Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
Previous Section

-- nts --

Note return to page Book xii. c. iii. 39. Vol. ii. page 311, 312.

Note return to page Book xiii. c. iv. § 8. Vol. ii. page 405.

Note return to page Book x. c. iv. § 10, and book xii. c. iii. § 33. Vol. ii. pp. 197, 307, of this Translation

Note return to page Book xiv. c. i. § 48. Vol. iii. p. 26.

Note return to page Book xiv. c. v. § 4. Vol. iii. p. 53.

Note return to page Book xii. c. iii. § 16. Vol. ii. p. 296, 380.

Note return to page c ii. § 24. Vol. iii. p. 173.

Note return to page Book ii. c. v. § 10. Vol. i. p, 176, of this Translation.

Note return to page Chap. i. § 20

Note return to page Chap. i. § 13.

Note return to page Chap. i. § 20.

Note return to page Ibid.

Note return to page Book ii. c. 3, § 6. Vol. i. p. 154.

Note return to page Herodotus iv. 85, 86.

Note return to page Book i. c. iv. § 6. Vol. i. p. 102, of the Translation.

Note return to page Book ii. c. i. i § 20. Vol. i. p. 119, of the Translation.

Note return to page Book xiii. c. i. § 54, vol. ii. p. 380.

Note return to page A Reply to the Calumnies of the Edinburgh Review against Oxford, page 98, by Dr. Copleston, late Bishop of Landaff. Oxford, 1810.

Note return to page The chapters and sectional divisions of Kramer's edition of the Greek text have been generally followed in this translation.

Note return to page τὰ θεία καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, the productions of nature and art.

Note return to page Africa.

Note return to page Then indeed the sun freshly struck the fields [with its rays], ascending heaven from the calmly-flowing, deep-moving ocean.Iliad vii. 421; Odyssey xix. 433. These references relate to the Greek text; any one wishing to verify the poetic translation will find the place in Cowper, by adding a few lines to the number adapted to the Greek. The prose version is taken from Bohn's edition.

Note return to page And the bright light of the sun fell into the ocean, drawing dark night over tile fruitful earth.Iliad viii. 485 Bright and steady as the star Autumnal, which in ocean newly bathed, Assumes fresh beauty.Iliad v. 6

Note return to page Iliad v.6.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks that in his opinion Strabo frequently attributes to Homer much information of which the great poet was entirely ignorant. the present is an instance, for Spain was to Homer a perfect terra in- cognita.

Note return to page The Phœnician Hercules, anterior to the Grecian hero by two or three centuries. The date of his expedition, supposing it to have actually occurred, was about sixteen or seventeen hundred years before the Christian era.

Note return to page But the immortals will send you to the Elysian plain, and the boundaries of the Earth, where is auburn-haired Rhadamanthus; there of a truth is the most easy life for men. There is nor snow, nor long winter, nor even a shower, but every day the ocean sends forth the gently blowing breezes of the west wind to refresh men."Odyssey iv. 563.

Note return to page The Isles of the Blest are the same as the Fortunate Isles of other geographers. It is clear from Strabo's description that he alludes to the Canary Islands; but as it is certain that Homer had never heard of these, it is probable that the passages adduced by Strabo have reference to the Elysian Fields of Baïa in Campania.

Note return to page The Maurusia of the Greeks (the Mauritania of the Latins) is now known as Algiers and Fez in Africa.

Note return to page The Ethiopians, who are divided into two divisions, the most distant of men.Odyssey i. 23.

Note return to page For yesterday Jove went to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians, to a banquet.Iliad i. 423.The ancients gave the name of Ethiopians, generally, to the inhabitants of Interior Africa, the people who occupied the sea-coast of the Atlantic, and the shores of the Arabian Gulf. It is with this view of the name that Strabo explains the passage of Homer; but the Mediterranean was the boundary of the poet's geographical knowledge; and the people he speaks of were doubtless the inhabitants of the southern parts of Phoenicia, who at one time were called Ethiopians. We may here remark too, that Homer's ocean frequently means the Mediterranean, sometimes probably the Nile. See also p. 48, n. 2.

Note return to page But it alone is free from the baths of the ocean.Iliad xviii. 489; Odyssey v. 275.

Note return to page We are informed by Diogenes Laertius, that Thales was the first to make known to the Greeks the constellation of the Lesser Bear. Now this philosopher flourished 600 years before the Christian era, and consequently some centuries after Homer's death. The name of φοινίκη which it received from the Greeks, is proof that Thales owed his knowledge of it to the Phœnicians. Conf. Humboldt's Cosmos, vol. iii. p. 160, Bohn's edition.

Note return to page Iliad xiii. 5. Gosselin says, Thrace (the present Roumelia) was in- disputably the most northern nation known to Homer. He names the people ιππημόλγοι, or living on mares' milk, because in his time they were a pomade race. Strabo evidently gives a forced meaning to the words of the poet, when he attempts to prove his acquaintance with the Scythians and Sarmatians.

Note return to page For I go to visit the limits of the fertile earth, and Oceanus, the parent of the gods. Iliad xiv. 200.

Note return to page The eighteenth book of the Iliad.

Note return to page Iliad xviii. 399; Odyss. xx. 65.

Note return to page Thrice indeed each day it lets loose its waves, and thrice it ebbs them back.Odyss. xii. 105. Gosselin remarks, I do not find any thing in these different passages of Homer to warrant the conclusion that he was aware of the ebb and flow of the tide; every one knows that the movement is hardly perceptible in the Mediterranean. In the Euripus, which divides the Isle of Negropont from Bœotia, the waters are observed to flow in opposite directions several times a day. It was from this that Homer probably drew his ideas; and the regular current of the Hellespont, which carries the waters of the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, led him to think that the whole ocean, or Mediterranean, had one continued flow like the current of a river.

