Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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PRONOUNS 325

The Personal Pronouns.—The pronouns of the first, second, and third person are declined as follows:

SINGULAR
Nom.ἐγώ Iσύ thouhe, she, it ( cross325 d)
Gen.ἐμοῦ; μου encliticσοῦ; σου encliticοὗ; οὑ enclitic
Dat.ἐμοί; μοι encliticσοί; σοι encliticοἷ; οἱ enclitic
Acc.ἐμέ; με encliticσέ; σε encliticἕ; ἑ enclitic

DUAL
N. A.νώ we twoσφώ you two
G. D.νῷνσφῷν

PLURAL
Nom.ἡμεῖς weὑ_μεῖς youσφεῖς they
Gen.ἡμῶνὑ_μῶνσφῶν
Dat.ἡμῖνὑ_μῖνσφίσι (ν)
Acc.ἡμᾶςὑ_μᾶςσφᾶς

-- 91 --

a. The enclitic forms μου, μοι, με; σου, σοι, σε are used when the pronoun is unemphatic, the longer forms ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ and the accented σοῦ, σοί, σέ are

-- 92 --

used when the pronoun is emphatic. Thus, δός μοι τὸ βιβλίον give me the book, οὺκ ἐμοί, ἀλλὰ σοὶ ἐπιβουλεύουσι they are plotting not against me, but against you. See cross187 a. On the use after prepositions see cross187 N. 2.

b. For ἐγώ, ἐμοί, σύ the emphatic ἔγωγε, ἔμοιγε ( cross186 a), σύγε occur. Also ἐμοῦγε, ἐμέγε.

c. The use of the plural you for thou is unknown in Ancient Greek; hence ὑ_μεῖς is used only in addressing more than one person.

d. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun only the datives οἷ and σφίσι (ν) are commonly used in Attic prose, and then only as indirect reflexives ( cross1228). To express the personal pronouns of the third person we find usually: ἐκεῖνος, οὗτος, etc., in the nominative ( cross1194), and the oblique forms of αὐτός in all other cases.

e. For the accus. of οὗ the tragic poets use νιν (encl.) and σφε (encl.) for masc. and fem., both sing. and pl. (= eum, eam; eos, eas). Doric so uses νιν. σφίν is rarely singular (ei) in tragedy.

f. ἡμῶν, ἡμῖν, ἡμᾶς, ὑ_μῶν, ὑ_μῖν, ὑ_μᾶς, when unemphatic, are sometimes accented in poetry on the penult, and -ι_ν and -α_ς are usually shortened. Thus, ἥμων, ἧμιν, ἧμας, ὕ_μων, ὗμιν, ὗμας. -ι_ν and -α_ς are sometimes shortened even if the pronouns are emphatic, and we have ἡμίν, ἡμάς, ὑ_μίν, ὑ_μάς. σφάς occurs for σφᾶς.

325D

1. Homer inflects the personal pronouns as follows. (The forms ἀμμ-, ὐμμ- are Aeolic).

SINGULAR
Nom.ἐγώ, ἐγώνσύ, τύ_νη
( ἐμεῖο, ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ,σεῖο, σέο, σεο (encl.εῖο, ἕο, ἑο (encl.),
Gen.( μευ (encl.), ἐμέθενA cross396), σεῦ,εὗ, εὑ (encl.),
(σευ (encl.), σέθενἕθεν, ἑθεν (encl.)
Dat.ἐμοί, μοι (encl.)σοί, τοι (encl.), τεΐνἑοῖ, οἷ, οἱ (encl.)
Acc.ἐμέ, με (encl.)σέ, σε (encl.)ἑέ, , (encl.), μιν (encl.)

DUAL
N. A.νῶϊ, νώσφῶϊ, σφώσφωε (encl.)
G. D.νῶϊνσφῶϊν, σφῷν (δ 62) σφωϊν (encl.)

