Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].

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FIRST DECLENSION (STEMS IN α_) 211

Stems in α_ are masculine or feminine. The feminine nominative singular ends in -α_, -α, or ; the masculine nominative singular adds to the stem, and thus ends in -α_ς or -ης.

212

Table of the union of the case endings (when there are any) with the final vowel of the stem.

FEM. SING.MASC. SING.MASC. FEM. PL.MASC. FEM. DUAL
Nom. α_ or α ηα_-ςη-ςα-ιN. A. V. α_
Gen. α_-ς or η-ς η-ςα_-ιο (Hom. α_-ο) ῶν (for έ-ων, ά_-ων) G. D. α-ιν
Dat. α_-ι or η-ι η-ια_-ιη-ια-ις or α-ισι (ν)
Acc. α_-ν or α-ν η-να_-νη-να_ς (for α-νς)
Voc. α_ or α ηα_α or ηα-ι

Observe the shortening of the stem in vocative singular and plural, in nominative and dative plural, and genitive and dative dual.

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213

Accent.—For special rule of accent in the genitive plural, see cross208. The genitive plural is always perispomenon since -ῶν is contracted from -έ-ων derived from original (and Hom.) -ά_-ων ( cross51). Final -αι is treated as short ( cross169).

a. The form of the gen. pl. is taken from the pronominal adjective, i.e. (Hom.) θεά_ων goddesses follows the analogy of (Hom.) τά_ων ( cross332 D.) for τα_- (ς) ων, cf. Lat. istā-rum deā-rum.

214

The dialects show various forms.

214D

1. For η, Doric and Aeolic have original α_; thus, νί_κα_, νί_κα_ς, νί_κᾳ, νί_κα_ν; πολί_τα_ς, κριτά_ς, Ἀτρείδα_ς.

2. Ionic has η for the α_ of Attic even after ε, ι, and ρ; thus, γενεή, οἰκίη, ἀγορή, μοίρης, μοίρῃ (nom. μοῖρα), νεηνίης. Thus, ἀγορή, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ήν; νεηνίης, -ου, -ῃ, -ην. But Hom. has θεά_ goddess, Ἑρμεία_ς Hermes.

3. The dialects admit in the nom. sing. less often than does Attic. Thus, Ionic πρύμνη stern, κνί_ση savour (Att. πρύμνα, κνῖσα), Dor. τόλμα_ daring. Ionic has η for α in the abstracts in -είη, -οίη (ἀληθείη truth, εὐνοίη good-will). Hom. has νύμφα oh maiden from νύμφη.

4. Nom. sing. masc.—Hom. has -τα for -της in ἱππότα horseman, ἱππηλάτα driver of horses, νεφεληγερέτα cloud-collector, κυ_ανοχαῖτα dark-haired; and, with recessive accent, μητίετα counsellor. So in the adj. εὐρύοπα far-sounding. Cp. Lat. poeta, scriba.

5. Gen. sing. masc.—(a) -α_ο, the original form from α_- (ι) ο, is used by Hom. (Ἀτρείδα_ο). It contracts in Aeolic and Doric to -α_ (Ἀτρείδα_).

(b) -εω, from ηο (= α_ο) by 34, is also used by Hom., who makes it a single syllable by synizesis ( cross60), as in Ἀτρείδεω. Hdt. has -εω, as πολί_τεω ( cross163 a).

(c) in Hom. after a vowel, Βορέω (nom. Βορέης).

6. Accus. sing. masc.—In proper names Hdt. often has -εα borrowed from ς stems ( cross264), as Μιλτιάδεα for Μιλτιάδη-ν.

7. Dual.—Hom. has the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. Hom. has -αιν and also -αιιν.

8. Gen. plur.—(a) -ά_ων, the original form, occurs in Hom. (μουσά_ων, ἀγορά_ων). In Aeolic and Doric -ά_ων contracts to (b) -ᾶν (ἀγορᾶν). The Doric -ᾶν is found also in the choral songs of the drama (πετρᾶν rocks). (c) -έων, the Ionic form, appears in Homer, who usually makes it a single syllable by synizesis ( cross60) as in βουλέωνν, from βουλή plan. -έων is from -ήων, Ionic for -ά_ων. (d) -ῶν in Hom. generally after vowels (κλισιῶν, from κλισίη hut).

9. Dat. plur.: -ῃσι (ν), -ῃς, generally before vowels, and (rarely) -αις in Hom. Ionic has -ῃσι, Aeolic -αισι (ν), -αις, Doric -αις.

10. Accus. plur.: -ανς, -ας, α_ς in various Doric dialects, -αις in Aeolic.

215

Dative Plural.—The ending -αισι (ν) occurs in Attic poetry (δίκαισι from δίκη right, δεσπόταισι from δεσπότης lord).

a. Attic inscriptions to 420 B. C. have -ῃσι (written -ηισι), -ησι, and (after ε, ι, ρ) -ᾳσι (written -αισι) and -α_σι. Thus, δραχμῇσι and δραχμῆσι drachmas, ταμίᾳσι and ταμία_σι stewards. -ησι and -α_σι are properly endings of the locative case ( cross341).