Note return to page Iliad vii. 422.

Note return to page But when the ship left the stream of the river-ocean, and entered on the wave of the wide-wayed sea. Odyssey xii. l.

Note return to page This direction would indicate a gulf, the seaward side of which should be opposite the Libo-notus of the ancients. Now the mutilated passage of Crates has reference to the opening of the twelfth book of the Odyssey, descriptive of Ulysses' departure from Cimmeria, after his visit to the infernal regions. Those Cimmerians were the people who inhabited Campania, and the land round Baïa, near to lake Avernus, and the entrance into Hades. As these places are situated close to the bay of Naples, which occupies the exact position described by Crates, it is probable this was the bay he intended.

Note return to page What Strabo calls the eastern side of the continent, comprises that portion of India between Cape Comorin and Tana-serim, to the west of the kingdom of Siam: further than which he was not acquainted.

Note return to page Strabo's acquaintance with Western Africa did not go further than Cape Nun, 214 leagues distant from the Strait of Gibraltar.

Note return to page By the south is intended the whole land from the Arabian Gulf or Red Sea to Cape Comorin.

Note return to page From Cape Finisterre to the mouth of the Elbe.

Note return to page The rocks of Gibraltar and Ceuta.

Note return to page The mountaineers of the Taurus, between Lycia and Pisidia.

Note return to page A mountain of Ionia near to the Meander, and opposite the Isle of Samos.

Note return to page The Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page The Strait of Caffa, which connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof.

Note return to page The Cimmerians, spoken of in Homer, were undoubtedly the in- habitants of Campania, not those of the Bosphrus.

Note return to page They are covered with shadows and darkness, nor does the shining sun behold them with his beams,............ but pernicious night is spread over hapless mortals. Odyssey xi. 15 and 19.

Note return to page The Danube.

Note return to page Ancient Thrace consisted of the modern provinces of Bulgaria and Roumelia.

Note return to page A river of Thessaly, named at present Salampria.

Note return to page Now the river Vardari.

Note return to page Thesprotis, in Epirus, opposite Corfu.

Note return to page Afterwards named Temsa. This town was in Citerior Calabria. Some think Torre de Nocera stands on the ancient site.

Note return to page This is a misstatement, as before remarked.