PLURAL
Nom.ἡμεῖς, ἄμμεςὑ_μεῖς, ὔμμες (and voc.)
Gen.( ἡμείων, ἡμέωνὑ_μείων, ὑ_μέωνσφείων, σφέων,
(σφεων (encl.), σφῶν
Dat.( ἡμῖν, ἄμμι (ν) ὑ_μῖν, ὔμμι (ν) σφίσι (ν), σφισι (ν) (encl.),
(σφιν (encl.)
Acc.( ἡμέας, ἄμμεὑ_μέας, ὔμμεσφέας, σφεας (encl.),
(σφε (encl.)

σφε (encl.) is used as accus. of all genders and numbers.

2. Herodotus inflects the personal pronouns as follows:

SINGULAR
Nom.ἐγώσύ
Gen.ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, μευ (encl.)σέο, σεῦ, σευ (encl.)εὑ (encl.)
Dat.ἐμοί, μοι (encl.)σοί, τοι (encl.)οἱ (encl.)
Acc.ἐμέ, με (encl.)σέ, σε (encl.) (encl.), μιν (encl.)

PLURAL
Nom.ἡμεῖςὑ_μεῖςσφεῖς
Gen.ἡμέωνὑ_μέωνσφέων, σφεων (encl.)
Dat.ἡμῖνὑ_μῖνσφίσι, σφισι (encl.)
Acc.( ἡμέαςὑ_μέαςσφέας, σφεας (encl.), neut.
(σφεα (encl.)

σφίσι is used for ἑαυτοῖς, -αῖς; σφι (encl.) for αὐτοῖς, -αῖς; σφεα (encl.) for αὐτά.

3. Ionic μιν (encl.) is used in all genders (eum, eam, id), but not in the plural. ἄμμι, ὔμμε occur a few times, σέθεν often, in tragedy.

4. The chief forms peculiar to Doric are: I. ἐγών also before consonants; G. ἐμέος, ἐμοῦς, ἐμεῦς; D. ἐμίν; Pl. N. ἁ_μές; G. ἁ_μέων, ἁ_μῶν; D. ἁ_μίν (ι_), ἇμιν; A. ἁ_μέ. II. τύ, τύ_νη; G. τέος, τεοῦς, τεῦς, τέο, τεῦ, τεοῦ; D. τίν, τί_νη; A. τέ, τίν, τύ; Pl. N. ὑ_μές; G. ὑ_μέων; D. ὑ_μίν, ὗμιν; A. ὑ_μέ. III. G. ἑοῦς, ἑοῦ; D. ϝίν; A. νίν; Pl. G. σφείων, ψέων; D. φίν, ψίν; A. σφέ, ψέ.

326

Stems.—I. (ε') με- (cp. Lat. me), νω- (cp. Lat. νο_-ς), (ε') μο-, ἡμε-. ἐμοῦ is from ἐμέο; ἡμεῖς from ἀμμε-ες ( cross37) with the rough breathing in imitation of ὑ_μεῖς; ἡμῶν from ἡμέων, ἡμᾶς from ἡμέας with α_ not η by 56. ἐγώ is not connected with these stems. II. συ- and σε- from τϝε; το-; σφω-; ὑ_με- from ὑμμε- ( cross37). III. for σϝε (cp. Lat. se), ἑέ for σεϝε, οἷ for σϝο-ι, and σφε-. The form of the stems and formation of the cases is often obscure.

327

The Intensive Pronoun αὐτός.—αὐτός self is declined thus:

SINGULARDUALPLURAL
Masc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.
Nom.αὐτόςαὐτήαὐτόN.A.αὐτώαὐτά_αὐτώNom. αὐτοίαὐταίαὐτά
Gen.αὐτοῦαὐτῆςαὐτοῦG.D.αὐτοῖναὐταῖναὐτοῖνGen. αὐτῶναὐτῶναὐτῶν
Dat.αὐτῷαὐτῇαὐτῷDat.αὐτοῖςαὐταῖς αὐτοῖς
Acc.αὐτόναὐτήναὐτόAcc.αὐτούςαὐτά_ς αὐτά

αὐτός is declined like ἀγαθός ( cross287), but there is no vocative and the neuter nominative and accusative have no . But ταὐτόν the same is common ( cross328 N.).

