Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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250 DATIVE DUAL AND PLURAL

The dative plural adds -σι to the stem.

Ἄραψ (Ἀραβ-) Ἄραψι, μάστιξ (μαστι_γ-) μάστιξι, φύλαξ (φυλακ-) φύλαξι, σῶμα (σωματ-) σώμασι ( cross98), ἐλπίς (ἐλπιδ-) ἐλπίσι ( cross98), ὄρνι_ς (ὀρνι_θ-) ὄρνι_σι ( cross98), ἐλέφα_ς (ἐλεφαντ-) ἐλέφα_σι, θήρ (θηρ-) θηρσί.

a. Stems in ντ drop ντ and lengthen the preceding vowel ( cross100): λέων (λεοντ-) λέουσι, γίγα_ς (γιγαντ-) γίγα_σι.

b. Stems in ν drop ν without lengthening the preceding vowel (if short): δαίμων (δαιμον-) δαίμοσι, ποιμήν (ποιμεν-) ποιμέσι, φρήν mind (φρεν-) φρεσί.

N.—Strictly ν is not dropped, but since the stem of the dat. pl. is weak in form ( cross253 a) the ν stood originally between two consonants and should become α ( cross35 b). Thus, φρασί in Pindar is for φρσι. Attic φρεσί borrows its ε from φρένες, φρενῶν, etc. So ποιμέσι, for ποιμασι from ποιμσι, because of ποιμένες, etc.

c. ρς is not changed to ρρ ( cross79 a).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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