Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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263STEMS IN SIGMA (ες, ας, ος)

Stems in sigma are contracted where ς falls out between the vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending ( cross120). Thus, γένος race, gen. γενε (ς) -ος γένους, dat. γενε (ς) -ι γένει, cp. Lat. genus gener-is (for genes-is), gener-i.

a. The masculine and feminine accusative plural, when it is contracted, borrows the form of the contracted nominative plural. -εις is not derived from -εας. In the dative plural the union of ς of the stem and ς of the ending produces σς, which is reduced to ς without lengthening the preceding vowel ( cross107).

b. Masculine stems in ες with the nominative in -ης are proper names; the feminine τριήρης trireme is an adjective used substantively (properly, triply fitted; ἡ τριήρης (ναῦς) ‘ship with three banks of oars’).

c. Neuters with stems in ες have -ος in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular; neuters with stems in ας have -ας in these cases.

d. Some stems in ας have also a stem in ατ or α_τ ( cross258).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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