327D

Hdt. has αὐτέων in the genitive plural. For the crasis ωὐτός (Hom.), ωὑτός, τωὐτό (Hdt.), see cross68 D.

328

αὐτός is a definite adjective and a pronoun. It has three meanings:

a. self: standing by itself in the nominative, αὐτὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself, or (without the article) in agreement with a substantive or pronoun; as ἀνδρὸς αὐτοῦ of the man himself.

-- 93 --

b. him, her, it, them, etc.: standing by itself in an oblique case (never in the nominative). The oblique cases of αὐτός are generally used instead of οὗ, οἷ, ἕ, etc., as ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ his father, οἱ παῖδες αὐτῶν their children.

c. same: when it is preceded by the article in any case: ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man, τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀνδρός of the same man.

N.—The article and αὐτός may unite by crasis ( cross68 a): αὑτός, αὑτή, ταὐτό or ταὐτόν; ταὐτοῦ, ταὐτῆς; ταὐτῷ, ταὐτῇ, etc. Distinguish αὑτή the same f. from αὕτη this f.; ταὐτά the same n. from ταῦτα these things n.; ταὐτῇ from ταύτῃ.

329

Reflexive Pronouns.—The reflexive pronouns (referring back to the subject of the sentence) are formed by compounding the stems of the personal pronouns with the oblique cases of αὐτός. In the plural both pronouns are declined separately, but the third person has also the compounded form. The nominative is excluded by the meaning. There is no dual.

myselfthyselfhimself, herself, itself
Gen.ἐμαυτοῦ, -ῆςσεαυτοῦ, -ῆς (σαυτοῦ, -ῆς) ἑαυτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ (αὑτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ)
Dat.ἐμαυτῷ, -ῇσεαυτῷ, -ῇ (σαυτῷ, -ῇ) ἑαυτῷ, -ῆ, -ῷ (αὑτῷ, -ῇ, -ῷ)
Acc.ἐμαυτόν, -ήνσεαυτόν, -ήν (σαυτόν, -ήν) ἑαυτόν, -ήν, (αὑτόν, -ήν, )

ourselvesyourselvesthemselves
Gen.ἡμῶν αὐτῶνὑ_μῶν αὐτῶνἑαυτῶν or σφῶν αὐτῶν
Dat.ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, -αῖςὑ_μῖν αὐτοῖς, -αῖςἑαυτοῖς, -αῖς, -οῖς or σφίσιν
αὐτοῖς, -αῖς
Acc.ἡμᾶς αὐτούς, -ά_ςὑ_μᾶς αὐτούς, -ά_ςἑαυτούς, -ά_ς, or σφᾶς αὐ-
τούς, -ά_ς

a. For ἑαυτῶν, etc., we find αὑτῶν, αὑτοῖς, -αῖς, αὑτούς, -ά_ς. Distinguish αὑτοῦ of himself from αὐτοῦ ( cross328).

329D

Hom. never compounds the two pronouns: thus, ἐμέθεν αὐτῆς, σοὶ αὐτῷ, οἷ αὐτῷ, ἑὲ αὐτόν, ἓ αὐτήν. Hdt. has a few cases of the uncompounded forms; usually ἐμεωυτοῦ, -τῷ, -τόν, σεωυτοῦ, ἑωυτοῦ, ἑωυτῶν, -οῖσι, -ούς, and σφέων αὐτῶν, etc. The forms with εωυ started with ἑωυτῷ in the dative from ἑο () αὐτῷ, and spread thence to the other cases.

330

Possessive Pronouns.—Possessive pronouns, formed from the stems of the personal pronouns, are declined like ἀγαθός, ἄξιος ( cross287).