Note return to page This writer occupies so prominent a position in Strabo's work, that no apology I think will be needed for the following extract from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. "Eratosthenes of Cyrene was, according to Suidas, the son of Aglaus, according to others, the son of Ambrosius, and was born B. C. 276. He was taught by Ariston of Chius, the philosopher, Lysanias of Cyrene, the grammarian, and Callimachus, the poet. He left Athens at the invitation of Ptolemy Euergetes, who placed him over the library at Alexandria. Here he continued till the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes. He died at the age of eighty, about B. C. 196, of voluntary starvation, having lost his sight, and being tired of life. He was a man of very extensive learning: we shall first speak of him as a geometer and astronomer. "It is supposed that Eratosthenes suggested to Ptolemy Euergetes the construction of the large armillœ, or fixed circular instruments, which were long in use at Alexandria; but only because it is difficult to imagine to whom else they are to be assigned, for Ptolemy the astronomer, though he mentions them, and incidentally their antiquity, does not state to whom they were due. In these circles each degree was divided into six parts. We know of no observations of Eratosthenes in which they were probably employed, except those which led him to the obliquity of the ecliptic, which he must have made to be 23° 51′ 20″; for he states the distance of the tropics to be eleven times the eighty-third part of the circumference. This was a good observation for the times. Ptolemy the astronomer was content with it, and according to him Hipparchus used no other. Of his measure of the earth we shall presently speak. According to Nicomachus, he was the inventor of the κόσκινον, or Cribrum Arithmeticum, as it has since been called, being the well-known method of detecting the prime numbers by writing down all odd numbers which do not end with 5, and striking out successively the multiples of each, one after the other, so that only prime numbers remain. "We still possess under the name of Eratosthenes a work, entitled κατασεισμοί, giving a slight account of the constellations, their fabulous history, and the stars in them. It is however acknowledged on all hands that this is not a work of Eratosthenes. * * * The only other writing of Eratosthenes which remains, is a letter to Ptolemy on the duplication of the cube, for the mechanical performance of which he had contrived an instrument, of which he seems to contemplate actual use in measuring the contents of vessels, &c. He seems to say that he has had his method engraved in some temple or public building, with some verses, which he adds. Eutocius has preserved this letter in his comment on book ii. prop. 2, of the sphere and cylinder of Archimedes. "The greatest work of Eratosthenes, and that which must always make his name conspicuous in scientific history, is the attempt which he made to measure the magnitude of the earth, in which he brought forward and used the method which is employed to this day. Whether or no he was successful cannot be told, as we shall see; but it is not the less true that he was the originator of the process by which we now know, very nearly indeed, the magnitude of our own planet. Delambre says that if it were he who advised the erection of the circular instruments above alluded to, he must be considered as the founder of astronomy: to which it may be added, that he was the founder of geodesy without any if in the case. The number of ancient writers who have alluded to this remarkable operation (which seems to have obtained its full measure of fame) is very great, and we shall not attempt to combine their remarks or surmises: it is enough to say that the most distinct account, and one of the earliest, is found in the remaining work of Cleomedes. "At Syene in Upper Egypt, which is supposed to be the same as, or near to, the town of Assouan, (Lat. 24° 10′ N., Long. 32° 59′ E. of Greenwich,) Eratosthenes was told (that he observed is very doubtful) that deep wells were enlightened to the bottom on the day of the summer solstice, and that vertical objects cast no shadows. He concluded therefore, that Syene was on the tropic, and its latitude equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic, which, as we have seen, he had determined: he presumed that it was in the same longitude as Alexandria, in which he was out about 3°, which is not enough to produce what would at that time have been a sensible error. By observations made at Alexandria, he determined the zenith of that place to be distant by the fiftieth part of the circumference from the solstice, which was equivalent to saying that the arc of the meridian between the two places is 7° 12′. Cleomedes says that he used the σκάφη, or hemispherical dial of Berosus, in the determination of this latitude. Delambre rejects the idea with infinite scorn, and pronounces Cleomedes unworthy of credit; and indeed it is not easy to see why Eratosthenes should have rejected the gnomon and the large circular instruments, unless, perhaps, for the following reason. There is a sentiment of Cleomedes which seems to imply that the disappearance of the shadows at Syene on the day of the summer solstice was noticed to take place for 300 stadia every way round Syene. If Eratosthenes took his report about the phenomenon (and we have no evidence that he went to Syene himself) from those who could give no better account than this, we may easily understand why he would think the σκάφη quite accurate enough to observe with at his own end of the arc, since the other end of it was uncertain by as much as 300 stadia. He gives 500 stadia for the distance from Alexandria to Syene, and this round number seems further to justify us in concluding that he thought the process to be as rough as in truth it was. Martianus Capella states that he obtained this distance from the measures made by order of the Ptolemies (which had been commenced by Alexander): this writer then implies that Eratosthenes did not go to Syene himself. The result is 250,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth, which Eratosthenes altered into 252,000, that his result might give an exact number of stadia for the degree, namely, 700; this of course should have been 694 4/9. Pliny calls this 31,500 Roman miles, and therefore supposes the stadium to be the eighth part of a Roman mile, or takes for granted that Eratosthenes used the Olympic stadium. It is likely enough that the Ptolemies naturalized this stadium in Egypt; but nevertheless, it is not unlikely that an Egyptian stadium was employed. If we assume the Olympic stadium, (202 1/4 yards,) the degree of Eratosthenes is more than 79 miles, upwards of 10 miles too great. Nothing is known of any Egyptian stadium. Pliny asserts that Hipparchus, but for what reason he does not say, wanted to add 25,000 stadia to the circumference as found by Eratosthenes. According to Plutarch, Eratosthenes made the sun to be 804 millions of stadia from the earth, and the moon 780,000. According to Macrobius, he made the diameter of the sun to be 27 times that of the earth. With regard to the other merits of Eratosthenes, we must first of all mention what he did for geography, which was closely connected with his mathematical pursuits. It was Eratosthenes who raised geography to the rank of a science; for previous to his time it seems to have consisted, more or less, of a mass of in- formation scattered in books of travel, descriptions of particular countries, and the like. All these treasures were accessible to Eratosthenes in the libraries of Alexandria; and he made the most profitable use of them, by collecting the scattered materials, and uniting them into an organic system of geography, in his comprehensive work entitled γεωγαφικά, or as it is sometimes but erroneously called, γεωγούμενα or γεωγαφία. It consisted of three books, the first of which, forming a sort of Introduction, contained a critical review of the labours of his predecessors from the earliest to his own times, and investigations concerning the form and nature of the earth, which, according to him, was an immoveable globe, on the surface of which traces of a series of great revolutions were still visible. He conceived that in one of these revolutions the Mediterranean had acquired its present form; for according to him it was at one time a large lake covering portions of the adjacent countries of Asia and Libya, until a passage was forced open by which it entered into communication with the ocean in the west. The second book contained what is now called mathematical geography. His attempt to measure the magnitude of the earth has been spoken of above. The third book contained the political geography, and gave descriptions of the various countries, derived from the works of earlier travellers and geographers. In order to be able to determine the accurate site of each place, he drew a line parallel with the equator, running from the Pillars of Hercules to the extreme east of Asia, and dividing the whole of the inhabited earth into two halves. Connected with this work was a new map of the earth, in which towns, mountains, rivers, lakes, and climates were marked according to his own improved measurements. This important work of Eratosthenes forms an epoch in the history of ancient geography: but unfortunately it is lost, and all that has survived consists in fragments quoted by later geographers and historians, such as Polybius, Strabo, Marcianus, Pliny, and others, who often judge of him unfavourably, and controvert his statements; while it can be proved that in a great many passages they adopt his opinions without mentioning his name. Marcianus charges Eratosthenes with having copied the substance of the work of Timosthenes on Ports, (περὶ λιμένων,) to which he added but very little of his own. This charge may be well-founded, but cannot have diminished the value of the work of Eratosthenes, in which that of Timosthenes can have formed only a very small portion. It seems to have been the very overwhelming importance of the geography of Eratosthenes, that called forth a number of opponents, among whom we meet with the names of Polemon, Hipparchus, Polybius, Serapion, and Marcianus of Heracleia. * * * Another work of a somewhat similar nature, entitled εεμῆς, was written in verse, and treated of the form of the earth, its temperature, the different zones, the constellations, and the like. * * * Eratosthenes distinguished himself also as a philosopher, historian, grammarian, &c.

Note return to page The ancients portioned out the globe by bands or zones parallel to the equator, which they named κλίματα. The extent of each zone was determined by the length of the solstitial day, and thus each diminished in extent according as it became more distant from the equator. The moderns have substituted a mode of reckoning the degrees by the elevation of the pole, which gives the latitudes with much greater accuracy.

Note return to page Literally, the heat, cold, and temperature of the atmosphere.

Note return to page Tartary.

Note return to page France.

Note return to page Xylander and Casaubon remark that Strabo here makes an improper use of the term antipodes; the antipodes of Spain and India being in the southern hemisphere.

Note return to page Meteorology, from μετεώρος, aloft, is the science which describes and explains the various phenomena which occur in the region of the atmosphere.

