴκη.


Hdt. has οἶκα (for ἔοικα), ἔωθα, ἐώθεα; Hom. has ἔωθεν and εἴωθε.


Some verbs beginning with a liquid or μ take ει instead of the reduplication: λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take, εἴ-ληφα, εἴ-λημμαι, εἰ-λήφη; λαγχάνω (λαχ-) obtain by lot, εἴ-ληχα, εἰ-λήχη; λέγω collect (in composition) -εἴ-λοχα, -εἰ-λόχη, -εἴ-λεγμαι (rarely λέ-λεγμαι); μείρομαι receive a share, εἵ-μαρται it is fated, εἵ-μαρτο with rough breathing; also the stems επ, ρη say, εἴ-ρηκα, εἰ-ρήκη.


Hom. δείδω fear stands for δε-δϝω from δε-δϝο (y) α (cp. δϝέος). So δείδοικα for δε-δϝοικα. For δείδεκτο greeted we should read δήδεκτο with η-reduplication. Hdt. has λελάβηκα and -λελαμμένος. λέλημμαι occurs in tragedy.

a. εἴληφα is from σε-σληφα by 37 (cp. Hom. ἔλλαβον for ἐ-σλαβον), εἵμαρται is from σε-σμαρται (cp. Hom. ἔμμορε). The other forms are probably analogues of εἴληφα.


Attic Reduplication.—Some verbs whose themes begin with α, ε, or ο, followed by a single consonant, reduplicate by repeating the initial vowel and the consonant and by lengthening α and ε to η, ο to ω. Thus ἀγείρω collect, ἀγ-ήγερκα, ἀγ-ήγερμαι; ἐγείρω awaken,

-- 149 --

ἐγ-ήγερμαι; ἐλέγχω confute, ἐλ-ήλεγμαι; ὀρύττω dig, ὀρ-ώρυχα, ὀρ-ώρυγμαι; ὄμ-νυ_μι swear, ὀμ-ώμοκα; ὄλ-λυ_μι destroy, ὀλ-ώλεκα. So also φέρω bear, ἐν-ήνοχα, ἐν-ήνεγμαι.

a. The name ‘Attic’ was given by the Greek grammarians to this form of reduplication though it occurs in Homer and in the other dialects.

b. ἀκούω hear has ἀκ-ήκοα for ἀκ-ήκο (w) α; ἄγω has ἀγ-ήοχα for ἀγ-ή (γ) οχα. The pluperfect augments except in the case of verbs with initial ε: ἠκ-ηκόη, ὠμ-ωμόκη, ἀπωλώλη; but ἐλ-ηλύθη, ἐν-ηνέγμην.


—In Hom. ‘Attic’ reduplication is even more frequent than in Attic; thus, ἐδηδώς from ἔδω eat, ἐρήριπα have fallen, ἐρέριπτο (without lengthening) from ἐρείπω overthrow, ὀρωρέχαται from ὀρέγω reach. For other poetical forms see in the List of Verbs ἀγείρω, αἱρέω, ἀλάομαι, ἀραρίσκω, ἐρείδω, ἐρίζω, ἔχω, ὄζω, ὁράω, ὄρνυ_μι.


Reduplication in the Present.—A few verbs reduplicate in the present by prefixing the initial consonant and ι, as γί-γνομαι, γι-γνώσκω, μι-μνῄσκω, τί-κτω for τι-τ (ε) κω, πί_-πτω for πι-π (ε) τω, ἵ-στημι for σι-στημι, τί-θημι for θι-θημι ( cross125 a), δί-δωμι. πίμ-πλη-μι fill (πλα-, πλη-) and πίμπρημι burn (πρα-, πρη-) insert μ.

a. In some verbs the reduplication belongs to the verbal stem: βιβάζω make go ἐβίβασα, διδάσκω teach ἐδίδαξα.


Reduplication in the Second Aorist.—ἄγω lead forms the second aorist ἤγ-αγον, ἀγ-άγω, ἀγ-άγοιμι, ἀγ-αγεῖν, middle ἠγ-αγόμην. So also ἤν-εγκα and ἤν-εγκον from φέρω.


Hom. has many reduplicated second aorists, as πέ-πιθον from πείθω (πιθ-) persuade, κεκλόμην, κε-κλόμενος from κέλομαι command, λε-λαθέσθαι from λανθάνω (λαθ-) escape the notice of, πε-φιδέσθαι from φείδομαι (φιδ-) spare, ἤρ-αρον from ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ-) join, ὤρ-ορον from ὄρνυ_μι arouse. The indicative forms may take the syllabic augment, as in ἐ-πέ-φραδον from φράζω (φραδ-) tell. From ἐνίπτω chide and ἐρύ_κω check come ἠνί_παπον and ἐνένι_πον, and ἠρύ_κακον.


In verbs compounded with a preposition, augment and reduplication stand between the preposition and the verb.

Thus, ὑπερβαίνω pass over, ὑπερέβαινον, ὑπερβέβηκα; εἰσβάλλω throw into, εἰσέβαλλον, εἰσβέβληκα.

a. Before ε of the augment ἐκ regains its fuller form ἐξ ( cross133 a), and ἐν and σύν reappear in their proper forms which were modified in the present. Thus ἐκβάλλω throw out, ἐξέβαλλον, ἐκβέβληκα; ἐμβάλλω throw into, ἐνέβαλλον; συλλέγω collect, συνέλεγον, συνείλοχα; συρρί_πτω throw together, συνέρρι_ψα, συνέρρι_φα; συσκευάζω pack together, συνεσκεύαζον, συνεσκευάσθην.

b. Prepositions (except περί and πρό) drop their final vowel: ἀποβάλλω throw away, ἀπ-έβαλλον; but περιβάλλω throw around, περιέβαλλον, προβαίνω step forward, προέβην. But πρό may contract with the augment (προὔβην).


But some verbs, which are not often used except as compounds, are treated like uncompound verbs and take the augment before the preposition, as ἐκαθήμην sat from κάθημαι, ἐκάθιζον set, sat from καθίζω, ἠμφίεσα clothed from ἀμφιέννυ_μι, ἐκάθευδον (and καθηυ_δον) slept from καθεύδω, ἠπιστάμην, ἠπιστήθην from ἐπίσταμαι understand. ἵ_ημι forms ἀφί_ει and ἠφί_ει. The simple verbs occur mostly in poetry. But ἀπολαύω enjoy makes ἀπολέλαυκα, ἐξετάζω review ἐξήτακα.

-- 150 --


Double Augment.—Some verbs take two augments, one before and the other after the preposition, as ἠν-ειχόμην, ἠν-εσχόμην from ἀν-έχομαι endure, ἠν-ώχλουν from ἐνοχλέω annoy, ἐπηνώρθωμαι from ἐπανορθόω set upright. So also, by analogy to the foregoing, a few verbs derived from compound words: ἠμφεσβήτουν from ἀηφισβητέω dispute, ἠντεδέκει from ἀντιδικέω go to law (ἀντίδικος).


Compounds of δυς- ill and εὖ well. (1) δυστυχέω am unhappy, ἐ-δυστύχουν, δε-δυς-τύχηκα. δυς-ηρέστουν, δυς-ηρέστηκα from δυς-αρεστέω do not occur. (2) εὐεργετέω do good, εὐεργέτησαν, εὐεργέτηκα (inscrip.) εὐηργέτηκα (texts).


Verbs derived from compound nouns take the augment and the reduplication at the beginning; as ἐμυ_θολόγουν, μεμυ_θολόγηκα from μυ_θολογέω tell legends (μυ_θολόγος teller of legends); ᾠκοδόμουν, ᾠκοδόμηκα from οἰκοδομέω build (οἰκοδόμος house-builder); ἠμπόλων, ἠμπόληκα from ἐμπολάω traffic in (ἐμπολή traffic).

a. ἐκκλησιάζω hold an assembly (ἐκκλησία_) makes ἠκ-κλησίαζον or ἐξ-ε-κλησίαζον. ἐγγυάω pledge makes ἐνεγύων, ἐνεγύησα and (better) ἠγγύων, ἠγγύησα.


Verbs derived from compound nouns whose first part is a preposition are commonly treated as if compounded of a preposition and a simple verb; as κατηγορέω accuse (κατήγορος), κατηγόρουν, κατηγόρηκα; ἐνθυ_μέομαι ponder (ἔνθυ_μος) ἐνεθυ_μήθην, ἐντεθυ_μῆσθαι; ἐπιορκέω swear falsely (ἐπίορκος), ἐπιώρκηκα; ἐγχειρίζω entrust (ἐν χειρί), ἐνεχείρισα.

a. But several verbs are not treated as compounds, such as ἀπατάω deceive, ἀπιστέω distrust, ἀπορέω am in difficulty, παρρησιάζομαι speak freely.


Tense-Suffixes.—The tense-suffixes, which are added to the verb-stem to form the tense-stems, consist of the thematic vowel and certain other letters. No tense-suffixes are added to the verb-stem (1) in the second aorist active and middle, and second perfect and pluperfect, of μι-verbs; (2) in the perfect and pluperfect middle of verbs in and -μι. The tense-suffixes are as follows:—

1. Present system, -όε-, -τόε-, -yόε-, -νόε-, -ανόε-, -νεόε-, -να-, -νυ-, - (ι) σκόε; or none, as in φα-μέν.

2. Future system, -σόε-.

3. First aorist sytem, -σα-.

4. Second aorist system, -όε-; or none, as in ἔ-στη-ν.

5. First perfect system, -κα- (plupf. -κη- from -κεα-; -κει- from -κεε-; -κε-).

6. Second perfect system, -α- (plupf. -η-, -ει-, or -ε-); or none, as in ἕ-στα-τε.

7. Perfect middle system, none (future perfect -σόε-).

8. First passive system, θη-, -θε- (future passive -θησόε-).

9. Second passive system, η, -ε- (future passive -ησόε-).

N.— in the aorist is properly a relic of the personal ending ( cross666).


For the Doric future -σεόε-, see cross540.—For the Epic first aorist -σόε-, see cross542 D.—For the doubling of ς in the future and first aorist, see cross534 b. D., 544 b. D.


Thematic Vowel.—The thematic, or variable, vowel appears at the end of the tense-stems in the present, imperfect, and second aorist active and

-- 151 --

middle of ω-verbs, and in all futures and future perfects. The thematic vowel in the indicative is ο before μ or ν (and in the optative of the tenses mentioned); elsewhere it is ε. Thus, λυ_όε-, λιπόε-, λυ_σόε-, λυθησόε-, λελυ_σόε-; λύ_ο-ι_-μι. In the subjunctive it is ώη.

a. Attic inscriptions have both -εσθων and -οσθων in the imperative.


Subjunctive.—In the subjunctive of all verbs the thematic vowel is ώη-. Thus, λύ_ω-μεν, λύ_η-τε, λύ_σω-μεν, στείλη-τε.

a. Verbs in -νυ_μι form their subjunctive like ω-verbs.


Hom. has -όε- instead of -ώη-, especially in the 1 aor., 2 aor. of μι- verbs, and 2 aor. pass. (ἐρύσσομεν, δώομεν, τραπείομεν; also in ἴομεν, εἴδομεν). These forms do not occur in the sing. or 3 pl. active. Verbs in ω rarely show this όε in the present. (Other examples 532, 667 D., 682 D.)


In the present and second aorist of μι-verbs, and in the aorist passive, ώη is added to the tense stem. Thus τιθῶμεν from τιθέ-ω-μεν, θῶ from θέ-ω, τιθῆτε from τιθέ-η-τε, λυθῶ from λυθέ-ω.


Suffix of the Optative.—The optative adds the mood suffix -ι_-, or -ιη- which contracts with the final vowel of the tense-stem: λύ_οιμι for λύ_ο-ι_-μι, φιλοίην for φιλεο-ίη-ν, τιθείην for τιθε-ίη-ν. -ιη- occurs only before active endings. When the suffix is -ιη-, the 1 pers. sing. ends in ; as τι_μαο-ίη-ν τι_μῴην; when it is -ι_-, the 1 pers. sing. ends in -μι, as τι_μάο-ι_-μι τι_μῷμι.


ιη is used as follows (in all other cases -ι_-):—

a. In contracted verbs in the singular, rarely in the dual and plural. -ι_- appears in the dual and plural, rarely in the singular.

b. In liquid verbs in the future active singular: φανοίη-ν for φανεο-ίη-ν. In the dual and plural -ι_-: φανοῖτον, φανοῖμεν for φανεό-ι_-τον, φανεό-ι_-μεν.

c. In the singular of μι-verbs: τιθείην for τιθε-ίη-ν, διδοίην for διδο-ίη-ν, θείην for θε-ίη-ν. Here the modal sign is added to the tense-stem without any thematic vowel. -ι_- is more common in the dual and plural: τιθεῖμεν for τιθέ-ι_-μεν, διδοῖμεν for διδό-ι_-μεν, θεῖτε for θέ-ι_-τε. Verbs in -νυ_μι make their optatives like λύ_ω.

d. In the aorist passive: λυθείην for λυθε-ίη-ν, φανείην for φανε-ίη-ν. In the dual and plural -ι_- is more common: λυθεῖμεν for λυθέ-ι_-μεν, φανεῖτε for φανέ-ι_-τε.

e. In some second perfects, as προεληλυθοίης, and in the second aorist σχοίην from ἔχω (but -σχοῖμι in composition).

N.—In the 3 pl. -ιε- is regular before : λύ_ο-ιε-ν, τιθε-ῖε-ν, λυθε-ῖε-ν.


-ιη- is very rare in Hom. in the dual and plural.


a. In the 1 aor. opt. act. of ω-verbs the endings -ειας, -ειε, and -ειαν are more common than -αις, -αι, -αιεν.

b. In the aor. opt. passive of all verbs and in the opt. of μι-verbs and of contract verbs -ιτον, -ιτην, -ιμεν, -ιτε, -ιεν are commoner than -ιητον, -ιητην, -ιημεν, -ιητε, -ιησαν. Prose writers use either the shorter or the longer forms; poets use only the shorter forms. Except in contract verbs -ιητε is very common in the 2 pl. and is sometimes the only form in the Mss., as δοίητε, θείητε, γνοίητε, -βαίητε, λυθείητε, φανείητε; but the forms in question occur in prose writers and their genuineness is therefore unsupported by metrical evidence.

-- 152 --


To make the complete verbal forms, to the tense-stems in the various moods are attached the personal endings in the finite moods and other endings in the infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives. See cross366. The personal endings of the four finite moods are given below. In many forms only the μι-verbs preserve distinct endings. Some of the endings are due to analogy of others and many are still unexplained. The first person dual, when it is used, has the form of the first person plural.

(primary tenses)(secondary tenses)(primary tenses)(secondary tenses)
Sing. 1.—or -μι-μαι-μην
2. (for -σι), -θα (-σθα) -ς, -σθα-σαι-σο
3. -σι (for -τι) -ται-το
Dual 2. -τον-τον-σθον-σθον
3. -τον-την-σθον-σθην
Plur. 1. -μεν-μεν-μεθα-μεθα
2. -τε-τε-σθε-σθε
3. -νσι (for -ντι) -ν, -σαν,-νται-ντο

Sing. 2.—,-θι, -ς-σο
Dual 2.-τον-σθον
Plur. 2.-τε-σθε
3.-ντων (-τωσαν) -σθων (-σθωσαν)


Doric has -τι for -σι, -μες for -μεν, -ντι in 3 pl., and -τα_ν, -σθα_ν, -μα_ν for -την, -σθην, -μην. -τα_ν, -σθα_ν, -μα_ν are also Aeolic.

The close agreement between Greek and Sanskrit may be illustrated by the inflection of Old Greek and Doric φα_μί say, Skt. bhā´mi shine, ἔφερον, Skt. ábharam bore.

φα_-τίbhā´-tiφα-τέbhā-tháἔφερε- (τ) ábhara-tἐφέρε-τεábhara-ta
φα-τόνbhā-thásφα-ντίbhā´-ntiἐφέρε-τονábhara-tamἔφερο-ν (τ) ábhara-n(t)

-- 153 --


a. 1 Sing.—-μι is found only in μι-verbs. Verbs in have no ending and simply lengthen the thematic vowel (λύ_ω, λείπω). The perfect has no personal ending, taking the place of a thematic vowel.


The Hom. subj. ἐθέλωμι, τύχωμι, ἀγάγωμι, are new formations. Aeolic has φίλημι, δοκίμωμι (indic.).

b. 2 Sing.—(1) -σι is found in Hom. ἐσσί thou art from the μι-verb εἰμί I am; possibly also in φῄς thou sayest. Attic εἶ thou art is derived from ἐ-σι. τίθη-ς is obscure. λύ_εις is probably for λυ_ε-σι, λυ_εϊ, λυ_ει, to which ς has been added. Subj. λύ_ῃ-ς follows the analogy of the indicative, but with long thematic vowel. τιθῇς for τιθέ-ῃς. In the perfect (not for -σι) has been added.

b. (1) εἶς or εἴς in Hom. and Hdt. is derived from εἶ ς. For this form ἐσς (ί) may be read in Hom. Theocr. has -ες for -εις (ἀμέλγες, etc.) and perf. πεπόνθεις ( cross557. 2. D.).

(2) -θα is a perfect ending, as in οἶσθα knowest for οἰδ θα ( cross83). From the perfect it spread to the imperfects ἦσθα wast, ἤεισθα wentst, ἔφησθα saidst, and to ᾔδησθα or ᾔδεισθα knewest. The perfect has commonly -α-ς. οἶσθας and ἦσθας are late.

b. (2) -σθα in Hom. indic. φῆσθα, τίθησθα, ᾔδησθα; subj. ἐθέλῃσθα also written ἐθέλησθα; opt. (rarely) κλαίοισθα, βάλοισθα. -σθα occurs also occasionally in Doric (ποθορῆσθα) and Aeolic (ἔχεισθα, φίλησθα).

c. 3 Sing.—-τι is found in μι-verbs: ἐς-τί, τίθησι for τίθη-τι (Doric) by 115. λύ_ει is obscure, but it cannot be derived from λυ_ε-σι for λυ_ε-τι. λύ_ῃ, τιθῇ (for τιθέῃ) follow λύ_ει, but with long thematic vowel. In the perfect, with no personal ending.

c. Aeolic has τίθη, ποίη, στεφάνοι, but ἦσι says. Subj.: Hom. ἐθέλῃσι (also written ἐθέλησι; cp. Arcad. ἔχη), φορέῃσι, θέῃσι.

d. 3 Pl.—Original -ντι is retained in Doric λύ_οντι, whence Attic λύ_ουσι ( cross115 a); ἐντί, Attic εἰσί. Subj. λύ_ωσι from λύ_ω-ντι, τιθῶσι from τιθέω-ντι, ποιῶσι from ποιῶντι (Dor.). Many μι forms are derived from -αντι, as τιθέα_σι (τιθέ-αντι), διδόα_σι (διδό-αντι), ἑστᾶσι (ἑστά-αντι), ἱστᾶσι (from ἱστά-αντι), the accent of which has been transferred to τιθεῖσι ( cross747 D. 1), διδοῦσι from (Dor.) τίθε-ντι, δίδο-ντι. -ατι from -τι ( cross35 b), properly the ending of the perfect after a consonant, appears as -ασι in Hom. πεφύκασι; but it has been replaced by -α_σι out of -αντι, as in τετράφ-α_σι.

d. Hom. has -α_σι in ἴα_σι they go, ἔα_σι they are, and in βεβάα_σι, γεγάα_σι. Aeolic has λύ_οισι, φίλεισι, τί_μαισι.


The optative usually has the endings of the secondary tenses of the indicative.

-- 154 --

a. 1 Sing.— stands for μ ( cross133 c), cp. ἔφερο-ν, Skt. ábhara-m. After a consonant μ (sonant nasal, 20 b, 35 c) became α: ἔλυ_σα for ἐλυ_ς, Epic ἦα was for η' (ς) α from ἠς. In the pluperfect is from ε-α ( cross467). is found in the optative when the mood suffix is -ιη-; elsewhere the optative has -μι.


for -μι is very rare (τρέφοιν in Eur., ἁμάρτοιν in Cratinus).

b. 2 Sing.—On -σθα see cross463 b (2).

c. 3 Sing.— dropped ( cross133 b) in ἔλυ_ε, ἐτίθη, and in the opt. λύ_οι, εἴη (cp. Old Lat. sied). ἔλυ_σε has its from the perfect (cp. οἶδε) and shows no personal ending.

c. Doric ἦς was for ἠς (τ).

d. Dual.—-την is rarely found for -τον in the 2 dual (εὑρέτην in Plato). Hom. has ἐτεύχετον as 3 dual.

e. 3 Pl.— for -ντ by 133 b. -σαν (taken from the 1 aorist) is used (1) in the imperf. and 2 aor. of μι-verbs, as ἐτίθε-σαν, ἔθε-σαν; (2) in the aor. pass. ἐλύθη-σαν, ἐφάνη-σαν (here preceded by a short vowel occurs in poetry, 585 a. D.); (3) in the pluperf. ἐλελύκε-σαν; (4) in the opt. when -ιη- is the modal suffix ( cross460). In the opt. -σαν is rare.

e. is regular in Doric and common in Hom. and later poetry; as ἔστα-ν (ἔστη-σαν), ἔδιδο-ν (ἐδίδο-σαν), φίληθεν (ἐφιλήθη-σαν), τράφεν (ἐτράφη-σαν). The short vowel before ν (τ) is explained by 40. Hom. ἦε-ν were became ἦν, used in Dor. as 3 pl.; in Attic it was used as 3 sing.


a. 2 Sing.—Primary -σαι retains its ς in the perfect of all verbs (λέλυ-σαι), and in the pres. of μι-verbs (τίθε-σαι). Elsewhere ς drops between vowels, as in λύ_ῃ or λύ_ει from λύ_ε-σαι, λυθήσῃ or -ει, φανῇ from φανέε-σαι, τι_μᾷ from τι_μάε-σαι; subj. λύ_ῃ from λύη-σαι, φήνῃ from φήνη-σαι, θῇ from θήε-σαι, δῷ from δώη-σαι, ᾗ from ἕη-σαι, φιλῇ from φιλέη-σαι, δηλοῖ from δηλόῃ δηλόη-σαι.

N. 1.—The forms -ῃ and -ει are found in the present, future, and future perfect. See cross628.

N. 2.—δύνᾳ and δύνῃ for δύνασαι, ἐπίστᾳ and ἐπίστῃ for ἐπίστασαι, ἐφί_ει for ἐφί_εσαι, are poetic and dialectic or late.


Hom. has βούλεαι, perf. μέμνηαι, but pres. δύνασαι, παρίστασαι; ὄψει is unique (for ὄψεαι); subj. δύνηαι. Doric often contracts, as οἴῃ for οἴε-αι. Aeolic generally leaves εαι open (κείσε-αι). Hdt. has open -εαι, -ηαι.

b. 2 Sing.—-σο stays in all plups. and in the imperf. of μι-verbs. Elsewhere it loses its ς, as in ἐλύ_ου from ἐλύ_ε-σο, ἐλύ_σω from ἐλύ_σα-σο, ἐφήνω from ἐφήνα-σο, ἐλίπου from ἐλίπε-σο, ἔθου from ἔθε-σο, ἐπρίω from ἐπρία-σο, ἐτι_μῶ from ἐτι_μάε-σο, ἐφιλοῦ from ἐφιλέε-σο. In the optative, λύ_οιο, λίποιο, τιθεῖο, εἷο, λύ_σαιο, from λύ_οι-σο, etc.; τι_μῷο from τι_μάοι-σο.

N. 1.—ἐδύνω or ἠδύνω and ἠπίστω are commoner than ἐδύνασο and ἠπίστασο from δύναμαι am able and ἐπίσταμαι understand.

N. 2.—After a diphthong or a long vowel in the 2 aor. indic. mid. -σο is retained, as εἷσο (ἵ_ημι send), ὤνησο (ὀνίνημι benefit).

b. Hom., Doric, and Aeolic have generally open forms, as Hom. βάλλε-ο (rarely βάλλευ), ὠδύσα-ο. ἔρειο, σπεῖο are from -εεο. Hom. has ἐμάρναο for Attic ἐμάρνασο, and may drop ς even in the pluperfect (ἔσσυο). When Doric contracts αο we have α_. In Hdt. αο, εο are open, but the writing ευ for εο is found.

-- 155 --

c. Dual.—The 1 pl. is used for the 1 dual except in the three poetic forms περιδώμεθον, λελείμμεθον, ὁρμώμεθον. Hom. has -σθον for -σθην in θωρήσσεσθον.

d. 1 Pl.—In epic and dramatic poetry -μεσθα is often used for -μεθα for metrical reasons (βουλόμεσθα, ἐπιστάμεσθα).

e. 2 Pl.—On the loss of ς in σθε (ἔσταλθε), see cross103.

f. 3 Pl.—After vowel stems -νται, -ντο are preserved. After stems ending in a consonant -νται, -ντο became -αται, -ατο by 35 b. These forms were retained in prose till about 400 B.C. (e.g. τετάχαται, ἐτετάχατο).

f. -αται, -ατο occur in Hom. regularly in the perfect and pluperfect of consonant stems, as τετράφαται, ἕαται for ἑς-νται, ἥατο for ἡς-ντο from ἧμαι (ἡσμαι); also in stems ending in , as ἐφθίατο. -αται, -ατο were transferred to vocalic stems, as βεβλήαται, βεβλήατο, Hdt. δυνέαται. Hom. has -δ-αται in ἐληλάδαται from ἐλαύνω drive. In the opt. -ατο always (γενοίατο for γένοιντο). In Hdt. η before -αται, -ατο is shortened, as perf. ἡγέαται for ἡγή-αται ἥγηνται, ἐβεβλέατο for -ηατο. For κεῖνται, Hom. κείαται and κέαται, Hdt. has κέαται. In the opt. Hdt. has -ατο: βουλοίατο, δεξαίατο. In Hdt. -αται, -ατο occur even in the present system, τιθέαται, δυνέαται, ἱ_στέατο.


1. Active.

a. 2 Sing.—λῦε, λίπε, τίθει (for τίθε-ε) have not lost -θι. -θι is found in 2 aor. pass. φάνη-θι; in στῆ-θι and ἕστα-θι; in some 2 aorists, like γνῶ-θι, τλῆ-θι, πῖ-θι, which are μι forms though they have presents of the ω form ( cross687). Also in ἴς-θι be or know, ἴθι go, φάθι or φαθί say. λύθητι is for λυθηθι by 125 b.


-θι is not rare in Hom., pres. δίδωθι δίδου, ὄρνυθι, aor. κλῦθι, perf. τέτλαθι. Aeolic has ἴστα_, φίλη. πίει, δέχοι, δίδοι (Pindar) are very rare.

b. occurs in θές, ἕς, δός, σχές (and in the rare θίγες, πίεις). This is not derived from -θι.

c. λῦς-ον aor. act. and λῦς-αι aor. mid. are obscure in origin.

2. Middle.

a. 2 Sing.—-σο retains its ς in the (rare) perf. of all verbs and in the pres. of μι-verbs (λέλυσο, τίθεσο, ἵστασο). Elsewhere ς is dropped, as in λύ_ου from λύ_ε-σο, λιποῦ from λιπέ-σο, θοῦ from θέ-σο, οὗ from ἕ-σο, πρίω from πρία-σο, τι_μῶ from τι_μάε-σο.

N.—τίθου, ἵστω, δίδου are poetic or late.

3. 3 Pl.—For -ντων and -σθων we find -τωσαν and -σθωσαν in prose after Thucydides, in Euripides, and in inscriptions after 300 B.C. Thus, λυ_έτωσαν, λυ_σάτωσαν, λυ_έσθωσαν, λυ_σάσθωσαν, λυθήτωσαν, λιπέτωσαν, λιπέσθωσαν, φηνάσθωσαν, φανήτωσαν, τι_μάσθωσαν, φιλείσθωσαν, γεγράφθωσαν, πεπείσθωσαν, τιθέτωσαν, διδότωσαν, θέτωσαν, τιθέσθωσαν, θέσθωσαν, -ἕτωσαν, -ἕσθωσαν.

N.—ἔστων for ὄντων is rare. Attic inscriptions have (very rarely) -ντωσαν.

3. Doric has also -ντω, as in παρεχόντω; Aeolic -ντον, as φέροντον. Doric has -σθω (pl.) and -σθων.

-- 156 --


Endings of the Pluperfect Active.—-η, -ης, -ει (ν) are derived from (ς) α, -ε (ς) ας, -ε (ς) ε. In later Greek the endings are -ειν, -εις, -ει (ν), -ειτον, -ειτην, -ειμεν, -ειτε, and very late -εισαν.


Hom. has -εα, -ης, -ει or ει-ν (-εε only in ᾔδεε), -εσαν, and rarely -ον, -ες, -ε; Hdt. has -εα, -εας, -εε (-ει?), -εατε, -εσαν.


The Endings -σθε, etc.—The ς of the endings -σθε, -σθω, -σθον, -σθων, -σθαι ( cross409 N.) has no exact parallel in cognate languages, and seems to have spread in Greek from forms like τετέλες-θε, ἔζως-θε, etc., where a sigma-stem was followed by original -θε.


Infinitive.—The following are the endings added to the tense-stem to make the infinitive.

a. -εν: in present and 2 aorist active of ω-verbs, all futures active. Thus, λύ_ειν, τι_μᾶν, λιπεῖν, λύ_σειν, φανεῖν from λύ_ε-εν, τι_μάε-εν, λιπέ-εν, λύ_σε-εν, φανέε-εν.

b. -αι: in 1 aor. active, as λῦσαι, παιδεῦσαι, δεῖξαι.

c. -ναι: (1) present, 2 perf. of μι-verbs, the two passive aorists, as τιθέ-ναι, ἑστάναι, λυθῆ-ναι, φανῆ-ναι; (2) perfect active, λελυκέ-ναι, and εἰδέ-ναι from εἰδ-ε (οἶδα).

N. 1.—The ending εναι appears in the 2 aor. of μι-verbs, as δοῦναι from δό-εναι, θεῖναι from θέ-εναι.

d. -σθαι: in other cases.

N. 2.—The infinitives are old cases of substantives, those in -αι being datives, the others locatives.


-εν appears also in Hom. ἰδέεν (miswritten ἰδέειν). Hom. has no case of -εναι (for ἰέναι write ἴμεναι). For -εν or -ναι Hom. often uses -μεναι (also Aeolic) and -μεν (which is also Doric); both endings show the accent on the preceding syllable, as ζευγνύμεναι, ἔμμεναι ( = εἶναι), φιλήμεναι, στήμεναι, ἑστάμεναι, ἀξέμεναι, ὁμοιωθήμεναι, δαήμεναι; τιθέμεν, ἔμμεν, ἴμεν, θέμεν, ἐλθέμεν, ἀξέμεν. Doric has -μεν in the aorist passive, as αἰσχυνθῆμεν. -μεν is preceded by a short syllable and generally stands before a vowel. -ναι always follows a long vowel. Doric has -ην and -εν in the present. Aeolic has -ην in the present and 2 aorist.


Participles.—The stem of the participle is formed by adding the following endings to the tense stem.

a. -ντ-: in all active tenses except the perfect, and in 1 and 2 aor. passive ( cross301).

b. -οτ-: in the perfect active (for -ϝοτ-); masc. -ώς, fem. -υῖα, neut. -ός ( cross301 c).

c. -μενο-: in the middle, and in the passive except in the aorist.


Verbal Adjectives.—Most of the verbals in -τός and -τέος are formed by adding these suffixes to the verbal stem of the aorist passive (first or second). Thus, φιλητός, -τέος (ἐ-φιλή-θην); πειστός, -τέος (ἐ-πείς-θην); τελεστός, -τέος (ἐ-τελές-θην); σταλτός, -τέος (ἐ-στάλ-ην); βλητός, -τέος (ἐ-βλή-θην). On the accent of compound verbals, see cross425 c.

-- 157 --

a. Some are derived from other stem forms (pres. and fut.), as φερ-τός, ί-τέον, δυνα-τός; μενετός (cp. μενέ-ω μενῶ fut.).


Verbals in -τός, -τή, -τόν either (1) have the meaning of a perfect passive participle, as κρυπτός hidden, παιδευτός educated, or (2) express possibility, as νοητός thinkable, ὁρα_τός visible. Many have either signification, but some are passive only, as ποιητός done. See cross425 c. N.

a. Usually passive in meaning are verbals from deponent verbs, as μι_μητός imitated.

b. Usually active in meaning are compounds derived from transitive active verbs; but some intransitive verbs make active verbals, as ῥυτός flowing.

c. Many are active or passive, others only active: μεμπτός blamed, blamable, blaming, πιστός trusting in (rare), trusted, ἄπρα_κτος doing nothing, not done, φθεγκτός sounding.


Verbals in -τέος, -τέα_, -τέον express necessity (cp. the Lat. gerundive in -ndus), as δοτέος that must be given, παιδευτέος educandus.


