Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Adjectives of Three Endings.—Most adjectives of the vowel declension have three endings: -ος, -η (or -α_), -ον. The masculine and neuter are declined according to the second declension, the feminine according to the first.

a. When ε, ι, or ρ ( cross30, cross218) precedes -ος the feminine ends in -α_, not in . But adjectives in -οος (not preceded by ρ) have η. Thus, ὄγδοος, ὀγδόη, ὄγδοον eighth, ἀθρόος, ἀθρόα_, ἀθρόον crowded. See cross290 e.


ἀγαθός good, ἄξιος worthy, μακρός long are thus declined:

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Gen.ἀγαθοῦἀγαθῆςἀγαθοῦἀξίουἀξία_ςἀξίου μακροῦ μακρᾶς μακροῦ
Dat.ἀγαθῷἀγαθῇἀγαθῷἀξίῳἀξίᾳἀξίῳ μακρῷ μακρᾷ μακρῷ
Acc.ἀγαθόνἀγαθήνἀγαθόνἄξιονἀξία_νἄξιον μακρόν μακράν μακρόν
Voc.ἀγαθέἀγαθήἀγαθόνἄξιεἀξία_ἄξιον μακρέ μακρά μακρόν

N. A. V.ἀγαθώἀγαθά_ἀγαθώἀξίωἀξία_ἀξίω μακρώ μακρά μακρώ
G. D.ἀγαθοῖνἀγαθαῖνἀγαθοῖνἀξίοινἀξίαινἀξίοιν μακροῖν μακραῖν μακροῖν

N. V.ἀγαθοίἀγαθαίἀγαθάἄξιοιἄξιαιἄξια μακροί μακραί μακρά
Gen.ἀγαθῶνἀγαθῶνἀγαθῶνἀξίωνἀξίωνἀξίων μακρῶν μακρῶν μακρῶν
Dat.ἀγαθοῖςἀγαθαῖςἀγαθοῖςἀξίοιςἀξίαιςἀξίοις μακροῖς μακραῖς μακροῖς
Acc.ἀγαθούςἀγαθά_ςἀγαθάἀξίουςἀξία_ςἄξια μακρούς μακράς μακρά

ἐσθλός good, κακός bad, σοφός wise, κοῦφος, κούφη, κοῦφον light, δῆλος clear; ἀνδρεῖος, ἀνδρεία_, ἀνδρεῖον courageous, δίκαιος just, ὅμοιος like, αἰσχρός, αἰσχρά_, αἰσχρόν base, ἐλεύθερος free; all participles in -ος and all superlatives.

a. The accent in the feminine nominative and genitive plural follows that of the masculine: ἄξιαι, ἀξίων, not ἀξίαι, ἀξιῶν, as would be expected according to the rule for substantives ( cross205), e.g. as in αἰτία_ cause, αἰτίαι, αἰτιῶν.

b. All adjectives and participles may use the mas uline instead of the feminine dual forms: τὼ ἀγαθὼ μητέρε the two good mothers.


In the fem. nom. sing. Ionic has , never -α_; in the fem. gen. pl. Hom. has -ά_ων (less often -έων); Hdt. has -έων in oxytone adjectives and participles, and so probably in barytones.


Adjectives of Two Endings.—Adjectives using the masculine for the feminine are called adjectives of two endings. Most such adjectives are compounds.


ἄδικος unjust (ἀ- without, δίκη justice), φρόνιμος prudent, and ἵ_λεως propitious are declined thus:

Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.

