Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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249

The vocative is the same as the nominative:

a. In stems ending in a stop ( cross16) consonant (except those in ιτ, ιδ, ι_θ; ντ in nouns): ὦ φύλαξ watchman. (Αἴα_ς Ajax (Αἰαντ-) is nom. and voc.)

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b. In oxytone stems ending in a liquid and not taking ς to form their nominative ( cross242): ὦ ποιμήν shepherd (ποιμεν-); but ἀνήρ man, πατήρ father have ἄνερ, πάτερ ( cross262). Barytones use the stem as the vocative: δαῖμον, ῥτορ from δαίμων divinity, ῥήτωρ orator.

c. In all participles.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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