Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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28D

Metrical lengthening.—Many words, which would otherwise not fit into the verse, show in the Epic ει for ε, ου (rarely οι) for ο, and α_, ι_, υ_ for α, ι, υ. Thus, εἰνάλιος in the sea for ἐνάλιος, εἰαρινός vernal for ἐαρινός, ὑπείροχος eminent for ὑπέροχος, εἰλήλουθα have come for ἐλήλουθα, οὐλόμενος destructive, accursed for ὀλόμενος, οὔρεα mountains from ὄρος, Οὐλύμποιο of Olympus from Ὄλυμπος. ο before a vowel appears as οι in πνοιή breath. Similarly, ἠγάθεος very holy for ἀγάθεος; but ἠνεμόεις windy (from ἄνεμος) has the η of ὑπήνεμος under the wind ( cross29), and τιθήμενος placing (for τιθέμενος) borrows η from τίθημι.

A short syllable under the rhythmic accent (‘ictus’) is lengthened metrically: (1) in words having three or more short syllables: the first of three shorts (οὐλόμενος), the second of four shorts (ὑπείροχος), the third of five shorts (ἀπερείσια boundless); (2) in words in which the short ictus syllable is followed by two longs and a short (Οὐλύμποιο). A short syllable not under the rhythmic accent is lengthened when it is preceded and followed by a long; thus, any vowel preceded by ϝ (πνείω breathe = πνεϝω), ι or υ before a vowel (προθυ_μί_ῃσι zeal).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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