ἐμός ἐμή ἐμόνmy, my own; mineἡμέτερος -α_ -ονour, our own; ours
σός σή σόνthy, thine own; thineὑ_μέτερος -α_ -ονyour, your own; yours
[ὅς ἥ ὅνhis (her, its) own]σφέτερος -α_ -ονtheir own

-- 94 --

a. Distinguish the adjectival from the pronominal use: ὁ ἐμὸς φίλος or ὁ φίλος ὁ ἐμός my friend (adj.) from φίλος ἐμός a friend of mine (pron.). See cross1196 a.

b. ὅς is not used in Attic prose. For his, her, its, αὐτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ are used.

330D

1. Hom. has also τεός thy, ἑός for ὅς his, her own, ἁ_μός our, ὑ_μός your, σφός their (rarely of the singular), νωΐτερος of us two, σφωΐτερος of you two. For ἐμός Attic poetry may use ἁ_μός (sometimes printed ἀ_μός) our.

2. ὅς, ἑός in Hom. may mean my own, your own ( cross1230 a).

331

Reciprocal Pronoun.—The reciprocal pronoun, meaning one another, each other, is made by doubling the stem of ἄλλος (ἀλλ-αλλο-). It is used only in the oblique cases of the dual and plural. (Cp. alii aliorum, alter alterius).

DUALPLURAL
Gen.ἀλλήλοινἀλλήλαινἀλλήλοινἀλλήλωνἀλλήλωνἀλλήλων
Dat.ἀλλήλοινἀλλήλαινἀλλήλοινἀλλήλοιςἀλλήλαιςἀλλήλοις
Acc.ἀλλήλωἀλλήλα_ἀλλήλωἀλλήλουςἀλλήλα_ςἄλληλα

332

The Definite Article.—The definite article ὁ, ἡ, τό (stems ὁ-, ἁ_-, το-) is thus declined:

SINGULARDUALPLURAL
Nom.τόN. A.τώτώτώNom.οἱαἱτά
Gen.τοῦτῆςτοῦG. D.τοῖντοῖντοῖνGen. τῶντῶντῶν
Dat.τῷτῇτῷDat.τοῖςταῖς τοῖς
Acc.τόντήντόAcc.τούςτά_ς τά

a. The definite article is a weakened demonstrative pronoun, and is still used as a demonstrative in Homer ( cross1100).

b. τά_ (especially) and ταῖν, the feminine forms in the dual, are very rare in the authors, and are unknown on Attic prose inscriptions of the classical period.

332D

Hom. has also gen. τοῖο, gen. dat. dual τοῖιν; nom. pl. τοί, ταί; gen. pl. fem. τά_ων; dat. pl. masc. τοῖσι, fem. τῇσι, τῇς (Hdt. τοῖσι, τῇσι). Doric are τῶ, τᾶς, etc.; pl. also N. τοί, ταί; G. fem. τᾶν. Generally poetic are τοῖσι, ταῖσι. τοὶ μέν, τοὶ δέ occur rarely in tragedy for οἱ μέν, οἱ δέ.

333

Demonstrative Pronouns.—The chief demonstrative pronouns are ὅδε this (here), οὗτος this, that, ἐκεῖνος that (there, yonder).

SINGULAR
Nom.ὅδεἥδετόδεοὗτοςαὕτητοῦτοἐκεῖνοςε κείνηἐκεῖνο
Gen.τοῦδετῆσδετοῦδετούτουταύτηςτούτουἐκείνου ἐκείνηςἐκείνου
Dat.τῷδετῇδετῷδετούτῳταύτῃτούτῳἐκείνῳ ἐκείνῃἐκείνῳ
Acc.τόνδετήνδετόδετοῦτονταύτηντοῦτοἐκεῖνον ἐκείνηνἐκεῖνο

-- 95 --

DUAL
N. A.τώδετώδετώδετούτωτούτωτούτωἐκείνωἐκ είνωἐκείνω
G. D.τοῖνδετοῖνδετοῖνδετούτοιντούτοιντούτοινἐκείνοιν ἐκείνοινἐκείνοιν

