Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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5

A diphthong (δίφθογγος having two sounds) combines two vowels in one syllable. The second vowel is ι or υ. The diphthongs are: αι, ει, οι, α_, ῃ, ῳ; αυ, ευ, ου, ηυ, and υι. The ι of the so-called improper diphthongs, α_, ῃ, ῳ, is written below the line and is called iota subscript. But with capital letters, ι is written on the line (adscript), as ΤΗΙ ΩΙΔΗΙ τῇ ᾠδῇ or Ὠιδῇ to the song. All diphthongs are long.

a. In ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ the ι ceased to be written about 100 B.C. The custom of writing ι under the line is as late as about the eleventh century.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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