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216I. FEMININES

SINGULAR
ἡ χώρα_ἡ νί_κηἡ φυγήἡ μοῖραἡ γλῶτταἡ θάλαττα
(χωρα_-) (νι_κα_-) (φυγα_-) (μοιρα_-) (γλωττα_-) (θαλαττα_-)
landvictoryflightfatetonguesea
Nom.χώρα_νί_κηφυγήμοῖραγλῶτταθάλαττα
Gen.χώρα_ςνί_κηςφυγῆςμοίρα_ςγλώττηςθαλάττης
Dat.χώρᾳνί_κῃφυγῇμοίρᾳγλῶττα-νθαλάττῃ
Acc.χώρα_-ννί_κη-νφυγή-νμοῖρα-νγλῶττα-νθάλαττα-ν
Voc.χώρα_νί_κηφυγήμοῖραγλῶτταθάλαττα
DUAL
N. A. V.χώρα_νί_κα_φυγά_μοίρα_γλώττα_θαλάττα_
G. D.χώραιννί_καινφυγαῖνμοίραινγλώτταινθαλάτταιν
PLURAL
N. V.χῶραινῖκαιφυγαίμοῖραιγλῶτταιθάλατται
Gen.χωρῶννι_κῶνφυγῶνμοιρῶνγλωττῶνθαλαττῶν
Dat.χώραιςνί_καιςφυγαῖςμοίραιςγλώτταιςθαλάτταις
Acc.χώρα_ςνί_κα_ςφυγά_ςμοίρα_ςγλώττα_ςθαλάττα_ς

ὥρα_ season, ἡμέρα_ day, σκιά_ shadow, μάχη battle, τέχνη art, γνώμη judgment, τι_μή honor, ἀρετή virtue, μοῦσα muse, πρῶρα prow, ἅμαξα wagon, δόξα opinion.

217

RULES.—a. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a vowel (σκιά_ shadow) or ρ (μοῖρα), alpha is kept throughout the singular.

b. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a consonant not ρ, alpha is changed to η in the genitive and dative singular.

c. If the nominative singular ends in η, η is kept in all the cases of the singular.

d. When the genitive singular has -ης, final α of the nominative singular is always short; when the genitive singular has -α_ς, the final α is generally long.

Feminines fall into two classes:

218

(I) Feminines with α_ or η in all the cases of the singular.

After ε, ι, or ρ, α_ appears in all the cases of the singular, as in γενεά_ race, οἰκία_ house, χώρα_ land. Otherwise, η throughout the singular, as νί_κη victory.

a. After ο, we find both α_ and η, as στοά_ porch, βοή shout, ἀκοή hearing, οή current, ῥόα_ pomegranate. After ρ we have η in κόρη girl, δέρη neck ( cross31).

219

(II) Feminines with α in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. The quantity of the vowel is generally shown by the accent ( cross163, cross164).

In this class are included:

1. Substantives having ς (ξ, ψ, ττ, or σς), ζ, λλ, or αιν before the final α show α in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and η in gen. and dat. sing. Thus,

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μοῦσα muse, μούσης, μούσῃ, ἅμαξα wagon, τράπεζα table, γλῶττα tongue, ῥίζα root, ἅμιλλα contest, λέαινα lioness. Others are τόλμα daring, δίαιτα mode of life, ἄκανθα thorn, μυῖα fly.

2. Substantives in α in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and α_ in gen. and dat. sing.

a. Substantives in -εια and -τρια denoting females, as βασίλεια queen (but βασιλεία_ kingdom), ψάλτρια female harper; so the fem. of adj. in -υς, as γλυκύς, γλυκεῖα sweet.

b. Abstracts in -εια and -οια from adjectives in -ης and -οος, as ἀλήθεια truth (from ἀληθής true), εὔνοια good will (from εὔνους, εὔνοος kind, cross290).

c. Most substantives in -ρα after a diphthong or υ_, as μοῖρα fate, γέφυ_ρα bridge.

220

Exceptions to 219, 1: κόρση temple (later κόρρη), ἕρση dew; to 2 b: in Attic poetry, ἀληθεία_, εὐνοία_, ἀγνοία_ ignorance, which owe their α_ to the influence of the genitive and dative ἀληθεία_ς, ἀληθείᾳ, etc.

221

Most, if not all, of the substantives in α are formed by the addition of the suffix or ια ( cross20); thus, γλῶττα from γλωχ-yα (cp. γλωχῖν-ες points), γέφυ_ρα from γεφυρ-yα, δότειρα giver from δοτερ-yα (and so φέρουσα bearing from φεροντyα), μοῖρα from μορ-yα, ψάλτρ-ια.