Note return to page Homer, Iliad viii. 16

Note return to page A people of Thessaly, on the banks of the Peneus.

Note return to page The former name of the Morea, and more ancient than Peloponnesus. Iliad i. 270.

Note return to page Having wandered to Cyprus, and Phœnice, and the Egyptians, I came to the Ethiopians, and Sidonians, and Erembi, and Libya, where the lambs immediately become horned. Odyssey iv. 83.

Note return to page Odyssey iv. 86.

Note return to page Homer says, ———τνπλεῖστα φἐει ζείδωος ἄουα φάμακα.Odyssey iv. 229. Which Cowper properly renders:— Egypt teems With drugs of various powers. Strabo, by omitting the word φαμακα from his citation, alters to a certain degree the meaning of the sentence.

Note return to page Iliad ix. 383, et seq.

Note return to page Odyssey xxi. 26.

Note return to page Chorography, a term used by Greek writers, meaning the description of particular districts.

Note return to page Iliad ii. 496. Four cities of Bœotia. The present name of Aulis is Vathi, situated on the Strait of Negropont The modern names of the other three cities are unknown.

Note return to page By Libyans are here intended Carthaginians. The events alluded to by Strabo may be found in Pomponius Mela and Valerius Maximus, whose accounts however do not entirely accord. That of Valerius Maximus, who is followed by Servius, tells us that Hannibal, on his return to Africa, observed his pilot Pelorus was taking the ships by the coast of Italy, and suspecting him therefore of treachery, caused him to be executed. He did not know at the time the intention of Pelorus to take him through the Strait of Messina, but afterwards, when aware of the excellence of the passage, caused a monument to be raised to the memory of the unfortunate pilot. Strabo, in his ninth book, gives us the history of Salganeus, and the monument erected to him on the shores of Negropont.

Note return to page The Gulf of Zeitun.

Note return to page Vide preceding note on this word, p. 13, n. 1.

Note return to page Odyssey v. 393.

Note return to page Allusion is here made to the theory of Xenophanes of Colophon and Anaximenes his disciple, who imagined the earth bore the form of a vast mountain, inhabited at the summit, but whose roots stretched into infinity. The Siamese at the present day hold a similar idea.

Note return to page See note1, p. 13.

Note return to page πεὶ τῶν οἰκήσεων.

Note return to page Meaning, the different appearances of the heavenly bodies at various parts of the earth.

Note return to page Odyssey x. 190.

Note return to page This sentence has been restored to what was evidently its original position. In the Greek text it appears immediately before section 23, commencing, Having already compiled, &c. The alteration is borne out by the French and German translators.

Note return to page Strabo here alludes to his ιστορικὰ υπομνήματα, cited by Plutarch (Lucullus, 28, Sulla, 26). This work, in forty-three books, began where the History of Polybius ended, and was probably continued to the battle of Actium. Smith, Gr. and Rom. Biog.

Note return to page The Sea of Azof.

Note return to page Mingrelia; east of the Euxine.

Note return to page A large country of Asia to the south of the eastern part of the Caspian Sea. It became much restricted during the Parthian rule, contain- ing only the north of Comis, east of Masanderan, the country near Corcan. or Jorjan, (Dshiordshian,) and the west of the province of Khorassan.

Note return to page A country of Asia, on the west bounded by Aria, south by the mountains of Paropamisus, east by the Emodi montes, north by Sogdiana, now belongs to the kingdom of Afhganistan. Bactriana was anciently the centre of Asiatic commerce.

Note return to page A general name given by the Greeks and Romans to a large portion of Asia, and divided by them into Scythia intra et extra Imaum, that is, on either side of Mount Imaus. This mountain is generally thought to answer to the Himalaya mountains of Thibet.

Note return to page This seems to be a paraphrase of Homer's verse on Ulysses, Odyssey xviii. 74. οἵην ἐκ ῥακέων ὁ γέων ἐπιγουνίδα φαίνει.Odyssey xviii. 74. What thews And what a haunch the senior's tatters hide. Cowper.

Note return to page Zeno, of Citium, a city in the island of Cyprus, founded by Phoenician settlers, was the son of Mnaseas.

Note return to page πεὶ τῶν αγαθῶν, is the title given by Strabo, but we find from Harpocrates and Clemens Alexandrinus, that properly it was πεὶ αγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν, or "Concerning Good and Evil Things 'which we have rendered in the text Moral Philosophy.

Note return to page Odyssey iii. 267.

Note return to page Ib. iii. 270.

Note return to page Ib. iii. 272.

Note return to page Thisbe, Haliartus, Anthedon, cities of Bœotia; Litæa, a city of Phocis. The Cephissus, a large river, rising in the west of Phocis.

Note return to page A harvest-wreath of laurel or olive wound round with wool, and adorned with fruits, borne about by singing-boys at the πυανεψια and θαγὴλια, while offerings were made to Helios and the Hours: it was afterwards hung up at the house-door. The song was likewise called eiresionè, which became the general name for all begging-songs.

Note return to page Auditors,] ἀκοωμένοις. In Greece there was a class of lectures where the only duty of the professors was to explain the works of the poets, and point out the beauties which they contained. The students who attended these lectures were styled ἀκοάται, or auditors, and the method of instruction ἀκόασις.

Note return to page Odyssey i 3.

Note return to page Iliad iii. 202.

Note return to page Ib. x. 246.

Note return to page Odyssey xviii. 367.

Note return to page Ib. xviii. 374.

Note return to page The second book of the Iliad.

Note return to page The ninth book of the Iliad.

Note return to page The deputation of Menelaus and Ulysses to demand back Helen, alluded to by Antenor, in the third book of the Iliad.

Note return to page But when he did send forth the mighty voice from his breast, and words like unto wintry flakes of snow, no longer then would another mortal contend with Ulysses. Iliad iii. 221.