From the verb-stem (or theme) each tense-stem is formed by the addition of a tense-suffix ( cross455) or of a prefix, or of both. In 475-495 certain modifications of the verb-stem are considered.


Variation in Quantity.—Many verbs of the first class ( cross498 ff.) show variation in the quantity of the vowel of the verb-stem, which is commonly long in the present but fluctuates in other tenses, as λύ_-ω, λύ_-σω, ἔλυ_-σα, but λέλυ-κα, λέλυ-μαι, ἐλυ-θην. (Other examples, 500.)

a. Some verbs of the Fourth Class ( cross523 c) lengthen a short vowel of the present in some other tenses. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take, λήψομαι, εἴληφα, εἴλημμαι, ἐλήφθην, but 2 aor. ἔλαβον.


Vowel Gradation (35, 36).—Verbs of the first class show a variation between a strong grade (or two strong grades) and a weak grade. The weak grades, ι, υ, α, appear especially in the second aorist and second passive systems; the corresponding strong grades, ει (οι), ευ (ου), η (ω), appear usually in the other systems (οι, ου, ω, in the second perfect).

a. Expulsion of a short vowel between consonants (so-called syncope cross493) produces a weak form of the stem of the same grade as ι, υ, α ( cross36). Cp. γί-γν-ομαι become (aor. ἐ-γεν-ό-μην), ἐ-πτ-ό-μην (pres. πέτ-ο-μαι fly) with ἔ-λιπ-ο-ν, ἔ-φυγ-ο-ν, ἐ-τάκ-η-ν ( cross477 c). So ἔ-σχ-ο-ν got from ἔχ-ω have.

b. α is the weak form of η (α_), as in τήκω ἐτάκην; and of ε, when ε has λ, μ, ν, ρ before or after it, as in τρέπω, ἐτράπην ( cross479).


The following examples illustrate the principles of 476.

a. ει οι ι: λείπω leave, λείψω, 2 perf. λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 aor. ἔλιπομ

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N.—The weak form appears when the verb undergoes Attic reduplication ( cross446); as in ἀλείφω anoint, 2 perf. ἀλήλιφα, ἀλήλιμμαι; ἐρείκω tear (Ionic and poetic), 2 perf. ἐρήριγμαι, 2 aor. ἤρικον; ἐρείπω overthrow, Epic ἐρήριπα; but ἐρείδω prop, ἐρήρεισμαι.

b. ευ ου υ: ἐλεύ (θ) σομαι I shall go, 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα (Epic ἐλήλουθα), 2 aor. (Epic ἤλυθον); φεύγω flee, φεύξομαι or φευξοῦμαι, 2 perf. πέφευγα, 2 aor. ἔφυγον; ῥέω flow (for ῥευ-ω, cross43), εύσομαι, ἐρρύηκα (ῥυε-), 2 aor. pass. ἐρρύην.

N.—χέω pour (for χευ-ω, cross43), ἔχεα (for ἔχευα), has υ in κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην; σεύω (poetic) urge, ἔσσευα, ἔσσυμαι, ἐσσύθην or ἐσύθην rushed. See also τεύχω in the List of Verbs.

c. η ω α: ήγ-νυ_μι break, ῥήξω, ἔρρηξα, 2 perf. ἔρρωγα, 2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην; τήκ-ω melt, τήξω, ἔτηξα, τέτηκα, ἐτήχθην, 2 aor. pass. ἐτάκην.

N.—Verbs of class c usually have α in the 2 aorist, ω in the 2 perfect (if there is one), elsewhere η. ω occurs in the present in τρώγω gnaw, 2 aor. ἔτραγον.


Change of ε to ο in the Second Perfect.—In the second perfect ε of the verb-stem is changed to ο.

κλέπ-τ-ω steal κέκλοφα, (ἀπο-) κτείνω kill (κτεν-, cross519) -έκτονα, λέγ-ω collect εἴλοχα, πάσχω, fut. πείσομαι (from πενθσομαι, cross100) πέπονθα, πέμπ-ω send πέπομφα, στέργ-ω love ἔστοργα, τίκτω beget τέτοκα, τρέπ-ω turn τέτροφα, τρέφ-ω nourish τέτροφα, φθείρ-ω corrupt ἔφθορα. So in γίγ (ε) νομαι become ἐγενόμην, γέγονα; ἐγείρω awaken ἐγρήγορα ( cross446). This change corresponds to that of ει to οι ( cross477 a).


Change of ε to α.—In verb-stems containing λ, μ, ν, ρ, an ε is usually changed to α in the first perfect, perfect middle, and second passive systems.

τρέπ-ω turn, τέτραμμαι, ἐτράπην (1 aor. ἐτρέφθην); τρέφ-ω feed, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην (1 aor. ἐθρέφθην); σπείρω (σπερ-) sow, ἔσπαρμαι, ἐσπάρην; φθείρω (φθερ-) destroy, ἔφθαρμαι, ἐφθάρην; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔσταλκα, ἔσταλμαι, ἐστάλην; τείνω (τεν-) stretch, τέτακα, τέταμαι, ἐτάθην (1 aor.).

a. Also in the 2 aor. pass. of κλέπτω steal (ἐκλάπην), πλέκω weave (ἐπλάκην), τέρπω gladden (Epic ἐτάρπην). Many of these verbs also show ο in the second perfect ( cross478).


This α is also found in the second aorist active and middle of κτείνω kill (ἔκτανον poetic), τέμνω cut (dialectal ἔταμον), τρέπω turn (ἔτραπον poetic), τέρπω gladden (ἐταρπόμην poetic), poetic δέρκομαι see (ἔδρακον). Also πέρθω, πτήσσω.


ε in the perfect middle in κέκλεμμαι (κλέπτω steal), πέπλεγμαι (πλέκω weave) is introduced from the present.


The α in 479, 480 is developed from a liquid or nasal brought between two consonants ( cross35 b). Thus, ἔσταλμαι, τέταμαι from ἐστμαι, τετμαι, ἐτάθην from ἐτθην ( cross20 b). Here στλ, τν represent weak grades of the stem.


a. The variations ε, ο, α, ω appear in τρέπω turn, τρέψω, ἔτρεψα, 2 perf. τέτροφα, τέτραμμαι, ἐτρέφθην, 2 aor. pass. ἐτράπην; frequentative τρωπάω ( cross867).

b. The variations ε, ο, ω appear in πέτομαι fly, ποτέομαι (poet.) and frequentative πωτάομαι (poet., cross867) fly about.

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η, α in the Second Perfect.—In the second perfect α of the verb-stem is lengthened to η (α_): θάλλω (θαλ-) bloom, τέθηλα; φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφηνα; μαίνω (μαν-) madden, μέμηνα; κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out, κέκρα_γα.


Addition of ε.—a. To the verb-stem ε is added to make the present stem in δοκέω seem, fut. δόξω, aor. ἔδοξα (δοκ-); so in γαμέω marry, ὠθέω push. Usually ε is added in some stem other than the present.

b. In many verbs ε is added to the verb-stem to form the tense-stems other than present, second aorist, and second perfect, e.g. μάχομαι (μαχ-) fight, μαχοῦμαι ( = μαχε (ς) ομαι), ἐμαχεσάμην, μεμάχημαι. So ἄχθομαι am grieved, βούλουαι wish, γίγνομαι become, δέω want, (ε') θέλω wish, μέλλω intend, μέλει is a care, οἴομαι think.

c. In some verbs ε is added to form one or more tense-stems, as μένω (μεν-) remain, μεμένηκα (μενε-) to avoid -ν-κα in the perfect. So, νέμω distribute, ἔχω have, οἴχομαι am gone. So also δαρθάνω, ὀσφαίνομαι, ῥέω, στείβω (poetic), τυγχάνω.

d. Some verbs have alternative presents with or without ε. Here sometimes one is used in prose, the other in poetry, sometimes both are poetic or both used in prose. Thus, ἕλκω draw (Hom. also ἑλκέω), ἰάχω ἰαχέω sound (both poetic), μέδω μεδέω (both poetic), ῥί_πτω and ῥι_πτέω throw (both in prose).


Some Ionic and poetic verbs adding ε are ἀλέξω, ἄλθομαι, γεγωνέω, γηθέω, δουπέω, εἴρομαι, εἰλέω, ἐπαυρέω, κελαδέω, κέλομαι, κεντέω, κήδω, κτυπέω, κυρέω, λάσκω, μέδομαι, μύζω, πατέομαι, ῥι_γέω, στυγέω, τορέω, χάζω, φιλέω (poetic forms), χραισμέω; ἀμπλακίσκω, ἀπαφίσκω; Epic ἐδιδάσκησα (διδάσκω), πιθήσω, πεπιθήσω, πιθήσα_ς (πείθω), πεφιδήσομαι (φείδομαι).


Addition of α and ο.—α or ο is added to the verb-stem in some verbs. Thus, μυ_κάομαι bellow (Epic 2 aor. μύκον), ἐμυ_κησάμην; ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-) be captured, ἁλώσομαι from ἁλο-; ὄμνυ_-μι swear (ὀμ-) ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα etc. (ὀμο-); οἴχομαι am gone, Epic οἴχωκα or ᾤχωκα.


α is added also in βρυ_χάομαι, γοάω, δηριάομαι, λιχμάω, μηκάομαι, μητιάω. All these are mainly poetic.


Lengthening of Short Final Vowel.—Verb-stems ending in a short vowel generally lengthen that vowel before the tense-suffix in all tenses (except the present and imperfect) formed from them. Here α (except after ε, ι, and ρ) and ε become η, ο become ω.

τι_μά-ω (τι_μα-) honour, τι_μή-σω, ἐτί_μη-σα, τετί_μη-κα, τετί_μη-μαι, ἐτι_μή-θην; θηρά-ω (θηρα-) hunt, θηρά_-σω, ἐθήρα_-σα, etc. ( cross389); ποιέω (ποιε-) make, ποιή-σω, ἐποίη-σα, πεποίη-κα, πεποίη-μαι, ἐποιή-θην; δηλόω (δηλο-) manifest, δηλώ-σω, ἐδήλω-σα, etc.; ἐάω permit, ἐά_σω, etc.

a. Note ἀκροά_σομαι, ἠκροα_σάμην, etc., from ἀκροάομαι hear; χρήσω, ἔχρησα from χράω give oracles; χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην from χράομαι use; τρήσω and ἔτρησα from τετραίνω bore are from τρε-.

b. Verb-stems adding ε or ο ( cross486), and stems apparently receiving a short final vowel by metathesis ( cross128), lengthen the short final vowel, as βούλομαι (βουλ-) wish, βουλή-σομαι (βουλε-, cross485), κάμνω (καμ-) am weary, κέκμη-κα (κμα-).

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Retention of Short Final Vowel.—Many verb-stems ending apparently in a short vowel retain the short vowel, contrary to 487, in some or all the tenses.

γελα-ω laugh, γελασομαι, ἐγέλασα, ἐγελασθην; τελέω finish, τελῶ from τελέ-ω, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; ἀνύω accomplish, ἀνυσω, ἤνυσα, ἤνυσμαι.

a. The following verbs retain the final short vowel of the verb-stem in all tenses: ἄγα-μαι, αἰδέ-ομαι, ἀκέ-ομαι, ἀλέ-ω, ἀνύ-ω, ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), ἀρκέ-ω, ἀρό-ω, ἀρύ-ω, γελά-ω, ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-), ἑλκύ-ω, and ἕλκ-ω (ἑλκ-ε-), ἐμέ-ω, ἐρά-ω, ἔρα-μαι (poet.), ἐσθίω (ἐσθι-, ἐδ-ε-, ἐδο-), ζέ-ω, θλά-ω, ἱ_λάσκομαι (ἱ_λα-), κλά-ω break, μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), ξέ-ω, πτύ_-ω (πτυ_-, πτυ-), σπά-ω, τελέ-ω, τρέ-ω, φθίνω (φθι-), φλά-ω, χαλά-ω, χέ-ω (χυ-). Also all verbs in -αννυ_μι and -εννυ_μι (except ἔσβηκα from σβέννυ_μι extinguish), and ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι (ὀμ-, ὀμε-, ὀμο-), στόρνυ_μι (στορ-ε).

b. The following verbs keep short the final vowel in the future, but lengthen it in one or more other tense-systems, or have double future forms, one with the short vowel, the other with the long vowel: αἰνέω (αἰνέσω, ᾔνεσα, ᾔνεκα, ᾐνέθην, ᾔνημαι), ἄχθομαι (ἀχθ-, ἀχθε-), καλέ-ω, μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-), μύ_ω, πί_νω (πι-, πο-), ποθέ-ω, πονέ-ω, ἐρύ-ω (Epic), φθάνω (φθα-).

c. In some verbs the final short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in one or more tense-stems, but is lengthened in the future, as δέ-ω bind, δήσω, ἔδησα, δέδεκα, δέδεμαι, ἐδέθην. So αἱρέω, βαίνω (βα-), βυ_νέω (βυ-), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-), δύνα-μαι, δύ_ω (δυ-, δυ_-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), ἔχω (σεχ-, σχε-), θύ_ω (θυ-, θυ_-), ἵημι (ἑ-, ἡ-), ἵστημι (στα-, στη-), λύ_ω (λυ-, λυ_-), τίθημι (θε-, θη-), τίνω (τι-), φύ_ω (φυ-, φυ_-), and the root ἐρ-, ῥε- (εἶπον).

d. Most of the verbs refusing to lengthen a final short vowel have verb-stems originally ending in ς ( cross624); as τελέω from τελες-yω (cp. τὸ τέλος). By analogy to these, other verbs retain their short final vowel.


Here belong Epic ἀκηδέω, κοτέω, λοέω, νεικέω, and the forms ἄασα, -άμην, ἄεσα. ἐρύω shows ἐρυ_- and ἐρυ-.


Insertion of ς.—In the perfect middle and first aorist passive systems, verbs which retain a short final vowel and some others usually insert ς before the personal ending.

Thus, τελέω ( cross488 d), τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; σπάω draw, ἔσπασμαι, ἐσπάσθην; κελεύω order, κεκέλευσμαι, ἐκελεύσθην; γιγνώσκω know, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην.

a. If the aorist passive ends in -θην and not in -σθην, the perfect middle does not insert ς. Thus -θην, not -σθην, occurs in all verbs in -ευω except λεύω stone to death, in all verbs in -εω which have -θην preceded by η, in all verbs in -οω except χόω heap up, and in all verbs in -αω except those that retain α. Stems originally ending in ς ( cross624) properly show ς.

b. If the aorist passive ends in -σθην, the perfect middle may or may not insert ς. Verbs in -αζω and -ιζω (stems -αδ, -ιδ) regularly have ς by 83, 587. In the case of other verbs some always show ς, some never show ς, and some are doubtful. In many cases the later usage with ς has crept into the Mss. of

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the classical authors (so with the perfect of ἀλέω, βαίνω, δράω, ζώννυ_μι, κλείω (κλῄω), σῴζω, χρί_ω, and with the aorist of παύω).

c. The following verbs show an inserted ς both in the perfect middle and the aorist passive in classical Greek: αἰδέομαι, γιγνώσκω, ἑλκύω, θλάω, θραύω, κελεύω, κλάω, κνα (ί) ω, κορέννυ_μι, κυλί_ω, ξύ_ω, πίμπλημι, πρί_ω, πτίττω, σβέννυ_μι, σείω, σκεδάννυ_μι, σπάω, τανύω, τελέω, τίνω, ὕ_ω, φλάω, χόω, χρῴζω.

d. The following form only the perfect middle with ς in classical Greek: βυ_νέω, ἕννυ_μι (εἷμαι, but ἕστο Hom.), ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, ξέω, Οδύσσομαι, πλέω, φλεύω (Hdt.).

e. The following form only the aorist passive with ς in classical Greek: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, ἀρέσκω, ἄχθομαι, γελάω, δαίνυ_μι, δράω, ἐλύω, ἔραμαι, ἐράω, ἱ_λάσκομαι, κλείω (κλῄω), λεύω, μεθύσκω, μιμνῄσκω, ὀί_ω, ὄνομαι (Hdt.), παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι, πίμπρημι, ῥαίω, ῥώννυ_μι, στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, χράομαι, χράω, χρἱ_ω.

f. Only in post-classical Greek is ς attested both in the perfect middle and aorist passive in ἀρκέω, ζέω, κλαίω, (ἀπο) λαύω, λόω, ὄλλυ_μι, πνέω, πταίω, σάω, ψαύω. —Only in the perfect middle: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, γελάω, δράω, ἐμέω, ἔραμαι, κεράννυ_μι, κολούω, μεθύσκω, ναίω, νάω spin, ὀπυίω, παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι (and in Ionic), πίμπρημι (Aristotle; earlier perf. πέπρημαι), στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, ψαύω. When the perfect middle is not attested in classical Greek some at least of the ς forms from the above verbs may represent classical usage, provided the aorist passive has -σθην.—Only in the aorist passive: ἀκέομαι, ἀλέω, ἀρύω, βαίνω, βυ_νέω, ψεύω, εἰλύω, ἐλαύνω, ἔρυμαι, ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, καίω, ξέω, μάχομαι, νέω heap up, Οδύσσομαι, πλέω, πτύω, σῴζω, φθάνω.

g. Some verbs have double forms (one of which may be disputed) in the classical period: δύναμαι: ἐδυνήθην and ἐδυνάσθην (chiefly Ionic and poetic); κεράννυ_μι: ἐκρά_θην and ἐκεράσθην; κρούω: κέκρουμαι better than κέκρουσμαι; νέω: νἑνημαι and νένησμαι; ὄμνυ_μι: ὀμώμομαι (and ὀμώμοσται), ὠμόθην and ὠμόσθην.— Dialectal or dialectal and late are ἐβώσθην for ἐβοήθην (βοάω), ἐλήλασμαι ἠλάσθην (ἐλαύνω), κεκόρημαι for κεκόρεσμαι (κορέννυ_μι), πεπέτασμαι (πετάννυ_μι).

h. Some verb-stems ending in ν show -ς-μαι in the perfect middle: ἡδύ_νω, μιαίνω, παχύ_νω, περαίνω, ὑφαίνω, φαίνω. Thus πέφασμαι, ἥδυσμαι, μεμίασμαι. Dialectal or late: θηλύ_νω, κοιλαίνω, λεπτύ_νω, λυ_μαίνομαι, ξαίνω, ξημαίνω, σημαίνω. On -μμαι see cross579.

i. Observe that some vowel verbs inserting ς do not lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem in any tense (γελάω, τελέω); and that some not inserting ς (δέω, θύ_ω, λύ_ω) do not lengthen the final vowel in some tenses. ἐπ-αινέω commend and παρ-αινέω exhort do not insert ς and have the short vowel in all tenses.

j. The insertion of ς in the perfect middle started in the 3 sing. and 2 pl. Before the endings -ται and -σθε, ς was retained in the case of verbs with stems originally ending in ς (as τελέω), or where ς developed from τ, δ, θ ( cross98) before -ται, -σθε (πέπεισται from πεπειθται). See cross409 b, cross624. In all cases where the verb-stem did not originally end in ς, the sigma forms are due to analogy; as in κεκέλευσμαι (κελεύω), πέπλησμαι (πίμπλημι), ἔγνωσμαι (γιγνώσκω).


Hom. has original forms in πεφραδμένος (φραζω), κεκορυθμένος (κορύττω), ἐπέπιθμεν (πείθω).


Addition of θ.—The present stems of some poetical verbs are made by the addition of θ; as νή-θ-ω spin, πλή-θ-ω am full (πίμ-πλη-μι). Cp. cross832.

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a. Most of the indicative forms seem to be imperfects, but since some have the force of aorists (e.g., Soph. O. C. 862, 1334, O. T. cross650), in certain editions they are regarded as second aorists, and the infinitives and participles are accented (against the Mss.) on the ultima (διωκαθεῖν, εἰκαθών).


A few verbs make poetic forms by adding -θόε- to the present or the 2 aorist tense-stem, in which α or ε (υ once) takes the place of the thematic vowel of the simple verb. Such forms are chiefly Homeric, but occur sometimes in Attic poetry, very rarely in prose. Thus, φλεγέθω (φλέγω burn), ἐδιώκαθοι (διώκω pursue), ἔσχεθον (ἔχω have). θ-forms are found in moods other than the indicative (εἰκάθω, εἰκάθοιμι, ἀμυ_νάθατε, διωκάθειν, εἰκάθων).


Omission of ν.—Some verbs in -νω drop the ν of the verbal stem in the first perfect, perfect middle, and first passive systems.

κρί_νω (κριν-), judge, κέκρι-κα, κέκρι-μαι, ἐκρί-θην. So also κλί_νω incline, πλύ_νω wash.


Metathesis.—The verbal stem may suffer metathesis ( cross128).

a. In the present: θνῄσκω die, 2 aor. ἔθανον, perf. τέθνηκα.

b. In other tenses: βάλλω throw (βαλ-), perf. βέβληκα, ἐβλήθην (βλη-); τέμνω cut (τεμ-ν-), 2 aor. ἔτεμον, perf. τέτμηκα; δέρκομαι (δερκ-) see, 2 aor. ἔδρακον; τέρπω delight, 2 aor. pass. ἐτάρπην and ἐτράπην (both poetical).


See the List of Verbs for poetical forms of ἁμαρτάνω, δαρθάνω, θρά_ττω, βλώσκω, δαμάζω, δέμω, πορ-.


Syncope.—Some verbs suffer syncope ( cross44 b).

a. In the present: πί_πτω fall for πι-π (ε) τ-ω, ἴσχω hold for (ς) ι-ς (ε) χ-ω ( cross125 e), μίμνω for μι-μεν-ω.

b. In the future: πτήσομαι from πέτομαι fly.

c. In the second aorist: ἔσχον for ἐ-σεχ-ον from ἔχω (ἐχ- for σεχ-, 125 e).

d. In the perfect: πέ-πτα-μαι have expanded from πετά-ννυ_μι.

N.—Syncopated forms are properly weak stems ( cross476 a).


See the List of Verbs for poetical forms of πέλω, πελάζω, μέλω, μέλομαι; also ἔτετμον found, ἔπεφνον slew.


Reduplication.—The verb-stem may be reduplicated.

a. In the present with ι: γι-γνώ-σκω (γνω-) know, τί-θη-μι place, ἵ-στη-μι set, δί-δω-μι give. The present reduplication may be carried over to other tenses: διδά (κ) σκω teach ( cross99), διδάξω. With ε: τε-τραίνω bore.

b. In the second aorist: ἄγω (ἀγ-) lead, ἤγ-αγ-ον; ἕπομαι follow, ἑσπόμην (for σε-σπ-ομην).

c. Regularly with ε in the perfect.


Poetic ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ) fit, and the intensives ( cross867) μαρ-μαίρω (μαρ-) flash, πορ-φύ_ρω (φυρ-) grow red, παμ-φαίνω (φαν-) shine brightly, ποι-πνύω (πνυ-) puff. Also with η in δη-δέκ-το greeted (Mss. δείδεκτο).


Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -σκόε-.—Homer and Herodotus have iterative imperfects and aorists in -σκον and -σκομην denoting a customary or repeated past action. Homer has iterative forms in the imperfect and 1 and 2 aorist active and middle. Herodotus has no iteratives in the 1 aorist and few

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in the 2 aorist; and only from ω-verbs. Herodotus regularly and Homer usually omit the augment. -αω verbs have -αα-σκον or -α-σκον; -εω verbs -εε-σκον, in Hom. also -ε-σκον. -α-σκον is rare in other verbs than those in -αω. The vowel preceding the suffix is always short.

a. The suffix -σκόε- is added to the tense-stem. Imperf.: φεύγε-σκε (φεύγω flee), ἔχε-σκον (ἔχω have), νι_κά-σκομεν (νι_κάω conquer), γοάα-σκε (γοάω bewail), κρύπτα-σκε (κρύπτω hide), καλέε-σκον (καλέω call), ζωννύσκετο (ζώννυ_μι gird) ; 1 aor.: ἀπο-τρέψα-σκε (ἀποτρέπω turn away) ; 2 aor.: φύγε-σκε, στά-σκε stood.


From the verb-stem (or theme) the present stem is formed in several ways. All verbs are arranged in the present system according to the method of forming the present stem from the verbstem. Verbs are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem ( cross376): 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and nasals), 3. Stop Verbs.


The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five different ways. There are, therefore, five classes of present stems. The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or stems of other tenses.


Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.


(I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs). The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ_-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τι_μά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω. For the personal endings, see cross463 ff. For the derivation of many of these verbs, see cross522.


The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.

1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have υ_ in Attic in the present; as λύ_ω loose, δύ_ω go under, θύ_ω sacrifice (almost always), φύ_ω make grow (usually). Also in ἀλύ_ω, ἀρτύ_ω, βρενθύ_ομαι, γηρύ_ομαι, δακρύ_ω (once υ), ἱδρύ_ω, ἰσχύ_ω, καττύ_ω, κνύ_ω,,

-- 164 --

κωκύ_ω, κωλύ_ω (usually), μηνύ_ω, ὀπύ_ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ_ω, ῥύ_ομαι, στύ_ομαι, τρύ_ω, ὕ_ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once υ), φι_τύω. ὠρύω (υ_) is doubtful.

b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.


Homer has short υ in ἀλύω, ἀνύω, βρύω, δύω, ἐρύω, ἠμύω, τανύω, φύω, and in all denominative verbs except ἐρητύ_οντο and ἐπι_θύ_ουσι, where υ_ is metrically necessary; long υ in ξύ_ω, πτύ_ω, ὕ_ω; anceps in θυω sacrifice (υ_ doubtful), θύ_ω rush on, rage, λυω (rarely λύ_ω), ποιπνύω, ῥύομαι. Pindar has υ short in θύω sacrifice, ἰσχύω, λύω, μανύω, ῥύω, ῥύομαι, in presents in -νυω, and in denominative verbs.

2. Hom. has ι_ in the primitives πί_ομαι and χρί_ω; but τιω and τί_ω (τείω?); -ιω in denominatives (except μήνι_ε B cross769). κονί_ω, ὀί_ομαι are from κονι (ς) -yω, ὀι (ς) -yομαι.

3. Where Attic has υ_, ι_ in the present, and Epic υ, ι, the former are due to the influence of υ_, ι_ in the future and aorist.

2. Attic has ι_ in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί_ω, χρί_ω, χλί_ω, but ι in τίω. Denominative verbs have ι_; but ἐσθιω.


Several verbs with medial ι_, υ_ in the present, show ι or ι_, υ or υ_ in some other tense or tenses. Thus, θλί_βω press τέθλιφα, πνί_γω choke ἐπνίγην, τρί_βω rub τέτριφα ἐτρίβην, τύ_φω raise smoke ἐτύφην, ψύ_χω cool ἐψύχην.


Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τακ-) melt, λείπω (λιπ-) leave, φεύγω (φυγ-) flee.

a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα am astonished, 2 aor. ἔταφον, ἀλείφω, (δέδοικα, cross703), εἴκω (ἔοικα), (εἴωθα, 563 a), ἐρείκω, ἐρείπω, πείθω, στείβω, στείχω, φείδομαι; ἐρεύγομαι, κεύθω, πεύθομαι, τεύχω.


Present Stems in -εοε- for ευόε-.—The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϝ (ευ) and then ε ( cross20 a, cross43) in the verbs θέω run θεύσομαι, νέω swim ἔνευσα, πλέω sail ἔπλευσα, πνέω breathe ἔπνευσα, ῥέω flow ῥεύσομαι, χέω pour κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην.


These verbs end in -ευω in Aeolic (πνεύω etc.). Epic πλείω, πνείω have ει by metrical lengthening ( cross28 D.).


(II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs). The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural. Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στα_-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.

a. All verbs in μι (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in -νυ_μι ( cross523 f) and -νημι ( cross523 g).


The present stem is formed by adding -το/ε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ. The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.

-- 165 --

κόπτω cut,verb-stem κοπ-in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.
βλάπτω injure,“ “ βλαβ-“ “ “ ἐ-βλάβ-ην.
καλύπτω cover,“ “ καλυβ-καλύβ-η hut.
ῥί_πτω throw,“ “ ῥιφ-, ῥι_φ-“ 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.

a. ἀστράπτω lighten, χαλέπτω oppress may be from -πyω ( cross117, cross507).


Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥι_πτέω throw, πεκτέω comb, τύπτω strike τυπήσω.


The present stem is formed by adding -yόε- to the verb-stem and by making the necessary euphonic changes ( cross109- cross116).

508 I. PRESENTS IN -ζω

Dental Verb-stems.—Verb-stems in δ unite with y to form presents in -ζω ( cross116), as φράζω tell (φραδ-yω), ἐλπίζω hope (ἐλπιδ-), κομίζω carry (κομιδ-ή a carrying), ὄζω smell (ὀδ-μή odour), καθέζομαι seat myself (ἕδ-ος seat).

a. σῴζω save (for σω-ιζω) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem σω-, partly from the verb-stem σωι-.


Aeolic has -σδω for -ζω.


Stems in γ.—Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπάζω seize for ἁρπαγ-yω (cp. ἁρπαγ-ή seizure), κρά_ζω cry out (2 aor. ἔκραγον). See cross116, other examples 623 γ III.

a. νίζω wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem νίβ- (fut. νίψω, cp. Hom. νίπτομαι).


A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω scream (κλαγγ-ή), fut. κλάγξω; σαλπίζω sound the trumpet ἐσάλπιγξα (also λύζω sob, πλάζω cause to wander).


ῥεγyω, ἐργyω yield ῥέζω do (poetic) and ἔρδω (Ionic and poetic). See cross116.


Most verbs in -ζω are not formed from stems in δ or γ, but are due to analogy. See cross516, cross623 γ III, 866. 6.


Palatal Verb-stems.—Stems ending in κ or χ unite with y to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).

φυλάττω guard from φυλακ-yω (φυλακ-ή guard ( cross112)); κηρύ_ττω proclaim from κηρυ_κ-yω (κῆρυξ, κήρυ_κ-ος); ταράττω disturb from ταραχ-yω (ταραχ-ή confusion).

a. πέττω cook is for πεκ-yω; all other tenses are made from πεπ-.

-- 166 --


Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with y to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.) Thus ἀλλάττω change, μάττω knead, πλήττω strike (with the 2 aorists passive ἠλλάγ-ην, ἐμάγ-ην, ἐπλήγ-ην), πρά_ττω do (2 perf. πέπρα_γα, cross571), τάττω arrange (τα_γ-ός commander).

a. So δράττομαι grasp, νάττω compress ( cross515 b), νύττω push, πτύσσω fold, σάττω load, συ_ρίττω pipe, σφάττω kill, φράττω fence. πρά_ττω has the late perf. πέπρα_χα.


Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.

Poet. ἐρέσσω row (ἐρέτ-ης rower) aor. ἤρεσα; poet. κορύσσω arm (κόρυς κόρυθ-ος helmet), imperf. ἐκόρυσσε.

a. So also βλίττω take honey, πάττω sprinkle, πτίττω pound, and perhaps πλάττω form; also ἀφάσσω Hdt., and poetic ἱ_μάσσω, λαφύσσω, λίσσομαι.

b. νάττω compress (ναγ-, ναδ-) ἔναξα, νένασμαι and νέναγμαι. Cp. cross514 a.


Formations by Analogy.—a. As γ y and δ y unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γyω or -δyω. Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses: thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω slay (σφαγ-yω) was confused in formation with φυλάξω (φυλακ-σω), and a present σφάττω was constructed like φυλάττω. Similarly, Attic ἁρπάσω (-ομαι) for Epic ἁρπάξω; and so in place of (poetic) ἁρμόζω fit (ἁρμοδ-) the form ἁρμόττω was constructed.


Homer has many cases of this confusion; as πολεμίζω (πολεμιδ-) but πολεμίξω. In Doric the ξ forms from -ζω verbs are especially common, as χωρίζω separate, χωριξῶ, ἐχώριξα. παίζω sport has (late) ἔπαιξα.


(I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which y is assimilated ( cross110). Thus, ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-yω), στέλλω send (στελ-yω).


(II) Presents in -αινω and -αιρω are formed from verb-stems in -αν and -αρ, the y being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the verb-stem ( cross111). Thus, φαίνω show (φαν-yω), ὀνομαίνω name (ὀνομαν-yω), χαίρω rejoice (χαρ-yω).

a. Many verbs add -yω to the weak form of the stem, as ὀνομαίν-ω for ὀνομαν-yω from ὀνομ-yω, cp. nomen ( cross35 b).

b. Hom. has κυ_δαίνω and κυ_δάνω honour, μελαίνω blacken and μελάνω grow black. ὀλισθαίνω slip is late for ὀλισθάνω.

c. The ending αινω has been attached, by analogy, in θερμαίνω make hot, etc. ( cross620 III, 866.7). Likewise -υ_νω ( cross519) in poetic ἀρτύ_νω prepare, parallel to ἀρτύ_ω (in composition), by analogy to βαρύ_νω weigh down, ἡδύ_νω sweeten.

