Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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ADJECTIVES OF THE CONSONANT DECLENSION 291

Such adjectives as belong only to the consonant declension have two endings. Most such adjectives have stems in ες (nominative -ης and -ες) and ον (nominative -ων and -ον). Under ον stems fall comparative adjectives, as βελτί_ων, βέλτι_ον better.

a. There are some compounds with other stems: M. F. ἀπάτωρ, N. ἄπατορ fatherless, G. ἀπάτορος; ἄπολις ἄπολι without a country, ἀπόλιδος; αὐτοκράτωρ αὐτοκράτορ independent, αὐτοκράτορος; ἄρρην (older ἄρσην) ἄρρεν male, ἄρρενος; εὔχαρις εὔχαρι agreeable, εὐχάριτος; εὔελπις εὔελπι hopeful, εὐέλπιδος. For the acc. of stems in ιτ and ιδ see cross247. Neut. εὔχαρι and εὔελπι for εὐχαριτ, εὐελπιδ ( cross133).

292

ἀληθής (ἀληθες-) true, εὔ-ελπις (εὐελπιδ-) hopeful are thus declined:

SINGULAR
Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.
Nom.ἀληθήςἀληθέςεὔελπιςεὔελπι
Gen. (ἀληθέ-ος) ἀληθοῦςεὐέλπιδ-ος
Dat. (ἀληθέ-ι) ἀληθεῖεὐέλπιδ-ι
Acc. (ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆἀληθέςεὔελπινεὔελπι
Voc.ἀληθέςἀληθέςεὔελπι

DUAL
N. A. V. (ἀληθέ-ε) ἀληθεῖεὐέλπιδ-ε
G. D. (ἀληθέ-οιν) ἀληθοῖνεὐελπίδ-οιν

PLURAL
N. V. (ἀληθέ-ες) ἀληθεῖς (ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆεὐέλπιδ-εςεὐέλπιδ-α
Gen. (ἀληθέ-ων) ἀληθῶνεὐελπίδ-ων
Dat. (ἀληθές-σι cross107) ἀληθέσι (ν) εὐέλπισι (ν)
Acc.ἀληθεῖς (ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆεὐέλπιδ-αςεὐέλπιδ-α

a. ἄληθες means indeed! Like ἀληθής are declined σαφής clear, εὐτυχής lucky, εὐγενής high-born, ἀσθενής weak, ἐγκρατής self-restrained, πλήρης full.

-- 78 --

b. The accusative pl. ἀληθεῖς has the form of the nominative.

c. Compound adjectives in -ης not accented on the last syllable show recessive accent even in the contracted forms. Thus, φιλαλήθης lover of truth, neut. φιλάληθες, αὐτάρκης self-sufficient, neut. αὔταρκες, gen. pl. αὐτάρκων, not αὐταρκῶν.

N.—Except in neuter words in -ῶδες, -ῶλες, -ῶρες, and -ῆρες, as εὐῶδες sweetsmelling, ποδῆρες reaching to the feet. But τριήρων, not τριηρῶν, from τριήρης, 264.

d. εε (ς) α becomes εα_, not εη ( cross56): εὐκλεᾶ, ἐνδεᾶ for εὐκλεέα, ἐνδεέα from εὐκλεής glorious, ἐνδεής needy (G. εὐκλεοῦς, ἐνδεοῦς). But ιε (ς) α and υε (ς) α yield ια_ or ιη, υα_ or υη. Thus, ὑγιᾶ or ὑγιῆ (ὑγιής healthy), εὐφυᾶ or εὐφυῆ (εὐφυής comely), cp. cross56, cross31, 2. The forms in -ῆ are due to the analogy of such forms as ἐμφερῆ (ἐμφερής resembling),

292D

The uncontracted forms of ες stems appear in Hom. and Hdt. -εϊ and -εες are, however, sometimes contracted in Hom., and properly should be written -ει and -εις in Hdt. The acc. pl. masc. and fem. is -εας in Hom. and Hdt. From adj. in -εής Hdt. has ἐνδέα for ἐνδεέα, Hom. ἐυκλεῖας for ἐυκλεέας, ἐυρρεῖος for ἐυρρεέος.

293

Stems in ον: εὐδαίμων happy, βελτί_ων better:

SINGULAR
Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.
Nom.εὐδαίμωνεὔδαιμονβελτί_ωνβέλτι_ον
Gen.εὐδαίμον-οςβελτί_ον-ος
Dat.εὐδαίμον-ιβελτί_ον-ι
Acc.εὐδαίμον-αεὔδαιμονβελτί_ον-α or βελτί_ω βέλτι_ον
Voc.εὔδαιμονεὔδαιμονβέλτι_ονβέλτι_ον

DUAL
N. A. V.εὐδαίμον-εβελτί_ον-ε
G. D.εὐδαιμόν-οινβελτι_όν-οιν

PLURAL
N. V.εὐδαίμον-εςεὐδαίμον-α (βελτί_ον-εςβελτί_ον-α
(βελτί_ουςβελτί_ω
Gen.εὐδαιμόν-ωνβελτι_όν-ων
Dat.εὐδαίμοσι (ν) βελτί_οσι (ν)
Acc.εὐδαίμον-αςεὐδαίμον-α (βελτί_ον-αςβελτί_ον-α
(βελτί_ουςβελτί_ω

a. Like εὐδαίμων are declined μνήμων μνῆμον mindful, ἀγνώμων ἄγνωμον unfeeling, ἄφρων ἄφρον senseless, πέπων πέπον ripe, σώφρων σῶφρον prudent.

b. Like βελτί_ων are declined μείζων μεῖζον greater, κακί_ων κάκι_ον baser, ἐλά_ττων ἔλα_ττον less.

c. The neuter nominative and accusative have recessive accent.

d. Comparatives are formed from stems in ον and in ος; cp. Lat. meliōris for meliōs-is. ος appears in βελτί_ω for βελτι_ο (ς) , acc. sing. masc. fem. and nom. acc. neut. pl., and in βελτί_ους for βελτι_ο (ς) -ες, nom. pl. masc. fem. The accusative plural borrows the nominative form. Cp. cross251 b. The shorter forms were more frequent in everyday speech than in literature.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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