Note return to page So much of the meaning of this sentence depends upon the orthography, that its force is not fully perceptible in English; the Greek is as follows: τοῦτο δ' ν ἡ ᾠδὴ λόγος μεμελισμένος ἀφ' ο δὴ ῥαψῳδίαη τ ἔλεγον καὶ ταγῳδίαν καὶ κωμῳδίαν.

Note return to page This last sentence can convey little or no meaning to the English reader; its whole force in the original depending on verbal association. Its general scope however will be evident, when it is stated that in Greek, the same word, πεζὸς, which means a foot-soldier, signifies also prose composition. Hence Strabo's allusion to the chariot. The Latins borrowed the expression, and used sermo pedestris in the same sense.

Note return to page A female phantom said to devour children, used by nurses as a bugbear to intimidate their refractory charges.

Note return to page In later times there were three Gorgons, Stheino, Euryale, and Medusa, but Homer seems to have known but one.

Note return to page One of the giants, who in the war against the gods was deprived of his left eye by Apollo, and of the right by Hercules.

Note return to page The same phantom as Mormo, with which the Greeks used to frighten little children.

Note return to page Odyssey vi. 232.

Note return to page Odyssey xix. 203.

Note return to page The mountains of Chimera in Albania.

Note return to page The Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page The Gulf of Salerno.

Note return to page The Grecian name for Tuscany.

Note return to page Several small islands, or rather reefs, at the entrance of the Strait of Constantinople. They took their name of Symplegades from the varying positions they assumed to the eyes of the voyager, owing to the sinuosities of the Strait.

Note return to page Unfortunately for Strabo's illustration, no Grecian navigator had ever passed the Strait of Gibraltar in Homer's time.

Note return to page The powerful Shaker of the Earth, as he was returning from the Ethiopians, beheld him from a distance, from the mountains of the Solymi. Odyssey v. 282.

Note return to page There is some doubt as to the modern name of the island of Ithaca. D'Anville supposes it to be the island of Thiaki, between the island of Cephalonia and Acarnania, while Wheeler and others, who object to this island as being too large to answer the description of Ithaca given by Strabo, identify it with the little isle of Ithaco, between Thiaki and the main-land.

Note return to page A name of the city of Troy, from Ilus, son of Tros.

Note return to page A mountain of Magnesia in Thessaly.

Note return to page A mountain in the Troad.

Note return to page Cape Faro in Sicily.

Note return to page The stadia here mentioned are 700 to a degree; thus 2000 stadia amount to rather more than 57 marine leagues, which is the distance in a direct line from Cape Faro to the Capo della Minerva.

Note return to page The Sirenussæ are the rocks which form the southern cape of the Gulf of Naples, and at the same time separate it from the Gulf of Salerno. This cape, which was also called the promontory of Minerva, from the Athenæum which stood there, preserves to this day the name of Capo della Minerva.

Note return to page Now Surrento.

Note return to page The island of Capri is opposite to the Capo della Minerva.

Note return to page Now the Island of St. Marcian.

Note return to page Monte Circello, near to Terracina.

Note return to page The Iliad.

Note return to page Sword-fish.

Note return to page And fishes there, watching about the rock for dolphins and dogs, and if she can any where take a larger whale. Odyssey xii. 95.

Note return to page There is a very fine medallion in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, portraying Scylla as half woman, half dolphin, with a trident in her left hand, and seizing a fish with her right. From her middle protrude two half-bodied dogs, who assist the monster in swimming.

Note return to page Odyssey xii. 105.

Note return to page At this place there was an altar consecrated to Ulysses. Meninx is now known as the island of Zerbi, on the side of the Bay of Cabus, on the coast of Africa.

Note return to page The second book of the Iliad.

Note return to page And from thence I was carried for nine days over t' fishy sea by baleful winds. Odyssey ix. 82.

Note return to page Cape Maleo off the Morea. The distance from this point to Gibraltar is now estimated at 28° 34′. The 22,500 stadia of Polybius would equal 32° 8′ 34″. He was therefore out in his calculation by 3° 34′ 34″.

Note return to page But when the ship left the stream of the river ocean. Odyss. xii. l.

Note return to page Vide Odyssey i. 50.

Note return to page Calypso.

Note return to page And we dwell at a distance, the farthest in the sea of many waves, nor does any other of mortals mingle with us. Odyssey vi. 204.

Note return to page Gosselin has satisfactorily demonstrated that Strabo is wrong in supposing that these passages relate to the Atlantic Ocean, and most of our readers will come at once themselves to the same conclusion. Those, however, who wish for proofs, may refer to the French translation, vol. i. p. 51, n.

Note return to page The ancient name of the city of Naples.

Note return to page Puteoli, now Pozzuolo, in Campania.

Note return to page Mare Morto, south of Baïa, and near to the ruins of Mycene.

Note return to page Aornus or Avernus: this lake, which lies about one mile north of Baïa, still retains its ancient appellation.

Note return to page Vide Virgil, æneid vi. 162.

Note return to page Cythæron and Helicon, two mountains of Bœotia, the latter of which is now named Zagaro Voreni.

Note return to page Parnassus, a mountain of Phocis, near Delphi.

Note return to page Pelion, a mountain of Magnesia, in Thessaly.

Note return to page They attempted to place Ossa upon Olympus, and upon Ossa leafy Pelion. Odyssey xi. 314. The mountains Pelion, Ossa, and Olympus, bounded the eastern coasts of Thessaly.

Note return to page Pieria and Emathia, two countries of Macedonia.

Note return to page The mountains of Macedonia; this latter name was unknown to Homer, who consequently describes as Thracian, the whole of the people north of Thessaly.

Note return to page The Mount Santo of the moderns.

