]. CONSONANTS WITH CONSONANTS
STOPS BEFORE STOPS
A labial or a palatal stop ( cross16) before a dental stop (τ, δ, θ) must be of the same order ( cross16).
a. βτ, φτ become πτ: (τετρι_β-ται) τέτρι_πται has been rubbed from τρί_β-ω rub; (γεγραφ-ται) γέγραπται has been written from γράφ-ω write. γτ, χτ become κτ: (λελεγ-ται) λέλεκται) has been said from λέγ-ω say; (βεβρεχ-ται) βέβρεκται has been moistened from βρέχ-ω moisten.
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b. πδ, φδ become βδ: (κλεπ-δην) κλέβδην by stealth from κλέπ-τ-ω steal; (γραφδην) γράβδην scraping from γράφ-ω write (originally scratch, scrape). κδ becomes γδ: (πλεκ-δην) πλέγδην entwined from πλέκ-ω plait.
c. πθ, βθ become φθ: (ἐπεμπ-θην) ἐπέμφθην I was sent from πέμπ-ω send; (ἐτρι_β-θη) ἐτρί_φθη it was rubbed (τρί_β-ω rub). κθ, γθ become χθ: (ἐπλεκ-θη) ἐπλέχθη it was plaited (πλέκ-ω plait); (ἐλεγ-θη) ἐλέχθη it was said (λέγ-ω say).
N. 1.—Cp. ἑπτά seven, ἕβδομος seventh, ἑφθήμερος lasting seven days.
N. 2.—But ἐκ out of remains unchanged: ἐκδίδωμι surrender, ἐκθέω run out ( cross104).
A dental stop before another dental stop becomes ς.
ἀνυστός practicable for ἀνυτ-τος from ἀνύτω complete, ἴστε you know for ἰδ-τε, οἶσθα thou knowest for οἰδ-θα, πέπεισται has been persuaded for πεπειθ-ται, ἐπείσθην I was persuaded for ἐπειθ-θην.
a. ττ, τθ remain unchanged in Αττικός, Ατθίς Attic, and in κατθανεῖν die ( cross75 D., cross81). So ττ for σς ( cross78).
Any stop standing before a stop other than τ, δ, θ, or in other combination than πφ, κχ, τθ ( cross81) is dropped, as in κεκόμι (δ) -κα I have brought. γ before κ, γ, or χ is gamma-nasal ( cross19 a), not a stop.
STOPS BEFORE M
Before μ, the labial stops (π, β, φ) become μ; the palatal stops κ, χ become γ; γ before μ remains unchanged.
ὄμμα eye for ὀπ-μα (cp. ὄπωπα), λέλειμμαι I have been left for λελειπ-μαι from λείπ-ω leave, τέτρι_μμαι for τετρι_β-μαι from τρί_β-ω rub, γέγραμμαι for γεγραφμαι from γράφ-ω write, πέπλεγμαι for πεπλεκ-μαι from πλέκ-ω plait, τέτευγμαι for τετευχ-μαι from τεύχ-ω build.
a. κ and χ may remain unchanged before μ in a noun-suffix: ἀκ-μή edge, δραχ-μή drachma. κμ remains when brought together by phonetic change ( cross128 a), as in κέ-κμη-κα am wearied (κάμ-νω).
85 a D
So in Hom. ἴκμενος favoring (ἱκά_νω), ἀκαχμένος sharpened.
b. γγμ and μμμ become γμ and μμ. Thus, ἐλήλεγμαι for ἐληλεγγ-μαι from ἐληλεγχ-μαι (ἐλέγχ-ω convict), πέπεμμαι for πεπεμμ-μαι from πεπεμπ-μαι (πέμπ-ω send).
A dental stop (τ, δ, θ) before μ often appears to become ς. Thus, ἤνυσμαι for ἠνυτ-μαι (ἀνύτ-ω complete), πέφρασμαι for πεφραδ-μαι (φράζω declare), πέπεισμαι for πεπειθ-μαι (πείθ-ω persuade).
On the other hand, since these stops are actually retained in many words, such as ἐρετμόν oar, πότμος fate, ἀριθμός number, ς must be explained as due to analogy. Thus, ἤνυσμαι, πέφρασμαι, πέπεισμαι have taken on the ending -σμαι by analogy to -σται where ς is in place (πέφρασται for πεφραδ-ται). So ἴσμεν we know (Hom. ἴδμεν) follows ἴστε you know (for ἰδ-τε). ὀσμή odor stands for ὀδ-σμη.