-- 167 --


(III) Presents in -εινω, -ειρω, -ι_νω, -ι_ρω, -υ_νω, and -ι_ρω are formed from stems in εν, ερ, ιν, ιρ, υν, υρ with yόε- added. Here y disappears and the vowel preceding ν or ρ is lengthened by compensation (ε to ει; ι to ι_; υ to υ_). See cross37 a, cross111.

τείνω stretch (τεν-yω), φθείρω destroy (φθερ-), κρί_νω (κριν-), οἰκτί_ρω pity (οἰκτιρ-) generally written οἰκτείρω, ἀμύ_νω ward off (ἀμυν-), μαρτύ_ρομαι call to witness (μαρτυρ-).

a. ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-) owe, am obliged is formed like τείνω, φθείρω in order to distinguish it from ὀφέλλω (ὀφελ-) increase formed regularly. Hom. has usually Aeolic ὀφέλλω in the sense of ὀφείλω. δείρω flay (δερ-yω) is parallel to δέρ-ω ( cross499).


Aeolic has here -εννω, -ερρω, -ιννω, -ιρρω, -υννω, -υρρω ( cross37 D. 3); for κτείνω, it has κταίνω; cp. Doric φθαίρω for φθείρω.


Verb-stems in -αυ- for (αw, -αϜ-) .—Two verbs with verb-stems in -αυ have presents in -αιω from -αιϝω out of -αϝ-yω ( cross38 a) : καίω burn (καυ-, καϝ-), fut. καύ-σω; and κλαίω weep (κλαυ-, κλαϝ-), fut. κλαύ-σομαι. Others 624 b.

a. Attic prose often has κά_ω and κλά_ω, derived from αιϝ before ει (κά_εις, and, with α_ extended to the 1 person, κά_ω). Cp. cross396.


Addition of ε.—The following verbs add ε in one or more tense-stems other than the present: βάλλω throw, καθίζω sit, κλαίω weep, ὄζω smell, ὀφείλω owe, am obliged, χαίρω rejoice.


Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -ιω, -υω.—a. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly belong here, y (y) having been lost between vowels. Thus, τι_μάω from τι_μα-yω (τι_μα_-), οἰκέω dwell from οἰκε-yω (οἰκε- alternate stem to οἰκο-, 229 b), δηλόω from δηλο-yω. So in denominatives, as poetic μηνίω am wroth (μηνι-yω), φι_τύ_ω sow (φι_τυ-yω). Primitives in -ι_ω, -υ_ω are of uncertain origin. Cp. cross608, cross624.

N.—The rare spellings ἀλυίω, θυίω, μεθυίω, φυίω indicate their origin from -yω.

b. So with stems in long vowels: δρῶ do from δρα_-yω, ζῶ live from ζη-yω (cp. ζῆθι), χρῶ give oracles from χρη-yω (2 pers. χρῇς, cross394).


The present stem of the N class is formed from the verbstem by the addition of a suffix containing ν.

a. όε- is added: δάκ-νω bite, τέμ-νω cut.

So δύ_νω, κάμνω, πί_νω, πίτνω poet., τίνω, φθάνω, φθίνω.

b. -ανόε- is added: αἰσθ-άν-ομαι perceive, ἁμαρτ-άν-ω err.

So αὐξάνω, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, οἰδάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω ( cross526).

c. -ανόε- is added and a nasal (μ, ν, or γ nasal) inserted in the verb-stem: λα-μ-β-άν-ω (λαβ-) take, λα-ν-θ-άν-ω escape notice (λαθ-), τυ-γ-χ-άν-ω happen (τυχ-).

So ἁνδάνω please (ἁδ-), θιγγάνω touch (θιγ-), κιγχάνω find (κιχ-), λαγχάνω obtain by lot (λαχ-), μανθάνω learn (μαθ-), πυνθάνομαι inquire (πυθ-).

d. -νεόε- is added: βυ_-νέ-ω stop up (also βύω), ἱκ-νέ-ο-μαι come (also ἵ_κω),

-- 168 --

κυ-νέ-ω kiss, ἀμπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι have on, ὑπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι promise (cp. ἴ-σχ-ω for σι-σχ-ω, 493 a).

e. -υνόε- is added: ἐλαύνω drive for ἐλα-νυ-ω.

f. -νυ (-ννυ after a short vowel) is added (second class of μι-verbs, cross414): δείκ-νυ_-μι show (δεικ-, present stem δεικνυ_-), ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke (ζευγ-), ὄλλυ_μι destroy (for ὀλ-νυ_μι, 77 a); κερά-ννυ_-μι mix (κερα-), σκεδά-ννυ_-μι scatter (σκεδα-). Others 729 ff. Some of these verbs have presents in -υω ( cross746).

N. 1.—The forms in -ννυ_μι spread from ἕννυ_μι, σβέννυ_μι, which are derived from ἑς-νυ_μι, σβες-νυ_μι.

N. 2.—Some verbs in -νω are formed from -νϝόε- for -νwόε-; as Hom. τί_νω, φθί_νω, φθά_νω, ἄ_νομαι from τι-νϝ-ω, etc., ( cross37 D. 1). Attic τινω, etc. dropped the ϝ.

g. -να, -νη are added (third class of μι-verbs cross412); as in (poetic) δάμ-νη-μι I conquer, δάμ-να-μεν we conquer (δαμ-), and in σκίδ-νη-μι (rare in prose for σκεδάννυ_μι) scatter. The verbs of this class are chiefly poetic (Epic), and most have alternative forms in -αω. See cross737.

In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class.

h. -ινόε- for -ν-yόε is added: βαίνω go (βα-ν-yω), κερδαίνω gain (κερδα-ν-yω) τετραίνω bore (τετρα-ν-ιω). So poetic ῥαίνω sprinkle. For the added ν, cp. δάκ-ν-ω ( cross523 a). See cross518 a.

i. -αινόε- for αν-yόε is added: ὀσφραίνομαι smell (ὀσφραν-yομαι), Hom. ἀλιταίνομαι sin (also ἀλιτραίνω). See cross518 a.


A short vowel of the verb-stem is lengthened in the case of some verbs to form one or more of the tense-stems other than the present. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take λήψομαι (ληβ-); δάκνω (δακ-) bite δήξω (δηκ-). So λαγχάνω, λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-) inquire, fut. πεύσομαι (πευθ-).

a. ζεύγνυ_μι yoke, πήγνυ_μι fasten, ῥήγνυ_μι break have the strong grade in all tenses except the 2 pass. system. μείγνυ_μι mix (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) has μιγ- only in the 2 perf. and 2 pass. systems.


Addition of ε and ο.—a. Many verbs add ε to the verb-stem to form all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect; as αἰσθάνομαι, ἁμαρτάνω, ἁνδάνω, αὐξάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, κιγχάνω, μανθάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. One or more tenses with ε added are formed by κερδαίνω, ὄλλυ_μι, ὀσφραίνομαι, στόρνυ_μι, τυγχάνω.

b. ὄμνυ_μι swear has ὀμο- in all systems except the present and future, as ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα, but fut. ὀμοῦμαι from ὀμεομαι.


The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -σκόε- to the verb-stem if it ends in a vowel; -ισκόε- if it ends in a consonant. Thus, ἀρέ-σκω please, εὑρ-ίσκω find.

a. This class is called inceptive (or inchoative) because some of the verbs belonging to it have the sense of beginning or becoming (cp. Lat. -sco); as γηράσκω grow old. But very few verbs have this meaning.

b. In θνῄσκω die, μιμνῄσκω remind, -ισκω was later added to verb-stems ending in a vowel. The older forms are θνήσκω, μιμνήσκω.

-- 169 --

c. The verb-stem is often reduplicated in the present; as γι-γνώ-σκω know, βι-βρώ-σκω eat, δι-δρά_-σκω run away. Poetic ἀρ-αρ-ίσκω fit, poetic ἀπ-αφ-ίσκω deceive, have the form of Attic reduplication. μίσγω may stand for μι- (μ) σγω.


Hom. has ἐΐσκω liken for ϝεϝί (κ) -σκω, also ἴσκω from ϝί (κ) -σκω, τιτύ (κ) -σκομαι prepare, δε-δί (κ) -σκομαι welcome.

d. A stop consonant is dropped before -σκω ( cross99); as δι-δά (κ) -σκω teach (cp. δι-δακ-τός), ἀλύ (κ) -σκω avoid, λά (κ) -σκω speak. πάσχω suffer is for πα (θ) -σκω ( cross126).

e. The present stem often shows the strong grades ω (weak ο) and α_ or η (weak α). See b, c. Weak grades appear in φάσκω say, βόσκω feed.

f. On the iteratives in -σκω see cross495.


The following verbs belong to this class (poetic and Ionic forms are starred):

a. Vowel stems: ἀλδήσκω (ἀλδη-), ἀναβιώσκομαι (βιο-), ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), βάσκω (βα- for β-, 35 b), βιβρώσκω (βρο-), βλώσκω (μολ-, μλο-, βλο-, 130 D.), βόσκω (βο-), γενειάσκω (cp. γενειάω), γηράσκω (γηρα-), γιγνώσκω (γνο-), δεδίσκομαι frighten, διδρά_σκω (δρα-), ἡβά_σκω (ἡβα-), ἠλάσκω (ἠλα-), θνῄσκω (θαν-, θνα-), θρῴσκω (θορ-, θρο-), ἱ_άσκομαι (ἱ_λα-), κικλήσκω (καλε-, κλη-), κυΐσκομαι (κυ-), μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), μιμνῄσκω (μνα-), πιπίσκω (πι-), πιπρά_σκω (πρα-), πινύσκω (πινυ-), πιφαύσκω (φαυ-), τιτρώσκω (τρο-), φάσκω (φα-), χάσκω (χα-).

b. Consonant stems: ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-), ἀλύσκω (ἀλυκ-), ἀμβλίσκω (ἀμβλ- ἀμβλο-), ἀμπλακίσκω (ἀμπλακ-), ἀνα_λίσκω (ἀν-α_λ-ο-), ἀπαφίσκω (ἀπ-αφ-), ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ-), δεδίσκομαι welcome (δε-δικ-) and δηδίσκομαι (usually written δειδ-) welcome, διδάσκω (διδαχ-), ἐΐσκω (ἐϊκ-), ἐπαυρίσκω (αὐρ-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), λάσκω (λακ-), μίσγω (μιγ-), ὀφλισκάνω (ὀφλ-ε-), πάσχω (παθ-), στερίσκω (στερ-ε-), τιτύσκομαι (τι-τυκ-), ὑλάσκω (ὑλακ-), χρηΐσκομαι (χρη-).


Addition of ε and ο.—στερίσκω deprive (cp. στέρομαι) makes all the other tense-stems from στερε-; εὑρίσκω has εὑρε- except in the present and 2 aorist. —ἁλίσκομαι am captured (ἁλ-) adds ο in other tense-stems.


This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more of whose tense-stems are quite different from others, as Eng. am, was, be, Lat. sum, fui. For the full list of forms see the List of Verbs.

1. αἱρέω (αἱρε-, ἑλ-) take, fut. αἱρήσω, ᾕρηκα, etc., 2 aor. εἷλον.

2. εἶδον (ϝιδ-, ἰδ-) saw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.); 2 pf. οἶδα know ( cross794). Middle εἴδομαι (poetic). εἶδον is used as 2 aor. of ὁράω (see below).

3. εἶπον (εἰπ-, ἐρ-, ῥε-) spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.); fut. (ἐρέω) ἐρῶ, perf. εἴ-ρη-κα, εἴρημαι, aor. pass. ἐρρήθην. The stem ἐρ- is for ϝερ-, seen in Lat. ver-bum. (Cp. cross492.) ῥε- is for ϝρε, hence εἴρημαι for ϝε-ϝρη-μαι.

4. ἔρχομαι (ἐρχ-, ἐλευθ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλθ-), go. Fut. ἐλεύσομαι (usually poet.), 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα, 2 aor. ἦλθον. The Attic future is εἶμι shall go ( cross774). The imperf. and the moods of the pres. other than the indic. use the forms of εἶμι.

-- 170 --

5. ἐσθίω (ἐσθ-, ἐδ-, φαγ-) eat, fut. ἔδομαι ( cross541), pf. ἐδήδοκα, -ἐδήδεσμαι, ἠδέσθην, 2 aor. ἔφαγον.

6. ὁράω (ὁρα-, ὀπ-, ϝιδ-) see, fut. ὄψομαι, perf. ἑώρα_κα or ἑόρα_κα, perf. mid. ἑώρα_μαι or ὦμμαι (ὠπ-μαι), ὤφθην, 2 aor. εἶδον (see cross2 above).

7. πάσχω (παθ-, πενθ-) suffer, fut. πείσομαι for πενθ-σομαι ( cross100), 2 pf. πέπονθα, 2 aor. ἔπαθον. (See cross526 d.)

8. πί_νω (πι-, πο-) drink, from πἱ_-ν-ω ( cross523 a), fut. πί_ομαι ( cross541), pf. πέπωκα, 2 aor. ἔπιον, imp. πῖθι ( cross466. 1, a, cross687).

9. τρέχω (τρεχ- for θρεχ- ( cross125 g), δραμ-, δραμε-) run, fut. δραμοῦμαι, pf. δεδράμηκα, 2 aor. ἔδραμον.

10. φέρω (φερ-, οἰ-, ἐνεκ-, by reduplication and syncope ἐν-ενεκ and ἐνεγκ-) bear; fut. οἴσω, aor. ἤνεγκα, perf. ἐν-ήνοχ-α ( cross446, cross478), ἐν-ήνεγ-μαι, aor. pass. ἠνέχθην.

11. ὠνέομαι (ὠνε-, πρια-) buy, fut. ὠνήσομαι, perf. ἐώνημαι, ἐωνήθην. For ἐωνησάμην the form ἐπριάμην is used.


Apart from the irregularities of Class VI, some verbs may, by the formation of the verb-stem, belong to more than one class, as βαίνω (III, IV), ὀσφραίνομαι (III, IV), ὀφλισκάνω (IV, V).


Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different classes, as κυ_δάνω κυ_δαίνω honour, ἵ_κω ίκά_νω come, μελάν-ω grow black, μελαίνω (μελαν-yω) blacken, κλάζω (κλαγγ-) κλαγγ-άν-ω scream, σφάζω σφάττω slay ( cross516). Cp. also ἀνύω ἀνύτω accomplish, ἀρύω ἀρύτω draw water, Hom. ἐρύ_κω, ἐρυ_κάνω, ἐρυ_κανάω restrain. Cp. cross866. 10.


Many, if not all, future forms in ς are in reality subjunctives of the first aorist. λύ_σω, παιδεύσω, λείψω, στήσω are alike future indicative and aorist subjunctive in form. In poetry and in some dialects there is no external difference between the future indicative and the aorist subjunctive when the latter has (as often in Hom.) a short mood-sign ( cross457 D.); e.g., Hom. βήσομεν, ἀμείψεται, Ionic inscriptions ποιήσει.


The future stem is formed by adding the tense-suffix -σόε- (-εσόε- in liquid stems, cross535) to the verb-stem: λύ_-σω, I shall (or will) loose, λύ_σομαι; θή-σω from τί-θη-μι place; δείξω from δείκ-νυ_-μι show.

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades ( cross476) the ending is added to the strong stem: λείπω λείψω, τήκω τήξω, πνέω πνεύσομαι ( cross503), δίδωμι δώσω.


Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen the vowel before the tense suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω, τι_μήσω; ἐάω, ἐά_σω; φιλέω, φιλήσω.

a. On χράω give oracles, χράομαι use, ἀκροάομαι hear, see cross487 a.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel, see cross488.


Doric and Aeolic always lengthen α to α_ (τι_μά_σω).

b. In verbs with stems originally ending in Hom. often has σς in the future: ἀνύω ἀνύσσεσθαι, τελέω τελέσσω; by analogy ὄλλυ_μι ὀλέσσω (and ὀλέσω, ὀλεῖται).

-- 171 --


Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ, add -εσόε-; then ς drops and ε contracts with the following vowel.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, φανῶ, φανεῖς from φαν-έ (ς) ω, φαν-έ (ς) εις; στέλλω (στελ-) send, στελοῦμεν, στελεῖτε from στελ-έ (ς) ομεν, στελ-έ (ς) ετε. See p. 128.


These futures are often uncontracted in Homer (βαλέω, κτενέεις, ἀγγελέουσιν); regularly in Aeolic; in Hdt. properly only when ε comes before ο or ω.


ς is retained in the poetic forms κέλσω (κέλλω land, κελ-), κύρσω (κύ_ρω meet, κυρ-), θέρσομαι (θέρομαι warm myself, θερ-), ὄρσω (ὄρνυ_μι rouse, ὀρ-). So also in the aorist. See ἀραρίσκω, εἴλω, κείρω, φθείρω, φύ_ρω in the List of Verbs.


Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς ( cross98).

κόπ-τ-ω (κοπ-) cut, κόψω, κόψομαι; βλάπ-τ-ω (βλαβ-) injure, βλάψω, βλάψομαι; γράφ-ω write, γράψω, γράψομαι; πλέκ-ω weave, πλέξω, πλέξομαι; λέγ-ω say, λέξω, λέξομαι; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb, ταράξω, ταράξομαι; φράζω (φραδ-) say, φράσω; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade, πείσω, πείσομαι.

a. When ε or ο is added to the verb-stem, it is lengthened to η or ω: as βούλομαι (βουλ-ε-) wish βουλήσομαι, ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-) am captured ἁλώσομαι. So also in the first aorist and in other tenses where lengthening is regular.


Doric has -ξω from most verbs in -ζω ( cross516 D.).


Attic Future.—Certain formations of the future are called Attic because they occur especially in that dialect in contrast to the later language; they occur also in Homer, Herodotus, and in other dialects.


These futures usually occur when ς is preceded by α or ε and these vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position. Here ς is dropped and -άω and -έω are contracted to -ῶ. When ι precedes ς, the ending is ι- (ς) έω which contracts to -ιῶ.

a. καλέω call, τελέω finish drop the ς of καλέσω καλέσομαι, τελέσω τελέσομαι and the resulting Attic forms are καλῶ καλοῦμαι, τελῶ (τελοῦμαι poetic).

b. ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-) drive has Hom. ἐλάω, Attic ἐλῶ.—καθέζομαι (καθεδ-) sit has Attic καθεδοῦμαι.—μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-) fight has Hom. μαχέσομαι (and μαχήσομαι), Attic μαχοῦμαι.—ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε-) destroy has Hom. ὀλέσω, Attic ὀλῶ.

539. b. D

For Hom. -οω for -αω, see cross645.

c. All verbs in -αννυ_μι have futures in (ς) ω, -ῶ. Thus, σκεδάννυ_μι (σκεδα-) scatter, poet. σκεδάσω, Attic σκεδῶ. Similarly some verbs in -εννυ_μι: ἀμφιέννυ_μι (ἀμφιε-) clothe, Epic ἀμφιέσω, Attic ἀμφιῶ; στόρνυ_μι (στορ-ε-) spread, late στορέσω, Attic στορῶ.

d. A very few verbs in -αζω have the contracted form. βιβάζω (βιβαδ-) cause to go usually has Attic βιβῶ from βιβάσω. So ἐξετῶμεν ἐξετάσομεν from ἐξετάζω examine.

e. Verbs in -ιζω of more than two syllables drop ς and insert ε, thus making (ς) έω, -ι (ς) έομαι, which contract to -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι, as in the Doric future ( cross540).

-- 172 --

So νομίζω (νομιδ-) consider makes νομισεω, νομι-εω, νομιῶ and in like manner νομιοῦμαι, both inflected like ποιῶ, ποιοῦμαι. So ἐθιοῦσι, οἰκιοῦντες from ἐθίζω accustom, οἰκίζω colonize. But σχίζω (σχιδ-) split makes σχίσω. νομιῶ etc. are due to the analogy of the liquid verbs.

N.—Such forms in Attic texts as ἐλάσω, τελέσω, νομίσω, βιβάσω are erroneous.


Hom. has ἀεικιῶ, κομιῶ, κτεριῶ; and also τελέω, καλέω, ἐλάω, ἀντιόω, δαμόωσι ( cross645), ἀνύω, ἐρύουσι, τανύουσι. Hdt. always uses the -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι forms. Homeric futures in -εω have a liquid before ε, and are analogous to the futures of liquid verbs.


Doric Future.—Some verbs, which have a future middle with an active meaning, form the stem of the future middle by adding -σεόε-, and contracting -σέομαι to -σοῦμαι. Such verbs (except νέω, πί_πτω) have also the regular future in -σομαι.

κλαίω (κλαυ-, cross520) weep κλαυσοῦμαι, νέω (νυ-, νευ-) swim νευσοῦμαι (doubtful), πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail πλευσοῦμαι, πνέω (πνυ-, πνευ-) breathe πνευσοῦμαι, πί_πτω (πετ-) fall πεσοῦμαι, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) πευσοῦμαι (once), φεύγω (φυγ-, φευγ-) φευξοῦμαι, χέζω (χεδ-) χεσοῦμαι.

a. The inflection of the Doric future is as follows:—

λυ_σῶ, -σοῦμαιλυ_σοῦμες, -σούμεθαλυ_σῶν, -σούμενος
λυ_σεῖς, -σῇλυ_σεῖτε, -σεῖσθελυ_σεῖν, -σεῖσθαι
λυ_σεῖ, -σεῖταιλυ_σοῦντι, -σοῦνται

b. These are called Doric futures because Doric usually makes all futures (active and middle) in -σέω -σῶ, -σέομαι -σοῦμαι.

c. Attic πεσοῦμαι (Hom. πεσέομαι) from πί_πτω fall comes from πετεομαι. Attic ἔπεσον is derived from 2 aor. ἔπετον (Dor. and Aeol.) under the influence of πεσοῦμαι.


Hom. ἐσσεῖται (and ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται). In Doric there are three forms: (1) -σέω (and -σῶ), -σέομαι (and -σοῦμαι); and often with ευ from εο as -εῦντι, -εῦμες; (2) -σίω with ι from ε before ο and ω; (3) the Attic forms.


Futures with Present Forms.—The following verbs have no future suffix, the future thus having the form of a present: ἔδομαι (ἐδ-) eat, πί_ομαι (πι-) drink, χέω (χυ-) and χέομαι, pour. See cross529. 5, 8.

a. These are probably old subjunctives which have retained their future meaning. In ἔδομαι and πί_ομαι the mood-sign is short ( cross457 D.). Hom. has βέομαι or βείομαι live, δήω find, κήω (written κείω) lie, ἐξανύω achieve, ἐρύω draw, τανύω strelch, and ἀλεύεται avoid. νέομαι go is for νεσομαι.


The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -σα to the verb-stem: ἔ-λυ_-σα I loosed, λύ_σω, λύ_σαιμι; ἔ-δειξα I showed, from δείκ-νυ_-μι. See cross666.

-- 173 --

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades ( cross476), the tense-suffix is added to the strong stem: πείθω ἔπεισα, τήκω ἔτηξα, πνέω ἔπνευσα, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) ἔστησα, ἐστησάμην.

N.—τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send have aorists in -κα (ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα in the singular: with κ rarely in the plural). See cross755.


Mixed Aorists.—Hom. has some forms of the first aorist with the thematic vowel (όε) of the second aorist; as ἄξετε, ἄξεσθε (ἄγω lead), ἐβήσετο, imper. βήσεο (βαίνω go), ἐδύ_σετο (δύω set), ἷξον (ἵ_κω come), οἶσε, οἴσετε, οἰσέμεν, οἰσέμεναι (φέρω bring), imper. ὄρσεο rise (ὄρνυ_μι rouse).


Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a vowel lengthen a short final vowel before the tense-suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω ἐτί_μησα, ἐάω εἴα_σα ( cross431), φιλέω ἐφίλησα.

a. χέω (χυ-, χευ-, χεϝ-) pour has the aorists ἔχεα, ἐχεάμην (Epic ἔχευα, ἐχευάμην) from ἐχευσα, ἐχευσαμην.


Homeric ἠλευάμην and ἠλεάμην avoided, ἔκηα burned (Att. ἔκαυσα), ἔσσευα drove, also have lost ς.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see cross488.


Hom. often has original σς, as γελάω ἐγέλασσα, τελέω ἐτέλεσσα; in others by analogy, as ὄλλυ_μι ὄλεσσα, ὄμνυ_μι ὄμοσσα, καλέω κάλεσσα.


Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ lose ς and lengthen their vowel in compensation ( cross37): α to η (after ι or ρ to α_), ε to ει, ι to ι_, υ to υ_.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, ἔφηνα for ἐφανσα; περαίνω (περαν-) finish, ἐπέρα_να for ἐπερανσα; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔστειλα for ἐστελσα; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge, ἔκρι_να for ἐκρινσα; ἅλλομαι (ἁλ-) leap, ἡλάμην for ἡλσαμην.

a. Some verbs in -αινω (-αν-) have -α_να instead of -ηνα; as γλυκαίνω sweeten ἐγλύκα_να. So ἰσχναίνω make thin, κερδαίνω gain, κοιλαίνω hollow out, λιπαίνω fatten, ὀργαίνω be angry, πεπαίνω make ripe. Cp. cross30 a.

b. The poetic verbs retaining ς in the future ( cross536) retain it also in the aorist.

c. αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ἀ_ρ- (contracted from ἀερ- in ἀείρω): aor. ἦρα, ἄ_ρω, ἄ_ραιμι, ἆρον, ἆραι, ἄ_ρας, and ἠράμην, ἄ_ρωμαι, ἀ_ραίμην, ἄ_ρασθαι, ἀ_ράμενος.

d. ἤνεγκα is used as the first aorist of φέρω bear. εἶπα is rare for εἶπον ( cross549).


Hom. has Ionic -ηνα for -α_να after ι or ρ. Aeolic assimilates ς to a liquid; as ἔκριννα, ἀπέστελλα, ἐνέμματο, συνέρραισα (= συνείρα_σα). Cp. Hom. ὤφελλε (ὀφέλλω increase).


Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς (cp. cross98).

πέμπ-ω send ἔπεμψα, ἐπεμψάμην; βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure ἔβλαψα; γράφ-ω write ἔγραψα, ἐγραψάμην; πλέκ-ω weave ἔπλεξα, ἐπλεξάμην; λέγ-ω say ἔλεξα; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb ἐτάραξα, ἐταραξάμην; poetic ἐρέσσω (ἐρετ-) row ἤρεσα; φράζω (φραδ-) tell ἔφρασα, ἐφρασάμην; πείθ-ω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade ἔπεισα.

a. On forms in ς from stems in γ see cross516.


Hom. often has σς from dental stems, as ἐκόμισσα ἐκομισσάμην (κομίζω). Doric has -ξα from most verbs in -ζω; Hom. also has ξ (ἥρπαξε). See cross516 D.

-- 174 --


The second aorist is formed without any tense-suffix and only from the simple verb-stem. Only primitive verbs ( cross372) have second aorists.


Hom. has more second aorists than Attic, which favoured the first aorist. Some derivative verbs have Homeric second aorists classed under them for convenience only, as κτυπέω sound ἔκτυπον; μυ_κάομαι roar ἔμυκον; στυγέω hate ἔστυγον. These forms are derived from the pure verb-stem ( cross485 d, cross553).


(I) Ω-Verbs.—Ω-verbs make the second aorist by adding όε- to the verb-stem, which regularly ends in a consonant. Verbs showing vowel gradations ( cross476) use the weak stem (otherwise there would be confusion with the imperfect).

λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-) leave ἔλιπον, -ἐλιπόμην; φεύγω (φυγ-, φευγ-) flee ἔφυγον; πέτομαι fly ἐπτόμην ( cross476 a); λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take ἔλαβον.


Hom. often has no thematic vowel in the middle voice of ω-verbs (ἐδέγμην from δέχομαι receive). See cross634. 688.


a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aorists, as the irregular αἰρέω seize (εἶλον, 529. 1), ἐσθίω eat (ἔφαγον), ὁράω (εἶδον). ἔπιον drank (πί_νω) is the only second aorist in prose from a vowel stem and having thematic inflection.

b. Many ω-verbs with stems ending in a vowel have second aorists formed like those of μι-verbs. These are enumerated in 687.


Verbs of the First Class ( cross499) adding a thematic vowel to the verbstem form the second aorist (1) by reduplication ( cross494), as ἄγω lead ἤγαγον, and εἶπον probably for ἐ-ϝε-ϝεπ-ον; (2) by syncope ( cross493), as πέτομαι fly ἐπτόμην, ἐγείρω (ἐγερ-) rouse ἠγρόμην, ἕπομαι (σεπ-) jollow ἐσπόμην, imperf. είπόμην from ἐ-σεπομην, ἔχω (σεχ-) hare ἔσχον; (3) by using α for ε ( cross476 b) in poetic forms ( cross480), as τρέπω turn ἔτραπον; (4) by metathesis ( cross492), as poet. δέρκομαι see ἔδρακον.


(1) Hom. has (ε') κέκλετο (κέλο-μαι command), λέλαθον (λήθ-ω lie hid), ἐπέφραδε (φράζω tell), πεπιθεῖν (πείθ-ω persuade). ἠρύ_κακον (ἐρύ_κ-ω check), ἠνί_παπον and ἐνένι_πον (ἐνίπτω chide, ἐνιπ-) have unusual formation. (2) ἐ-πλ-όμην (πέλο-μαι am, come, πελ-). (3) ἔπραθον (πέρθ-ω sack), ἔταμον (τέμ-ν-ω cut). (4) βλῆτο (βάλλω hit, 128 a).


(II) Μι-Verbs.—The stem of the second aorist of μι-verbs is the verb-stem without any thematic vowel. In the indicative active the strong form of the stem, which ends in a vowel, is regularly employed. The middle uses the weak stem form.

-- 175 --

ἵ-στη-μι (στα-, στη-) set, second aorist ἔστην, ἔστης, ἔστη, ἔστητον, ἐστήτην, ἔστημεν, ἔστητε, ἔστησαν; middle ἐ-θέ-μην from τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place, ἐ-δό-μην from δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give.


Originally only the dual and plural showed the weak forms, which are retained in the second aorists of τίθημι, δίδωμι, and ἵ_ημι: ἔθεμεν, ἔδομεν, εἷμεν (ἐ-έμεν), and in Hom. βάτην (also βήτην) from ἔβην went. Elsewhere the weak grades have been displaced by the strong grades, which forced their way in from the singular. Thus, ἔγνον, ἔφυν in Pindar (= ἔγνω-σαν, ἔφυ_-σαν), which come from ἐγνων (τ), ἐφυ_ν (τ) by 40. So Hom. ἔτλαν, ἔβαν. Such 3 pl. forms are rare in the dramatic poets.

a. For the singular of τίθημι, δίδωμι, ἵ_ημι, see cross755; for the imperatives, 759; for the infinitives, 760.


Hom. has ἔκταν I slew (κτείνω, κτεν-) with α taken from ἔκταμεν, and οὖτα he wounded (οὐτάω).


No verb in -υ_μι has a second aorist in Attic from the stem in υ.


The difference between an imperfect and an aorist depends formally on the character of the present. Thus ἔ-φη-ν said is called an ‘imperfect’ of φη-μί: but ἔ-στη-ν stood is a ‘second aorist’ because it shows a different tense-stem than that of ἵστημι. Similarly ἔ-φερ-ον is ‘imperfect’ to φέρω, but ἔ-τεκ-ον ‘second aorist’ to τίκτω because there is no present τεκω. ἔστιχον is imperfect to στίχω, but second aorist to στείχω. Cp. cross546 D.


a. The second aorist and the second perfect are usually formed only from primitive verbs ( cross372). These tenses are formed by adding the personal endings (inclusive of the thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any consonant tense-suffix. Cp. ἔλιπο-ν with ἔλυ_-ς-α, ἐτράπ-ην with ἐτρέφ-θ-ην (τρέπω turn), γέ-γραφ-α with λέλυ-κ-α.

b. The second perfect and second aorist passive are historically older than the corresponding first perfect and first aorist.

c. τρέπω turn is the only verb that has three first aorists and three second aorists ( cross596).

d. Very few verbs have both the second aorist active and the second aorist passive. In cases where both occur, one form is rare, as ἔτυπον (once in poetry), ἐτύπην (τύπτω strike).

e. In the same voice both the first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, as ἔφθασα, ἔφθην (φθάνω anticipate). When both occur, the first aorist (or perfect) is often transitive, the second aorist (or perfect) is intransitive ( cross819); as ἔστησα I erected, i.e. made stand, ἔστην I stood. In other cases one aorist is used in prose, the other in poetry: ἔπεισα, poet. ἔπιθον (πείθω persuade); or they occur in different dialects, as Attic ἐτάφην, Ionic ἐθάφθην (θάπτω bury); or one is much later than the other, as ἔλειψα, late for ἔλιπον.

