Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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241FORMATION OF CASES: NOMINATIVE SINGULAR

Masculine and feminine stems not ending in ν, ρ, ς and οντ, add ς.

a. A labial (π, β, φ) + ς becomes ψ ( cross97).

b. A dental (τ, δ, θ) + ς becomes σς ( cross98), which is reduced to ς ( cross107).

c. A palatal (κ, γ, χ) or κτ ς becomes ξ ( cross97).

(The same changes occur in the dative plural.)

γύ_ψ vulture γυ_π-ός, Ἄραψ Arab Ἄραβ-ος; κακότης baseness κακότητ-ος, ἐλπίς hope ἐλπίδ-ος, ὄρνι_ς bird ὄρνι_θ-ος; φύλαξ guard φύλακ-ος, μάστιξ scourge μάστι_γ-ος, σάλπιγξ trumpet σάλπιγγ-ος, ὄνυξ nail ὄνυχ-ος, νύξ night νυκτ-ός; ἅλ-ς salt ἁλ-ός, ἰχθύ_ς fish ἰχθύ-ος; ἐλέφα_ς elephant ἐλέφαντ-ος.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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