222II. MASCULINES

SINGULAR
ὁ νεα_νία_ςὁ πολί_τηςὁ κριτήςἈτρείδης
(νεα_νια_-) (πολι_τα_-) (κριτα_-) (Ἀτρειδα_-)
young mancitizenjudgeson of Atreus
Nom.νεα_νία_-ςπολί_τη-ςκριτή-ςἈτρείδη-ς
Gen.νεα_νίουπολί_τουκριτοῦἈτρείδου
Dat.νεα_νία_πολί_τῃκριτῇἈτρείδῃ
Acc.νεα_νία_-νπολί_τη-νκριτή-νἈτρείδη-ν
Voc.νεα_νία_πολῖτακριτάἈτρείδη
DUAL
N. A. V.νεα_νία_πολί_τα_κριτά_Ἀτρείδα_
G. D.νεα_νίαινπολί_ταινκριταῖνἈτρείδαιν
PLURAL
N. V.νεα_νίαιπολῖταικριταίἈτρεῖδαι
Gen.νεα_νιῶνπολι_τῶνκριτῶνἈτρειδῶν
Dat.νεα_νίαιςπολί_ταιςκριταῖςἈτρείδαις
Acc.νεα_νία_ςπολί_τα_ςκριτά_ςἈτρείδα_ς

ταμία_ς steward, Αἰνεία_ς Aeneas,—ναύτης sailor, τοξότης bowman, στρατιώτης soldier, δεσπότης ruler,—μαθητής pupil, ποιητής poetΠέρσης Persian.

223

Accent.—The vocative of δεσπότης lord is δέσποτα.

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224

α_ and η.—In the final syllable of the singular α_ appears after ε, ι, and ρ; otherwise we find η. Cp. cross218.

a. Exceptions are compounds in -μέτρης: γεω-μέτρης measurer of land.

225

Genitive singular.—The form in -ου is borrowed from the genitive singular of the second declension. A few words in -α_ς, generally names of persons not Greeks, have -α_, the Doric genitive ( cross214 D. 5): Ἀννίβα_ς Hannibal, gen. Ἀννίβα_.

226

Vocative singular.—Masculines in -α_ς have the vocative in -α_ (νεα_νία_); those in -της have (πολῖτα), all others in -ης have (Ἀτρείδη, Κρονίδη son of Kronos) except names of nations and compounds: Πέρσα Persian, Σκύθα Scythian, γεω-μέτρα (nom. γεω-μέτρης measurer of land), παιδο-τρίβα gymnastic master.

227 CONTRACTS (FEMININES AND MASCULINES)

Contracts in α_ or η from εα_ or αα_ have the circumflex in all the cases: nominative feminine -ᾶ, -ῆ, masculine -ᾶς, -ῆς.

227D

Hdt. has μνέαι, μνεῶν, μνέα_ς, γῆ and γεῶν, Ἑρμῆς, Βορῆς. Hom. has Αθηναίη, γῆ (and γαῖα), συ_κέη, Ἑρμεία_ς 214 D. 2, Βορέης.

SINGULAR
ἡ μνᾶ minaἡ συ_κῆ fig treeὁ Βορρᾶς Boreasὁ Ἑρμῆς Hermes
(μνα_- for (συ_κη- for (Βορρα_- for (Ἑρμη- for
μναα_-) συ_κεα_-) Βορεα_- cross117) Ἑρμεα_-)
Nom.μνᾶσυ_κῆΒορρᾶ-ςἙρμῆ-ς
Gen.μνᾶςσυ_κῆςΒορροῦἙρμοῦ
Dat.μνᾷσυ_κῇΒορρᾷἙρμῆ
Acc.μνᾶ-νσυ_κῆ-νΒορρᾶ-νἙρμῆ-ν
Voc.μνᾶσυ_κῆΒορρᾶἙρμῆ

DUAL
N. A. V.μνᾶσυ_κᾶἙρμᾶ
G. D.μναῖνσυ_καῖνἙρμαῖν

PLURAL
N. V.μναῖσυ_καῖἙρμαῖ
Gen.μνῶνσυ_κῶνἙρμῶν
Dat.μναῖςσυ_καῖςἙρμαῖς
Acc.μνᾶςσυ_κᾶςἙρμᾶς

The dual and plural of Ἑρμῆς mean statues of Hermes.

Other examples: ἡ Ἀθηνᾶ Athena (from Ἀθηνα (ι) α_-), γῆ earth (γεα_- or γαα_-) with no plural in Attic, ἡ γαλῆ weasel (γαλεα_-), ἡ ἀδελφιδῆ niece (ἀδελφιδεα_-), ὁ Ἀπελλῆς Apelles (Ἀπελλεα_-).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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