-- 176 --


The stem of the first perfect is formed by adding -κα to the reduplicated verb-stem. λέ-λυ-κα I have loosed, ἐ-λε-λύκη I had loosed.

a. The κ-perfect is later in origin than the second perfect and seems to have started from verb-stems in , as ἔ-οικ-α (= ϝέ-ϝοικ-α) from εἴκω resemble.

b. Verbs showing the gradations ει, ευ: οι, ου: ι, υ ( cross476) have ει, ευ; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade πέπεικα ( cross560). But δέδοικα fear has οι (cp. cross564).


Hom. δείδω (used as a present) is for δε-δϝο (ι glide)-α. δειδ- was written on account of the metre when ϝ was lost. Hom. δέδια is for δε-δ (ϝ) ι-α with the weak root that is used in δέδιμεν. See cross703 D.


The first perfect is formed from verb-stems ending in a vowel, a liquid, or a dental stop (τ, δ, θ).


Vowel Verbs.—Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel (if short) before -κα, as τι_μά-ω honour τε-τί_μη-κα, ἐά-ω permit εἴα_-κα, ποιέ-ω make πε-ποίη-κα, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place τέ-θη-κα, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give δέ-δω-κα.


1. Hom. has the κ-perfect only in verbs with vowel verb-stems. Of these some have the second perfect in , particularly in participles. Thus κεκμηώς, Attic κεκμηκώς (κάμ-ν-ω am weary); κεκορηώς (κορέ-ννυ_μι satiate); πεφύ_κα_σι and πεφύα_σι (φύω produce).

2. In some dialects a present was derived from the perfect stem; as Hom. ἀνώγω, Theocr. δεδοίκω, πεφύ_κει (in the 2 perf.: Theocr. πεπόνθω). Inf. τεθνάκην (Aeol.), part. κεκλήγοντες (Hom.), πεφρί_κων (Pind.).

3. From μέμηκα (μηκάομαι bleat) Hom. has the plup. ἐμέμηκον.


This applies to verbs that add ε ( cross485). For verbs that retain a short final vowel, see cross488. (Except σβέννυ_μι (σβε-) extinguish, which has ἔσβηκα.)


Liquid Verbs.—Many liquid verbs have no perfect or employ the second perfect. Examples of the regular formation are φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφαγκα, ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ-) announce, ἤγγελκα.

a. Some liquid verbs drop ν; as κέκρικα, κέκλικα from κρί_νω (κριν-) judge, κλί_νω (κλιν-) incline. τείνω (τεν-) stretch has τέτακα from τετκα.

b. Monosyllabic stems change ε to α; as ἔσταλκα, ἔφθαρκα from στέλλω (στελ-) send, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt.

N. For α we expect ο; α is derived from the middle (ἔσταλμαι, ἔφθαρμαι).

c. All stems in μ and many others add ε ( cross485); as νέμω (νεμ-ε-), distribute νενέμηκα, μέλω (μελ-ε-) care for μεμέληκα, τυγχάνω (τυχ-ε) happen τετύχηκα.

d. Many liquid verbs suffer metathesis ( cross492) and thus get the form of vowel verbs; as βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβληκα; θνῄσκω (θαν-) die τέθνηκα; καλέω (καλε-, κλη-) call κέκληκα; κάμνω (καμ-) am weary κέκμηκα; τέμνω (τεμ-) cut τέτμηκα. Also πί_πτω (πετ-, πτο-) fall πέπτωκα. See cross128 a.

-- 177 --


Stop Verbs.—Dental stems drop τ, δ, θ before -κα; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεικα, κομίζω (κομιδ-) carry κεκόμικα.


The stem of the second perfect is formed by adding α to the reduplicated verb-stem: γέ-γραφ-α I have written (γράφ-ω).


Hom. has several forms unknown to Attic: δέδουπα (δουπ-έ-ω sound), ἔολπα (ἔλπ-ω hope), ἔοργα (ῥέζω work), προ-βέβουλα (βούλομαι wish), μέμηλα (μέλω care for).


The second perfect is almost always formed from stems ending in a liquid or a stop consonant, and not from vowel stems.

a. ἀκήκοα (ἀκούω hear) is for ἀκηκο (ϝ) (ἀκοϝ- ἀκοw-, cross43).


But δέδια fear from δϝι-. See cross555 b. D., 703.


Verb-stems showing variation between short and long vowels ( cross476) have long vowels in the second perfect (α is thus regularly lengthened). Thus, τήκω (τακ-, τηκ-) melt τέτηκα, κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out κέκρα_γα, φαίνω (φαν-) show πέφηνα have appeared (but πέφαγκα have shown), ῥήγνυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-, 477 c) break ἔρρωγα.

a. εἴωθα am accustomed ( = σε-σϝωθ-α) has the strong form ω (cp. ἦθος custom, cross123); Hom. ἔθω (Attic ἐθίζω accustom).


The second perfect has ο, οι when the verb-stem varies between α, ε, ο ( cross478, cross479) or ι, ει, οι ( cross477 a): τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-, τροφ-, τραφ-) nourish τέτροφα, λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave λέλοιπα, πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέποιθα trust.


Similarly verbs with the variation υ, ευ, ου ( cross476) should have ου; but this occurs only in Epic εἰλήλουθα ( = Att. ἐλήλυθα); cp. ἐλεύ (θ) -σομαι. Other verbs have ευ, as φεύγω flee πέφευγα.


After Attic reduplication ( cross446) the stem of the second perfect has the weak form; ἀλείφω (ἀλειφ-, ἀλιφ-) anoint ἀλήλιφα.


Apart from the variations in 563-566 the vowel of the verb-stem remains unchanged: as γέγραφα (γράφω write), κέκυ_φα (κύ_πτω stoop, κυ_φ-).


The meaning of the second perfect may differ from that of the present; as ἐγρήγορα am awake from ἐγείρω wake up, σέσηρα grin from σαίρω sweep. The second perfect often has the force of a present; as πέποιθα trust (πέπεικα have persuaded). See cross819.


Aspirated Second Perfects.—In many stems a final π or β changes to φ: a final κ or γ changes to χ. (φ and χ here imitate verb-stems in φ and χ, as τρέφω, ὀρύττω.)

-- 178 --

κόπτω (κοπ-) cut κέκοφα, πέμπ-ω send πέπομφα, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure βέβλαφα, τρί_βω (τρι_β-) rub τέτριφα, φυλάττω (φυλακ-) guard -πεφύλαχα; τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-) nourish τέτροφα; ὀρύττω (ὀρυχ-) dig ὀρώρυχα.


Hom. never aspirates π, β, κ, γ. Thus κεκοπώς = Att. κεκοφώς (κόπ-τ-ω cut). The aspirated perfect occurs once in Hdt. (ἐπεπόμφει 1. cross85); but is unknown in Attic until the fifth century B.C. Soph. Tr. 1009 (ἀνατέτροφας) is the only example in tragedy.


Most such stems have a short vowel immediately before the final consonant; a long vowel precedes ε.γ. in δείκ-νυ_-μι δέδειχα, κηρύ_ττω (κηρυ_κ-) -κεκηρυ_χα, πτήσσω (πτηκ-) ἔπτηχα. τέτριφα and τέθλιφα show ι in contrast to ι_ in the present (τρί_βω, θλί_βω). στέργω, λάμπω do not aspirate (ἔστοργα, poet. λέλαμπα).


The following verbs have aspirated second perfects: ἄγω, ἀλλάττω, ἀνοίγω, βλάπτω, δείκνυ_μι, διώκω (rare), θλί_βω, κηρύ_ττω, κλέπτω, κόπτω, λαγχάνω, λαμβάνω, λάπτω, λέγω collect, μάττω, μείγνυ_μι, πέμπω, πλέκω, πρά_ττω, πτήσσω, τάττω, τρέπω, τρί_βω, φέρω (ἐνήνοχα), φυλάττω. ἀνοίγω or ἀνοίγνυ_μι has two perfects: ἀνέῳχα and ἀνέῳγα. πρά_ττω do has πέπρα_γα have done and fare (well or ill), and (generally later) πέπρα_χα have done.


Second Perfects of the μι-form.—Some verbs add the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem. Such second perfects lack the singular of the indicative.

ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, 2 perf. stem ἑστα-: ἕστα-μεν, ἕστα-τε, ἑστᾶσι, inf. ἑστά-ναι; 2 plup. ἕστα-σαν ( cross417). The singular is supplied by the forms in -κα; as ἕστηκα. These second perfects are enumerated in 704.


Stem Gradation.—Originally the second perfect was inflected throughout without any thematic vowel (cp. the perfect middle), but with stem-gradation: strong forms in the singular, weak forms elsewhere. (1 singular) was introduced in part from the aorist and spread to the other persons. Corresponding to the inflection of οἶδα ( cross794) we expect πέποιθα, πέποισθα, πέποιθε, πέπιστον, πέπιθμεν, πέπιστε, πεπίθατι (from πεπιθτι). Traces of this mode of inflection appear in Hom. γεγάτην (from γεγτην, 35 b) γέγαμεν from γέγονα; ἔϊκτον, ἐΐκτην, ἐϊκώς from ἔοικα; ἐπέπιθμεν; μέμαμεν from μέμονα; πέπασθε (for πεπαθτε πεπθτε) from πέπονθα (other examples 704, cross705). So the masc. and neut. participles have the strong forms, the feminine has the weak forms (μεμηκώς, μεμακυῖα as εἰδώς, ἰδυῖα).


The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive is the reduplicated verb-stem, to which the personal endings are directly attached. λέλυ-μαι I have loosed myself or have been loosed, ἐ-λελύ-μην; δέδο-μαι (δί-δω-μι give), δέδειγ-μαι (δείκ-νυ_-μι show). On the euphonic changes of consonants, see cross409.


A thematic vowel precedes the ending in Hom. μέμβλεται (μέλω care for), ὀρώρεται (ο'ρνυμι rouse).

-- 179 --


The stem of the perfect middle is in general the same as that of the first perfect active as regards its vowel ( cross557), the retention or expulsion of ν ( cross559 a), and metathesis ( cross559 d).

τι_μά-ω honour τετί_μη-μαι ἐτετι_μήμην; ποιέ-ω make πεποίη-μαι ἐπεποιήμην; γράφ-ω write γέγραμ-μαι; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge κέκρι-μαι; τείνω (τεν-) stretch τέταμαι; φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt ἔφθαρ-μαι; βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβλη-μαι ἐβεβλήμην; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεισμαι ἐπεπείσμην.


The vowel of the perfect middle stem should show the weak form when there is variation between ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ). The weak form in α appears regularly in verbs containing a liquid ( cross479): that in υ, in πέπυσμαι from πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) learn, poet. ἔσσυμαι hasten from σεύω (συ-, σευ-) urge.


The vowel of the present has often displaced the weak form, as in πέπλεγμαι (πλέκ-ω weave), λέλειμμαι (λείπ-ω leave), πέπεισμαι (πείθ-ω persuade), ἔζευγμαι (ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke).


A final short vowel of the verb-stem is not lengthened in the verbs given in 488 a. ε is added ( cross485) in many verbs. For metathesis see cross492; for Attic reduplication see cross446.


ν is retained in endings not beginning with μ, as φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφανται, πέφανθε. Before -μαι, we have μ in ὤξυμμαι from ὀξύ_νω (ὀξυν-) sharpen, but usually ν is replaced by ς. On the insertion of ς, see cross489.


Future Perfect.—The stem of the future perfect is formed by adding -σόε- to the stem of the perfect middle. A vowel immediately preceding -σόε- is always long, though it may have been short in the perfect middle.

λύ_-ω loose, λελύ_-σομαι I shall have been loosed (perf. mid. λέλυ-μαι), δέ-ω bind δεδή-σομαι (perf. mid. δέδε-μαι), γράφ-ω write γεγράψ-ομαι, καλέω call κεκλήσομαι.


Hom. has δεδέξουαι, μεμνήσομαι, κεκλήσῃ, κεχολώσεται; κεκαδήσομαι, πεφιδήσεται are from reduplicated aorists.


The future perfect usually has a passive force. The active meaning is found where the perfect middle or active has an active meaning ( cross1946, cross1947).

κεκτήσομαι shall possess (κέκτημαι possess), κεκρά_ξομαι shall cry out (κέκρα_γα cry out), κεκλάγξομαι shall scream (κέκλαγγα scream), μεμνήσομαι shall remember (μέμνημαι remember), πεπαύσομαι shall have ceased (πέπαυμαι have ceased).


Not all verbs can form a future perfect; and few forms of this tense occur outside of the indicative: διαπεπολεμησόμενον Thuc. 7. 25 is the only sure example of the participle in classical Greek. The infinitive μεμνήσεσθαι occurs in Hom. and Attic prose.


The periphrastic construction ( cross601) of the perfect middle (passive) participle with ἔσομαι may be used for the future perfect, as ἐψευσμένος ἔσομαι I shall have been deceived.

-- 180 --


Future Perfect Active.—The future perfect active of most verbs is formed periphrastically ( cross600). Two perfects with a present meaning, ἕστηκα I stand (ἵστημι set) and τέθνηκα I am dead (θνῄσκω), form the future perfects ἑστήξω I shall stand, τεθνήξω I shall be dead.


Hom. has κεχαρήσω and κεχαρήσομαι from χαίρω (χαρ-) rejoice.


The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by adding -θη- (or -θε-) directly to the verb-stem: ἐ-λύ-θη-ν I was loosed, ἐ-φάν-θη-ν I was shown (φαίνω, φαν-), ἐ-δό-θη-ν I was given (δίδωμι, δο-, δω-).

a. -θη- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and infinitive; -θε- appears in the other moods. -θη- is found before a single consonant, -θε- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neuter of the participle.


For -θησαν we find -θεν in Hom., as διέκριθεν.


The verb-stem agrees with that of the perfect middle herein:

a. Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem, as τε-τί_μη-μαι, ἐ-τι_μή-θην. On verbs which do not lengthen their final vowel, see cross488.

b. Liquid stems of one syllable change ε to α, as τέ-τα-μαι, ἐ-τά-θην (τείνω stretch, τεν-). But στρέφω turn, τρέπω turn, τρέφω nourish have ἐστρέφθην, ἐτρέφθην, ἐθρέφθην (rare), though the perfect middles are ἔστραμμαι, τέτραμμαι, τέθραμμαι.


ἐστράφθην is Ionic and Doric; Hom. and Hdt. have ἐτράφθην from τρέπω. Hom. has ἐτάρφθην and ἐτέρφθην from τέρπω gladden.

c. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the gradations ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ) have a strong form, as ἐτρέφθην from τρέπω (τρεπ-, τροπ-, τραπ-) turn, ἐλείφθην from λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave, ἐπλεύσθην from πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail.

d. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between ε: η and ο: ω have, in the first aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) ἐτέθην, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) ἐδόθην.

e. Final ν is dropped in some verbs: κέ-κρι-μαι, ἐκρίθην. See cross491.


Hom. has ἐκλίνθην and ἐκλίθην, ἐκρίνθην and ἐκρίθην; ἱδρύνθην = Att. ἱδρύ_θην (ἱδρύω erect), ἀμπνύνθην (ἀναπνέω revive).

f. The verb-stem may suffer metathesis: βέ-βλη-μαι, ἐ-βλή-θην. See cross492.

g. Sigma is often added: κε-κέλευς-μαι, ἐ-κελεύς-θην. See cross489.


Before θ of the suffix, π and β become φ; κ and γ become χ ( cross82 c); τ, δ, θ become ς ( cross83). φ and χ remain unaltered.

λείπ-ω ἐλείφ-θην, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) ἐβλάφ-θην; φυλάττω (φυλακ-) ἐφυλάχ-θην, ἄγ-ω ἤχ-θην; κομίζω (κομιδ-) ἐκομίς-θην, πείθ-ω ἐπείς-θην; γράφ-ω ἐγράφ-θην, ταράττω (ταραχ-) ἐταράχ-θην.

-- 181 --


θ of the verb-stem becomes τ in ἐ-τέ-θην, and in ἐ-τύ-θην for ἐ-θυ-θην from τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place and θύ_ω (θυ-, θυ_-) sacrifice. See cross125 c.


The stem of the first future passive is formed by adding -σόε- to the stem of the first aorist passive. It ends in -θησομαι. Thus, παιδευθή-σομαι I shall be educated, λυθή-σομαι I shall be loosed.

τι_μάω, ἐτι_μήθην τι_μηθήσομαι; ἐάω, εἰά_θην ἐα_θήσομαι; λείπω, ἐλείφθην λειφθήσομαι; πείθω, ἐπείσθην πεισθήσομαι; τείνω, ἐτάθην ταθήσομαι; τάττω, ἐτάχθην ταχθήσομαι; τίθημι, ἐτέθην τεθήσομαι; δίδωμι, ἐδόθην δοθήσομαι; δείκνυ_μι, ἐδείχθην δειχθήσομαι.


Hom. has no example of the first future passive. To express the idea of the passive future the future middle is used. See cross802. Doric shows the active endings in both futures passive: δειχθησοῦντι, ἀναγραφησεῖ.


The stem of the second aorist passive is formed by adding -η- (or -ε-) directly to the verb-stem. Thus, ἐβλάβην I was injured from βλάπτω (βλαβ-).

a. -η- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and infinitive; -ε- appears in the other moods. -η- is found before a single consonant, -ε- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neut. of the participle.


For -ησαν we generally find -εν (from -ηντ, cross40) in Hom.; also in Doric.


The second aorist passive agrees in form with the second aorist active of μι-verbs; cp. intransitive ἐχάρην rejoiced with ἔστην stood. The passive use was developed from the intransitive use.


Primitive verbs showing in their stems the grades ε: ο: α have α. Thus an ε of a monosyllabic verb-stem becomes α, as in πλέκ-ω weave ἐπλάκην, κλέπ-τ-ω steal ἐκλάπην, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt ἐφθάρην, στέλλω (στελ-) send ἐστάλην. But λέγω collect has ἐλέγην.


Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between a short and long vowel have, in the second aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus τήκω (τακ-, τηκ-) melt ἐτάκην, ῥήγνυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-) break ἐρράγην.

a. But πλήττω (πλαγ-, πληγ-) strike has ἐπλάγην only in composition, as ἐξεπλάγην; otherwise ἐπλήγην.


The second aorist passive is the only aorist passive formed in Attic prose by ἄγνυ_μι (ἐά_γην), γράφω (ἐγράφην), δέρω (ἐδάρην), θάπτω (ἐτάφην), κόπτω (ἐκόπην), μαίνω (ἐμάνην), πνί_γω (ἐπνιγην), ῥάπτω (ἐρράφην), ῥέω (ἐρρύην active), ῥήγνυ_μι (ἐρράγην), σήπω (ἐσάπην), σκάπτω (ἐσκάφην), σπείρω (ἐσπάρην), στέλλω (ἐστάλην), σφάζω or σφάττω (ἐσφάγην), σφάλλω (ἐσφάλην), τύ_φω (ἐτύφην), φθείρω (ἐφθάρην pass. and intr.), φύ_ω (in subj. φυῶ), χαίρω (ἐχάρην active).

-- 182 --


Both the first aorist passive and the second aorist passive are formed by ἀλείφω (ἠλείφθην), ἀλλάττω (-ηλλάχθην, ἠλλάγην), βάπτω (ἐβάφην), βλάπτω (ἐβλάφθην, ἐβλάβην), βρέχω (ἐβρέχθην), ζεύγνυ_μι (ἐζύγην), θλί_βω (ἐθλί_φθην), κλέπτω (ἐκλάπην), κλί_νω (-εκλίνην), κρύπτω (ἐκρύφθην), λέγω collect (διελέχθην, but συνελέγην), μάττω (ἐμάγην), μείγνυ_μι (ἐμίγην), πήγνυ_μι (ἐπάγην), πλέκω (ἐπλάκην), πλήττω (ἐπλήγην and -επλάγην), ῥί_πτω (ἐρρί_φθην, ἐρρίφην), στερίσκω (ἐστερήθην), στρέφω (ἐστράφην), τάττω (ἐτάχθην), τήκω (ἐτάκην), τρέπω (ἐτράπην pass. and intr.), τρέφω (ἐτράφην pass. and intr.), τρί_βω (ἐτρίβην, ἐτρί_φθην), φαίνω (ἐφάνθην was shown, ἐφάνην appeared), φράγνυ_μι (ἐφράχθην), ψύ_χω (ἐψύχην). Most of these verbs use either the one in prose and the other in poetry, the dialects, or late Greek. Only the forms in common prose use are inserted in brackets.


Only those verbs which have no second aorist active show the second aorist passive; except τρέπω, which has all the aorists: active ἔτρεψα and ἔτραπον turned; middle ἐτρεψάμην put to flight, ἐτραπόμην turned myself, took to flight; passive ἐτρέφθην was turned, ἐτράπην was turned and turned myself.


The stem of the second future passive is formed by adding -ς όε- to the stem of the second aorist passive. It ends in -ησομαι. Thus, βληβήσομαι I shall be injured from βλάπτω (βλαβ-) ἐ-βλάβη-ν.

κόπ-τ-ω, ἐκόπην κοπήσομαι; γράφω, ἐγράφην γραφήσομαι; φαίνω, ἐφάνην appeared, φανήσομαι; φθείρω, ἐφθάρην φθαρήσομαι; πήγνυ_μι fix, ἐπάγην παγήσομαι.


Hom. has only δαήσεαι (ἐδάην learned), μιγήσεσθαι (μείγνυ_μι mix).


Most of the verbs in 594, 595 form second futures passive except ἄγνυ_μι, ἀλείφω, βάπτω, βρέχω, ζεύγνυ_μι, θλί_βω, κλέπτω, μαίνω, μάττω, ῥάπτω. But many of the second futures appear only in poetry or in late Greek, and some are found only in composition.


Perfect.—For the simple perfect and pluperfect periphrastic forms are often used.

a. For the perfect or pluperfect active indicative the forms of the perfect active participle and εἰμί or ἦν may be used: as λελυκώς εἰμι for λέλυκα, λελυκὼς ἦν for ἐλελύκη. So βεβοηθηκότες ἦσαν for ἐβεβοηθήκεσαν (βοηθέω come to aid); εἰμὶ τεθηκὼς for τέθηκα I have placed; γεγραφὼς ἦν for ἐγεγράφη I had written; πεπονθὼς ἦν I had suffered. Such forms are more common in the pluperfect and in general denote state rather than action.

b. For the perfect active a periphrasis of the aorist participle and ἔχω is sometimes used, especially when a perfect active form with transitive meaning is lacking; as στήσα_ς ἔχω I have placed (ἕστηκα, intransitive, stand), ἐρασθεὶς ἔχω I have loved. So often because the aspirated perfect is not used, as ἔχεις ταράξα_ς thou hast stirred up. Cp. habeo with the perfect participle.

-- 183 --

c. In the perfect active subjunctive and optative the forms in -κω and -κοιμι are very rare. In their place the perfect active participle with and εἴην is usually employed: λελυκὼς (λελοιπὼς) ὦ, εἴην. Other forms than 3 sing. and 3 pl. are rare. Cp. cross691, cross694.

d. The perfect or pluperfect passive is often paraphrased by the perfect participle and ἐστί or ἦν; as γεγραμμένον ἐστί it stands written, ἐστὶ δεδογμένον it stands resolved, παρηγγελμένον ἦν παρήγγελτο (παραγγέλλω give orders).

e. In the third plural of the perfect and pluperfect middle (passive) the perfect middle participle with εἰσί (ἦσαν) is used when a stem ending in a consonant would come in direct contact with the endings -νται, -ντο. See cross408.

f. The perfect subjunctive and optative middle are formed by the perfect middle participle with or εἴην: λελυμένος ὦ, εἴην.

g. The perfect imperative of all voices may be expressed by combining the perfect participle with ἴσθι, ἔστω ( cross697). λελυκὼς ἴσθι loose, etc., εἰρημένον ἔστω let it have been said, γεγονὼς ἔστω P. L. 951c, γεγονότες ἔστωσαν P. L. 779d.

h. Periphrasis of the infinitive is rare: τεθνηκότα εἶναι to be dead X. C. 1.4.11.


Future Perfect Active.—The future perfect active of most verbs is formed by combining the perfect active participle with ἔσομαι shall be. Thus, γεγραφὼς ἔσομαι I shall have written, cp. scriptus ero. For the two verbs which do not use this periphrasis, see cross584.

a. The perfect middle participle is used in the case of deponent verbs: ἀπολελογημένος ἔσομαι And. 1.72.


Future Perfect Passive.—The future perfect passive may be expressed by using the perfect middle (passive) participle with ἔσομαι shall be. Thus, ἐψευσμένοι ἔσεσθε you will have been deceived.


Verbs in have the thematic vowel -όε (-ώη-) between the tense-stem and the personal endings in the present system. The name “ω-conjugation,” or “thematic conjugation,” is applied to all verbs which form the present and imperfect with the thematic vowel.


Inflected according to the ω-conjugation are all thematic presents and imperfects; those second aorists active and middle in which the tense-stem ends with the thematic vowel; all futures, all first aorists active and middle; and most perfects and pluperfects active.


Certain tenses of verbs ending in in the first person present indicative active, or of deponent verbs in which the personal endings are preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected without the thematic vowel, herein agreeing with μι-verbs. These tenses are: all aorists passive; all perfects and pluperfects middle and passive; a few second perfects and pluperfects active; and those second aorists active and middle in which the tense-stem does not end with the thematic vowel. But all subjunctives are thematic.

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Verbs in fall into two main classes, distinguished by the last letter of the verb-stem:

1. Vowel verbs: a. Uncontracted verbs. b. Contracted verbs.

2. Consonant verbs: a. Liquid verbs. b. Stop (or mute) verbs.

N. Under 2 fall also (c) those verbs whose stems ended in ς or ϝ ( cross624).


Vowel Verbs.—Vowel verbs usually do not form second aorists, second perfects, and second futures in the passive. A vowel short in the present is commonly lengthened in the other tenses. Vowel verbs belong to the first class of present stems ( cross498-504; but see cross612).


Vowel Verbs not contracted.—Vowel verbs not contracted have verb-stems ending in ι_, υ_, or in a diphthong (αι, ει, αυ, ευ, ου).

(ι) ἐσθίω eat, πρί_ω saw, χρί_ω anoint, poet. δίω fear, τί_ω honour ( cross500. 2); (υ) ἀνύω accomplish, μεθύω am intoxicated, λύ_ω loose, θύ_ω sacrifice, φύ_ω produce, κωλύ_ω hinder (and many others, 500. 1 a); (αι) κναίω scratch, παίω strike, πταίω stumble, παλαίω wrestle, ἀγαίομαι am indignant, δαίω kindle, δαίομαι divide, λιλαίομαι desire eagerly, poet. μαίομαι desire, ναίω dwell, ῥαίω strike; (ει) κλήω (later κλείω) shut, σείω shake, Epic κείω split and rest; (αυ) αὕω kindle, θραύω break, ἀπολαύω enjoy, παύω make cease (παύομαι cease), poet. ἰαύω rest; (ευ) βασιλεύω am king, βουλεύω consult (βουλεύομαι deliberate), θηρεύω hunt, κελεύω order, λεύω stone, παιδεύω educate, χορεύω dance, φονεύω slay. Most verbs in -ευω are either denominatives, as βασιλεύω from βασιλεύς; or are due to the analogy of such denominatives, as παιδεύω. γεύομαι taste is a primitive. θέω run, νέω swim, πλέω sail, πνέω breathe, ῥέω flow, χέω pour have forms in ευ, υ; cp. poet. σεύω urge, ἀλεύω avert, ἀχεύω am grieved; (ου) ἀκούω hear, κολούω dock, κρούω beat, λούω wash.


Some primitive vowel verbs in -ιω, -υω ( cross522) formed their present stem by the aid of the suffix y (y), which has been lost. Denominatives in -ιω, -υω, -ευω regularly added the suffix, as poet. μηνί-ω am wroth from μηνι-yω (μῆνι-ς wrath), poet. δακρύ_ω weep (δάκρυ tear), poet. φι_τύ_-ω beget from φι_τυ-yω, μεθύω am drunk, βασιλεύω am king. Poet. δηρί_ομαι, μαστίω, μητίομαι, κηκίω, ἀχλύω, γηρύω, ἰθύω.


The stem of some of the uncontracted vowel verbs originally ended in ς or ϝ ( cross624).


Some verbs with verb-stems in vowels form presents in -νω ( cross523), as πί_νω drink, φθί_νω perish; and in -σκω ( cross526).


Vowel Verbs contracted.—Vowel verbs that contract have verb-stems ending in α, ε, ο, with some in α_, η, ω.


All contracted verbs form their present stem by the help of the suffix y (y), and properly belong to the Third Class ( cross522).


Some contracted verbs have verb-stems which originally ended in ς or ϝ ( cross624).

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Liquid Verbs.—Liquid verbs have verb-stems in λ, μ, ν, ρ.

The present is rarely formed from the simple verb-stem, as in μέν-ω remain; ordinarily the suffix y (y) is added, as in στέλλω (στελ-yω) send, κρί_νω (κριν-yω) judge, κτείνω (κτεν-yω) slay, φαίνω (φαν-yω) show.


πεφύρσεσθαι in Pindar is made from φύρσω (φύ_ρω knead).


A short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in the future but is lengthened in the first aorist ( cross544). Thus:

a. α in the future, η in the aorist: φαίνω (φαν-) show, φανῶ, ἔφηνα. In this class fall all verbs in -αινω, -αιρω, -αλλω.

b. ε in the future, ει in the aorist: μέν-ω remain, μενῶ, ἔμεινα; στέλλω (στελ-) send, στελῶ, ἔστειλα. Here belong verbs in -ελλω, -εμω, -εμνω, -ερω, -ειρω, -ενω, -εινω.

c. ι in the future, ι_ in the aorist: κλί_νω (κλιν-) incline, κλινῶ, ἔκλι_να. Here belong verbs in -ιλλω, -ι_νω, -ι_ρω.

d. υ in the future, υ_ in the aorist: σύ_ρω (συρ-) drag, συρῶ, ἔσυ_ρα. Here belong verbs in -υ_ρω, -υ_νω.

For the formation of the future stem see cross535, of the aorist stem see cross544.


For the perfect stem see cross559. Few liquid verbs make second perfects. On the change of ε, α of the verb-stem to ο, η in the second perfect, see cross478, cross484.

Liquid verbs with futures in -ῶ do not form future perfects.


Monosyllabic verb-stems containing ε have α in the first perfect active, perfect middle, first aorist and future passive and in all second aorists, but ο in the second perfect. Thus, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt, ἔφθαρκα, ἔφθαρμαι, ἐφθάρην, but δι-έφθορα have destroyed ( cross819).


A few monosyllabic stems do not change ε to α in the 2 aor., as τέμνω cut ἔτεμον (but ἔταμον in Hom., Hdt. etc.), γίγνομαι (γεν-) become ἐγενόμην. See also θείνω, θέρομαι, κέλομαι, root φεν-. Few liquid verbs form second aorists.


Stems of more than one syllable do not change the vowel of the verb-stem.


List of Liquid Verbs.—The arrangement is according to the classes of the present stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Ionic are starred.

I. βούλομαι (βουλ-ε-), ἐθέλω (ἐθελ-ε-), εἰλέω* (εἰλ-ε-), ἴλλω*, μέλλω, μέλω, πέλομαι*, φιλέω (Epic φιλ-).—βρέμω*, γέμω, δέμω*, θέρμω*, νέμω, τρέμω, and γαμέω (γαμ-ε-).—γίγνομαι (γεν-ε-), μένω, μίμνω* (μεν-), πένομαι, σθένω*, στένω, and γεγωνέω* (γεγων-ε-).—Verbs in -εμω and -ενω have only pres. and imperf., or form their tenses in part from other stems.— δέρω, ἔρομαι (ἐρ-ε-), ἔρρω (ἐρρ-ε-), θέρομαι*, στέρομαι, φέρω, ἐπαυρέω*, (ἐπαυρ-ε-), and κυρέω* (κυρ-ε-), τορέω* (τορ-ε).