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Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.Masc. and Fem.Neut.
N. A. V.ἀδίκωἀδίκωφρονίμωφρονίμωἵλεωἵλεω
G. D.ἀδίκοινἀδίκοινφρονίμοινφρονίμοινἵλεῳνἵλεῳν

N. V.ἄδικοιἄδικαφρόνιμοιφρόνιμαἵλεῳἵλεα

a. Like ἄδικος are declined the compounded ἄ-λογος irrational, ἄ-τι_μος dishonoured, ἀ-χρεῖος useless, ἔμ-πειρος experienced, ἐπί-φθονος envious, εὔ-ξενος hospitable, ὑπ-ήκοος obedient. Like φρόνιμος are declined the uncompounded βάρβαρος barbarian, ἥσυχος quiet, ἥμερος tame, λάλος talkative.

b. Like ἵ_λεως are declined other adjectives of the Attic declension ( cross237), as ἄκερως without horns, ἀξιόχρεως serviceable. For the accent, see cross163 a. Adjectives in -ως, -ων have in the neut. pl., but ἔκπλεω occurs in Xenophon.

c. πλέως full has three endings: πλέως, πλέα_, πλέων, pl. πλέῳ, πλέαι, πλέα, but most compounds, such as ἔμπλεως quite full, have the fem. like the masc. σῶς safe has usually sing. N. σῶς masc., fem. (rarely σᾶ), σῶν neut., A. σῶν; plur. N. σῷ masc., fem., σᾶ neut., A. σῶς masc., fem., σᾶ neut. Other cases are supplied by σῶος, σώα_, σῶον. σῶον also occurs in the accusative.

d. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, adjectives commonly of two endings have a feminine form, as πάτριος paternal, βίαιος violent; and those commonly of three endings have no feminine, as ἀναγκαῖος necessary, φίλιος friendly.


Hom. has ἵ_λα_ος or ἵ_λαος; πλεῖος, πλείη, πλεῖον (Hdt. πλέος, πλέη, πλέον); σῶς (only in this form), and σόος, σόη, σόον, Hom. has N. ζώς, A. ζών living, and ζωός, ζωή, ζωόν living.


Contracted Adjectives.—Most adjectives in -εος and -οος are contracted. Examples: χρύ_σεος golden, ἀργύρεος of silver, ἁπλόος simple (feminine ἁπλέα_).

N. V. (χρύ_σεος) χρυ_σοῦς (χρυ_σέα_) χρυ_σῆ (χρύ_σεον) χρυ_σοῦν
Gen. (χρυ_σέου) χρυ_σοῦ (χρυ_σέα_ς) χρυ_σῆς (χρυ_σέου) χρυ_σοῦ
Dat. (χρυ_σέῳ) χρυ_σῷ (χρυ_σέᾳ) χρυ_σῇ (χρυ_σέῳ) χρυ_σῷ
Acc. (χρύ_σεον) χρυ_σοῦν (χρυ_σέα_ν) χρυ_σῆν (χρύ_σεον) χρυ_σοῦν

N. A. V. (χρυ_σέω) χρυ_σώ (χρυ_σέα_) χρυ_σᾶ (χρυ_σέω) χρυ_σώ
G. D. (χρυ_σέοιν) χρυ_σοῖν (χρυ_σέαιν) χρυ_σαῖν (χρυ_σέοιν) χρυ_σοῖν

N. V. (χρύ_σεοι) χρυ_σοῖ (χρύ_σεαι) χρυ_σαῖ (χρύ_σεα) χρυ_σᾶ
Gen. (χρυ_σέων) χρυ_σῶν (χρυ_σέων) χρυ_σῶν (χρυ_σέων) χρυ_σῶν
Dat. (χρυ_σέοις) χρυ_σοῖς (χρυ_σέαις) χρυ_σαῖς (χρυ_σέοις) χρυ_σοῖς
Acc. (χρυ_σέους) χρυ_σοῦς (χρυ_σέα_ς) χρυ_σᾶς (χρύ_σεα) χρυ_σᾶ