Note return to page Juno, hastening, quitted the summit of Olympus, and having passed over Pieria, and fertile Emathia, she hastened over the snowy mountains of equestrian Thrace, most lofty summits. * * * * From Athos she descended to the foaming deep. Iliad xiv. 225.

Note return to page Odyssey iv. 83.

Note return to page Euripides, Bacchæ, towards commencement.

Note return to page Sophocles.

Note return to page The inaccuracy of the description consists in this; that Bacchus leaving Lydia and Phrygia should have taken his course by Media into Bactriana, and returned by Persia into Arabia Felix. Perhaps too, for greater exactness, Strabo would have had the god mention particularly the intermediate countries through which he necessarily passed, as Cappadocia, Armenia, Syria, &c.

Note return to page But it lies low, the highest in the sea towards the west, but those that are separated from it [lie] towards the east and the sun. Odyssey ix. 25.

Note return to page Vide Odyssey xiii. 109, 111.

Note return to page Which I very little regard, nor do I care for them whether they fly to the right, towards the morn and the sun, or to the left, towards the darkening west. Iliad xii. 239.

Note return to page O my friends, since we know not where is the west, nor where the morning, nor where the sun. Odyssey x. 190.

Note return to page The north and west winds, which both blow from Thrace. Iliad ix. 5.

Note return to page Now the Bay of Saros.

Note return to page These two provinces are comprised in the modern division of Roumelia. A portion of Macedonia still maintains its ancient name Makidunia.

Note return to page The modern names of these places are Thaso, Stalimene, Imbro, and Samothraki.

Note return to page Strabo, as well as Casaubon in his notes on this passage, seems to have made an imperfect defence of Homer. The difficulty experienced, as well by them as Eratosthenes, arose from their overlooking the fact that Macedonia was a part of Thrace in Homer's time, and that the name of Macedon did not exist.

Note return to page These rocks were situated between the city of Megara and the isthmus of Corinth.

Note return to page And the south-east and the south rushed together, and the hard- blowing west, and the cold-producing north. Odyssey v. 295.

Note return to page The western part of Thrace, afterwards named Macedonia; having Pæonia on the north, and Thessaly on the south.

Note return to page The Magnetæ dwelt near to Mount Pelion and the Pelasgic Gulf, now the Bay of Volo.

Note return to page These people dwelt between Mount Othrys, and the Maliac Gulf, now the Gulf of Zeitun.

Note return to page The maritime portion of Epirus opposite Corfu.

Note return to page In the time of Homer the Dolopes were the neighbours of the Pæonians, and dwelt in the north of that part of Thrace which afterwards formed Macedonia. Later, however, they descended into Thessaly, and established themselves around Pindus.

Note return to page Dodona was in Epirus, but its exact position is not known.

Note return to page Now Aspro-potamo, or the White River; this river flows into the sea at the entrance of the Gulf of Corinth.

Note return to page And the assembly was moved, as the great waves of the Icarian sea. Iliad ii. 144.

Note return to page αγέσταο νὀτοιο, Iliad xi. 306, xxi. 334.αγέστης strictly speaking means the north-west, and although, to an English ear, the north-west south seems at first absurd, yet in following up the argument which Strabo is engaged in, it is impossible to make use of any other terms than those which he has brought forward, and merely to have translated ἀργέσταο νότοιο by Argest-south, would have mystified the passage without cause. We do not here attempt to reconcile the various renderings of ἀγέσταο νότοιο by Homeric critics, as Strabo's sense alone concerns us.

Note return to page The north and west winds, which both blow from Thrace. Iliad ix. 5.

Note return to page αγέστης νότος, the clearing south wind, Horace's Notus Albus;— in the improved compass of Aristotle, ἀγέστης was the north-west wind, the Athenian σκείων.

Note return to page τοῦ λοιποῦ νότου ὅλου εὔου πως ὄντος. MSS. i. e. all the other southern winds having an easterly direction. We have adopted the suggestion of Kramer, and translated the passage as if it stood thus, τοῦ λοιποῦ νότου ὀλεοῦ πως ὄντος.

Note return to page As when the west wind agitates the light clouds of the clearing south, striking them with a dreadful gale. Iliad xi. 305.

Note return to page Gosselin observes that Hesiod lived about forty years after Homer, and he mentions not only the Nile, but also the Po, with which certainly Homer was unacquainted. He speaks too of the Western Ocean, where he places the Gorgons, and the garden of the Hesperides. It is very likely that these various points of information were brought into Greece by the Carthaginians. The name Nile seems to be merely a descriptive title; it is still in use in many countries of India, where it signifies water. The river known subsequently as the Nile, was, in Homer's time, called the River of Egypt, or the River Egyptus; by the latter of which titles he was acquainted with it. See Odyssey xvii. 448.

Note return to page By this expression is intended the Atlantic.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks that the arguments made use of by Strabo are not sufficiently conclusive. The country with which the Greeks were best acquainted was Greece, undoubtedly, and it is this land which Homer has described with the greatest exactness of detail.

Note return to page An island opposite to Alexandria, and seven stadia distant therefrom. The Ptolemies united it to the main-land by means of a pier, named Hepta-stadium, in allusion to its length. The sands which accumulated against the pier became the site of the present city of Alexandria. It was not on this island that the celebrated Pharos of Alexandria was erected, but on a desolate rock a little to the N. E. It received the same name as the island, to which it was joined by another pier. As to the passage of Homer, (Odyssey iv. 354–357,) where he says that Pharos is one day's sail from the Egyptus, he does not mean Egypt, as Strabo fancies, but the mouth of the Nile, which river in his time was called the Egyptus, and probably fell into the sea about one day's sail from Pharos.