PLURAL
Nom.οἵδεαἵδετάδεοὗτοιαὗταιταῦταἐκεῖνοι ἐκεῖναιἐκεῖνα
Gen.τῶνδετῶνδετῶνδετούτωντούτωντούτωνἐκείνων ἐκείνωνἐκείνων
Dat.τοῖσδεταῖσδετοῖσδετούτοιςταύταιςτούτοιςἐκείνοις ἐκείναιςἐκείνοις
Acc.τούσδετά_σδετάδετούτουςταύτα_ςταῦταἐκείνους ἐκείνα_ςἐκεῖνα

a. ὅδε is formed from the old demonstrative ὁ, ἡ, τό this or that, with the indeclinable demonstrative (and enclitic) ending -δε here (cp. hī-c from hī-ce, Fr. ce-ci). For the accent of ἥδε, οἵδε, αἵδε see cross186.

b. οὗτος has the rough breathing and τ in the same places as the article. ου corresponds to the ο, αυ to the α, of the article. For οὗτος as a vocative, see cross1288 a. (οὗτος is from + the particle *υ + the demonstrative suffix το ς).

c. ἐκεῖνος has a variant form κεῖνος in poetry, and sometimes in prose (Demosthenes). (ἐκεῖνος stands for ἐκε (ι) -ενος from ἐκεῖ there + suffix -ενος.)

d. Other demonstrative pronouns are

τοσόσδετοσήδετοσόνδεso much, so many )pointing forward
τοιόσδετοιά_δετοιόνδεsuch (in quality) )(to what follows).
τηλικόσδετηλικήδετηλικόνδεso old, so great )

These are formed from -δε and the (usually) poetic τόσος, τοῖος, τηλίκος with the same meanings.

e. Combinations of the above words and οὗτος are

τοσοῦτοςτοσαύτητοσοῦτο (ν) so much, so many )pointing backward
τοιοῦτοςτοιαύτητοιοῦτο (ν) such (in quality) )(to what precedes).
τηλικοῦτοςτηλικαύτητηλικοῦτο (ν) so old, so great )

The forms in are more common than those in -ο. Attic prose inscriptions have only -ον.

333eD

Hom. always, Hdt. rarely, has the final ν.

f. The dual rarely has separate feminine forms.

g. The deictic suffix -ι_ may be added to demonstratives for emphasis. Before it α, ε, ο are dropped. Thus, ὁδί_ this man here, ἡδί_, τοδί_, G. τουδί_, τησδί_, etc.; οὑτοσί_, αὑτηί_, τουτί_, οὑτοιί_, τουτωνί_. So with other demonstratives and with adverbs: τοσουτοσί_, οὑτωσί_, ὡδί_. For -ι_ we have, in comedy, -γι_ or (rarely) -δι_ formed from γ (ε), δ (ε) + ί_. Thus, αὑτηγί_, τουτογί_, τουτοδί_.

333D

For τοῖσδε Hom. has also τοῖσδεσσι or τοῖσδεσι. Doric has n. pl. τούτοι, ταύται, gen. pl. fem. ταυτᾶν (Aeol. ταύτα_ν). κεῖνος occurs in Hdt. (together with ἐκεῖνος). Doric and Aeolic have κῆνος.

334

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.—The interrogative pronoun τίς, τί who, which, what? never changes its accent to the grave ( cross154). The indefinite pronoun τὶς, τὶ any one, some one, anything, something is enclitic ( cross181 b).

-- 96 --

SINGULAR
InterrogativeIndefinite
Nom.τίςτίτὶςτὶ
Gen.τίν-ος, τοῦτιν-ός, τοῦ
Dat.τίν-ι, τῷτιν-ί, τῷ
Acc.τίν-ατίτινάτὶ

DUAL
N. A. V.τίν-ετιν-έ
G. D.τίν-οιντιν-οῖν

PLURAL
Nom.τίν-εςτίν-ατιν-έςτιν-ά
Gen.τίν-ωντιν-ῶν
Dat.τί-σι (ν) τι-σί (ν)
Acc.τίν-αςτίν-ατιν-άςτιν-ά

a. ἄττα (not enclitic) is sometimes used for the indefinite τινά. ἄττα is derived from such locutions as πολλάττα, properly πολλά ττα (for τyα).