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N. V. (ἀργύρεος) ἀργυροῦς (ἀργυρέα_) ἀργυρᾶ (ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν
Gen. (ἀργυρέου) ἀργυροῦ (ἀργυρέα_ς) ἀργυρᾶς (ἀργυρέου) ἀργυροῦ
Dat. (ἀργυρέῳ) ἀργυρῷ (ἀργυρέᾳ) ἀργυρᾷ (ἀργυρέῳ) ἀργυρῷ
Acc. (ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν (ἀργυρέα_ν) ἀργυρᾶν (ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν

N. A. V. (ἀργυρέω) ἀργυρώ (ἀργυρέα_) ἀργυρᾶ (ἀργυρέω) ἀργυρώ
G. D. (ἀργυρέοιν) ἀργυροῖν (ἀργυρέαιν) ἀργυραῖν (ἀργυρέοιν) ἀργυροῖν

N. V. (ἀργύρεοι) ἀργυροῖ (ἀργύρεαι) ἀργυραῖ (ἀργύρεα) ἀργυρᾶ
Gen. (ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν (ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν (ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν
Dat. (ἀργυρέοις) ἀργυροῖς (ἀργυρέαις) ἀργυραῖς (ἀργυρέοις) ἀργυροῖς
Acc. (ἀργυρέους) ἀργυροῦς (ἀργυρέα_ς) ἀργυρᾶς (ἀργύρεα) ἀργυρᾶ

N. V. (ἁπλόος) ἁπλοῦς (ἁπλέα_) ἁπλῆ (ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν
Gen. (ἁπλόου) ἁπλοῦ (ἁπλέα_ς) ἁπλῆς (ἁπλόου) ἁπλοῦ
Dat. (ἁπλόῳ) ἁπλῷ (ἁπλέᾳ) ἁπλῇ (ἁπλόῳ) ἁπλῷ
Acc. (ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν (ἁπλέα_ν) ἁπλῆν (ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν

N. A. V. (ἁπλόω) ἁπλώ (ἁπλέα_) ἁπλᾶ (ἁπλόω) ἁπλώ
G. D. (ἁπλόοιν) ἁπλοῖν (ἁπλέαιν) ἁπλαῖν (ἁπλόοιν) ἁπλοῖν

N. V. (ἁπλόοι) ἁπλοῖ (ἁπλέαι) ἁπλαῖ (ἁπλόα) ἁπλᾶ
Gen. (ἁπλόων) ἁπλῶν (ἁπλέων) ἁπλῶν (ἁπλόων) ἁπλῶν
Dat. (ἁπλόοις) ἁπλοῖς (ἁπλέαις) ἁπλαῖς (ἁπλόοις) ἁπλοῖς
Acc. (ἁπλόους) ἁπλοῦς (ἁπλέα_ς) ἁπλᾶς (ἁπλόα) ἁπλᾶ

a. So χαλκοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν brazen, φοινι_κοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν crimson, πορφυροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν dark red, σιδηροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν of iron, διπλοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν twofold, and other multiplicatives in -πλοῦς ( cross354 b). Compounds of two endings ( cross288): εὔνους, -ουν (εὔνοος) well disposed, ἄπλους, -ουν (ἄπλοος) not navigable, εὔρους, -ουν (εὔροος) fair-flowing. These have open οα in the neuter plural.

b. The vocative and dual of contracted adjectives are very rare.

c. Adjectives whose uncontracted form in the nom. sing. has the accent on the antepenult (χρύ_σεος, πορφύρεος) take in the contracted form a circumflex on their last syllable (χρυ_σοῦς, πορφυροῦς) by analogy to the gen. and dat. sing. The accent of the nom. dual masculine and neuter is also irregular (χρυ_σώ, not χρυ_σῶ).

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d. For peculiarities of contraction see cross56. ἁπλῆ is from ἁπλέα_, not from ἁπλόη.

e. Some adjectives are not contracted: ἀργαλέος difficult, κερδαλέος crafty, νέος young, ὄγδοος eighth, ἀθρόος crowded (usually). (Here εο and οο were probably separated originally by ϝ, 3.)

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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