]. VARIOUS CONSONANT CHANGES
Metathesis (transposition).—A vowel and a consonant often exchange places: Πνύξ the Pnyx, gen. Πυκνός, τίκτω bear for τι-τκ-ω (cp. τεκ-εῖν).
a. Transposition proper does not occur where we have to do with αρ, ρα ( cross20, cross35 b) as in θάρσος and θράσος courage; or with syncope ( cross44 b) due to early shifting of accent, as in πέτ-ομαι fly, πτε-ρόν wing; or where a long vowel follows the syncopated root, as in τέμ-νω τέ-τμη-κα I have cut.
In βέβληκα I have thrown (βάλλω throw), βλη is formed from βελε found in βέλε-μνον missile.
Hom. κραδίη, καρδίη heart, κάρτιστος best (κράτιστος), βάρδιστος slowest (βραδύς), δρατός and -δαρτος from δέρω flay, ἔ-δρακον saw from δέρκομαι see.
Dissimilation.—a. λ sometimes becomes ρ when λ appears in the same word: ἀργαλέος painful for ἀλγαλεος (ἄλγος pain).
b. A consonant (usually ρ) sometimes disappears when it occurs also in the adjoining syllable: δρύφακτος railing for δρυ-φρακτος (lit. fenced by wood).
c. Syllabic dissimilation or syncope occurs when the same or two similar syllables containing the same consonant succeed each other: ἀμφορεύς a jar for ἀμφι-φορευς, θάρσυνος bold for θαρσο-συνος. This is often called haplology.
d. See also under 99, 125 a, b.
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Development.—δ is developed between ν and ρ, as in ἀνδρός of a man for ἀνρος from ἀνήρ (cp. cinder with Lat. cineris); β is developed between μ and ρ (or λ), as in μεσημβρία_ midday, south from μες-ημρια_ for μες-ημερια_ from μέσος middle and ἡμέρα_ day (cp. chamber with Lat. camera).
So in Hom. μέ-μβλω-κα have gone from μλω from μολ- in ἔ-μολ-ο-ν ( cross128 a). At the beginning of words this μ is dropped; thus, βλώσκω go, βροτός mortal for μβρο-τος (root μρο-, μορ-, as in mor-tuus). In composition μ remains, as in ἄ-μβροτος immortal; but ἄ-βροτος immortal is formed from βροτός.
Labials and dentals often correspond: ποινή and τίσις retribution; φόνος murder, θείνω strike. π and κ: αἰπόλος goat-herd, βουκόλος ox-herd. πτ for τ is found in πτόλεμος war, πτόλις city for πόλεμος, πόλις. Cp. Neoptolemus and Ptolemy. So χθ and χ in χθών ground, χαμαί on the ground.
The dialects often show consonants different from Attic in the same or kindred words.
τ for ς: Doric τύ, τοί, τέ, δια_κατίοι (δια_κόσιοι), ϝί_κατι (εἴκοσι), Ποτειδά_ν (Ποσειδών).
ς “ τ: Doric σά_μερον to-day (τήμερον Attic, σήμερον Ionic).
κ “ π: Ionic (not Hom.) κότε when, κότερος which of two? ὅκως, κόσος, κῆ.
κ “ τ: Doric πόκα (πότε), ὅκα (ὅτε).
γ “ β: Doric γλέφαρον eyelid, γλά_χων (Ion. γλήχων) pennyroyal.
δ “ β: Doric ὀδελός (ὀβολός) a spit.
π “ τ: Hom. πίσυρες, Aeol. πέσσυρες four (τέτταρες); Aeol. πήλυι far off (cp. τηλόσε), πέμπε five (πέντε).
θ “ τ: see cross126 D.
φ “ θ: Hom. φήρ centaur (θήρ beast).
ρ “ ς: (rhotacism): late Laconian, Elean τίρ who, Thessal. Θεόρδοτος god-given.
ς “ θ: late Laconian σιός for θεός god ( cross26 D.).
ν “ λ: Doric ἐνθεῖν come.