Note return to page We have before remarked that the Ethiopia visited by Menelaus was not the country above Egypt, generally known by that name, but an Ethiopia lying round Jaffa, the ancient Joppa.

Note return to page The priests stated also that Menes was the first of mortals that ever ruled over Egypt; to this they added that in the days of that king, all Egypt, with the exception of the Thebaic nome, was but a morass; and that none of the lands now seen below Lake Mœris, then existed; from the sea up to this place is a voyage by the river of seven days. I myself am perfectly convinced the account of the priests in this particular is correct; for the thing is evident to every one who sees and has common sense, although he may not have heard the fact, that the Egypt to which the Hellenes navigate, is a land annexed to the Egyptians, and a gift from the river; and that even in the parts above the lake just mentioned, for three days' sail, concerning which the priests relate nothing, the country is just of the same description. Herod. ii. § 5.

Note return to page The Ethiopians, who are divided into two parts, the most distant of men, some at the setting of the sun, others at the rising. Odyssey i. 23.

Note return to page Odyssey i. 23.

Note return to page Many ancient writers entertained the opinion that the regions surrounding the terrestrial equator were occupied by the ocean, which formed a circular zone, separating our continent from that which they supposed to exist in the southern hemisphere. To the inhabitants of this second continent they gave the name of Antichthones.

Note return to page The Southern Ocean.

Note return to page Or nearest to the equator.

Note return to page The isthmus of Suez.

Note return to page Odyssey i. 23.

Note return to page This explanation falls to the ground when we remember, that prior to the reign of Psammeticus no stranger had ever succeeded in penetrating into the interior of Egypt. This was the statement of the Greeks themselves. Now as Psammeticus did not flourish till two and a half centuries after Homer, that poet could not possibly have been aware of the circumstances which Strabo brings forward to justify his interpretation of this passage which he has undertaken to defend.

Note return to page Africa.

Note return to page The Red Sea.

Note return to page The Strait of Gibraltar.

Note return to page The Tartessians were the inhabitants of the island of Tartessus, formed by the two arms of the Bætis, (the present Guadalquiver,) near the mouth of this river. One of these arms being now dried up, the island is reunited to the mainland. It forms part of the present district of Andalusia. The tradition, says Gosselin, reported by Ephorus, seems to me to resemble that still preserved at Tingis, a city of Mauritania, so late as the sixth century. Procopius (Vandalicor. ii. 10) relates that there were two columns at Tingis bearing the following inscription in the Phœnician language, We are they who fled before the brigand Joshua, the son of Naue (Nun). It does not concern us to inquire whether these columns actually existed in the time of Procopius, but merely to remark two independent facts. The first is the tradition generally received for more than twenty centuries, that the coming of the Israelites into Palestine drove one body of Canaanites, its ancient inhabitants, to the extremities of the Mediterranean, while another party went to establish, among the savage tribes of the Peloponnesus and Attica, the earliest kingdoms known in Europe. The second observation has reference to the name of Ethiopians given by Ephorus to this fugitive people, as confirming what we have before stated, that the environs of Jaffa, and possibly the entire of Palestine, anciently bore the name of Ethiopia: and it is here we must leek for the Ethiopians of Homer, and not in the interior of Africa.

Note return to page Africa.

Note return to page This piece is now lost.

Note return to page τὸ μεσημβινὸν κλίμα.

Note return to page æschylus.

Note return to page This piece is now lost.

Note return to page Odyssey ix. 26.

Note return to page Strabo is mistaken in interpreting πρὸς ζόφον towards the north. It means here, as every where else, towards the west, and allusion in the passage is made to Ithaca as lying west of Greece.

Note return to page Whether they fly to the right towards the morn and the sun, or to the left towards the darkening west. Iliad xii. 239.

Note return to page O my friends! since we know not where is the west, nor where the morning, nor where the sun that gives light to mortals descends beneath the earth, nor where he rises up again. Odyssey x. 190.

Note return to page In Book x.

Note return to page For yesterday Jove went to Oceanus to the blameless Ethiopians, to a banquet. Iliad i. 423.

Note return to page The powerful shaker of the earth, as he was returning from the Ethiopians, beheld him from a distance, from the mountains of the Solymi, Odyssey v. 282.

Note return to page This would be true if Homer had lived two or three centuries later, when the Greeks became acquainted with the Ethiopians on the eastern and western coasts of Africa. But as the poet was only familiar with the Mediterranean, there is no question that the Ethiopians mentioned in this passage are those of Phoenicia and Palestine.

Note return to page Which, after they have escaped the winter and immeasurable shower, with a clamour wing their way towards the streams of the ocean bearing slaughter and fate to the Pygmæan men. Iliad iii. 3.

Note return to page Gosselin is of opinion that this Iberia has no reference to Spain, but is a country situated between the Euxine and Caspian Seas, and forms part of the present Georgia. He assigns as his reason, that if Strabo had meant to refer to Spain, he would have mentioned it before Italy, so as not to interrupt the geographical order, which he is always careful to observe.

Note return to page Pygmy, (πυγμαῖος,) a being whose length is a πυγμὴ, that is, from the elbow to the hand. The Pygmæi were a fabulous nation of dwarfs, the Lilliputians of antiquity, who, according to Homer, had every spring to sustain a war against the cranes on the banks of Oceanus. They were believed to have been descended from Pygmræus, a son of Dorus and grandson of Epaphus. Later writers usually place them near the sources of the Nile, whither the cranes are said to have migrated every year to take possession of the field of the Pygmies. The reports of them have been embellished in a variety of ways by the ancients. Hecatæus, for example, related that they cut down every corn-ear with an axe, for they were conceived to be an agricultural people. When Hercules came into their country, they climbed with ladders to the edge of his goblet to drink from it; and when they attacked the hero, a whole army of them made an assault upon his left hand, while two made the attack on his right. Aristotle did not believe that the accounts of the Pygmies were altogether fabulous, but thought that they were a tribe in Upper Egypt, who had exceedingly small horses, and lived in caves. In later times we also hear of Northern Pygmies, who lived in the neighbourhood of Thule: they are described as very short-lived, small, and armed with spears like needles. Lastly, we also have mention of Indian Pygmies, who lived under the earth on the east of the river Ganges. Smith, Diet. Biog. and Mythol. Various attempts have been made to account for this singular belief, which however seems to have its only origin in the love of the Marvellous.

