Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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282

Usually the irregularity consists in a word having two different stems.

a. Both stems have a common nominative singular: σκότος darkness, σκότου σκότῳ, etc. (like ἵππου ἵππῳ) or σκότους σκότει (like γένους γένει). So τὸν Ἄθω, and τὸν Ἄθων from Ἄθως ( cross238 d), τὸν Σωκράτη and τὸν Σωκράτην ( cross264 b). These are called heteroclites (ἑτερόκλιτα differently declined).

N. Many compound proper names in -ης (especially names of foreigners) have forms of the 1 and 3 decl., as Τισσαφέρνης, -νους, -νῃ and -νει. So Θεοκρί_νη (voc.) in Demosth., Λεωνίδην and Λεωνίδεα in Hdt.

b. Certain cases are formed from another stem than that of the nom. singular: ὁ ὄνειρο-ς dream, gen. ὀνείρατ-ος (as if from τὸ ὄνειραρ), or (less freq.) ὀνείρου; so τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα and τὸν Ἀπόλλω ( cross260), τοῦ υἱέος and τοῦ υἱοῦ ( cross285, cross27). These are called metaplastic forms (μεταπλασμός change of formation).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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