CONSONANTS BEFORE N
β regularly and φ usually become μ before ν. Thus, σεμνός revered for σεβ-νος (σέβ-ομαι), στυμνός firm for στυφ-νος (στύ_φω contract).
γίγνομαι become, γιγνώσκω know become γί_νομαι, γι_νώσκω in Attic after 300 B.C., in New Ionic, late Doric, etc.
λν becomes λλ in ὄλλυ_μι destroy for ὀλ-νυ_μι.
λν is kept in πίλναμαι approach. On sigma before ν see cross105.
Aeolic βόλλα council, attic βουλή and Doric βωλά_ (with compensatory lengthening), probably for βολνα_.
N BEFORE CONSONANTS
ν before π, β, φ, ψ becomes μ: ἐμπί_πτω fall into for ἐν-πι_πτω, ἐμβάλλω throw in for ἐν-βαλλω, ἐμφαίνω exhibit for ἐν-φαινω, ἔμψυ_χος alive for ἐν-ψυ_χος.
ν before κ, γ, χ, ξ becomes γ-nasal ( cross19 a): ἐγκαλέω bring a charge for ἐν-καλεω, ἐγγράφω inscribe for ἐν-γραφω, συγχέω pour together for συν-χεω, συγξύ_ω grind up for συν-ξι_ω.
ν before τ, δ, θ remains unchanged. Here ν may represent μ: βρον-τή thunder (βρέμ-ω roar).
ν before μ becomes μ: ἔμμετρος moderate for ἐν-μετρος, ἐμμένω abide by for ἐν-μενω.
a. Verbs in -νω may form the perfect middle in -σμαι ( cross489 h); as in πέφασμαι (from φαίνω show) for πεφαν-μαι (cp. πέφαγ-κα, πέφαν-ται).
b. Here ν does not become ς; but the ending -σμαι is borrowed from verbs with stems in a dental (as πέφρασμαι, on which see cross87).
ν before λ, ρ is assimilated (λλ, ρρ): σύλλογος concourse for συν-λογος, συρρέω flow together for συν-ρεω.
ν before ς is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened (ε to ει, ο to ου, cross37): μέλα_ς black for μελαν-ς, εἷς one for ἑν-ς, τιθείς placing for τιθεν (τ) -ς, τούς for τόν-ς.
a. But in the dative plural ν before -σι appears to be dropped without compensatory lengthening: μέλασι for μελαν-σι, δαίμοσι for δαιμον-σι divinities, φρεσί for φρεν-σι mind. But see cross250 N.
CONSONANTS BEFORE Σ
With ς a labial stop forms ψ, a palatal stop forms ξ.
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|λείψω shall leave for λειπ-σω||κῆρυξ herald for κηρυκ-ς|
|τρί_ψω shall rub “ τρι_β-σω||ἄξω shall lead “ ἀγ-σω|
|γράψω shall write “ γραφ-σω||βήξ cough “ βηχ-ς|
a. The only stop that can stand before ς is π or κ, hence β, φ become π, and γ, χ become κ. Thus, γραφ-σω, ἀγ-σω become γραπ-σω, ἀκ-σω.
A dental stop before ς is assimilated (σς) and one ς is dropped.
σώμασι bodies for σωμασσι out of σωματ-σι, ποσί feet for ποσσί out of ποδ-σι, ὄρνι_σι birds for ὀρνι_σσι out of ὀρνι_θ-σι. So πάσχω suffer for πασσχω out of παθ-σκω (cp. παθ-εῖν and cross126).
a. δ and θ become τ before ς: ποδ-σι, ὀρνι_θ-σι become ποτ-σι, ὀρνι_τ-σι.
Hom. often retains σς: ποσσί, δάσσασθαι for δατ-σασθαι (δατέομαι divide).
κ is dropped before σκ in διδα (κ) -σκω teach (διδακ-τός taught).
π is dropped before σφ in βλα (π) ς-φημία_ evil-speaking.
ντ, νδ, νθ before ς form νσς ( cross98), then νς, finally ν is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened ( cross37).
