Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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-- 53 --


O stems in the nominative add to the stem in masculines and feminines; in neuters. The feminines, of which there are few, are declined like the masculines. In the neuters, nominative, vocative, and accusative singular have the same form (in -ο-ν); in the plural these cases end in .


Masc. and Fem.NeuterMasc., Fem., and NeuterMasc. and Fem.Neuter
Nom. ο-ςο-νN. A. V.ωNom.ο-ια
Gen. ου (for ο- (ι) ο) G. D.ο-ινGen.ων
Dat. (for ο-ι) Dat.ο-ις or ο-ισι (ν)
Acc. ο-νAcc.ους (for ο-νς) α
Voc. εο-νVoc.ο-ια

a. Final -οι is treated as short ( cross169).

b. The dat. sing. in -ῳ represents the union of the stem vowel -ο and ai, the original case ending in the I. E. languages. Forms in -οι, as οἴκοι at home, may be locatives (-ο ι, the locative ending).—The stem vowel ο varies with ε, which appears in the vocative sing., and in πανδημεί (locative) in full force.— N. A. V. dual is for I. E. ōu.—The genitive pl. -ων is due to the union of -ο ων, which contracted to -ων in the earliest period of the language.—The neuter plural is probably the relic of a feminine collective ending in -α_, which was shortened to .


The dialects show various forms.


1. Gen. sing.—-οιο, the original form, appears in Hom. πολέμοιο. By loss of ι ( cross43) comes -οο, which is sometimes read in Hom. (Αἰόλοο for Αἰόλου κ cross36). By contraction of οο comes -ου found in Hom., Ionic, Milder Doric. οο yields ω in Aeolic and Severer Doric (ἵππω).

2. Dual.—-οιιν in Hom. (ἵπποιιν).

3. Dat. pl.—-οισι (ν) Hom., Aeolic, Ionic.

4. Acc. pl.—-ους is from -ον-ς (found in Cretan), that is, the accus. sing. + ς. From -ονς comes -ως Severer Doric, -οις Aeolic, -ος Cretan and in Dor. poetry. -ους is Hom., Ionic, and Milder Doric.


ὁ ἵππος horseὁ ἄνθρωπος manἡ ὁδός wayτὸ δῶρον gift
(ἱππο-) (ἀνθρωπο-) (ὁδο-) (δωρο-)

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ὁ ἵππος horseὁ ἄνθρωπος manἡ ὁδός wayτὸ δῶρον gift
(ἱππο-) (ἀνθρωπο-) (ὁδο-) (δωρο-)
N. A. V.ἵππωἀνθρώπωὁδώδώρω
G. D.ἵπποινἀνθρώποινὁδοῖνδώροιν

N. V.ἵπποιἄνθρωποιὁδοίδῶρα

Masculine: λόγος word, δῆμος people, δοῦλος slave, κίνδυ_νος danger, πόλεμος war; ἀγρός field, ποταμός river, ἀριθμός number. Feminine: νῆσος island, ἤπειρος mainland; () τροφός nurse. Neuter: ἔργον work, πτερόν wing, δεῖπνον dinner.


Feminines.—a. See cross197 for νυός daughter-in-law; see cross199 for νῆσος island (cp. cross200 c), Δῆλος (the island of) Delos, Κόρινθος Corinth, φηγός (acornbearing) oak, ἄμπελος vine.

b. Some are properly adjectives used substantively: διάλεκτος (scil. γλῶττα speech) dialect, διάμετρος (scil. γραμμή line) diameter, αὔλειος (scil. θύρα_ door) house-door, σύγκλητος (scil. βουλή council) legislative body, ἔρημος and ἤπειρος (scil. χώρα_ country) desert and mainland.

c. Words for way: ὁδός and κέλευθος way; and ἁμαξιτός carriage-road, ἀτραπός foot-path, which may be adjectival (b) with ὁδός omitted.

d. Various other words: βάσανος touch-stone, βίβλος book, γέρανος crane, γνάθος jaw, γύψος chalk, δέλτος writing-tablet, δοκός beam, δρόσος dew, κάμι_νος oven, κάρδοπος kneading-trough, κι_βωτός chest, κόπρος dung, ληνός wine-press, λίθος stone ( cross200 c), νόσος disease, πλίνθος brick, ῥάβδος rod, σορός coffin, σποδός ashes, τάφρος trench, χηλός coffer, ψάμμος sand, ψῆφος pebble.


Vocative.—The nominative θεός is used instead of the vocative. ἀδελφός brother retracts the accent (ἄδελφε).


Dative Plural.—The ending -οισι (ν) often appears in poetry, rarely in Attic prose (Plato).

a. In Old Attic inscriptions -οις displaces -οισι (ν) about 444 B.C.


Stems in εο and οο are contracted according to 50, 51. εα in the neuter becomes α_ ( cross56).