III. ἀγάλλομαι, ἀγγέλλω, αἰόλλω*, ἄλλομαι, ἀτιτάλλω*, βάλλω, δαιδάλλω*, θάλλω, ἰάλλω*, ἰνδάλλομαι*, ὀκέλλω, ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-, ὀφειλε-), ὀφέλλω*, πάλλω, ποικίλλω, σκέλλω*, στέλλω, -τέλλω, τίλλω*, σφάλλω, ψάλλω.—-αινω verbs (the following list includes primitives, and most of the denominatives in classical Greek from extant ν-stems, or from stems which once contained ν; 518 a): αἵνω*, ἀσθμαίνω*, ἀφραίνω*, δειμαίνω*, δραίνω*, εὐφραίνω,

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θαυμαίνω, ἰαίνω*, καίνω*, κραίνω*, κυ_μαίνω*, κωμαίνω*, λυ_μαίνομαι, μελαίνομαι, ξαίνω, ὀνομαίνω*, πημαίνω*, πιαίνω*, ποιμαίνω, ῥαίνω, σαίνω, σημαίνω, σπερμαίνω*, τεκταίνομαι, φαίνω, φλεγμαίνω, χειμαίνω*, χραίνω. All other denominatives in -αινω are due to analogy; as ἀγριαίνω, αὑαίνω, γλυκαίνω, δυσχεραίνω, ἐχθραίνω, θερμαίνω, ἰσχναίνω, κερδαίνω, κοιλαίνω, κυ_δαίνω*, λεαίνω, λευκαίνω*, μαραίνω, μαργαίνω*, μιαίνω, μωραίνω, ξηραίνω, ὁρμαίνω*, ὀσφραίνομαι, πεπαίνω, περαίνω, πικραίνω, ῥυπαίνω, τετραίνω, ὑγιαίνω, ὑδραίνω*, ὑφαίνω, χαλεπαίνω.—ἀλεείνω*, γείνομαι*, ἐρεείνω*, θείνω*, κτείνω, πειρείνω*, στείνω*, τείνω, φαείνω*.—κλί_νω (κλι-ν-), κρί_νω (κρι-ν-), ὀρί_νω*, σί_νομαι (Xenoph.), ὠδί_νω.—αἰσχύ_νω, ἀλγύ_νω, ἀρτύ_νω*, βαθύ_νω, βαρύ_νω, βραδύ_νω*, ἡδύ_νω, θαρσύ_νω, ἰθύ_νω*, λεπτύ_νω, ὀξύ_νω, ὀρτύ_νω*, πλύ_νω.—αἴρω, ἀσπαίρω, γεραίρω*, ἐναίρω*, ἐχθαίρω*, καθαίρω, μαρμαίρω*, μεγαίρω*, σαίρω*, σκαίρω, τεκμαίρομαι, χαίρω (χαρ-ε-), ψαίρω.—ἀγείρω, ἀμείρω*, δείρω, ἐγείρω, εἴρομαι*, -εἴρω join, εἴρω* say, ἱμείρω*, κείρω, μείρομαι, πείρω*, σπείρω, τείρω*, φθείρω.— οἰκτί_ρω (miswritten οἰκτείρω).—κινύ_ρομαι*, μαρτύ_ρομαι, μινύ_ρομαι*, μορμύ_ρω*, μύ_ρω*, ὀδύ_ρομαι, ὀλοφύ_ρομαι, πορφύ_ρω*, σύ_ρω, φύ_ρω*.

IV. a. κάμνω, τέμνω; b. ὀφλισκάνω (ὀφλ-ε-); h. βαίνω, κερδαίνω, τετραίνω (also Class III); i. ὀσφραίνομαι (ὀσφρ-ε-), also Class III. V. See cross527.


Stop Verbs.—Many verb stems end in a stop (or mute) consonant.

The present is formed either from the simple verb-stem, as in πλέκ-ω weave, or by the addition of τ or y (y) to the verb-stem, as in βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure, φυλάττω (φυλακ-yω) guard. All tenses except the present and imperfect are formed without the addition of τ or to the verb-stem; thus, βλάψω from βλαβ-ς-ω, φυλάξω from φυλακ-ς-ω.


Some monosyllabic stems show a variation in the quantity of the stem vowel ι or υ, as τρί_βω rub perf. τέτριφα, ψύ_χω cool 2 aor. pass. ἐψυχην, τήκω melt (Doric τά_κω) 2 aor. pass. ἐτακην. Cp. cross475, cross477 c, 500. Many monosyllabic stems show qualitative vowel gradation: ι ει οι; υ ευ ου; α η ω; α ε ο. For examples see cross477-484.


List of Stop Verbs.—The arrangement of the examples is by classes of the present stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Ionic are starred. The determination of the final consonant of the verb-stem of verbs in -ζω, -ττω (poetic, Ionic, and later Attic -σσω) is often impossible ( cross516).

π—I. βλέπω, δρέπω, ἔλπω*, ἐνέπω*, ἕπομαι, ἐρείπω*, ἕρπω, λάμπω, λείπω, λέπω, μέλπω*, πέμπω, πρέπει, ῥέπω, τέρπω, τρέπω.

II. ἀστράπτω, γνάμπτω*, δάπτω*, ἐνίπτω*, ἐρέπτομαι*, ἰάπτω*, κάμπτω, κλέπτω, κόπτω, μάρπτω*, σκέπτομαι, σκήπτω, σκηρίπτομαι*, σκώπτω, χαλέπτω, and δουπέω* (δουπ-ε-), κτυπέω* (κτυπ-ε-), τύπτω (τυπ-ε-).

β—I. ἀμείβομαι, θλί_βω, λείβω*, σέβομαι, στείβω*, τρί_βω, φέβομαι*.

II. βλάπτω, καλύπτω.—IV. c. λαμβάνω (λαβ-).

φ—I. ἀλείφω, γλύφω, γράφω, ἐρέφω, μέμφομαι, νείφει (νί_φει), νήφω, στέφω, στρέφω, τρέφω, τύ_φω*.

II. ἅπτω, βάπτω, δρύπτω*, θάπτω ( cross125 g), θρύπτω ( cross125 g), κρύπτω (κρυφ-, κρυβ-), κύ_πτω, λάπτω, ῥάπτω, ῥί_πτω (ἐρρίφ-ην, but ῥι_π-ή), σκάπτω.

IV. a. πίτνω* = πί_πτω.—ἀλφάνω* (ἀλφ-).—V. ἀπαφίσκω* (ἀφ-ε-).

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τ—I. δατέομαι* (δατ-ε-), κεντέω* (κεντ-ε-), πατέομαι (πατ-ε-), πέτομαι (πετ-, πτε-).

III. ἀγρώσσω*, αἱμάσσω*, βλίττω (βλιτ- from μλιτ-, cross130), βράττω, ἐρέσσω*, λίσσομαι*, πυρέττω (πυρετ-, πυρεγ-).

IV. b. ἁμαρτάνω (ἁμαρτ-ε-), βλαστάνω (βλαστ-ε-).

δ—I. ᾄδω, ἀλίνδω* (ἀλινδ-ε-), ἀμέρδω*, ἄρδω, ἔδω*, εἴδομαι*, ἐπείγω, ἐρείδω*, (καθ) εύδω (εὑδ-ε-), ἥδομαι, κήδω* (κηδ-ε-), κυλίνδω*, μέδομαι* (μεδ-ε-), μήδομαι*, πέρδομαι, σπένδω, σπεύδω, φείδομαι (also Epic φειδε-), ψεύδομαι, and κελαδέω* (κελαδ-ε-).

III. Examples of denominatives from actual δ-stems. γυμνάζω, δεκάζω, διχάζω, μιγάζομαι*, ὀπίζομαι*, παίζω, πεμπάζω, ψακάζω.—αὐλίζομαι, δωρίζω, ἐλπίζω, ἐρίζω, κερκίζω, ληΐζομαι, στολίζω, φροντίζω, ψηφίζω.

IV. ἁνδάνω* (ἁδ-ε-), κερδαίνω (κερδαν-, κερδ-ε-), οἰδάνω* (οἰδ-ε-), χανδάνω (χαδ-, χανδ-, χενδ-).

θ—I. αἴθω*, ἄλθομαι* (ἀλθ-ε-), ἄχθομαι, βρώθω*, εἴωθα (ἐθ-, 563 a), ἐρεύθω*, ἔχθω*, κεύθω*, κλώθω*, λήθω*, πείθω, πέρθω*, πεύθομαι*, πύ_θω, and γηθέω (γηθ-ε-), ὠθέω (ὠθ-ε-).

III. κορύσσω*.

IV. b. αἰσθάνομαι (αἰσθ-ε-), ἀπεχθάνομαι (ἐχθ-ε-), δαρθάνω (δαρθ-ε-), ὀλισθάνω (ὀλισθ-ε-), λανθάνω (λαθ-), μανθάνω (μαθ-ε-), πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-).

V. πάσχω for παθ-σκω ( cross98, cross126).

κ—I. βρύ_κω, δέρκομαι*, διώκω, εἴκω yield, εἴκω* resemble, ἔλκω, ἐρείκω*, ἐρύ_κω*, ἥκω, ἵ_κω*, πείκω*, πλέκω, ῥέγκω*, τήκω, τίκτω (τεκ-) and δοκέω (δοκ-ε-), μηκάομαι (μηκ-α-), μυ_κάομαι (μυ_κ-α-).

III. αἰνίττομαι, ᾄττω, δεδίττομαι, ἑλίττω, ἐνίσσω*, θωρήσσω*, κηρύ_ττω, μαλάττω, μύττω, πέττω (and πέπτω), πλίσσομαι*, φρί_ττω, πτήσσω, φυλάττω.

IV. a. δάκνω; d. ἱκνέομαι (ἱκ-).—V. See cross527 b.

γ—I. ἄγω, ἀμέλγω, ἀρήγω*, ἐπείγω, εἴργω, ἐρεύγομαι*, θέλγω*, θήγω, λέγω, λήγω, ὀρέγω*, πνί_γω, στέγω, στέργω, σφίγγω, τέγγω, τμήγω*, τρώγω, φεύγω, φθέγγομαι, φλέγω, φρύ_γω, ψέγω, and ῥι_γέω (ῥι_γ-ε-), στυγέω (στυγ-ε-).

III. ἔρδω* and ῥέζω* ( cross511).—ἅζομαι*, ἀλαλάζω*, ἀλαπάζω*, ἁρπάζω, αὐδάζω, βαστάζω, κρά_ζω, πλάζω*, στάζω, στενάζω, σφάζω* (σφάττω).—δαΐζω*, θωμίζω*, κρίζω, μαστίζω, σαλπίζω, στηρίζω, στίζω, στροφαλίζω*, συ_ρίζω, τρίζω*, φορμίζω*.—ἀτύζομαι*, γρύζω, μύζω, ὀλολύζω, σφύζω.—οἰμώζω.

IV. c. θιγγάνω (θιγ-).—V. μίσγω ( cross526 c).

χ—I. ἄγχω, ἄρχω, βραχ- in ἔβραχε*, βρέχω, γλίχομαι, δέχομαι, ἐλέγχω, ἔρχομαι, εὔχομαι, ἔχω (σεχ-), ἰάχω*, ἴσχω (σισχ-ω), λείχω*, μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-), νήχω*, οἴχομαι (οἰχ-ε-, οἰχ-ο-), σμύ_χω*, σπέρχω*, στείχω*, τεύχω*, τρέχω, τρύ_χω (τρυ_χ-ο-), ψήχω, ψύ_χω, and βρυ_χάομαι* (βρυ_χ-α-).

III. ἀμύσσω*, βήττω, θρά_ττω, ὀρύττω, πτύσσω, πτώσσω*, ταράττω.

IV. c. κιγχάνω* (κιχ-ε-), λαγχάνω (λαχ-), τυγχάνω (τυχ-ε, τευχ-).—d. ἀμπισχνέομαι (ἀμπεχ-), ὑπισχνέομαι (ὑπεχ-).—V. διδάσκω (διδαχ-).

ξ, ψ—I. ἀλέξω* (ἀλεξ-ε-, ἀλεκ-), αὔξω.—IV. b. αὐξάνω (αὐξ-ε-).—I. ἕψω (ἑψ-ε-).


Verbs in ς or Ϝ (w).—Some verb-stems ended originally in ς or ϝ.

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a. Sigma-stems (cp. cross488 d) with presents either from -ς-ω or -ς-yω. Thus (1) from -ς-ω: ἀκούω, αὕω burn, γεύω, εὕω, ζέω, θραύω, κρούω, νί_σομαι* (νινς-ομαι, cp. νός-τος), ξέω, σείω, τρέω*; (2) from -ς-yω ( cross488 d): ἀγαίομαι*, αἰδέομαι, ἀκέομαι (Hom. ἀκείομαι), ἀρκέω, γελάω, κείω* split, κλείω* (i.e. κλεέω) celebrate, κονί_ω*, λιλαίομαι*, μαίομαι*, ναίω* dwell, νεικέω (Hom. νεικείω), οἰνοβαρείω*, οἴομαι (from ὀΐομαι), πενθέω (Hom. πενθείω), πτίττω (πτινς-yω), τελέω (Hom. τελείω), and some others that do not lengthen the vowel of the verb-stem ( cross488).

Also others, such as ἀρέσκω (ἀρες-), ἕννυ_μι, ζώννυ_μι, σβέννυ_μι ( cross732).—ς is retained in τέρσομαι*.

b. ϝ-stems (from -w-yω): γαίω*, δαίω* kindle, καίω ( cross520), κλαίω ( cross520), ναίω* swim, flow ι 222.—For the loss of ϝ in θέω, etc., see cross43, cross503.


Verbs which end in ω in the first person present indicative active, and deponent verbs in which the personal endings are preceded by the thematic vowel, have the following peculiarities of inflection:

a. The thematic vowel usually appears in all tenses except the perfect and pluperfect middle (passive) and the aorist passive (except in the subjunctive). These three tenses are inflected like μι-verbs.

b. The present and future singular active end in -ω, -εις, -ει ( cross463). The ending -μι appears only in the optative.

c. The thematic vowel ο unites in the indicative with the ending -ντι, and forms -ουσι ( cross463 d).

d. The third plural active of past tenses ends in .

e. The imperative active has no personal ending in the second person singular except -ο-ν in the first aorist.

f. Except in the perfect and pluperfect the middle endings -σαι and -σο lose ς and contract with the final vowel of the tense-stem ( cross465 a, b). In the optative contraction cannot take place (λύ_οι- (ς) ο, λύ_σαι- (ς) ο).

g. The infinitive active has -ειν (for -ε-εν) in the present, future, and second aorist; -ε-ναι in the perfect; and -αι in the aorist.

h. Active participles with stems in -οντ- have the nominative masculine in -ων.


In 627-716 the method of inflection of all ω-verbs, both vowel and consonant, is described. The examples are generally taken from vowel verbs, but the statements hold true of consonant verbs.

Forms of ω-verbs which are inflected according to the non-thematic conjugation are included under the ω-verbs.


For the formation of the present stem see cross497-531.


Indicative.—Vowel and consonant verbs in inflect the present by attaching the primary endings (when there are any) to the present stem in -όε

-- 189 --

(-ώη-). λύ_ω, τι_μῶ (τι_μά-ω), φαίνω, λείπω. The imperfect attaches the secondary endings to the present stem with the augment. See the paradigms, pp. 114, 120. For the active forms -ω, -εις, -ει, see cross463.


-ῃ and -ει are found in the pres. fut. mid. and pass., fut. perf. pass. ε- (ς) αι yields (written EI in the Old Attic alphabet, 2 a), which is usually given as the proper spelling in the texts of the tragic poets, whereas ει is printed in the texts of prose and comedy. ει was often written for ηι () after 400 B.C., as in ἀγαθεῖ τύχει, since both had the sound of a close long e. It is often impossible to settle the spelling; but βούλει wishest, οἴει thinkest, and ὄψει shalt see (from ὁράω) have only the -ει forms. -ει is sometimes called Attic and Ionic in contrast to -ῃ of the other dialects, including the Koiné.


Subjunctive.—The present subjunctive adds the primary endings to the tense-stem with the long thematic vowel. For the endings -ῃς, -ῃ see cross463. Thus, λύ_ω, -ῃς, -ῃ, τι_μᾷς ( = τι_μά-ῃς), τι_μᾷ ( = τι_μά-ῃ), φαίνωμεν, -ητε, -ωσι (from -ωντι). Middle λύ_ω-μαι, λύ_ῃ ( = λύ_η-σαι), λύ_η-ται; τι_μᾶ-σθον ( = τι_μάη-σθον); φαινώ-μεθα, φαίνη-σθε, φαίνω-νται.


Optative.—To the tense-stem ending in the thematic vowel (always ο) are added the mood-sign -ι_- (-ιε-) or -ιη- ( cross459, cross460) and the secondary personal endings (except -μι for , where the mood sign is -ι_-, cross459). In the 3 pl. we have -ιε-ν.

a. The final vowel of the tense-stem (ο) contracts with the mood suffix (ι_), ο-ι_ becoming οι. Thus λύ_οιμι (λύ_ο-ι_-μι), λύ_οις (λύ_ο-ι_-ς), λύ_οιεν (λύ_ο-ιε-ν), λυ_οίμην (λυ_ο-ί_-μην), λύ_οιο (λύ_ο-ι_-σο).


Imperative.—The present imperative endings are added to the tensestem with the thematic vowel ε (ο before -ντων). The 2 pers. sing. active has no ending, but uses the tense-stem instead (παίδευε, φαῖνε). In the middle -σο loses its ς ( cross466, cross2 a); λύ_ου from λύ_ε-σο, φαίνου from φαίνε-σο. On the forms in -ετωσαν and -εσθωσαν for -οντων and -εσθων, see cross466, cross2 b.


Infinitive.—The present stem unites with -εν: λύ_ε-εν λύ_ειν, λείπε-εν λείπειν. In the middle (passive) -σθαι is added: λύ_ε-σθαι, λείπε-σθαι.


Severer Doric has ἔχην and ἔχεν; Milder Doric has ἔχειν; Aeolic has ἔχην. Hom. has ἀμύ_νειν, ἀμυ_νέμεναι, ἀμυ_νέμεν.


Participle.—The present participle adds -ντ- to the present stem ending in the thematic vowel ο. Stems in -ο-ντ have the nominative singular in -ων. Thus masc. λύ_ων from λυ_οντ-ς, fem. λύ_ουσα from λυ_οντ-yα, neut. λῦον from λυ_ον (τ). See cross301 a and N.


Aeolic has fem. -οισα in the present and second aorist ( cross37 D. 3), λύ_οισα, λίποισα.


A few ω-verbs in the present and imperfect show forms of the μι-conjugation. These are usually Epic.

δέχομαι, 3 pl. δέχαται await for δεχται, part. δέγμενος, imperf. ἐδέγμην. But these are often regarded as perfect and pluperfect without reduplication. ἐδέγμην

-- 190 --

in some passages is a second aorist ( cross688).—ἔδω eat ( cross529. 5), inf. ἔδμεναι.—ἐρύω (or εἰρύω) in εἰρύαται.—λοῦται wash is from λόεται, not from λούω (cp. cross398 a).— οἶμαι think is probably a perfect to οἴομαι (οἰ-ο-).—οὐτάω wound in οὖτα, οὐτάμεναι is 2 aor.—φέρω bear, imper. φέρτε.


Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω contract the final α, ε, ο of the verb-stem with the thematic vowel -όε (-ώη) in the present and imperfect tenses. Thus, τι_μάω τι_μῶ, ποιέω ποιῶ, δηλόω δηλῶ; ἐτί_μαον ἐτί_μων, ἐποίεον ἐποίουν, ἐδήλοον ἐδήλουν. The rules of contraction are given in 4955; the paradigms, p. 120.

a. Open forms of -εω verbs occur in the lyric parts of tragedy.


Subjunctive.—The subjunctive adds the primary endings. For the contractions see cross59.


Optative.—άοι becomes ῷ, έοι and όοι become οῖ. Thus. -άο-ι_-μι -ῷμι, -αο-ίη-ν -ῴην, -αο-ί_-μην -ῴμην; -έο-ι_-μι -οῖμι, -εο-ίη-ν -οίην, -εο-ί_-μην -οίμην; -όο-ι_-μι -οῖμι, -ο-ίη-ν -οίην, -οο-ί_-μην -οίμην. Thus, τι_μῴην (τι_μαο-ίη-ν), τι_μῴης (τι_μαο-ίη-ς), τι_μῴη (τι_μαο-ίη), τι_μῴμην (τι_μαο-ί_-μην), ποιοῖο (ποιέο-ι_-σο), ποιοῖτο (ποιέο-ι_-το).


In the singular -αω verbs usually end in -ῴην, -ῴης, -ώῃ, rarely in -ῷμι, -ῷς, -ῷ. -εω verbs usually end in -οίην, -οίης, -οίη, rarely in -οῖμι, -οῖς, -οῖ (-οῖ chiefly in Plato).


In the dual and plural -αω verbs usually end in -ῷτον, -ῴτην, -ῷμεν, -ῷτε, -ῷεν, rarely in -ῴητον, -ῳήτην, -ῴημεν, -ῴητε, -ῴησαν. -εω verbs usually end in -οῖτον, -οίτην, -οῖμεν, -οῖτε, -οῖεν, rarely in -οίητον, -οιήτην, -οίημεν, -οίητε, -οίησαν.


Few cases of the optative of -οω verbs occur. In the sing. both -οίην and -οῖμι are found; in the plur. -οῖμεν, -οῖτε, -οῖεν. For ῥι_γῴην from ῥι_γόω shiver see cross641.


Several contract verbs have stems in -α_, -η, -ω.

These are the verbs of 394, 398 with apparently irregular contraction, and δρῶ do; with presents made from -α_-yω, -η-yω, -ω-yω. Thus, from ζήω, ζήεις, ζήει and χρήομαι, χρήε (ς) αι, χρήεται come ζῶ, ζῇς, ζῇ and χρῶμαι, χρῇ, χρῆται; so διψῆν, πεινῆν from διψή-εν, πεινή-εν. ίδρόω, ῥι_γόω ( cross398) derive the forms in ω and from ἱδρω-, ῥι_γω- (ἱδρώω, ῥι_γώω from ἱδρως-yω, ῥι_γως-yω). The forms in -οω are from the weaker stems ἰδρος-, ῥι_γος-.


Hom. has διψά_ων, πεινά_ων, πεινήμεναι, μνά_ομαι, χρήων (Mss. χρείων) uttering oracles, γελώω, ἱδρώω. The verbs in 394, except διψῶ and πεινῶ, have stems in η and α ( cross36 e); thus, in Hdt., χρᾶται from χράεται, but χρέω imper., χρεώμενος from χρῆο, χρηόμενος by 34. Hom. and Ion. ζώω has the stem ζω (ζω-yω). Hdt. has ζῆν, διψῆν, but κνᾶν, σμᾶν.

-- 191 --


-αω Verbs in Homer.—Hom. leaves -αω verbs open 64 times, as ναιετάω, -άουσι, ὑλάει, ἀοιδιάουσα, γοάοιμεν, τηλεθάοντας. When contracted, -αω verbs have the Attic forms, as ὁρῶ, ὁρᾷς, ὁρᾷ; as πειρᾷ makest trial from πειράε- (ς) αι from πειράομαι; ἠρῶ didst pray from ἠράε- (ς) ο from ἀράομαι.


When uncontracted, verbs in -αω often show in the Mss. of Hom., not the original open forms, but “assimilated” forms of the concurrent vowels, αε, αει, αη giving a double a sound by α prevailing over the e sound; αο, αω, αοι, αου giving a double o sound by the o sound prevailing over the α. One of the vowels is commonly lengthened, rarely both.

αε = (1)αα: ὁράεσθαι ὁράασθαι, ἀγά-
εσθε ἀγάασθε.
= (2)α_α: μνάεσθαι μνά_ασθαι, ἠγά-
εσθε ἠγά_ασθε.
αει = (1)αᾳ: ὁράεις ὁράᾳς, ἐάει ἐάᾳ.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μενοινάει μενοινά_ᾳ.
αῃ = (1)αᾳ: ἐάῃς ἐάᾳς.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μνάῃ wooest 2 sing. mid.
= μνά_ᾳ.
αο = (1)οω: ὁράοντες ὁρόωντες.
= (2)ωο: ἡβάοντες ἡβώοντες, μνά-
οντο μνώοντο.
αω = (1)οω: ὁράω ὁρόω, βοάων
= (2)ωω: μενοινάω μενοινώω.
αοι = (1)οῳ: ὁράοιτε ὁρόῳτε.
= (2)ωοι:ἡβάοιμι ἡβώοιμι.
αου = (1)οω: ὁράουσα ὁρόωσα, ὁρά-
ουσι ὁρόωσι, ἀλάου (from
ἀλάεο imper. of ἀλάομαι) =
= (2)ωω: ἡβάουσα ἡβώωσα, δρά-
ουσι δρώωσι. ου here is
a spurious diphthong (6)
derived from -οντ-: ὁρα-
οντ-yα, ἡβαοντ-yα, δρά_οντι;
or by contraction in ἀλάου
from ἀλάεο.

N.—ἀλόω from ἀλάεο wander is unique. γελώοντες is from γελώω ( cross641).


The assimilated forms are used only when the second vowel (in the unchanged form) stood in a syllable long by nature or position. Hence ὁροωμεν, ὁραατε, ὁραατο, do not occur for ὁράομεν, etc. (μνωόμενος for μνα_όμενος is an exception.) The first vowel is lengthened only when the metre requires it, as in ἡβώοντες for ἡβάοντες ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘. Thus two long vowels do not occur in succession except to fit the form to the verse, as μενοινώω for μενοινάω; but ἡβώοιμι, not ἡβώῳμι. When the first vowel is metrically lengthened, the second vowel is not lengthened, though it may be long either in a final syllable (as in μενοινά_ᾳ) or when it represents the spurious diphthong ου from -οντ- (as in ἡβώωσα, δρώωσι for ἡβάουσα, δρά_ουσι from -οντyα, -οντι).


The assimilated forms include the “Attic” future in -αω from -ασω ( cross539); as ἐλόωσι ( = ἐλάουσι), κρεμόω, δαμάᾳ, δαμόωσι.


The assimilated forms are found only in the artificial language of Homer, Hesiod, and their imitators, and nowhere in the living speech. They are commonly explained as derived from the contracted forms by a process of ‘distraction,’ and as inserted in the text for the sake of the metre. Thus ὁρᾷς,

-- 192 --

βοῶντες, the spoken forms which had taken the place of original ὁράεις, βοάοντες, in the text, were expanded into ὁράᾳς, βοόωντες, by repetition of the α and ο. While the restoration of the original uncontracted forms is generally possible, and is adopted in several modern editions, a phonetic origin of many of the forms in question is still sought by some scholars who regard ὁρόω as an intermediate stage between ὁράω and ὁρῶ. It will be observed, however, that the forms in 648 can be derived only from the unassimilated forms.


In the imperfect contraction generally occurs, and assimilation is rare.


Some verbs show εο for αο, as ἤντεον, τρόπεον, μενοίνεον, ποτέονται. Cp. cross649, cross653.


-αω verbs in Herodotus.—Hdt. contracts -αω verbs as they are contracted in Attic. In many cases before an ο sound the Mss. substitute ε for α (τολμέω, ὁρέων, ἐφοίτεον). This ε is never found in all the forms of the same verb, and the Mss. generally disagree on each occurrence of any form.—Hdt. always has -ῴην, -ῴμην, in the optative.


-εω verbs in Homer.—a. Hom. rarely contracts εω and εο (except in the participle). In a few cases ευ appears for εο, as ποιεύμην; rarely for εου, as τελεῦσι. When the metre allows either -εε and -εει, or -ει, the open forms are slightly more common. ει is often necessary to admit a word into the verse (as ἡγεῖσθαι, ἐφίλει), and is often found at the verse-end. -έ-ε-αι, -έ-ε-ο, in the 2 sing. mid. may become -εῖαι, -εῖο, or -έαι, -έο, by the expulsion of one ε; as μυ_θεῖαι or μυ_θέαι sayest, αἰδεῖο show regard.

b. νεικείω, τελείω, from -ες-yω (νεικες-, τελες-) are older forms than νεικέω, τελέω. See cross488 d, cross624. θείω, πλείω, πνείω show metrical lengthening ( cross28 D.).

c. On -ημεναι in Hom. see cross657.


-εω verbs in Herodotus.—a. Hdt. generally leaves εο, εω, εου, open, except when a vowel precedes the ε, in which case we find ευ for εο (ἀγνοεῦντες). In the 3 plur. -έουσι is kept except in ποιεῦσι. For -έ-εο in the 2 sing. mid. we find έ-ο in αἰτέο. εε, εει, in stems of more than one syllable, are usually uncontracted in the Mss., but this is probably an error. δεῖ it is necessary and δεῖν are never written otherwise.—The Ion. ευ for εο, εου, occurs rarely in tragedy.

b. In the optative Hdt. has -έοι after a consonant, as καλέοι, but -οῖ after a vowel, as ποιοῖμι, ποιοῖ.


Verbs in -οω.—a. Hom. always uses the contracted forms except in the case of such as show assimilation like that in -αω verbs.

οο = (1) οω : δηϊόοντο δηϊόωντο.οοι οῳ : δηιόοιεν δηιόῳεν.
(2) ωο : ὑπνόοντας ὑπνώοντας.οου οω : ἀρόουσι ἀρόωσι.

b. Hdt. contracts -οω verbs as in Attic. Forms with ευ for ου, as δικαιεῦσι, ἐδικαίευν, are incorrect.


Doric.—Doric ( cross59 D.) contracts αε and αη to η; αει and αῃ to ῃ; αο, αω, to α_ except in final syllables: τι_μῶ, τι_μῇς, τι_μῇ, τι_μᾶμες, τι_μῆτε, τι_μᾶντι, τί_μη, τι_μῆν. Monosyllabic stems have ω from α ο or α ω. Some verbs in -αω have alternative forms in -εω ( cross648), as ὁρέω, τι_μέω.

-- 193 --


The contractions of -εω verbs in Doric may be illustrated thus:

Severer DoricMilder Doric
φιλέω, φιλῶ, φιλίωφιλέω, φιλῶ
φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)
φιλέομες, φιλίομες, φιλίωμες, φιλῶμεςφιλέομες, φιλοῦμες, φιλεῦμες
φιλέοντι, φιλίοντι, φιλόντιφιλέοντι, φιλοῦντι, φιλεῦντι

a. ιω for εο is a diphthong. ευ for εο is common in Theocritus. In Cretan ι ( = y) for ε is often expelled (κοσμόντες κοσμέοντες).


Verbs in -οω contract οο and οε to ω in Severer Doric and to ου in Milder Doric.


Aeolic.—In Aeolic contract verbs commonly pass into the μι-conjugation: τί_μαιμι, -αις, -αι, τί_μα_μεν, τί_μα_τε, τί_μαισι, imperfect, ἐτί_μα_ν, ἐτί_μα_ς, ἐτί_μα_, etc. inf. τί_μα_ν, part. τί_μαις, -αντος, mid. τί_μα_μαι, inf. τι_μά_μεναι. So φίλημι, φίλημεν, φίλητε, φίλεισι, ἐφίλην, inf. φίλην, part. φίλεις, -εντος. Thus ὄρημι from ὀρέω = Att. ὁράω, κάλημι, αἴνημι. So also δήλωμι, 3 pl. δήλοισι, inf. δήλων. Besides these forms we find a few examples of the earlier inflection in -αω, -εω, -οω, but these forms usually contract except in a few cases where ε is followed by an ο sound (ποτέονται). From other tenses, e.g. the fut. in -ησω, η has been transferred to the present in ἀδικήω, ποθήω.


Hom. has several cases of contract verbs inflected according to the μι- conjugation in the 3 dual: συ_λή-την (συ_λάω spoil), προσαυδή-την (προσαυδάω speak to), ἀπειλή-την (ἀπειλέω threaten), ὁμαρτή-την (ὁμαρτέω meet); also σάω 3 sing. imperf. (σαόω keep safe). In the infinitive -ημεναι, as γοήμεναι (γοάω), πεινήμεναι (πεινά_ω, cross641), φιλήμεναι (φιλέω), φορήμεναι and φορῆναι (φορέω). But ἀγι_νέω has ἀγι_νέμεναι.

FUTURE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE ( cross532 ff.). FUTURE PERFECT ( cross580 ff.) 658

All vowel and consonant verbs in inflect the future alike.


Indicative.—The future active and middle add the primary endings, and are inflected like the present; as λύ_σω, λύ_σομαι. On the two endings of the second singular middle, see cross628. Liquid verbs, Attic futures ( cross538), Doric futures ( cross540) are inflected like contract verbs in -εω; thus φανῶ φανοῦμαι, καλῶ καλοῦμαι, and πεσοῦμαι, follow ποιῶ ποιοῦμαι ( cross385).

a. The only future perfect active from an ω-verb is τεθνήξω shall be dead ( cross584), which is inflected like a future active. Ordinarily the periphrastic formation is used: λελευκὼς ἔσομαι shall have loosed. The future perfect passive (λελύ_σομαι shall have been loosed) is inflected like the future middle. The periphrastic forms and the future perfect passive rarely occur outside of the indicative.


Optative.—The inflection is like the present: λύ_σο-ι_-μι, λυ_σο-ί_-μην. In the optative singular of liquid verbs, -ιη-ν, -ιη-ς, -ιη, in the dual and plural -ι_-τον,

-- 194 --

-ι_-την, -ι_-μεν, -ι_-τε, -ιε-ν, are added to the stem ending in the thematic vowel ο; thus φανεο-ίην φανοίην, φανέο-ι_-μεν φανοῖμεν. So in Attic futures in -άζω, as βιβάζω ( cross539 d) cause to go: βιβῴην, -ῴης, -ῴη, pl. βιβῷμεν.