πᾶσι all for πανς-σι out of παντ-σι, τιθεῖσι placing for τιθενς-σι out of τιθεντ-σι. So γίγα_ς giant for γιγαντ-ς, λύ_ουσι loosing for λυ_οντ-σι, σπείσω shall make libation for σπενδ-σω, πείσομαι shall suffer for πενθ-σομαι (πένθος grief).
a. ἐν in, σύν with in composition are treated as follows:
ἐν before ρ, ς, or ζ keeps its ν: ἔν-ρυθμος in rhythm, ἐν-σκευάζω prepare, ἐνζεύγνυ_μι yoke in.
σύν before ς and a vowel becomes συς-: συς-σῴζω help to save. before ς and a consonant or ζ, becomes συ-: συ-σκευάζω pack up, σύ-ζυγος yoked together.
b. πᾶν, πάλιν before ς either keep ν or assimilate ν to ς: πάν-σοφος all-wise, παν-σέληνος or πασσέληνος the full moon, παλίν-σκιος thick-shaded, παλίς-συτος rushing back.
On ρς see cross79 a. λς is retained in ἄλσος precinct. ρς, λς may become ρ, λ with lengthening of the preceding vowel: ἤγειρα I collected, ἤγγειλα I announced for ἠγερ-σα, ἠγγελ-σα.
Hom. has ὦρσε incited, κέρσε cut, ἐέλσαι to coop up, κέλσαι to put to shore.
Σ BEFORE CONSONANTS
Sigma between consonants is dropped: ἤγγελ (ς) θε you have announced, γεγράφ (ς) θαι to have written, ἕκ (ς) μηνος of six months (ἕξ six, μήν month).
a. But in compounds ς is retained when the second part begins with ς: ἔν-σπονδος included in a truce. compounds in δυς- ill omit ς before a word beginning with ς: δύσχιστος hard to cleave for δυς-σχιστος (σχίζω).
ἐξ out of (= ἐκς) drops ς in composition before another consonant, but usually retains its κ unaltered: ἐκτείνω stretch out, ἐκδίδωμι surrender,
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ἐκφέρω carry out, ἐκθύ_ω sacrifice, ἐκσῴζω preserve from danger (not ἐξῴζω), ἐκμανθάνω learn thoroughly. Cp. cross82 N. 2, 136.
ς before μ or ν usually disappears with compensatory lengthening ( cross37) as in εἰμί for ἐς-μι. But σμ stays if μ belongs to a suffix and in compounds of δυς- ill: δυς-μενής hostile.
a. Assimilation takes place in Πελοπόννησος for Πέλοπος νῆσος island of Pelops, ἕννυ_μι clothe for ἑς-νυ_μι (Ionic εἵνυ_μι), ἔρρει was flowing for ἐ-σρει, 80 a.
ς is assimilated in Aeol. and Hom. ἔμμεναι to be for ἐς-μεναι (εἶναι), ἀργεννός white for άργες-νος, ἐρεβεννός dark (ἐρεβες-νος, cp. Ερεβος), ἄμμε we, ὔμμες you (ἀσμε, ὐσμες). Cp. cross81 D.
σδ becomes ζ in some adverbs denoting motion towards. Thus, Αθήναζε for Αθήνας-δε Athens-wards ( cross26, cross342 a).
Aeolic has σδ for medial ζ in ὔσδος branch (ὄζος), μελίσδω make melody (μελίζω).
Two sigmas brought together by inflection become ς: βέλεσι for βέλες-σι missiles, ἔπεσι for ἔπες-σι words ( cross98), τελέσαι for τελές-σαι (from τελέω accomplish, stem τελες-).
a. σς when = ττ ( cross78) never becomes ς.
Homer often retains σς: βέλεσσι, ἔπεσσι, τελέσσαι.
Many of the rules for the euphony of consonants were not established in the classical period. Inscriptions show a much freer practice, either marking the etymology, as σύνμαχος for σύμμαχος ally ( cross94), ἐνκαλεῖν for ἐγκαλεῖν to bring a charge ( cross92), or showing the actual pronunciation (phonetic spelling), as τὸγ (= τὸν) κακόν ( cross92), τὴμ (= τὴν) βουλήν ( cross91), τὸλ (= τὸν) λόγον, ἔγδοσις for ἔκδοσις surrendering ( cross104), ἐχφέρω, ἐχθύ_ω for ἐκφέρω, ἐκθύ_ω ( cross104).