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ὁ νοῦς mindὁ περίπλους sailing aroundτὸ ὀστοῦν bone
(νοο-) (περιπλοο-) (ὀστεο-)
Nom. (νόο-ς) νοῦ-ς (περίπλοος) περίπλου-ς (ὀστέο-ν) ὀστοῦ-ν
Gen. (νόου) νοῦ (περιπλόου) περίπλου (ὀστέου) ὀστοῦ
Dat. (νόῳ) νῷ (περιπλόῳ) περίπλῳ (ὀστέῳ) ὀστῷ
Acc. (νόο-ν) νοῦ-ν (περίπλοο-ν) περίπλου-ν (ὀστέο-ν) ὀστοῦ-ν
Voc. (νόε) νοῦ (περίπλοε) περίπλου (ὀστέο-ν) ὀστοῦ-ν

N. A. V. (νόω) νώ (περιπλόω) περίπλω (ὀστέω) ὀστώ
G. D. (νόοιν) νοῖν (περιπλόοιν) περίπλοιν (ὀστέοιν) ὀστοῖν

N. V. (νόοι) νοῖ (περίπλοοι) περίπλοι (ὀστέα) ὀστᾶ
Gen. (νόων) νῶν (περιπλόων) περίπλων (ὀστέων) ὀστῶν
Dat. (νόοις) νοῖς (περιπλόοις) περίπλοις (ὀστέοις) ὀστοῖς
Acc. (νόους) νοῦς (περιπλόους) περίπλους (ὀστέα) ὀστᾶ

ὁ πλοῦς (πλόος) voyage, ὁ ῥοῦς (πόος) stream, τὸ κανοῦν (κάνεον) basket.


Homeric and Ionic generally have the open forms. οἰνοχόος winepourer does not contract in Attic since it stands for οἰνοχοϝος.


Accent.—a. The nominative dual is irregularly oxytone: νώ, ὀστώ, not νῶ, ὀστῶ according to 171, N. 2.

b. κανοῦν (κάνεον) basket receives its accent (not κάνουν) from that of the genitive and dative κανοῦ, κανῷ. Cp. cross290 c.

c. Compounds retain the accent on the syllable that has it in the nominative singular: ἔκπλους from ἔκπλοος; ἔκπλου (not ἐκπλοῦ) from ἐκπλόου; ἔκπλων (not ἐκπλῶν) from ἐκπλόων.


Some substantives ending in -εως are placed under the Second Declension because they are derived from earlier ο stems preceded by a long vowel (-εως from -ηος, cross34). A few others have a consonant before -ως. The vocative has no special form.

N.—This declension is called “Attic” because the words in question generally show -ως in Attic and -ος in the Koinè dialect (p. 3, F).

238ὁ νεώς temple

Nom. νεώ-ς (Ionic νηό-ς) N. A. νεώ (Ionic νηώ) Nom. νεῴ (Ionic νηοί)
Gen. νεώ (“ νηοῦ) G. D. νεῴν (“ νηοῖν) Gen. νεών (“ νηῶν)
Dat. νεῴ (“ νηῷ) Dat. νεῴς (“ νηοῖς)
Acc. νεών (“ νηό-ν) Acc. νεώς (“ νηούς)

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a. So ὁ λεώς people, ὁ Μενέλεως Menelaus, ὁ λαγώς hare. Observe that ω is found in every form, and that it takes ι subscript in the dative of all numbers where an ordinary ο stem has ι.

b. There are no neuter substantives belonging to the Attic declension in standard classical literature; but neuter adjectives ( cross289) end in -ων.

c. νεώς and most words of this declension owe their forms to transfer of quantity ( cross34) or to shortening ( cross39). Thus, νεώς is from νηός ( = Doric να_ός), νεών from νηόν; νεῴ is from νηῷ. λαγώς is contracted from λαγωός.

d. In the accusative singular some words end in or -ων, as λαγώ or λαγών hare. So ὁ Ἄθως, ἡ Κέως, ἡ Τέως, ἡ Κῶς, ὁ Μί_νως. ἡ ἕως dawn always has ἕω.


Hom. has νηός temple, λα_ός people, κάλος cable, λαγωός hare, γάλοως sister-in-law, Ἀθόως, Κόως; Hdt. has λεώς, λαγός, Κέος. Hom. and Hdt. have ἠώς, gen. ἠοῦς, dawn, whence Att. ἕως by 39. Hom. has Πετεῶ-ο, the original form of the genitive, from Πετεώς. νεώ is from νεωο out of νηοο.


Accent.—a. The accent of the nominative is kept in all cases. Μενέεως ( cross163 a) retains the accent of the earlier Μενέλα_ος.

b. The genitive and dative are oxytone when the final syllable is accented.

N.—The accentuation of the words of this declension is doubtful. Some of the ancients accented λαγώς, λαγών, others λαγῶς, λαγῶν, etc.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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