334D

Hom. and Hdt. have G. τέο, τεῦ, D. τέῳ (τῷ Hom.), G. τέων, D. τέοισι. These forms are also indefinite and enclitic (gen. τεῶν Hdt.). Hom. has ἄσσα for the indefinite τινά.

335

ἄλλος.—The indefinite pronoun ἄλλος another (Lat. alius, cp. cross110) is declined like αὐτός: ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο (never ἄλλον).

336

Δεῖνα.—The indefinite pronoun δεῖνα, always used with the article, means such a one. It is declined thus: sing. ὁ, ἡ, τὸ δεῖνα; τοῦ, τῆς, τοῦ δεῖνος; τῷ, τῇ, τῷ δεῖνι; τὸν, τὴν, τὸ δεῖνα; plur. (masc.) οἱ δεῖνες, τῶν δείνων, τοὺς δεῖνας. Example: ὁ δεῖνα τοῦ δεῖνος τὸν δεῖνα εἰσήγγειλεν such a one son of such a one impeached such a one [D.] 13. 5. δεῖνα is rarely indeclinable. Its use is colloquial and it occurs (in poetry) only in comedy.

337

Other indefinite pronominal adjectives are: ἕτερος, -α_, -ον: with article, the other, one of two, the one (Lat. alter, alteruter); without article, other, another, a second (alius). By crasis ( cross69) ἅ_τερος, θά_τερον, etc. ἑκάτερος, -α_, -ον: each (of two) uterque; pl. either party, both parties, as utrique. ἕκαστος, , -ον: each, each one, every, every one, used of more than one (quisque). μόνος, , -ον: alone, only, sole. πᾶς ( cross299): all, entire, every. The negatives οὐδείς, μηδείς ( cross349 b) no one (poetical οὔτις, μήτις, in prose only οὔτι, μήτι, declined like τὶς; accent cross186), Lat. nemo, nullus. οὐδέτερος, μηδέτερος neither of two (Lat. neuter).

338

Relative Pronouns.—The relative pronoun ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that is declined thus:

-- 97 --

SINGULARDUALPLURAL
Nom.ὅςN. A.Nom.οἵ αἵ
Gen.οὗἧςοὗG. D.οἷνοἷνοἷνGen.ὧν ὧνὧν
Dat.Dat.οἷςαἷς οἷς
Acc.ὅνἥνAcc.οὕςἅ_ς

a. The feminine dual forms ἅ_ and αἷν are seldom, if ever, used in Attic.

b. ὅς is used as a demonstrative in Homer and sometimes in prose ( cross1113).

c. The enclitic particle -περ may be added to a relative pronoun (or adverb) to emphasize the connection between the relative and its antecedent. Thus, ὅς-περ, ἥ-περ, ὅ-περ the very person who, the very thing which; so ὥσπερ just as. ὅσπερ is declined like ὅς.

d. Enclitic τε is added in ἐφ' ᾧτε on condition that, οἷός τε ( cross186 a) able to, ἅτε inasmuch as.

338D

1. Hom. uses the demonstrative forms ὁ, ἡ, τό ( cross332) as relatives ( cross1105). In this case the nom. pl. has τοί, ταί ( cross332 D.).

2. Besides the forms in 338, Hom. has gen. ὅο (miswritten ὅου) and ἕης.

3. Hdt. has ὅς, ἥ, τό, οἵ, αἵ, τά. In the oblique cases he uses τοῦ, τῆς, etc.; though, especially after prepositions capable of elision, he has the relative forms, as δι' οὗ, παρ' ᾧ, κατ' ἥν, ὑπ' ὧν; also ἐς ὅ.

339

The indefinite or general relative pronoun ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι whoever (any-who, any-which), any one who, whatever, anything which, inflects each part (ὅς and τὶς) separately. For the accent, see cross186.