Infinitive.—The future infinitive active adds -εν, as λύ_σειν from λύ_σε-εν, φανεῖν from φανέ (ς) ε-εν. The infinitive middle adds -σθαι, as λύ_σε-σθαι, φανεῖσθαι, from φανέ (ς) ε-σθαι.


Hom. has ἀξέμεναι, ἀξέμεν, ἄξειν. Doric has -ην, -ειν; Aeolic has -ην.


Participle.—The future participle has the same endings as the present: λύ_σων λύ_σουσα λῦσον, φανῶν φανοῦσα φανοῦν; middle, λυ_σόμενος, φανούμενος.

FIRST AND SECOND FUTURE PASSIVE ( cross589, cross597) 663

All verbs inflect the first and second future passive alike, that is, like the future middle.


The indicative adds -μαι to the stem ending in -θησο- or -ησο-, as λυθήσο-μαι, φανή-σο-μαι. For the two forms of the second person singular see cross628. The optative adds -ι_-μην, as λυθησο-ί_-μην, φανησο-ί_-μην. The infinitive adds -σθαι, as λυθή-σε-σθαι, φανή-σε-σθαι. The participle adds -μενος, as λυθησό-μενος, φανησό-μενος.


All vowel and consonant ω-verbs inflect the first aorist alike.


Indicative.—The secondary endings of the first aorist active were originally added to the stem ending in -ς-; thus, ἐλυ_ς, ἐλυ_ς-ς, ἐλυ_ς-τ, ἐλυ_ς-μεν, ἐλυ_ς-τε, ἐλυ_ς-ντ. From ἐλυ_ς came ἔλυ_σα (by 35 c), the α of which spread to the other forms except in the 3 sing., where ε was borrowed from the perfect.

a. In the middle the secondary endings are added to the stem ending in -σα-. For the loss of ς in -σο, see cross465 b.


Subjunctive.—In the subjunctive the long thematic vowel -ώη- is substituted for the α of the indicative, and these forms are inflected like the present subjunctive: λύ_σω λύ_σωμαι, φήνω φήνωμαι. For the loss of ς in -σαι see cross465 a.


Hom. has forms with the short thematic vowel, as ἐρύσσομεν, ἀλγήσετε, νεμεσήσετε; μυ_θήσομαι, ἐφάψεαι, ἱ_λασόμεσθα, δηλήσεται. In such forms aorist subjunctive and future indicative are alike ( cross532). Pindar has βά_σομεν, αὐδά_σομεν ( cross457 D.).


Optative.—To the stem ending in α the mood-suffix ι_ is added, making αι, to which the same endings are affixed as in the present: λύ_σα-ι_-μι λύ_σαιμι, λυ_σα-ί_-μην λυ_σαίμην, φήνα-ι_-μι φήναιμι. The inflection in the middle is like that of the present. For the loss of ς in -σο see cross465 b.—In the active -ειας, -ειε, -ειαν are more common than -αις, -αι, -αιεν.


Hom. has both sets of endings, but that in αι is rarer. In the drama -ειας is very much commoner than -αις. -αις is most frequent in Plato and Xenophon, less common in poetry, and very rare in the orators. Neither Thuc. nor Hdt. has -αις. -αι is rare in prose, most examples being in Plato and Demosthenes. Hdt. has no case. In Aristotle -αι is as common as -ειε. -αῖεν is very rare in poetry, in Thuc. and Hdt., but slightly better represented in Xenophon and the orators. -ειαν is probably the regular form in the drama.—The forms in -ειας, -ειε, -ειαν are called “Aeolic,” but do not occur in the remains of that dialect.

-- 195 --


Imperative.—The regular endings ( cross462) are added to the stem in -σα (or in liquid verbs) except in the active and middle 2 sing., in which -ον and -αι take the place of : λῦσον λυ_σάτω, λῦσαι λυ_σάσθω, φῆνον φηνάτω, φῆναι φηνάσθω.


Infinitive.—The aorist active infinitive ends in -αι, which is an old dative: the middle ends in -σθαι: λῦσαι λύ_σα-σθαι, φῆναι φήνα-σθαι, πλέξαι πλέξα-σθαι.


Participle.—The active participle adds -ντ like the present: masc. λύ_σα_ς from λυ_σαντ-ς, fem. λύσα_σα from λυσα_ντ-yα, neut. λῦσαν from λυ_σαν (τ). See cross301. The middle ends in -μενος: λυ_σά-μενος, φηνά-μενος.


Aeolic has -αις, -αισα, -αν ( cross37 D. 3).

FIRST AND SECOND AORIST PASSIVE ( cross585, cross590) 672

All vowel and consonant verbs in inflect the aorists passive alike, that is, according to the μι-conjugation, except in the subjunctive.

a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aorists that are passive in form, as ῥέω flow, ἐρρύην ( cross803). But ῥέω is properly not a vowel verb (see cross503).


Indicative.—The indicative adds the active secondary endings directly to the tense stem ending in -θη- (first aorist) or -η- (second aorist). The inflection is thus like that of the imperfect of a verb in -μι.


a. For -σαν we find from (τ) in poetical and dialectic forms before which η has been shortened to ε ( cross40), thus ὥρμηθεν for ὡρμήθησαν from ὁρμάω urge.


Subjunctive.—The subjunctive adds -ώη- to the tense stem ending in -θε- or -ε- and contracts: λυθῶ, -ῇς, -ῇ, etc., from λυθέω, -έῃς, -έῃ, etc.; φανῶ, -ῇς, -ῇ from φανέω, -έῃς, -έῃ, etc.


Hdt. leaves εω open (αἱρεθέω, φανέωσι) but contracts εη, εῃ (φανῇ). Hom. has some forms like the 2 aor. subj. of μι-verbs. Thus, from δαμνάω (δάμνημι) subdue: δαμήω, -ήῃς, -ήῃ, -ήετε. So also δαήω (δα- learn), σαπήῃ (σήπω cause to rot), φανήῃ (φαίνω show), τραπήομεν (τέρπω amuse). The spellings with ει (e.g. δαμείω, δαείω) are probably incorrect.


Optative.—The optative adds -ι_- or -ιη- to the tense-stem ending in -θε- or -ε-, and contracts. In the singular -ιη- is regular; in the dual and plural -ι_- is generally preferred. Thus λυθείην from λυθε-ίη-ν, φανείην from φανε-ίη-ν,

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λυθεῖτον from λυθέ-ι_-τον, φανεῖτον from φανέ-ι_-τον, λυθεῖμεν from λυθέ-ι_-μεν, φανεῖεν from φανέ-ιε-ν. The inflection is like that of the present optative of a μι-verb.


a. -είημεν is used only in prose (but Plato and Isocrates have also -εῖμεν). -είητε is almost always found in the Mss. of prose writers; -εῖτε occurs only in poetry (except from μι-verbs). -εῖεν is more common in prose than -είησαν.


Imperative.—The endings of the imperative are added to the tense-stem ending in -θη- or -η-. Before -ντων, -θη- and -η- become -θε- and -ε- (λυθέντων, φανέντων). For -τι instead of -θι in the first aorist (λύθητι) see cross125 b.


Infinitive.—-ναι is added to the tense-stem in -θη- or -η-: λυθῆ-ναι, φανῆ-ναι.


Hom. has -μεναι, as ὁμοιωθήμεναι, δαήμεναι (and δαῆναι). Doric has -μεν, Aeolic (μεθύσθην μεθυσθῆναι).


Participle.—The participle adds -ντ, as masc. λυθείς from λυθεντ-ς, fem. λυθεῖσα from λυθεντ-yα, neut. λυθέν from λυθεν (τ). See cross301. So φανείς, etc.


Most verbs in inflect the second aorist according to the ω-conjugation; some inflect it according to the μι-conjugation.


The inflection of most second aorists of ω-verbs is like that of an imperfect of ω-verbs in the indicative, and like that of a present in the other moods.

ἐ-λιπό-μηνἐ-λυ_ό-μηνλιποῦ ( cross424 b. 2)λύ_ου
λίπωλύ_ωλιπεῖν (λιπέ-εν, 424 c)λύ_ειν (λύ_ε-εν)

For the loss of ς in -σο in the second person singular see cross465 b.


Hom. has the infinitives εἰπέμεναι, εἰπέμεν, εἰπεῖν. For θανέειν (Attic θανεῖν) etc., θανέεν should be read. -έειν in Hdt. is erroneous. Doric has -ῆν, as μολῆν (βλώσκω go). Aeolic has -ην, as λάβην.


A number of ω-verbs form their second aorists without a thematic vowel, herein agreeing with the second aorists of μι-verbs. Cp. ἔδυ_ν p. 140. The second aorist of γι-γνώ-σκω know is inflected as follows.

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The indicative is inflected like ἔστην (p. cross138); the subjunctive, like δῶ (p. cross138).


a. We expect ἔγνοτον, ἔγνομεν, etc. ( cross551), but the strong stem γνω- has been transferred to the dual and plural. So also in ἔβην, ἔφθην, ἑά_λων.—Subjunctive βῶ, βῇς, βῇ, βῆτον, βῶμεν, βῆτε, βῶσι. On the formation of the subjunctive see cross757 D.


ἔγνον, from ἐγνων (τ) by 40, is found in Pind. Hom. has ἔδυν, ἔτλαν, ἔκταν; Pind. ἔφυν.—Hom. has βατην and βήτην.—Hom. has βλήεται, ἅλεται. -Subj.: Hom. has γνώω ἁλώω, γνώῃς γνῷς, γνώῃ γνῷ, ἐμβήῃ ἀναβῇ, γνῶτον, γνώομεν γνῶμεν, -βήομεν φθέωμεν, γνώωσι γνῶσιν βῶσιν φθέωσιν.


The optative is inflected like δοίην (p. cross138).

γνοίηνγνοῖμεν or γνοίημεν
γνοίηςγνοῖτον or γνοίητονγνοῖτε or γνοίητε
γνοίηγνοίτην or γνοιήτηνγνοῖεν or γνοίησαν

a. So βαίην, βαῖτον or βαίητον, βαῖμεν or βαίημεν. In the 2 plur. the Mss. of prose writers have only -ιητε (γνοίητε, -βαίητε); but -ιητε is not attested by the evidence of verse.


The imperative is inflected like στῆθι (p. cross139).

γνῶθι, γνώτωγνῶτον, γνώτωνγνῶτε, γνόντων

a. In composition διάγνωθι, ἀνάβηθι ( cross423). For βῆθι (from βαίνω) -βα_ in composition occurs in poetry, as ἀνάβα_.


The infinitive adds -εναι, as γνῶναι from γνώ-εναι (like στῆναι from στή-εναι). In composition διαγνῶναι ( cross426 d).


Hom. has γνώμεναι, δύ_μεναι, κτάμεναι, and -κτάμεν.


The participle adds -ντ-, as masc. γνούς from γνοντ-ς, fem. γνοῦσα from γνοντ-yα, neut. γνόν from γνον (τ). See cross301. In composition διαγνούς ( cross426 d).

a. Before ντ the long vowel ω is regularly shortened to ο by 40.


The following ω-verbs have second aorists of the μι form.

ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-) am captured, ἑά_λων or ἥλων (ἁλῶ, ἁλοίην, ἁλῶναι, ἁλούς).

βαίνω (βα-) go, ἔβην (βῶ, βαίην, βῆθι and also -βα_ in composition, βῆναι, βά_ς).

βιόω (βιο-) live, ἐβίων (βιῶ, βιῴην, βιῶναι, βιούς). Hom. βιώτω imper.

γηράσκω (γηρα-) grow old, γηρᾶναι poet., γηρά_ς Hom.

γιγνώσκω (γνο-, γνω-) know, ἔγνων (γνῶ, γνοίην, γνῶθι, γνῶναι, γνούς).

-διδρά_σκω (δρα_-) run, only in composition, -έδρα_ν (-δρῶ, -δραίην, -δρᾶναι, -δρά_ς). Hdt. has ἔδρην, δρῆναι, δρά_ς in composition.

δύ_ω (δυ_-) enter ἔδυ_ν entered inflected p. 140 (δύ_ω, opt. Hom. δύ_η and ἔκδυ_μεν for δυ-ίη, ἐκδύ-ι_-μεν; δῦθι, δῦναι, δύ_ς).

ἔχω (σχε-) have, σχές imper.

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κτείνω (κτεν-, κτα-) kill, ἔκταν, ἔκτας, ἔκτα, ἔκταμεν, 3 pl. ἔκταν 551 D, subj. κτέωμεν, inf. κτάμεναι κτάμεν, part κτά_ς; ἐκτάμην was killed (κτάσθαι, κτάμενος); all poetic forms.

πέτομαι (πετ-, πτε-, πτα-) fly, poet. ἔπτην (πταίην, πτά_ς), middle ἐπτάμην (πτάσθαι, πτάμενος). πτῶ, πτῆθι, πτῆναι are late.

πί_νω (πι-) drink, πῖθι imper.

σκέλλω in ἀποσκέλλω (σκελ-, σκλε-) dry up, ἀποσκλῆναι.

τλα- endure, fut. τλήσομαι, poetic ἔτλην (τλῶ, τλαίην, τλῆθι, τλῆναι, τλά_ς).

φθάνω (φθα-) anticipate, ἔφθην (φθῶ, φθαίην, φθῆναι, φθά_ς).

φύ_ω (φυ_-) produce, ἔφυ_ν was produced, am (φύω subj., φῦναι, φύ_ς cross308).


The following ω-verbs have in poetry (especially in Homer) second aorists of the μι form: ἅλλομαι (ἆλσο, ἆλτο), ἀπαυράω (ἀπούρα_ς), ἀραρίσκω (ἄρμενος), ἄω (ἄ_μεναι), βάλλω (ξυμβλήτην, ἔβλητο), βιβρώσκω (ἔβρων), root γεν- (γέντο grasped), δέχομαι (δέκτο), Epic κιχά_νω (ἐκίχην, κιχήω, κιχείη, κιχῆναι and κιχήμεναι, κιχείς and κιχήμενος; properly from κίχημι), κλάω (ἀπόκλα_ς), κλύω (κλῦθι, κέκλυθι), κτίζω (κτίμενος), root λεχ- (ἔλεκτο laid himself to rest), λύ_ω (λύτο), οὐτάω (οὖτα, οὐτάμενος), πάλλω (πάλτο), πελάζω (ἐπλήμην), πέρθω (πέρθαι περθ-σθαι), πλώω (ἔπλων), πνυ_- (ἄμπνυ_το revived), πτήσσω (καταπτήτην), σεύω (ἐσσύμην, ἔσυτο, σύμενος), φθίνω (ἐφθίμην), χέω (ἐχύμην, χύμενος).

ἔλεκτο, πάλτο are properly first aorists (for ἐλεκ-ς-το, παλ-ς-το), ς being lost between two consonants ( cross103).


All vowel and consonant verbs in inflect the first perfect alike. Some verbs in inflect the second perfect according to the ω-conjugation, others inflect it according to the μι-conjugation.


Indicative.—Originally the endings were added to the stem without any thematic vowel. Of this unthematic formation a few traces survive ( cross573). In the 2 p. sing. the ending is , but originally -θα; in the 3 pl. -κα_σι stands for κα-νσι out of κα-ντι ( cross100). Thus λέλυκα, -ας, -ε, πέπομφα, -ας, -ε, etc. The periphrastic combination occurs in the indicative ( cross599 a).


Subjunctive.—The perfect subjunctive is commonly formed periphrastically by the perfect active participle and ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, etc. Thus λελυκὼς (γεγραφὼς) , etc., λελυκότες (γεγραφότες) ὦμεν, etc. Of the periphrastic forms only the 1 and 3 sing., 2 and 3 plur. are attested.


Instances of the simple perfect subjunctive (λελύκω, γεγράφω) are very rare. The simple form is made by substituting the thematic vowel ώη for α in the tense-stem. Only the sing. and the 3 plur. are attested from ω-verbs.


Besides εἰδῶ (οἶδα) and ἑστήκῃ, etc., Attic prose has only about 16 occurrences of the simple perf. subj., and from the following verbs only: βαίνω, δέδια, ἐγείρω, ἔοικα, θνῄσκω, λαμβάνω, λανθάνω, πάσχω, ποιῶ, φύ_ω. Hippocr. has forms from βιβρώσκω, πονῶ, τεύχω. There are about 30 occurrences in the

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poetry. Attic prose writers show about 25 cases of the periphrasis from all ω-verbs.


Optative.—The perfect optative is commonly formed periphrastically by the perfect active participle and εἴην, εἴης, εἴη, etc. Thus λελυκὼς (γεγραφὼς) εἴην, etc., λελυκότες (γεγραφότες) εἶμεν, etc. The dual is exceedingly rare.


Occasionally the simple forms are used (λελύκοιμι, γεγράφοιμι). These are formed by adding the mood-sign ι_, and the endings, to the tense-stem with the thematic vowel (ο). All the -ιη-forms are attested; of the -ι_-forms only the 3 sing. and 1 and 3 plur.


Of the simple optative there are about 25 occurrences in Attic prose, and from the following verbs only: ἀποχωρῶ, ἐξαπατῶ, εἰσβάλλω, παραδίδωμι, ἔοικα, -ἑστήκοι, ὑπηρετῶ, θνῄσκω, λανθάνω, καταλείπω, ποιῶ, πάσχω, προέρχομαι, ἐμπί_πτω, φύ_ω. In the poets there are about 16 occurrences. Prose writers show about 106 occurrences of the periphrastic forms.


Imperative.—The usual form of the first perfect imperative is periphrastic: λελυκὼς ἴσθι, ἔστω, etc. No classical Attic writer uses the simple forms.


The second perfect is rare, and occurs only in the case of verbs which have a present meaning. From active verbs inflected according to the ω- conjugation there occur κεχήνετε gape, Ar. Ach. 133 (χάσκω, χαν-), and κεκρά_γετε screech, Vesp. 415 (κρά_ζω). Most second perfects show the μι form and have present meaning, as τέθναθι (Hom.) τεθνάτω from θνῄσκω die, δέδιθι from δέδια fear, and κέκρα_χθι from κρά_ζω in Aristophanes. Most such second perfects are poetical.


Infinitive.—The perfect infinitive adds -έ-ναι, as λελυκέναι, λελοιπέναι.


Doric has -ην and -ειν, as δεδύκην δεδυκέναι, γεγά_κειν γεγονέναι. Aeolic has -ην, as τεθνάκην.


Participle.—The suffixes of the perfect participle in the nominative are -(ϝ) ώς, -υῖα, -(ϝ) ός, as λελυκώς, λελοιπώς. See cross301 c, d, 309.


In the 2 perf. Hom. sometimes has -ῶτ-ος for -ότ-ος, as κεκμηώς, -ῶτος (κάμνω am weary). In the 2 perf. Hom. sometimes has α for Attic η in the feminine, as ἀρηρώς ἀραρυῖα from ἄρηρα (ἀραρίσκω fit). See cross573. Aeolic inflects the perfect participle as a present in -ων, -οντος. Thus Hom. κεκλήγοντας for κεκληγότας (κλάζω scream), Pind. πεφρί_κοντας (φρί_ττω shudder).


Pluperfect Active.—The pluperfect is formed by adding -εα, -εας, -εε, -ετον, -ετην, -εμεν, -ετε, -εσαν to the reduplicated stem. By contraction from ἐλελυκεα, -εας, -εε come the forms ἐλελύκη, -ης -ει (ν). In the later language ει spread from the 3 sing. and was used throughout, as ἐλελύκειν, -εις, -ει, -ειτον, -είτην, -ειμεν, -ειτε, and very late -εισαν. The best Mss. of Demosthenes have -ειν in 1 sing. Instead of the simple pluperfect we find periphrastic forms, 599 a.


A few ω-verbs form their second perfects in the dual and plural without α by adding the endings directly to the stem. Herein these forms agree with the second perfect of μι-verbs ( cross417). In the singular α is used.

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The second perfect δέδια I fear usually has the forms of the first perfect δέδοικα in the singular, less frequently in the plural.

δέδοικα or δέδιαἐδεδοικη or ἐδεδίηδεδίω (rare)
δέδοικας or δέδιαςἐδεδοίκης or ἐδεδίηςOptative
δέδοικε or δέδιεἐδεδοίκει or ἐδεδίειδεδιείην (rare)
δέδιτονἐδεδίτηνδέδιθι (poet.)
δέδιμεν or δεδοίκαμενἐδέδιμενδεδιέναι or δεδοικέναι
δέδιτε or δεδοίκατεἐδέδιτε
δεδία_σι or δεδοίκα_σιἐδέδισαν or ἐδεδοίκεσανParticiple
δεδιώς, -υῖα, -ός or
δεδοικώς, -υῖα, -ός.


The root of δέδια is δϝι-, strong forms δϝει-, δϝοι-. Hom. has δίε, δίον feared, fled; for δέδοικα, δέδια he has δείδοικα, δείδια, etc. (once δεδία_σι). Here ει is due to metrical lengthening. δείδω, a present in form, is really a perfect for δε-δϝο (y) .


Other second perfects inflected like δέδια are the following:

a. βαίνω (βα-) go, 1 perf. βέβηκα have gone, stand fast regular; 2 perf. 3 pl. βεβᾶσι (poet.), subj. 3 pl. βεβῶσι, inf. βεβάναι (poet. and Ion.), part. βεβώς (contracted from βεβαώς) βεβῶσα, gen. βεβῶτος.


Hom. has 3 pl. βεβάα_σι, inf. βεβάμεν, part. βεβαώς, βεβαυῖα, gen. βεβαῶτος; 2 plup. βέβασαν.

b. γίγνομαι (γεν-, γα-) become, 2 perf. γέγονα am regular; 2 perf. part. poet. γεγώς (contracted from γεγαώς), γεγῶσα, gen. γεγῶτος.

b. Hom. has γεγάα_τε and γεγάα_σι, inf. γεγάμεν, part. γεγαώς, γεγαυῖα; 2 plup. ἐκγεγάτην.

c. θνῄσκω (θαν-, θνα-) die, 1 perf. τέθνηκα am dead regular; 2 perf. du. τέθνατον, pl. τέθναμεν, τέθνατε, τεθνᾶσι, 2 plup. 3 pl. ἐτέθνασαν, 2 perf. opt. τεθναίην, imper. τεθνάτω, inf. τεθνάναι, part. τεθνεώς, -εῶσα, -εός, gen. -εῶτος.

c. Hom. τέθναθι, τεθνάμεναι and τεθνάμεν, τεθνηώς -ηῶτος and -ηότος, fem. τεθνηυίης.

d. ἔοικα (ϝε-ϝοικ-α) am like, appear (ἰκ-, εἰκ-) has the μι forms ἔοιγμεν (poet.), εἴξα_σι for ἐοικ-ς-α_σι (poet. and in Plato). ἔοικα (ἐῴκη plup.) has also the foll. forms: ἐοίκω, ἐοίκοιμι, ἐοικέναι (εἰκέναι poet.), ἐοικώς (εἰκώς also in Plato).

d. Hom. imperf. εἶκε, 2 perf. 3 du. ἔϊκτον, 2 plup. ἐῴκει ἐΐκτην, ἐοίκεσαν, part. ἐοικώς (εἰκώς Φ cross254), εἰκυῖα and ἐϊκυῖα (εἰοικυῖαι Σ cross418); mid. ἤϊκτο, ἔϊκτο. Hdt. has οἶκα, οἰκώς.

e. κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out, 2 perf. κέκρα_γα as present, imper. κέκρα_χθι and κεκρά_γετε, a thematic form (both in Aristoph.).


Other verbs with second perfects of the μι-form (chiefly Homeric) are: ἄνωγα (ἄνωχθι), βιβρώσκω (βεβρῶτες), ἐγείρω (ἐγρήγορα), ἔρχομαι (είλήλυθμεν),

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μέμονα (μεμαώς), πάσχω (πέποσθε), πείθω (ἐπέπιθμεν), πἱ_πτω (πεπτώς), root δα- learn (δεδαώς), root τλα- (τέτλαμεν, τετλαίην, τέτλαθι, τετλάμεναι and τετλάμεν, τετληώς).


All vowel and consonant verbs in inflect the perfect middle according to the μι-conjugation.


Indicative.—The perfect middle is inflected by adding the primary middle endings directly to the tense-stem, herein agreeing with the μι-conjugation. The pluperfect adds the secondary middle endings. In vowel verbs the formation is simple, as in λέλυ-μαι, ἐλελύ-μην. But in consonant verbs, the consonant at the end of the stem comes into collision with the consonant at the beginning of the ending; hence certain euphonic changes described in 409. The periphrastic form occurs in the 3 pl. and sometimes in the 3 sing. ( cross599 d, e).

a. Stems in ν avoid the forms -ν-σαι, -ν-σο; thus, from φαίνω, instead of πέφανσαι, ἐπέφανσο the periphrastic πεφασμένος εἶ, ἦσθα were probably used.


Subjunctive.—The perfect middle subjunctive is commonly formed by periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, etc. Thus λελυμένος ὦ.


Hdt. has μεμνεώμεθα, and this form may be read in ξ 168.


From two verbs, whose perfect stem ends in η- (α), the simple forms are constructed. κτάομαι (κτα-) acquire, perf. κέκτημαι possess ( cross1946), forms its subjunctive by adding the thematic vowel -ώη- to κε-κτα; thus κε-κτά-ω-μαι κεκτῶμαι, κε-κτά-η-σαι κεκτῇ, κε-κτά-η-ται κεκτῆται, etc.—μιμνῄσκω (μνα- remind, perf. μέμνημαι remember ( cross1946): με-μνά-ω-μαι μεμνῶμαι, μεμνη-ώ-μεθα μεμνώμεθα. With κεκτῶμαι, μεμνῶμαι, cp. ἱστῶμαι, p. 137. The periphrastic κεκτημένος ὦ, μεμνημένος ὦ occur.


Optative.—The perfect middle optative is commonly formed by the periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and εἴην, εἴης, εἴη, etc. Thus λελυμένος εἴην, etc.


Some verbs add -ί_-μην, -ο-ί_-μην to the tense-stem ( cross709).—a. κτάομαι (κτα-) acquire, perf. κέκτημαι possess ( cross1946): opt. κεκτη-ί_-μην κεκτῄμην, κεκτήι_-σο κεκτῇο, κεκτή-ι_-το κεκτῇτο. Less frequent and doubtful are κεκτῴμην, -ῷο, -ῷτο, -ῴμεθα from κεκτη-ο-ί_-μην, etc.

b. μιμνῄσκω (μνα-) remind, perf. μέμνημαι remember; opt. μεμνη-ί_-μην μεμνῄμην, μεμνή-ι_-σο μεμνῇο, μεμνή-ι_-το μεμνῇτο, etc. The forms μεμνῴμην, -ῷο, -ῷτο, etc., from μεμνη-ο-ί_-μην, etc., are uncommon and suspected.

c. καλέω (καλε-, κλη-) call, perf. κέκλημαι am called ( cross1946); opt. κεκλη-ί_-μην, etc. = κεκλῄμην, κεκλῇο, κεκλῇτο, κεκλῄμεθα.

d. βάλλω (βαλ-, βλη-) throw, perf. διαβέβλημαι, opt. διαβεβλῇσθε.

N.—The forms in -ῄμην, etc., have the μι-form; the doubtful -ῴμην, etc., belong to the ω-conjugation.


Hom. has λελῦτο ς 238 = λελύ-ι_το (cp. δαίνηυ_το). Pind. has μεμναίατο. μέμνοιο in Xen. is from μέμνομαι.

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Imperative.—In the third person singular the perfect meaning is regularly retained, as εἰρήσθω let it have been said. The 2 sing. and pl. are generally found only in the case of perfects with a present meaning, as μέμνησθε remember! μὴ πεφόβησθε do not be afraid! πέπαυσο stop! See cross698.

a. The dual and 3 pl. are apparently wanting. The 2 sing. in -νσο from stems in does not occur. For πέφανσο, πεφασμένος ἴσθι was probably used.


Attic prose writers have ἀναβεβλήσθω, ἀποκεκρίσθω, εἰρήσθω, ἐκτήσθω, ἐψεύσθω, κεῖσο, -κείσθω, κέκτησο, μέμνησθε, πεπαίσθω, πεπεράνθω, πεποίησο, πεπρά_σθω, πεφάσθω, πεφόβησθε, τετάχθω, τετολμήσθω.


Instead of the simple forms of the imperative we find the periphrastic use of the perfect participle and ἴσθι, ἔστω, etc. ( cross599 g). Thus εἰρημένον ἔστω εἰρήσθω.


Infinitive.—The perfect infinitive adds -σθαι, as λελύ-σθαι. Consonant stems lose the ς by 103, as λελεῖφθαι, πεπρᾶχθαι ( cross406), ἐληλέγχθαι, πεφάνθαι ( cross407).


Participle.—The perfect participle adds -μένος, as λελυμένος, λελειμμένος, πεπρα_γμένος ( cross406, cross407). On the ς of πεφασμένος see cross409 d.


Verbs in -μι usually have no thematic vowel between the tense-stem and the personal endings in the present system (except in the subjunctive). The name “μι-conjugation,” or “non-thematic” conjugation,” is applied to all verbs which form the present and imperfect without the thematic vowel.


Of verbs ending in -μι the following tenses are inflected according to the μι-conjugation (except in the subjunctive): all non-thematic presents and imperfects; all aorists passive; all perfects and pluperfects middle; those second aorists active and middle in which the tense-stem does not end with the thematic vowel; one verb (ἵστημι) in the second perfect and pluperfect active.


Certain tenses of verbs ending in -μι in the first person present indicative active, or in -μαι in the present middle (and passive) when not preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected according to the ω-conjugation. These tenses are: all futures, all first aorists active and middle, most perfects and pluperfects active, and all subjunctives. Verbs in -νυ_μι regularly inflect the subjunctive and the optative according to the ω-conjugation. Furthermore, the 2 sing. in the present and 2 and 3 sing. in the imperfect active of certain verbs, and some other forms, follow the ω-conjugation ( cross746).


Verbs in -μι add the endings directly either to the verb-stem (here a root) or after the suffixes νυ or νη. Hence three classes are to be distinguished.

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A. Root class; as φη-μί say, verb-stem (and root) φα-, φη-. This class often shows reduplication in the present and imperfect, as δίδω-μι give.

N.—Two verbs have verb-stems ending in a consonant: εἰμί am (ἐς-μι) and ἧμαι sit (ἡς-μαι).

B. -νυ- class; as δείκ-νυ_-μι show, verb-stem δεικ-, present stem δεικνυ_-.

C. A few verbs, mainly poetical, add να-, νη-; as σκίδ-νη-μι σκίδ-ναμεν scatter, δάμ-νη-μι δάμ-να-μεν, subdue.


Deponent verbs without the thematic vowel are inflected according to the μι-conjugation.


Verbs in -μι belong to the first or simple class ( cross504) or to the fourth class ( cross523).


The present is made by adding the personal endings directly to the verb-stem, which is a root. This verb-stem may be used in its pure form or it may be reduplicated.

a. Some verbs of this class with no active have a verb-stem of more than one syllable (usually two syllables).


Unreduplicated Presents: εἰμί (ἐς-) am, εἶμι (ἰ-, εἰ-) go, ἧμαι (ἡς-) sit, ἠμί say ( said, 3 sing.), κεῖμαι (κει-) lie, φημί (φα-, φη-) say, χρή it is necessary ( cross793); and poet. ἄημι (ἀη-) blow.


Deponents.—ἄγα-μαι (and ἀγάομαι) admire, δέα-μαι appear, δίε-μαι flee, make flee (cp. δίω), δύνα-μαι am able ( cross737 a), ἐπί-στα-μαι understand, ἔρα-μαι love (poet. for ἐράω), ἵπταμαι fly (late, see cross726 a), κρέμα-μαι hang (intrans.), ὄνο-μαι insult, πέτα-μαι (poet. by-form of πέτομαι) fly, ἐπριάμην bought a second aorist, στεῦμαι affirm.

a. Other such forms are Hom. ἵ_εμαι (ϝί_εμαι) strive, εἴρυμαι and ἔρυμαι rescue, Ion. λάζυμαι take. ἐπίστηται II 243 owes its η to such non-present forms as ἐπιστήσομαι.


Reduplicated Presents.—δίδημι bind (rare for δέω), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, κίχρημι (χρα-, χρη-) lend, ὀνίνημι (ὀνα-, ὀνη-) benefit, πίμπλημι (πλα-, πλη-) fill, πίμπρημι (πρα-, πρη-) burn, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place.

a. Also poetic βίβημι (βα-, βη-) go, in Hom. βιβά_ς striding, δί-ζημαι (also Ion.) seek, for δι-δyη-μαι by 116 (cp. ζητέω seek), ἵλημι (ἱ_λα-, ἱ_λη- for σισλα-, σισλη-) am propitious. ἵπταμαι (late) for πέτομαι fly is an analogue of ἵσταμαι and is not properly reduplicated. τίτρημι bore is late.


