Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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349

The cardinals from 1 to 4 are declined as follows:

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onetwothreefour
Nom.εἱ_ςμίαἕνN. A. δύοτρεῖς τρίατέτταρες τέτταρα
Gen.ἑνόςμιᾶςἑνόςG. D.δυοῖντριῶντεττάρων
Dat.ἑνίμιᾷἑνίτρισί (ν) τέτταρσι (ν)
Acc.ἕναμίανἕντρεῖς τρίατέτταρας τέτταρα

a. εἷς is for ἑν-ς (cp. cross245). The stem ἑν was originally σεμ (Lat. semel, simplex, singuli), weak forms of which are ἅ-παξ, ἁ-πλοῦς, from σμ-π- ( cross35 b). μία stands for σμ-ια.

b. οὐδὲ εἷς, μηδὲ εἷς not even one unite (with change in accent) to form the compounds οὐδείς, μηδείς no one. These words are declined like εἷς: thus, οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν, οὐδενός, οὐδεμιᾶς, οὐδενός, etc., and sometimes in the plural (no men, none or nobodies) οὐδένες, οὐδένων, οὐδέσι, οὐδένας. For emphasis the compounds may be divided, as οὐδὲ εἷς not ONE. A preposition or ἄν may separate the two parts, as οὐδ' ἀπὸ μιᾶς from not a single one, οὐδ' ἂν ἑνί ne uni quidem.

c. πρῶτος (primus) means the first among more than two, πρότερος (prior) the first of two.

d. δύο may be used with the gen. and dat. pl., as δύο μνηνῶν of two months. δὺοῖν occurs rarely with plurals: παισὶν . . . δυοῖν D. 39.32. δυεῖν for δυοῖν does not appear till about 300 B.C.

e. ἄμφω both, N. A. ἄμφω, G. D. ἀμφοῖν (Lat. ambo). But both is more commonly ἀμφότεροι, -αι, -α.

f. For τέτταρες, -ράκοντα, etc., early Attic prose and tragedy have τέσσαρες, etc.

g. The first numeral is inflected in τρεῖς καὶ δέκα 13, τέτταρες καὶ δέκα 14 τρεισκαίδεκα and Ionic τεσσερεσκαίδεκα (very rare in Attic) are indeclinable.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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