SINGULAR
Nom.ὅστιςἥτιςὅ τι
Gen.οὗτινος, ὅτουἧστινοςοὗτινος, ὅτου
Dat.ᾧτινι, ὅτῳᾗτινιᾧτινι, ὅτῳ
Acc.ὅντιναἥντιναὅ τι

DUAL
N. A.ὥτινεὥτινεὥτινε
G. D.οἷντινοινοἷντινοινοἷντινοιν

PLURAL
Nom.οἵτινεςαἵτινεςἅτινα, ἅττα
Gen.ὧντινων, ὅτωνὧντινωνὧντινων, ὅτων
Dat.οἷστισι (ν), ὅτοιςαἷστισι (ν) οἷστισι (ν), ὅτοις
Acc.οὕστιναςἅ_στιναςἅτινα, ἅττα

a. The neuter ὅ τι is sometimes printed ὅ, τι to avoid confusion with the conjunction ὅτι that, because.

b. The shorter forms are rare in prose, but almost universal in poetry (especially ὅτου, ὅτῳ). Inscriptions have almost always ὅτου, ὅτῳ, ἅττα.

c. The plural ἅττα is to be distinguished from ἄττα ( cross334 a).

-- 98 --

d. τὶς may be added to ὁπότερος, ὅσος, οἷος ( cross340) to make them more indefinite, as ὁποῖός τις of whatsoever kind.

e. οὖν, δή, or δήποτε may be added to the indefinite pronouns to make them as general as possible, as ὁστισοῦν (or ὅστις οὖν), ἡτισοῦν, ὁτιοῦν any one whatever, any thing whatever, and so ὁποιους-τινας-οῦν, ὁστις-δή-ποτε, or ὁστις-δηποτ-οῦν. In these combinations all relative or interrogative force is lost.

f. The uncompounded relatives are often used in an exclamatory sense, and sometimes as indirect interrogatives. Indefinite relatives may be used as indirect interrogatives.

339D

Hom. has the following special forms. The forms not in () are used also by Hdt. In the nom. and acc. Hdt has the usual forms.

SINGULARPLURAL
Nom. (ὅτις) (ὅ ττι) ἅσσα
Gen. (ὅττεο), (ὅττευ) ὅτευὅτεων
Dat.ὅτεῳὁτέοισι
Acc. (ὅτινα) (ὅ ττι) (ὅτινας) ἅσσα

340

Correlative Pronouns.—Many pronominal adjectives correspond to each other in form and meaning. In the following list poetic or rare forms are placed in ().

Interrogative:RelativeIndefinite Relative
Direct orIndefiniteDemonstrative(Specific) oror Indirect
Indirect(Enclitic)ExclamatoryInterrogative
τίς who?τὶς (ὁ, ὅς) ὅδε thisὅς who, whichὅστις whoever,
which? what?some one, any(here), hicquiany one who
qui?one, aliquis,οὗτος this, thatquisquis,
quidamis, illequicunque
ἐκεῖνος ille
πότεροςπότερος orἕτερος the one orὁπότεροςὁπότερος
which of two?ποτερός one ofthe other of twowhicheverwhichever
uter?two (rare)alterof the twoof the two
utercumque
πόσος howποσός of some (τόσος) ( soὅσος asὁπόσος
much? howquantity orτοσόσδε ( much,much as,of whatever
many? quan-numberτοσοῦτος ( soas many assize, number
tus? quot?( manyquantus, quotquantuscumque,
tantus, totquotquot
ποῖοςποιός of some (τοῖος) ) suchοἷος of whichὁποῖος
of what sort?sortτοιόσδε ) talissort,of whatever sort
qualis?τοιοῦτος ) (such) asqualiscumque
qualis
πηλίκοςπηλίκος( so old,ἡλίκος ofὁπηλίκος
how old?of some( sowhich age,of whatever age
how large?age, size (τηλίκος) ( young,size, (as old,or size
τηλικόσδε ( solarge) as
τηλικοῦτος ( large,
( so
( great

340D

Hom. has (Aeolic) ππ in ὁππότερος, ὁπποῖος, and σς in ὅσσος, τόσσος, etc. Hdt. has κ for π in () κότερος, () κόσος, () κοῖος.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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