Verbs in -μι reduplicate with ι in the present. See cross414, cross447. πί-μ-πλημι and πί-μ-πρημι may lose the inserted nasal in compounds of ἐν, but only when ἐν- takes the form ἐμ-; as ἐμπίπλημι, but ἐνεπίμπλασαν. Doric has κίγχημι. In ὀ-νί-νη-μι the reduplication takes place after a vowel (verb-stem ὀνα-, ὀνη-).

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a. Reduplication is in place only in present and imperfect; but Hom. has διδώσομεν.


Most μι-verbs of the fourth class add -νυ- (after a vowel, -ννυ-) to the verb-stem.


Verb-stems in : κερά-ννυ_μι mix, κρεμά-ννυ_μι hang (intrans.), πετάννυ_μι spread, σκεδά-ννυ_μι scatter.


Verb-stems in ε (for ες): ἕ-ννυ_μι (in prose ἀμφιέ-ννυ_μι) clothe, κορέννυ_μι satiate, σβέ-ννυ_μι extinguish.


Verb-stems in ω: ζώ-ννυ_μι gird, ῥώ-ννυ_μι strengthen, στρώ-ννυ_μι spread.


All the forms in -ννυ_μι started from verb-stems ending in ς: ἕννυ_μι from ἑς-νυ_-μι, σβέννυ_μι from σβες-νυ_-μι, ζώννυ_μι from ζως-νυ_-μι. All the other verbs are analogues of these.


Verb-stems in a consonant: ἄγ-νυ_μι break, ἄρ-νυμαι earn, δείκ-νυ_μι show, εἴργ-νυ_μι ( = εἴργω) shut in, ζεύγ-νυ_μι yoke (ἀπο) κτει-νυ_μι often written -κτίννυ_μι ( = κτείνω) kill, μείγ-νυ_μι (miswritten μί_γ-νυ_μι) mix, -οἰγ-νυ_μι ( = -οἴγω) open, ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε) destroy, ὄμ-νυ_μι (ὀμ-ε-, ὀμ-ο) swear, ὀμόργ-νυ_μι wipe off, ὄρ-νυ_μι rouse, πήγ-νυ_μι (παγ-, πηγ-) fix, πλήγ-νυ_μι (once, in ἐκπλήγνυσθαι Thuc. 4. 125; cp. πλήττω), πτάρ-νυμαι sneeze, ῥήγ-νυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-) break, στόρνυ_μι spread, φράγ-νυ_μι ( = φράττω) inclose.


Poetic verbs: αἴ-νυμαι take, ἄ-νυ_μι complete (ἀνύω), ἄχ-νυμαι am troubled, γά-νυμαι rejoice, δαί-νυ_μι entertain, καί-νυμαι excel, κί_-νυμαι move myself (cp. κι_νέω), ὀρέγ-νυ_μι reach, τά-νυμαι stretch, with νυ carried into other tenses (τανύω), τί_-νυμαι (cp. Epic τί_νω from τι-νϝ-ω) better τείνυμαι, chastise.


The verbs whose verb-stem ends in a liquid or nasal often form the tenses other than the present by adding ε or ο, as ὄλλυ_μι (from ὀλνυ_μι) ὤλεσα, ὀλώλεκα (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι ὤμοσα (ὀμ-ο-).


νυ_μι-verbs form only the present and imperfect according to the μι- conjugation; with the exception of σβέ-ννυ_μι, which has 2 aor. ἔσβην. The 2 aorist passive and 2 future passive are rare, as ῥήγνυ_μι ἐρράγην ἐκραγήσομαι, ζεύγνυ_μι ἐζύγην.


From verbs in -νυ_μι second aorists middle are formed in Hom. by only three verbs: μείγνυ_μι (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) mix ἔμικτο, ὄρνυ_μι rouse ὦρτο, πήγνυ_μι fix κατέπηκτο.


-νημι class. A few verbs add νη- in the singular, να- in the plural, to the verb-stem. These verbs are almost entirely poetical or dialectical; and show by-forms in -ναω. They are:

δάμνημι (δαμνάω) subdue, κίρνημι (κιρνάω also Epic) mix, κρίμνημι (miswritten κρήμνημι) suspend, πέρνημι sell, πίτνημι (πετνάω) spread, σκίδνημι (and κίδνημι) scatter.

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a. Only in the middle: μάρναμαι fight, πίλναμαι (πιλνάω) approach. In δύναμαι am able, να has grown fast (cp. δυνατός).


Stem Gradation.—Verbs of the root class show in the stem vowel a variation between strong and weak grades in the present and imperfect indicative active. The singular has the strong grade, the dual and plural have the weak grade. The optative active and most middle forms have the weak grade.

a. η strong (original and Dor. α_), α weak; φημί φαμέν, ἔφην ἔφαμεν; ἵστημι ἵσταμεν, ἵ_στην ἵ_σταμεν; δάμνημι δάμναμεν.

b. η strong, ε weak: τίθημι τίθεμεν, ἐτίθην ἐτίθεμεν; ἵ_ημι ἵ_εμεν.

c. ω strong, ο weak: δίδωμι δίδομεν.

d. ει strong, ι weak (cp. λείπω ἔλιπον): εἶμι will go, ἴμεν. The grades ει, οι, ι appear in εἰδῶ, subjunctive of οἶδα know, pl. ἴσμεν for ἴδμεν ( cross799).


In the second aorist ἔστην I stood the strong form has been carried from the singular through the dual and plural of the indicative. The strong stem occurs also in the imperative (στῆθι, στῆτε) and infinitive (στῆναι).


The second aorist infinitive shows the weak stem: θεῖναι from θέ-εναι, δοῦναι from δό-εναι. Cp. cross469 N. δτῆναι is, however, from στή-εναι ( cross469 c. N.).


A few root verbs retain the strong grade η throughout. Thus, poet. ἄημι blow ἄημεν; ἀέντες is from ἀηντες by 40; δίζημαι seek (poet. δίζεσθαι is from δίζομαι); πίμπλημι fill 2 aor. ἐνεπλήμην, opt. ἐμπλῄμην.


Verbs adding νυ show the strong form of the verb-stem in the present. ῥήγ-νυ_-μι break 2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην, μείγ-νυ_-μι (miswritten μί_γνυ_μι) mix 2 aor. pass. ἐμίγην, ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke 2 aor. pass. ἐζύγην.


The ending νυ varies between strong νυ_ and weak νυ. Thus δείκνυ_μι δείκνυμεν, ἐδείκνυ_ν ἐδείκνυμεν.


Verbs in -μι differ in inflection from verbs in in the present and second aorist systems and (rarely) in the second perfect system. Verbs in -μι have the following peculiarities of inflection:

a. The endings -μι and -σι (for original -τι) occur in the present indicative active: τίθη-μι, τίθη-σι; φη-μί φη-σί.

b. The 3 plural present indicative active has generally the ending -α_σι, from α-αντι, as τιθέα_σι, ἱστᾶσι. So in the 2 perf. active ἑστᾶσι.

c. The 3 plural of active past tenses has -σαν: ἐτίθε-σαν.

d. The imperative ending -θι is sometimes retained: φα-θί, στῆ-θι; some forms never had it: τίθει, ἵστη.

e. The middle endings -σαι and -σο regularly retain ς: τίθε-σαι, ἐτίθε-σο.

N.—But not in the subjunctive or optative; and usually not in the second aorist; as τιθῇ for τιθέη-σαι, τιθεῖο for τιθέ-ι_-σο, ἔθου for ἔθε-σο.

f. The infinitive active has -ναι: τιθέ-ναι, διδό-ναι; the 2 aorist active has -εναι rarely: θεῖναι for θέ-εναι, δοῦναι for δό-εναι.

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g. Active participles with stems in -οντ- have the nominative sing. masc. in -ούς ( cross301 a, cross307 a): διδούς, διδό-ντ-ος.


Forms of -μι verbs which are inflected according to the thematic conjugation are included under the Second Conjugation.


μι-verbs may pass into the ω inflection elsewhere than in the subjunctive. a. Verbs in -νυ_μι often inflect the present and imperfect active (not the middle) from a present in -νύω; as δεικνύω (but usually δείκνυ_μι), δεικνύεις, δεικνύει, imperf. ἐδείκνυον, -ες, -ε, etc.,; imper. δείκνυε, inf. δεικνύειν, part. δεικνύων.

b. τίθημι, ἵστημι, δίδωμι, ἵ_ημι, etc., show some ω-forms in pres. (and imperf.) indic. opt. imper. and infin.; but the forms τιθέω, ἱστέω, διδόω, ἱ_έω, do not occur in the 1 sing.

c. In the present and second aorist optative of τίθημι and ἵ_ημι there is a transition to the ω-conjugation but not in the 1 and 2 singular. The accent is differently reported: (1) as if the presents were τιθέω, ἱ_έω; (2) as if the presents were τίθω, ἵ_ω. Thus:

Active: ἀφί_οιτε for ἀφι_εῖτε, ἀφί_οιεν for ἀφι_εῖεν.—Middle: τιθοῖτο, ἐπιθοίμεθα, συνθοῖτο, ἐπιθοῖντο (also accented τίθοιτο, ἐπίθοιντο); προοῖτο, προοῖσθε, προοῖντο (also accented πρόοιτο, πρόοιντο). Hdt. has -θέοιτο and -θεῖτο. The form in -οῖτο for -εῖτο occurs especially in Plato.

d. The Mss. vary between τιθῶμαι and τίθωμαι, ἀποθῶμαι and ἀπόθωμαι ( cross426 f).

e. Some other μι-verbs show alternative ω-forms, as πιμπλάω, -εω (πίμπλημι), πιπράω (πίμπρημι), Hom. ἀγάομαι (ἄγαμαι), and ἱ_λάομαι (ἵ_λημι). So often with -νημι verbs ( cross737), as δαμνᾷ and δάμνησι, ἐκίρνα_ and κιρνά_ς.


The tragic poets never have the ω-forms; the poets of the Old Comedy seldom; those of the New Comedy often have the ω-forms.—Plato usually has -νυα_σι. Hom. has ζεύγνυον (and ζεύγνυσαν, ὤρνυον, ὤμνυε, ὀμνυέτω, etc.). Hdt. usually keeps the μι-forms, but has some ω-forms in 2, 3 sing. 3 pl. present indic. and part., and 1 sing., 3 pl. imperfect. Doric usually has the ω-forms; Aeolic has ζεύγνυ_, and ὄμνυ_ν infin.


Present Indicative.—a. The primary personal endings are added to the stem with the strong form in the singular and the weak form in the dual and plural.

b. In the 2 sing. τίθης, ἵ_ης, ἵστης, δείκνυ_ς, etc., ς has been added to the stem. This ς is obscure in origin, but cannot be derived from -σι. τιθει-ς is rare.

c. 3 sing. τίθησι, ἵστησι, etc., with -σι for -τι ( cross463 c).

d. 3 plur. τιθέα_σι, ἱστᾶσι, etc., from τιθέ-αντι, ἱστά-αντι ( cross463 d).

e. For the retention of ς in τίθε-σαι, etc., see cross465 a, b, and N. 2.

f. δίδομαι in the middle present and imperfect is used only in composition, as ἀποδίδομαι. But the simple form occurs in the passive.


1. Hom. has τίθησθα, τίθησι and τιθεῖ, τιθεῖσι; διδοῖς and διδοῖσθα, δίδωσι (usually) and διδοῖ, διδοῦσι, ῥηγνῦσι from ῥηγνυ-ντι, ἴα_σι they go and ἔα_σι they are. On ἵ_στασκε see cross495. Mid. ἐμάρναο from μάρναμαι.

2. Hdt. has τιθεῖ τιθεῖσι; ἱστᾷ is doubtful; διδοῖς, διδοῖ, διδοῦσι, ἴα_σι ἔα_σι, -νῦσι and -νύουσι. Middle: -αται and -ατο (imperf.) for -νται, -ντο in τιθέαται ἐτιθέατο, ἱστέαται ἱ_στέατο, δυνέαται ἐδυνέατο. -αται, -ατο have been transferred from the perfect and pluperfect of consonant stems, such as γεγράφαται, ἐγεγράφατο ( cross465 f).

3. Doric has ἵστα_μι, and α_ for η in all tenses (στά_σω, ἔστα_σα, ἔστα_ν); -τι in 3 sing. τίθητι; -ντι in 3 pl. τίθεντι, δίδοντι.

4. Aeolic has τίθης, τίθη, τίθεισι; ἴστα_ς, ἴστα_; δίδως, δίδω; δάμνα_ς.

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Imperfect.—ἐτίθεις ἐτίθει, ἐδίδουν ἐδίδους ἐδίδου (for ἐδιδων, -ως, -ω) are thematic forms ( cross746 b). For the imperfect of δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι see cross465 b, N. 1. For the retention of ς in ἐτίθεσο see cross465 b.


Hom. has ἐτίθει, ἐδίδους, ἐδίδου.—Hdt. has ὑπερετίθεα 1 sing., ἐδίδουν, ἐδίδου, ἵ_στα_ and ἀνί_στη (both in Mss.).—In poetry occurs for -σαν as τίθεν, ἵ_σταν, δίδον ( cross464 e. D.).


Subjunctive.—Attic τιθῶ, etc., are derived by contraction from the forms of the weak stem to which the thematic vowel ώη has been added. Thus τιθέω, -έῃς, -έῃ, τιθέωμεν, -έητε, -έωσι; διδόω, -όῃς, -όῃ, διδόωμεν, -όητε, -όωσι. ἱστῶ is derived from ἱστέω. See cross746 b. Verbs in -νυ_μι regularly inflect the subjunctive like ω-verbs: δεικνύω, -ύῃς, -ύῃ.

a. Similarly the middle (passive) forms are derived from τιθέω-μαι τιθέη- (ς) αι, etc., διδόω-μαι διδόη- (ς) αι, ἱστέω-μαι ἱστέη- (ς) αι, etc. For the loss of ς in -σαι see cross465 a. -νυ_μι verbs inflect the mid. subj. like λύ_ωμαι.

b. δύναμαι am able, ἐπίσταμαι understand, κρέμαμαι hang, and ἄγαμαι admire put ώη in place of the stem-vowel so that there is no contraction: δύνωμαι, δύνῃ, δύνηται, δυνώμεθα, etc. So, too, ἐπριάμην, πρίωμαι ( cross757 a).

c. Traces of -υ_ται in -νυ_μι verbs are very rare: ῥήγνυ_ται Hipponax 19; cp. διασκεδάννυ_ται P. Ph. 77b.


Dor. has τιθέω, -έωμεν, but contracts ε + η to η; pl. διδῶντι (and τίθηντι). Dor. has δύνα_μαι, ἵστα_ται; Hdt. ἐνίστηται, ἐπιστέωνται, δυνέωνται.


Present Optative.—The optative active has the secondary endings and the mood sign -ιη- in the singular, -ι_- (-ιε- 3 pl.) in the dual and plural. In the dual and plural the longer (-ιη-) forms are rare. Thus τιθείην (τιθε-ίη-ν), τιθεῖμεν (τιθέ-ι_-μεν), ἱσταίην (ἱστα-ίη-ν) ἱσταῖεν (ι·στά-ιε-ν). The shorter forms in dual and plural occur in poetry and prose, the longer forms only in prose.

a. The middle (passive) has the secondary endings and the mood sign -ι_- throughout: τιθείμην (τιθε-ί_-μην), ἱσταίμην (ἱστα-ί_-μην), ἱσταίμεθα (ἱστα-ί_-μεθα), διδοῖντο (διδό-ι_-ντο). On τιθοῖτο, etc., see cross746 c.

b. The accent follows 424 c, N. 1 (τιθεῖτο not τίθειτο). But the verbs of 749 b are exceptional: δύναιο δύναιτο; and so ὄναιο ὄναιτο from ὀνίνημι benefit ( cross424 c, N. 2).


Hom. has the μι-forms δαινῦτο and δαινύ_ατο, Plato has πηγνῦτο.


Present Imperative.—τίθει and δίδου are formed (cp. ποίει and δήλου) from τίθε-ε, δίδο-ε. ἵστη and δείκνυ_ show the stronger stem forms.

For the middle endings and the retention of ς, see cross466. 2. a.—On the forms τιθέτωσαν for τιθέντων, τιθέσθωσαν for τιθέσθων, see cross466. 2. b.


Hom. has ἵστη and καθίστα_, δίδωθι, ἐμπίπληθι, ὄμνυθι, ὄρνυθι, ἵστασο and ἵσταο. τίθου, ἵστω occur in the drama. Pind. has δίδοι (active).

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Present Infinitive.—The active adds -ναι, the middle -σθαι. δείκνυ_μι admits the form δεικνύειν.


Hom. has -μεναι or -ναι preceded by η in ἀήμεναι ἀῆναι from ἄημι blow, τιθήμεναι, κιχήμεναι and κιχῆναι as from κίχημι. Also ἱστάμεναι (and ἱστάμεν), ζευγνύμεναι (and ζευγνύμεν, once ζευγνῦμεν). -μεν after a short vowel, as τιθέμεν, διδόμεν (once διδοῦναι). Doric has τιθέμεν, διδόμεν. Theognis has τιθεῖν, συνιεῖν.


Present Participle.—The active adds -ντ-, the middle -μενος. Thus τιθείς (τιθε-ντ-ς), τιθεῖσα (τιθε-ντ-yα); τιθέ-μενος. For δεικνύ_ς we find δεικνύων.


Hom. has τιθήμενος K 34.


The futures of verbs in -μι do not differ in formation and inflection from those of verbs in .

τίθημι: θήσω, θήσομαι, τεθήσομαι; ἵστημι: στήσω, στήσομαι, σταθήσομαι, ἑστήξω; ἵ_ημι: ἥσω, -ἤσομαι, -ἑθήσομαι; δίδωμι: δώσω, -δώσομαι, δοθήσομαι; δείκνυ_μι: δείξω, δείξομαι, δειχθήσομαι, δεδείξομαι (late) or δεδειγμένος ἔσομαι; μείγνυ_μι: μείξω, -μιχθήσομαι, μιγήσομαι (poet.), μεμείξομαι (poet.); πήγνυ_μι: πήξω, παγήσομαι.

a. ἑστήξω is the only future perfect from a μι-verb ( cross584).


The verbs τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι form the singular active of the first aorist in -κ-α, thus, ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα. The forms of the second aorist ( cross756) are generally used in the dual and plural and in the other moods.

a. The form in κ rarely appears outside of the singular, chiefly in the 3 pl., as ἔδωκαν ( = ἔδοσαν), less frequently in the 1 and 2 pl., as ἐδώκαμεν, -ατε.

b. That κ was not a suffix but a part of an alternative root appears from a comparison of θηκ- in ἔθηκα and perf. τέθηκα with fēc- in fēci.

c. ἵστημι has ἔστησα I set, placed (mid. ἐστησάμην), to be distinguished from 2 aor. ἔστην I stood.

d. ἐθηκάμην is un-Attic; ἡκάμην (in comp.) is rare and probably found only in the indic.; ἐδωκάμην is very late.


Hom. has ἔθηκαν, ἔδωκαν, ἐνήκαμεν, θήκατο; Hdt. συνθήκαντο; Pind. θηκάμενος.


Indicative.—τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι use the short grade forms in dual and plural active: ἔ-θε-τον, ἔ-θε-μεν, ἔθε-σαν; εἷ-τον, εἷ-μεν, εἷ-σαν (for ἐ-ἑ-τον, etc.); ἔ-δο-μεν, ἔ-δο-σαν. In the singular the κ-forms, ἔθηκα, ἧκα, ἔδωκα, are used. ἵστημι has ἔστην, ἔστης, ἔστη (for ἐστητ, 464 c), ἔστημεν, etc. (p. cross138).

a. σβέννυ_μι extinguish is the only verb in -νυ_μι forming a second aorist (ἔσβην, σβῶ, σβείην, σβῆθι, σβῆναι, σβείς).

-- 209 --

b. The middle uses the weak stems -θε-, -ἑ-, -δο- in ἑ-θί-μην, -εἵμην (for ἐ-ἑ-μην), ἐ-δό-μην (only in composition). For the loss of ς in -σο (ἔθου, ἔδου) see cross465 b.

c. In prose the only uncompounded second aorists middle are ἐπριάμην bought (pres. ὠνέομαι) and ὠνήμην derived benefit (ὀνίνημι). ὠνήμην keeps η (poet. ὄνησο, ὀνήμενος). ἵστημι does not make the form ἐσταμην.


Hom. has older for -σαν in ἔσταν (he uses ἔστησαν also), Dor. has ἔθεν, ἔσταν, ἔδον. For the iterative στά-σκε, δό-σκον see cross495.

c. D. In poetry: ἐπτάμην (prose -ἐπτόμην) from πέταμαι fly; Hom. πλῆτο approached, ἔβλητο was hit (others, cross688).


Second Aorist Subjunctive.—All the forms of the 2 aor. subj. are due to contraction of the thematic vowel with the weak stem-vowel. Thus θῶ, etc., from θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέωμεν, etc.; , etc., from ἕω, ἕῃς, ἕωσι; δῶ, etc., from δόω, δόῃς, δόῃ; στῶ, etc., from στέω, στέῃς, etc., with ε from η before a vowel. Cp. cross682.

a. ἐπριάμην has πρίωμαι with ώη in place of the final vowel of the stem ( cross749 b).


The subjunctive shows traces of an earlier double form of inflection:

1. With short thematic vowel: θήεις, θήει, θήετον, θήομεν, θήετε, θήουσι. Homer: θήομεν, στήομεν, -στήετον, κιχήομεν, δώομεν, ἀποθήομαι.

2. With long thematic vowel: θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, θήητον, θήωμεν, θήητε, θήωσι. Hom. θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, στήῃς, στήῃ, ἀνήῃ, δώῃ or δώῃσι, περιστήωσι, δώωσι.

By shortening of the long vowel of the stem we obtain a third form:

3. θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέητον, θέωμεν, θέητε, θέωσι. Hom. ἀφέῃ, θέωμεν, στέωμεν, Hdt. θέω, θέωμεν, θέωσι, θέωμαι, στέωμεν, ἀποστέωσι, Aeolic θέω.

4. From 3 are derived the contracted forms θῶ, θῇς, θῇ, etc. Hom. ἀναστῇ, δῷς, δῷ or δῷσι, δῶμεν; Dor. δῶντι; Hdt. -θῇ, -θῆται; δῶμεν, -δῶτε, δῶσι.

N.—In Hom. the Mss. often have ει for η of the stem, as θείω, βείω, θείομεν, κιχείομεν.


Second Aorist Optative.—The forms of the optative of the second aorist are made and inflected like those of the present except for the reduplication. Thus, in the active: θείην (θε-ίη-ν), σταίην (στα-ίη-ν), δοῖμεν (δό-ι_-μεν), δοῖεν (δό-ιε-ν). The shorter forms are preferred in the dual and plural, and poetry has only these; prose admits either the longer or the shorter forms.

a. In the 2 pl. cases of -ιη-τε (δοίητε) are more numerous than -ι-τε; but they usually lack metrical warrant.

b. Second aorists of stems in υ lack the optative in Attic.

c. In the middle: θείμην (θε-ί_-μην), δοίμην (δο-ί_-μην), -εἵμην (ἑ-ί_-μην). For θοίμεθα see cross746 c. For the accent of πρίαιο see cross424 c, N. 2.


Hom. has σταίησαν P 733, the only case of -ιη- outside of the singular; δύ_η (for δυ-ίη), ἐκδῦμεν (for -δύ-ι_-μεν), and φθῖτο (for φθί-ι_-το) from φθί_νω perish.


Second Aorist Imperative.—On θέ-ς, δό-ς, ἕ-ς, see cross466. 1. b. These verbs show the weak form of the stem (θέ-τω, θέ-ντων). ἵστημι and σβέννυ_μι have -θι in στῆ-θι, σβῆ-θι. For στῆ-θι the poets may use -στα_ in composition, as ἀπόστα_ stand off.

a. The middle adds -σο, which loses its ς after a short vowel, as in θοῦ for θέ-σο, δοῦ for δό-σο, πρίω (and poet. πρία-σο). ς is not dropped after a long vowel (ὄνησο). Cp. cross465 b, N. 2.

-- 210 --

b. In composition περίθες, ἀπόδος, παράστηθι, ἐνθοῦ, προδοῦ; but κατάθου, περιδου, περίδοσθε ( cross426 b-c).

c. For the 3 pl. θέτωσαν, δότωσαν, ἕσθωσαν, see cross466. 2. b.


Hom. has θέο and ἔνθεο.


Second Aorist Infinitive.—The active adds -εναι in θεῖναι (θέ-εναι), στῆναι (στή-εναι), δοῦναι (δό-εναι), εἷναι (ἕ-εναι). The middle adds -σθαι, as θέ-σθαι.


Hom. has θέμεναι, θέμεν; στήμεναι; δόμεναι, δόμεν; and θεῖναι, στῆναι, δοῦναι. Dor. has θέμεν, δόμεν, στᾶμεν.


Second Aorist Participle.—The active adds -ντ- like the present: θείς (θε-ντ-ς), θεῖσα (θε-ντ-yα), θέν (θε-ντ); στά_ς (στα-ντ-ς), στᾶσα (στα-ντ-yα), στάν (στα-ντ). The middle adds -μενος, as θέ-μενος.


FIRST AND SECOND PERFECT (AND PLUPERFECT) ACTIVE Indicative.—The perfect of τίθημι is τέθηκα. A later form τέθεικα, not found on Attic inscriptions till after 200 B.C. and due to the analogy of εἷκα, still appears in some texts. τέθεκα is Doric. For καθέστακα Attic used καταστήσα_ς ἔχω (cp. cross599 b).

a. The dual and plural of the second perfect and pluperfect of ἵστημι ( cross417) are formed without κ: ἕστατον, ἕσταμεν (without augment in the pluperf.), ἑστᾶσι from ἑ-στα-αντι, pluperf. ἕστα-σαν. The singular is supplied by the 1 perf. ἕστηκα I stand.


Subjunctive.—ἑστήκω and ἑστῶ appear in prose and poetry, ἑστηκὼς ὦ in prose.


Optative.—ἑστήκοιμι occurs in comp. in prose, ἀφεστῶτες εἶεν in Plato, τεθηκὼς εἴης and δεδωκότες εἶεν in Demosthenes. ἑσταίην is poetical.


Imperative.—ἕσταθι is poetical.


Infinitive and Participle.—ἑστάναι and ἑστώς are much more common than ἑστηκέναι and ἑστηκώς.


Hom. has ἑστάμεναι and ἑστάμεν, ἑσταώς, -αότος. Hdt. has ἑστεώς, -εῶτος. Doric has -εῖα for -υῖα (ἑστα_κεῖα).


τέθειμαι even in composition is rare and is unknown on Attic inscriptions. For the pass. perf. κεῖμαι ( cross791) was used. Doric has τέθεμαι.


εἰμί (ἐς-, cp. Lat. es-se) am has only the present and future systems.

-- 211 --

Sing. 1 εἰμίεἴην or ἦν
2 εἶᾖςεἴηςἴσθιἦσθα
3 ἐστίεἴηἔστωἦν
Dual 2 ἐστόνἦτονεἴητον or εἶτονἔστονἤστον
3 ἐστόνἦτονεἰήτην or εἴτηνἔστωνἤστην
Plur. 1 ἐσμένὦμενεἴημεν or εἶμενἦμεν
2 ἐστέἦτεεἴητε or εἶτεἔστεἦτε or ἦστε (rare)
3 εἰσίὦσιεἴησαν or εἶενἔστωνἦσαν

Infin. εἶναι Participle ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν, gen. ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, etc. ( cross305)

FUTURE (with middle forms):

ἔσομαι, ἔσῃ (or ἔσει), ἔσται, ἔσεσθον, ἔσεσθον, ἐσόμεθα, ἔσεσθε, ἔσονται, opt. ἐσοίμην, inf. ἔσεσθαι, part. ἐσόμενος, , -ον.

a. The imperative 3 pl. ἔστωσαν occurs in Plato and Demosthenes; ὄντων in Plato and on inscriptions.

b. In composition ὤν retains its accent, as ἀπών, ἀποῦσα, ἀπόντος, etc.; and so ἔσται, as ἀπέσται ( cross426 e).


1. Homer has the following forms:

Pres. ind. 2 sing. ἐσσί and εἶς, 1 pl. εἰμέν, 3 pl. (εἰσί, and) ἔα_σι not enclitic.

Imperf. ἦα, ἔα, ἔον, 2 sing. ἦσθα, ἔησθα, 3 sing. ἦεν, ἔην, ἤην, ἦν (rare), 3 pl. ἦσαν, ἔσαν; iterative ( cross495) ἔσκον (for ἐς-σκον).

Subj. ἔω, ἔῃς, 3 sing. ἔῃ, ἔῃσι, ᾖσι, 3 pl. ἔωσι (twice ὦσι); μέτειμι has 1 sing. μετέω, and μετείω (with metrical lengthening).

Opt. εἴην, etc., also ἔοις, ἔοι; Imper. 2 sing. ἔς-σο (middle form), ἔστω, 3 pl. ἔστων.

Inf. εἶναι and ἔμμεναι (for ἐς-μεναι), ἔμμεν, also ἔμεναι, ἔμεν.

Part. ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, etc., rarely the Attic forms.

Fut. often with σς: ἔσσομαι and ἔσομαι; 3 sing. ἔσεται, ἔσται, ἔσσεται, also ἐσσεῖται (as in Dor.), ἔσσεσθαι, ἐσσόμενος.

2. Herodotus has pres, ind. 2 sing. εἶς, 1 pl. εἰμέν; imperf., the Attic forms and ἔα, 2 sing. ἔας, 2 pl. ἔατε; iterative ἔσκον; subj. ἔω, ἔωσι; opt. once ἐν-έοι, εἴησαν, less freq. εἶεν; part. ἐών.

3. Dor. pres. ind. 1 sing. ἠμί and εἰμί, 2 sing. ἐσσί, 1 pl. ἠμές and εἰμές (Pind. εἰμέν), 3 pl. ἐντί; imperf. 3 sing. ἦς (for ἠς-τ), 1 pl. ἦμες, 3 pl. ἦσαν and ἦν; inf. ἦμεν, εἶμεν; part. ἐών and fem. ἔασσα, pl. ἔντες. Fut. ἐσσεῦμαι, -ῇ, -ῆται or -εῖται, ἐσσοῦνται ( cross540 D.).

4. Aeolic ἔμμι out of ἐσμι; imper. ἔσσο, part. ἔων, ἔσσα (Sappho); imperf. ἔον.


The optative forms εἴημεν, εἴητε, εἴησαν are found only in prose writers. εἶμεν occurs in poetry and Plato, εἶτε only in poetry, εἶεν in poetry and prose and more frequently than εἴησαν.


The indicative εἰμί is for *ἐς-μι ( cross37); εἶ is for *ἐσι (originally ἐς-σί, 463 b); ἐς-τί retains the original ending τι; εἰσί is for (ς-) εντι, cp. Lat. sunt; ἐσμέν, with ς before μ despite 105; the ς is due to the influence of ἐστέ. The subjunctive is for ἔω, from ἐς-ω; the optative εἴην is for ἐς-ιη-ν; εἶμεν for ἐς-ι_μεν, cp. Lat. sĩmus. The infinitive εἶναι is for ἐς-ναι; the participle ὤν is for ἐών, from ἐς-ων.

-- 212 --


Old Attic is from ἦα (Hom.) = ἠς, i.e. ἐς- augmented + the secondary ending μ, which becomes α by 35 c. ἦς for ἦσθα is rare. The 3 pl. was originally ἦν, contracted from ἦεν (Hom.); this ἦν came to be used as 3 sing. By analogy to ἦμεν ἦστε the 1 sing. ἦν was formed.


Inflected according to the ω-conjugation are the subjunctive, the participle ὤν, and several dialect forms.


εἶμι (ἰ-, εἰ-; cp. Lat. ι_-ρε) go has only the present system.

Sing. 1 εἶμιἴωἴοιμι or ἰοίηνᾖα or ᾔειν
2 εἶἴῃςἴοιςἴθιᾔεισθα or ᾔεις
3 εἶσιἴῃἴοιἴτωᾔειν or ᾔει
Dual 2 ἴτονἴητονἴοιτονἴτονᾖτον
3 ἴτονἴητονἰοίτηνἴτωνᾔτην
Plur. 1 ἴμενἴωμενἴοιμενᾖμεν
2 ἴτεἴητεἴοιτεἴτεᾖτε
3 ἴα_σιἴωσιἴοιενἰόντωνᾖσαν or ᾔεσαν

Infinitive: ἰέναι. Participle: ἰών, ἰοῦσα, ἰόν, gen. ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, etc.

Verbal Adjectives: ἰτός (poet.), ἰτέος, ἰτητέος.

a. The imperative 3 pl. ἴτωσαν occurs rarely in Xenophon and Plato.

b. The participle ἰών is accented like a second aorist. The accent of the simple form of participle and infinitive is kept in composition, as παριών, παριοῦσα, ἀπιέναι. Otherwise the compounds have recessive accent so far as the rules allow: πάρειμι, ἄπεισι, but ἀπῇα, προσῇμεν.


Hom. has 2 sing. εἶσθα (Hesiod εἶς); subj. ἴῃσθα and ἴῃς, ἴῃσιν and ἴῃ, ἴομεν and ἴ_ομεν; opt. ἰείη and ἴοι; infin. ἴμεναι, ἴμεν, and ἰέναι (twice). Imperf.: 1 sing. ἤϊα, ἀνήϊον, 3 sing. ἤϊε, ᾖε, ᾔει (at the verse-end, ᾖε?), ἴε; dual ἴτην, pl. ᾔομεν, ἤϊσαν, ἐπῇσαν, ἴσαν, ἤϊον. For ἤϊα, ἤϊε, ἤϊσαν some write ᾔεα, ᾔεε, ᾔεσαν. Future: εἴσομαι Ω 462, ο 213. ϝείσομαι Ξ 8 and ϝείσατο, ἐϝείσατο probably come from ϝί_εμαι strive ( cross778).

Hdt.: ἤϊα, ἤϊε, ἤϊσαν (Mss.), but for ηι is correct.


εἶμι in the indicative present means I shall go, I am going. See cross1880. For I go ἔρχομαι is used in the present indicative, but not (in prose) in the imperfect, or in the other moods. The scheme of moods and tenses is as follows: Present: indic. ἔρχομαι, subj. ἴω, opt. ἴοιμι or ἰοίην, imper. ἴθι, inf. ἰέναι, part. ἰών. Imperfect: ᾖα. Future: εἶμι, ἐλευσοίμην, ἐλεύσεσθαι, ἐλευσόμενος.


In the imperfect the older prose writers usually have ᾖα, ᾔεισθα, ᾔει-ν, the later have ᾔειν, ᾔεις, ᾔει. The plural forms ᾔειμεν and ᾔειτε are not classical. Prose writers seem to prefer ᾔεσαν to ᾖσαν. The here is the stem ει augmented.


The part., the subjv., and the opt. are inflected with the thematic vowel; and so also some of the dialectical forms.

-- 213 --


ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send is inflected nearly like τίθημι (p. cross135). The inflection of the present and second aorist systems is as follows:

Pres.Imperf.Second Aor.Pres.Imperf.Second Aor.
S. 1 ἵ_ημιἵ_ην (ἧκα) ἵ_εμαιἱ_έμηνεἵμην
2 ἵ_ης, ἱ_εῖς ( cross746 b) ἵ_εις ( cross746 b) (ἧκας) ἵ_εσαι ( cross465 a) ἵ_εσοεἷσο
3 ἵ_ησιἵ_ει (ἧκε) ἵ_εταιἵ_ετοεἷτο
D. 2 ἵ_ετονἵ_ετονεἷτονἵ_εσθονἵ_εσθονεἷσθον
3. ἵ_ετονἱ_έτηνεἵτηνἵ_εσθονἱ_έσθηνεἵσθην
P. 1 ἵ_εμενἵ_εμενεἷμενἱ_έμεθαἱ_έμεθαεἵμεθα
2 ἵ_ετεἵ_ετεεἷτεἵ_εσθεἵ_εσθεεἷσθε
3 ἱ_ᾶσι ( cross463 d) ἵ_εσανεἷσανἵ_ενταιἵ_εντοεἷντο

S. 1 ἱ_ῶἱ_ῶμαιὧμαι
2 ἱ_ῇςᾗςἱ_ῇ
3 ἱ_ῇἱ_ῆταιἧται
D. 2 ἱ_ῆτονἧτονἱ_ῆσθονἧσθον
3 ἱ_ῆτονἧτονἱ_ῆσθονἧσθον
P. 1 ἱ_ῶμενὧμενἱ_ώμεθαὥμεθα
2 ἱ_ῆτεἧτεἱ_ῆσθεἧσθε
3 ἱ_ῶσιὧσιἱ_ῶνταιὧνται


-- 214 --

S 1 ἱ_είηνεἵηνἱ_είμηνεἵμην ( cross758 c)
2 ἱ_είηςεἵηςἱ_εῖοεἷο
3 ἱ_είηεἵηἱ_εῖτοεἷτο
D. 2 ἱ_εῖτον orεἷτον orἱ_εῖσθονεἷσθον
3 ἱ_είτην orεἵτην orἱ_είσθηνεἵσθην
P. 1 ἱ_εῖμεν orεἷμεν orἱ_είμεθαεἵμεθα
ἱ_είημενεἵημεν (—οἵμεθα)
2 ἱ_εῖτε orεἷτε orἱ_εῖσθεεἷσθε
ἱ_είητεεἵητε (—οἷσθε)
3 ἱ_εῖεν orεἷεν orἱ_εῖντοεἷντο
ἱ_είησανεἵησαν (—οἷντο)
S. 2 ἵ_ει ( cross746 b) ἕςἵ_εσοοὗ
3 ἱ_έτωἕτωἱ_έσθωἕσθω
D. 2 ἵ_ετονἕτονἵ_εσθονἕσθον
3 ἱ_έτωνἕτωνἱ_έσθωνἕσθων
P. 2 ἵ_ετεἕτεἵ_εσθεἕσθε
3 ἱ_έντων ( cross466. 2, b)ἕντωνἱ_έσθων ( cross466. 2, b)ἕσθων


ἱ_είς, ἱ_εῖσα, ἱ_ένεἵς, —εἷσα, —ἕνἱ_έμενοςἕμενος

Future: —ἥσω in prose only in composition; —ἥσομαι only in composition.

First Aorist: ἧκα in prose usually in comp., — ἡκάμην; both only in the indic.

Perfect Active: —εἷκα only in composition.

Perfect Middle (Passive): —εἷμαι (plup. —εἵμην), —εἵσθω, —εἷσθαι, —εἱμένος, only in composition.

Aorist Passive: —εἵθην, —ἑθῶ, —ἑθῆναι, —ἑθείς, only in composition.

Future Passive: —ἑθήσομαι, only in composition.

Verbal Adjectives: —ἑτός, —ἑτέος, only in composition.


1. In Hom. ἵημι usually has the initial ι short. Present: -ἱεῖς, ἵησι and -ἱεῖ, ἱεῖσι from ἱε-ντι, inf. ἱέμεναι and -ἱέμεν. Imperf.: -ἵειν, -ἵεις, -ἵει, 3 pl. ἵεν. Future: ἥσω, once ἀν-έσει. First Aorist: ἧκα and ἕηκα, ἐνήκαμεν once, ἧκαν once. Second Aorist: for the augmented εἱ-forms Hom. has usually the unaugmented ἑ-; as ἕσαν, ἕντο. In the subjunctive μεθείω, μεθήῃ, ἀφέῃ, μεθῶμεν.

2. Hdt. has -ἱεῖ (accented -ἵει), ἱεῖσι, imperf. -ἵ_ει, perf. ἀνέωνται for ἀνεῖνται, part. με-μετ-ι-μένος for μεθειμένος.

3. Dor. has perf. ἕωκα, ἕωμαι.


Since ἵημι is reduplicated (probably for σι-ση-μι) the initial ι should be short, as it is in Hom. (rarely in Attic poetry). ι_ is probably due to confusion with the ι_ of Hom. ἵ_εμαι (ϝί_εμαι) strive, a meaning that ἵεμαι occasionally shows in Attic. ἵεμαι meaning hasten occurs only in the present and imperfect.


ει is for ε ε in the second aorist active (ἐ-ἑ-μεν εἷμεν), perfect active (ἑ-ἑ-κα εἷκα), perfect middle (ἑ-ἑ-μαι εἷμαι), second aorist passive (ε' ἑ-θην εἵθην). In the aorists ε' is the augment, in the perfects the first is the reduplication of the weak stem ἑ-. The first aorist ἧ-κα has the strong stem form. Present subj. ἱ_ῶ, ἱ_ῇς, etc., are for ἱ_ἑω, ἱ_ἑῃς, etc.; aor. subj. -ὧ, -ᾗς, etc., are for -ἕ-ω, -ἕ-ῃς, etc.


Much confusion exists in the Mss. as regards the accentuation. Thus for ἱ_εῖς we find ἵεις, and in Hom. προΐει (present), as if from ἵω. See cross746 c.


For ἀφί_οιτε, ἀφί_οιεν and προοῖτο, προοῖσθε, προοῖντο (also accented πρόοιτο, etc.) see cross746 c.

-- 215 --


The imperfect of ἀφί_ημι is either ἀφί_ην or ἠφί_ην ( cross450).


φημί (φα-, φη-, cp. Lat. fā-ri) say, say yes , or assent is inflected in the present as follows:

Sing. 1 φημίφῶφαίηνἔφην
2 φῄςφῇςφαίηςφαθί or φάθιἔφησθα or ἔφης
3 φησίφῇφαίηφάτωἔφη
Dual 2 φατόνφῆτονnot foundφάτονἔφατον
3 φατόνφῆτονnot foundφάτωνἐφάτην
Plur. 1 φαμένφῶμενφαῖμεν or φαίημενἔφαμεν
2 φατέφῆτεφαίητεφάτεἔφατε
3 φα_σίφῶσιφαῖεν or φαίησανφάντωνἔφασαν

Infin.: φάναι; Partic.: poet. φά_ς, φᾶσα, φάν (Attic prose φάσκων); Verbal Adj.: φατός (poet.), φατέος.

Future: φήσω, φήσειν, φήσων.

First Aorist: ἔφησα, φήσω, φήσαιμι, —, φῆσαι, φήσα_ς.

Perf. Pass. Imper.: πεφάσθω let it be said.


1. Hom. has φῇσθα for φῄς; subj. φήῃ and φῇσι ( cross463 c. D) for φῇ; imperf. ἔφην, φῆν, ἔφησθα, φῆσθα, ἔφης, φῆς, 3 s. ἔφην, rarely φῆ, 1 pl. φαμέν, 3 pl. ἔφασαν, φάσαν, ἔφαν, φάν.

2. Doric φα_μί, φα_τί, φαντί; imperf. ἔφα_, φᾶ; inf. φάμεν; fut. φά_σω, φά_σομαι; aor. ἔφα_σα.

3. Aeolic φᾶμι or φαῖμι, φαῖσθα, 3 s. φαῖσι, 3 pl. φαῖσι.


All the forms of the present indicative except φῄς are enclitic ( cross181 c). —In composition σύμφημι, σύμφῃς (but the Mss. often have συμφῄς and συμφῇς), συμφῶ, σύμφαθι.


In the optative φαῖτε does not occur, perhaps by chance ( cross461, cross683 a). φαῖμεν, φαῖεν are ordinary Attic; φαίημεν, φαίησαν are rare.


Middle forms in present, imperfect, and future are dialectic.


Middle forms of φημί are rare or unknown in Attic (Plato has perf. imper. πεφάσθω), but common in other dialects; yet the pres. indicative middle is rare. Hom. has imperf. ἐφάμην, ἔφατο or φάτο, etc., imper. φάο, φάσθω, etc., inf. φάσθαι (and in choral poetry), part. φάμενος (also in Hdt.). These middle forms are active in meaning.


οὔ φημι means refuse (Lat. nego). In the meaning assert, φάσκω is commonly used outside of the indicative. In the meaning say often, φάσκω is used. ἔφησα and φήσω are aor. and fut. in the meanings say yes and assent. ἔφην, ἔφη (and φάναι) often correspond to Lat. inquam, inquit.


ἔφην and φῶ, φαίην may have an aoristic force. ἔφην and poet. ἐφάμην are both imperfect and second aorist.

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ἧμαι (ἡς-) sit is inflected only in the present system. The ς of the verb-stem appears only before -ται, -το.

ἧσταιἧσθονἧνταιἥσθω, etc.ἧστοἥσθηνἧντο

The subjunctive and optative are wanting; present infinitive ἧσθαι; participle ἥμενος.

a. Uncompounded ἧμαι occurs only in Epic, tragedy, and Herodotus. The missing tenses are supplied by ἕζομαι, ἵζω and ἵζομαι.


Hom. has εἵαται, and ἕαται (twice), εἵατο, and ἕατο once (once ἧντο). ἡ- is probably the correct spelling for εἱ-.


In place of ἧμαι we find usually κάθ-ημαι in Attic prose and comedy. κάθημαι sometimes is perfect in meaning (I have sat, I have been seated). The ς of the verb-stem does not appear except before -το.

S. 1 κάθημαικαθῶμαικαθοίμηνἐκαθήμην ( cross450) or καθήμην
2 κάθησαικαθῇκαθοῖοκάθησοἐκάθησοκαθῆσο
3 κάθηταικαθῆταικαθοῖτοκαθήσθωἐκάθητοκαθῆστο or
D. 2 κάθησθονκαθῆσθονκαθοῖσθονκάθησθονἐκάθησθονκαθῆσθον
3 κάθησθονκαθῆσθονκαθοίσθηνκαθήσθωνἐκαθήσθηνκαθήσθην
P. 1 καθήμεθακαθώμεθακαθοίμεθαἐκαθήμεθακαθήμεθα
2 κάθησθεκαθῆσθεκαθοῖσθεκάθησθεἐκάθησθεκαθῆσθε
3 κάθηνταικαθῶνταικαθοῖντοκαθήσθωνἐκάθηντοκαθῆντο

Infinitive: καθῆσθαι; Participle: καθήμενος.

a. The imperative has κάθου in comedy for κάθησο. In the imperfect ἐκαθήμην is used about as often as καθήμην.

b. The missing tenses are supplied by καθέζομαι, καθίζω, καθίζομαι.


Hom. has 3 pl. καθείατο (καθήατο?). Hdt. has κατέαται, κατέατο; καθῆστο not καθῆτο.


κεῖμαι (κει-) lie, am laid, regularly used in the present and imperfect instead of the perfect and pluperfect passive of τίθημι place.

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Sing. 1 κεῖμαιἐκείμην
2 κεῖσαικεῖσοἔκεισο
3 κεῖταικέηταικέοιτοκείσθωἔκειτο
Dual 2 κεῖσθονκεῖσθονἔκεισθον
3 κεῖσθονκείσθωνἐκείσθην
Plur. 1 κείμεθαἐκείμεθα
2 κεῖσθε (δια) κέησθεκεῖσθεἔκεισθε
3 κεῖνται (κατα) κέωνται (προς) κέοιντοκείσθωνἔκειντο

Infinitive: κεῖσθαι; Participle: κείμενος.

Future: κείσομαι, κείσῃ or κείσει, κείσεται, etc.

a. In the subjunctive and optative κει- becomes κε- before a vowel ( cross43).

b. Compounds have recessive accent in the present indicative and imperative: παράκειμαι, παράκεισο, but παρακεῖσθαι.


Hom. has 3 pl. pres. κείαται, κέαται, κέονται; imperf. κεῖντο, κείατο, κέατο, iter. κέσκετο; subj. κῆται, and κεῖται for χε (y) -ε-ται; fut. κείσομαι.

Hdt. has 3 sing. pres. κέεται and κεῖται, 3 pl. κέαται; imperf. ἔκειτο, pl. ἐκέατο.


ἠ-μί (cp. Lat. a-io) say occurs only in the present and imperfect 1 and 3 sing., and is used in parentheses (as Lat. inquam, inquit).

Forms: ἠμί, ἠσί; ἦν, ἦ. Examples: παῖ, ἠμί, παῖ boy, I say, boy! (emphatic repetition). ἦν δ' ἐγώ said I, ἦ δ' ὅς said he ( cross1113).


Hom has , Doric ἠτί, Aeolic ἦσι.


χρή it is necessary is really an indeclinable substantive meaning necessity with the verb understood. In the present indicative ἐστί is to be supplied. Elsewhere χρή unites with the form of the verb to be supplied; as subj. χρῇ (χρὴ ᾖ), opt. χρείη (χρὴ εἴη), inf. χρῆναι (χρὴ εἶναι), part. indeclinable χρεών (χρὴ ὄν); imperf. χρῆν (χρὴ ἦν), and less commonly ἐχρῆν with an augment because the composite character of χρῆν was forgotten, fut. χρῆσται (χρὴ ἔσται).

a. ἀπόχρη it suffices has pl. ἀποχρῶσι, part. ἀποχρῶν, -χρῶσα, -χρῶν, imperf. ἀπέχρη, fut. ἀποχρήσει, aor. ἀπέχρησε.


Hdt. has χρή, χρῆν, χρῆναι, but ἀπροχρᾷ, ἀποχρᾶν.


οἶδα (ἰδ, εἰδ-ε, οἰδ- originally with ϝ; cp. Lat. video) know is a second perfect with the meaning of a present, and formed without reduplication. The second perfect and second pluperfect are inflected as follows:

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Sing. 1 οἶδαεἰδῶεἰδείηνᾔδηor ᾔδειν
2 οἶσθαεἰδῇςεἰδείηςἴσθιᾔδησθαor ᾔδεις
3 οἶδεεἰδῇεἰδείηἴστωᾔδει (ν)
Dual 2 ἴστονεἰδῆτονεἰδεῖτονἴστονᾖστον
3 ἴστονεἰδῆτονεἰδείτηνἴστωνᾔστην
Plur. 1 ἴσμενεἰδῶμενεἰδεῖμενor εἰδείημενᾖσμενor ᾔδεμεν
2 ἴστεεἰδῆτεεἰδεῖτεεἰδείητεἴστεᾖστεᾔδετε
3 ἴσα_σιεἰδῶσιεἰδεῖενεἰδείησανἴστωνᾖσανᾔδεσαν

Infinitive εἰδέναι; Participle εἰδώς, εἰδυῖα, εἰδός ( cross309); Verbal Adj. ἰστέος; Future εἴσομαι. Compound σύνοιδα am conscious of.


1. Hom. has οἶδας α 337, ἴδμεν, ἴσα_σι (ἴσσα_σι for ἴ_σα_σι I cross36); subj. εἰδέω π 236 and ἰδέω (? Ξ cross235), εἴδομεν and εἴδετε with short thematic vowels; inf. ἴδμεναι, ἴδμεν; part. εἰδυῖα and ἰδυῖα. Pluperf. ᾔδεα, ᾔδησθα τ 93, ἠείδεις (-ης?) X 280 with η as augment ( cross433), ᾔδη, ᾔδεε, ἠείδει ι 206, 3 pl. ἴσαν for ἰδ-σαν. Fut. εἴσομαι, inf. εἰδησέμεν and -σειν.

2. Hdt. has οἶδας, ἴδμεν and οἴδαμεν (rarely), οἴδα_σι, subj. εἰδέω, plup. ᾔδεα, ᾔδεε (ᾔδει?), -ᾐδέατε, ᾔδεσαν, fut. εἰδήσω.

3. Dor. has ἴσα_μι (pl. ἴσαμεν, ἴσαντι) and οἶδα. Boeotian has ἴττω for ἴστω. Aeolic has ϝοίδημι and οἶδα.


The verb-stem has the meaning find out; hence the perfect οἶδα means I have found out and hence I know.


In Ionic and late Greek we find οἶδας, οἴδαμεν, etc. These forms are rare in Attic. οἶσθας occurs in comedy.


In the optative dual and plural prose writers have either the shorter or the longer forms; the poets only the shorter forms.


Pluperfect ᾔδειν, ᾔδεις occur in later Attic (Demosthenes), but are suspicious in earlier writers. ᾔδεισθα occurs in the best Mss. of Plato and elsewhere, but it is less correct Attic. ᾔδης is incorrect. ᾔδει is rare. ᾖστον, ᾔστην are almost entirely poetic. In the plural ᾔδειμεν, ᾔδειτε, ᾔδεισαν are post-classical. ᾔδεμεν, ᾔδετε occur rarely in the Attic poets.


οἶσθα is from οἰδ θα; ἴστε from ἰδ τε; ἴσθι from ἰδ θι ( cross83). ἴσμεν (older ἴδμεν) gets its ς from ἴστε ( cross87). ἴσα_σι is from ἰδ σαντι, with ς from (Hom.) ἴσαν ἰδ-σαν with the ending -σαν (cp. εἴξα_σι 704 d). ᾔδη is for ἠ-είδη with η as augment ( cross433).


Some verbs in the present appear in classical Greek in the active voice only, as βαίνω go, ἕρπω creep, τρέω tremble; others in the middle only, as ἅλλομαι leap, βούλομαι wish, κάθημαι sit, κεῖμαι lie.


Outside of the present some active verbs show middle forms especially in the future, as βήσομαι shall go, ἀκούσομαι shall hear ( cross805); and some verbs exclusively or chiefly deponent show active forms especially in the perfect, as γίγνομαι become γέγονα, μαίνομαι rage μέμηνα, δέρκομαι poet., 2 aor. ἔδρακον, perf. δέδορκα.


For the passive voice the middle forms sufficed in most cases; many middle futures are still used passively ( cross807, as ἀδικήσο-

-- 219 --

μαι shall be wronged; and traces of the passive use of the aorist middle appear in Hom., as ἔβλητο was hit. This use was largely abandoned when -ην and -θην came to be used as special marks of the passive. Originally neither -ην nor -θην was passive in meaning.


Hom. has ἐκτάμην was killed, ἐσχόμην was stayed. Cp. also ᾐδεσάμην and αἴδεσθεν (αἰδέομαι respect), ὀἱ_σατο and ὠίσθην (οἴομαι think), ἐχολωσάμην and ἐχολώθην (χολόω enrage).


The second aorist in -ην is primarily intransitive and shows active inflection (as ἔστην stood). Many so-called passive forms are in fact merely intransitive aorists of active verbs, as ἐρρύην from ῥέω flow, κατεκλίνην from κατακλί_νω lie down, and do not differ in meaning from the aorists of deponent verbs, as ἐμάνην from μαίνομαι rage.


The aorists in -θην that are called passive are often active or middle in meaning, as ἥσθην took pleasure in from ἥδομαι, ᾐσχύνθην felt ashamed from αἰσχύ_νω disgrace, αἰσχύ_νομαι am ashamed; ὠργίσθην became angry from ὀργίζω anger.


Future Middle with Active Meaning.—Many verbs have no active future, but use instead the future middle in an active sense: λαμβάνω take λήψομαι, γιγνώσκω know γνώσομαι.

a. Most such verbs denote a physical action, as the action of the vocal organs; the action of the organs of sight, hearing, smell, touch; the action of throat, mouth, lips; bodily activity in general, voluntary or involuntary; and other aspects of the physical side of human organism.


In the following list of active verbs with middle futures those marked * have also an active future; those marked † sometimes have an active future in late Greek. All verbs adding -αν- to form the present stem ( cross523, b, c) have a middle future except αὐξάνω, λανθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. Verbs denoting praise or blame usually have both an active and a middle future.

ἀκούωγελάω*ἐμέω*κλαίωοἰμώζωπλέωτλάω (ἔτλην)
βαίνω(see cross703) -θνῄσκωμανθάνωπάσχωσκώπτωχάσκω
*βλέπω*διώκωκάμνωνέω swimπί_νω(late)*χωρέω
βλώσκω*ἐγκωμιάζωκι (γ) χάνω

a. Compounds of χωρέω with ἀπο-, συγ-, παρα-, προς- have both active and middle futures; other compounds have only the active futures.


Future Middle with Passive Meaning.—In many verbs the future middle has the meaning of the future passive, as ἀδικέω wrong, ἀδικήσομαι shall be wronged.

-- 220 --


The following verbs commonly use the future middle in a passive sense. (All of these have the future passive in late Greek, except ἀμφις βητέω, ἐάω, εἴργω, ἐνεδρεύω, οἰκέω, παιδαγωγέω, προαγορεύω, στρεβλόω, στυγέω.)

ἀγνοέω not to knowεἴργω shutμαστι_γόω whipστρεβλόω rack
ἀγωνίζομαι contendἐκπλύ_νω wash outοἰκέω inhabitστυγέω hate (poet.)
ἀδικέω wrongἐνεδρεύω lie in waitὁμολογέω agreeταράττω disturb
ἀμφισβητέω disputeforὀνειδίζω reproachτηρέω guard
ἀνοίγνυ_μι open, C.I.A.ἐπιβουλεύω plotπαιδαγωγέω edu-τρέφω nourish
2. 1054 (not foundagainstcateτρί_βω rub
in literature)ἐχθαίρω hateπολεμέω wage warὕ_ω rain
ἄρχω ruleἔχω haveπροαγορεύω fore-φιλέω love
διδάσκω teachθεραπεύω tendtellφυλάττω guard
ἐάω permitκωλύ_ω preventσταθμάω measure


Some verbs use in a passive sense both a future middle form and a future passive form; on the difference in meaning see cross1738.

ἄγω lead, ἄξομαι, ἀχθήσομαι.μαρτυρέω bear witness, μαρτυρήσομαι,
ἀπατάω deceive, ἀπατήσομαι, ἐξαπατη-μαρτυρηθήσομαι.
θήσομαι.πολιορκέω besiege, πολιορκήσομαι, πολι-
αὐξάνω increase, αὐξήσομαι, αὐξηθήσομαι.ορκηθήσομαι.
βλάπτω hurt, βλάψομαι, βλαβήσομαι.πρά_ττω do, πρά_ξομαι (rare), πρα_χθήσομαι.
δηλόω manifest, δηλώσομαι, δηλωθήσο-στερέω deprive, ἀποστερήσομαι, ἀποστε-
ζημιόω fine, ζημιώσομαι, ζημιωθήσομαι.τι_μάω honour, τι_μήσομαι, τι_μηθήσομαι.
καλέω call, καλοῦμαι (rare), κληθήσομαι.ὑβρίζω insult, ὑβριοῦμαι, ὑβρισθήσομαι.
κηρύ_ττω proclaim, κηρύξομαι (rare), κη-φέρω bear, οἴσομαι, οἰσθήσομαι, κατενε-
κρί_νω judge, κρινοῦμαι, κριθήσομαι.φρονέω: καταφρονήσομαι despise, κατα-
λέγω say, λέξομαι (tragic), λεχθήσομαι.φρονηθήσομαι.
λείπω leave, ἀπολείψομαι, ἀπολειφθήσομαι.ὠφελέω aid, ὠφελήσομαι, ὠφεληθήσομαι.


Middle Deponents.—Deponent verbs whose aorists have an active or middle meaning with middle forms are called middle deponents. The aorist passive of such verbs, when it occurs, has a passive force. Thus αἰτιάομαι accuse, ᾐτια_σάμην accused, ᾐτιά_θην was accused. Others 813 c.


Passive Deponents.—Deponent verbs whose aorists have the passive form but the active or middle meaning are called passive deponents; as βούλομαι wish, aor. ἐβουλήθην. The future is usually middle in form. Most passive deponents express mental action of some sort.


In the following list verbs marked * have a future passive form and also a future middle form; as διαλέγομαι converse, aor. διελέχθην conversed, fut. διαλέξομαι and διαλεχθήσομαι shall converse. But ἥδομαι take pleasure in has only ἡσθήσομαι, and ἡττάομαι yield to, am worsted has only ἡττηθήσομαι. Verbs with † have also an aorist middle, but it is less common, or poetic, or late Greek.

-- 221 --

ἄγαμαι admire, ἠγάσθην*ἡττάομαι yield to, ἡττήθην
*†αἰδέομαι feel shame, ᾐδέσθην (ἐν-) θυ_μέομαι consider, ἐνεθυ_μήθην
ἀλάομαι (usu. poet.) wander, ἠλήθην (προ-) θυ_μέομαι am eager, προεθυ_μήθην
ἁμιλλάομαι contend, ἡμιλλήθην*† (δια-) λέγομαι converse, διελέχθην
ἀρνέομαι deny, ἠρνήθην (ἐπι-) μέλομαι care for, ἐπεμελήθην
*ἄχθομαι am grieved, ἠχθέσθην (μετα-) μέλομαι regret, μετεμελήθην
βούλομαι wish, ἐβουλήθην ( cross430) (ἀπο-) νοέομαι despair, ἀπενοήθην
δέομαι want, ἐδεήθην* (δια-) νοέομαι reflect, διενοήθην
δέρκομαι (poet.) see, ἐδέρχθην (ἐν-) νοέομαι think of, ἐνενοήθην
δύναμαι am able, ἐδυνήθην ( cross430) † (ἐπι-) νοέομαι think on, ἐπενοήθην
ἐναντιόομαι oppose, ἠναντιώθην† (προ-) νοέομαι foresee, provide, προε-
ἐπίσταμαι understand, ἠπιστήθηννοήθην
ἔραμαι ἐράω love, ἠράσθηνοἴομαι think, ᾠήθην
εὐλαβέομαι am cautious, ηὐλαβήθηνφιλοτι_μέομαι am ambitious, ἐφιλοτι_μή-
ἥδομαι take pleasure in, ἥσθηνθην

a. Some verbs use either the aorist middle or aorist passive without distinction, as ἐναυλίζομαι bivouac, πρα_γματεύομαι am engaged in.

b. Some verbs use both, but prefer the aorist middle, as ἀποκρί_νομαι answer, ἀπολογέομαι speak in defence, μέμφομαι blame.

c. Some verbs use the aorist passive in an active or middle sense, as ἀπορέομαι doubt, pass. be disputed, aor. ἠπορήθην; πειράω prove, πειράομαι try, aor. ἐπειρά_θην (less often ἐπειρα_σάμην), fut. πειρά_σομαι and πειρα_θήσομαι. ἐράω (poet. ἔραμαι) love has ἠράσθην fell in love with, fut. ἐρασθήσομαι.


Deponents with Passive Meaning.—Some deponent verbs have a passive meaning. This is avoided by good writers in the present and imperfect or future passive, is not frequent in the aorist, but is common in the perfect and pluperfect passive. Thus ἀπεκρίνεται (ἀπεκρίθη) ταῦτα this answer is (was) made is not good Greek. Few verbs show the passive meaning in most of these tenses; as ὠνέομαι buy, am bought, ἐωνήθην was bought, ἐώνημαι have bought, have been bought.

a. Present and Imperfect: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, am contended for, βιάζομαι force, am forced, λυ_μαίνομαι maltreat, am maltreated, ὠνέομαι buy, am bought.

b. Future Passive: ἀπαρνέομαι deny, ἀπαρνηθήσομαι, ἐργάζομαι work, do, ἐργασθήσομαι.

c. Aorist Passive: These verbs (middle deponents, cross810) have also an aorist middle; the aorist passive is used in a passive sense: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, αἰκίζομαι harass, αἰνίττομαι speak darkly, αἰτιάομαι accuse, ἀκέομαι heal, βιάζομαι force, δέχομαι receive, δωρέομαι present, ἐργάζομαι work, do, ἡγέομαι lead, θεάομαι behold, ἰ_άομαι heal, κτάομαι acquire, λυ_μαίνομαι maltreat, λωβάομαι abuse, μι_μέομαι imitate, ὀλοφύ_ρομαι lament, προφασίζομαι feign an excuse, χράομαι use, ὠνέομαι buy. ἀποκρί_νομαι has ἀπεκρί_νατο answered, ἀπεκρίθην usu. means was separated.

d. Perfect and Pluperfect: These verbs use the perfect middle in the middle or the passive sense: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, αἰνίττομαι speak darkly, αἰτιάομαι accuse, ἀποκρί_νομαι answer, ἀπολογέομαι make a defence, βιάζομαι force, ἐνθυ_μέομαι consider, ἐργάζομαι work, do, εὔχομαι pray, ἡγέομαι lead, κτάομαι

-- 222 --

acquire, λωβάομαι abuse, μηχανάομαι devise, μι_μέομαι imitate, παρρησιάζομαι speak boldly, πολι_τεύομαι act as (discharge the duties of) a citizen, πρα_γματεύομαι am engaged in, σκέπτομαι view, χράομαι use, ὠνέομαι buy.


Active Verbs with Aorist Passive in a Middle Sense.—The aorist passive of some active verbs has a reflexive or middle sense, either sometimes or always. Thus εὐφραίνω gladden, ηὐφράνθην rejoiced, κι_νέω move, ἐκι_νήθην was moved or moved myself, φαίνω show, ἐφάνην showed myself, appeared (ἐφάνθην usually was shown).

a. These verbs are often called middle passives.

b. The middle and the passive form of the future of such verbs is often found, the middle being frequently preferred.


Aorist Passive and Future Middle forms:

αἰσχύ_νω disgrace, ᾐσχύνθην feltὀργίζω anger, ὠργίσθην became angry,
ashamed, αἰσχυνοῦμαιὀργιοῦμαι
ἀνιάω vex, ἠνιά_θην felt vexed, ἀνιά_σομαιὁρμάω incite, ὡρμήθην set out, ὁρμήσομαι
ἐπείγω urge, ἠπείχθην urged, ἐπείξομαιπείθω persuade, ἐπείσθην obeyed, πείσο-