Note return to page It must be observed that the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea, does not run parallel to the equator, consequently it could not form any considerable part of a meridian circle; thus Strabo is wrong even as to the physical position of the Gulf, but this is not much to be wondered at, as he supposed in equatorial division of the earth into two hemispheres by the ocean.

Note return to page 15,000 of the stadia employed by Strabo were equivalent to 21° 25′ 13″. The distance from the Isthmus of Suez to the Strait of Bab-el- Mandeb, following our better charts, is 20° 15′. Strabo says nearly 15,000 stadia; and this length may be considered just equal to that of the Arabian Gulf. Its breadth, so far as we know, is in some places equal to 1800 stadia.

Note return to page The Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Aristotle accounts for Homer's mentioning Thebes rather than Memphis, by saying that, at the time of the poet, the formation of that part of Egypt by alluvial deposit was very recent. So that Memphis either did no then exist, or at all events had not then obtained its after celebrity. Aristotle likewise seems to say that anciently Egypt consisted only of the territory of the Thebaid, καὶ τὸ ἀχαῖον ἡ αἴυπτος, θῆβαι καλούμεναι.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Gosselin says, Read 4000, as in lib. xvii. This correction is indicated by the following measure given by Herodotus: From the sea to Heliopolis1500 stadia From Heliopolis to Thebes4860 —— 6360 The stadium made use of in Egypt at the time of Herodotus consisted of 1111 1/9 to a degree on the grand circle, as may be seen by comparing the measure of the coasts of the Delta furnished by that historian with our actual information. The length of this stadium may likewise be ascertained by reference to Aristotle. In the time of Eratosthenes and Strabo, the stadium of 700 to a degree was employed in Egypt. Now 6360 stadia of 1111 1/9 to a degree make just 4006 stadia of 700: consequently these two measures are identical, their apparent inconsistency merely resulting from the different scales by which preceding authors had expressed them. This reasoning seems very plausible, but we must remark that Col. Leake, in a valuable paper On the Stade as a Linear Measure, published in vol. ix. of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, is of opinion that Gosselin's system of stadia of different lengths cannot be maintained.

Note return to page Namely Crates and Aristarchus. The last was of Alexandria, and consequently an Egyptian. Crates was of Cilicia, which was regarded as a part of Syria.

Note return to page This is a very favourite axiom with Strabo, notwithstanding he too often forgets it himself.

Note return to page The Phrygians were considered to be more timid than any other people, and consequently the hares of their country more timid than those of any other. We see then a twofold hyperbole in the expression that a man is more timid than a Phrygian hare.

Note return to page Alcæus of Mitylene in the island of Lesbos, the earliest of the æolian lyric poets, began to flourish in the forty-second Olympiad (B. C. 610). In the second year of this Olympiad we find Cicis and Antimenidas, the brothers of Alcæus, fighting under Pittacus against Melanchrus, who is described as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in the conflict. Alcæus does not appear to have taken part with his brothers on this occasion; on the contrary, he speaks of Melanchrus in terms of high praise. Alcæus is mentioned in connexion with the war in Troas, between the Athenians and Mitylenæans, for the possession of Sigæum. During the period which followed this war, the contest between the nobles and the people of Mitylene was brought to a crisis. The party of Alcæus engaged actively on the side of the nobles, and was defeated. When he and his brother Antimenidas perceived that all hope of their restoration to Mitylene was gone, they travelled over different countries. Alcæus visited Egypt, and appears to have written poems in which his adventures by sea were described. Horace, Carm. ii. 13. 26. See Smith's Diet. of Biog. and Mythol.

Note return to page But in it there is a haven with good mooring, from whence they takes equal ships into the sea, having drawn black water. Odyssey iv. 358.

Note return to page Certainly having suffered many things, and having wandered much, I was brought in my ships, and I returned in the eighth year; having wandered to Cyprus, and Phœnice, and the Egyptians, I came to the Ethiopians and Sidonians, and Erembians, and Libya. Odyssey iv. 81.

Note return to page On the coasts of the Mediterranean.

Note return to page Strabo intends to say that the ships of Menelaus were not constructed so as to be capable of being taken to pieces, and carried on the backs of the sailors, as those of the Ethiopians were.

Note return to page Having mentioned the Phœnicians, amongst whom the Sidonians are comprised, he certainly would not have enumerated these latter as a separate people.

Note return to page That is to say, that he made the entire circuit of Africa, starting from Cadiz, and doubling the Cape of Good Hope. Such was the opinion of Crates, who endeavoured to explain all the expressions of Homer after mathematical hypotheses. If any one were to inquire how Menelaus, who was wandering about the Mediterranean, could have come into Ethiopia, Crates would answer, that Menelaus left the Mediterranean and entered the Atlantic, whence he could easily travel by sea into Ethiopia. In this he merely followed the hypothesis of the mathematicians, who said that the inhabited earth in all its southern portion was traversed by the Atlantic Ocean, and the other seas contiguous thereto.

Note return to page The Isthmus of Suez. This isthmus they supposed to be covered by the sea, as Strabo explains further on.

Note return to page Thus far he, collecting much property and gold, wandered with his ships. Odyssey iii. 301.

Note return to page Odyssey iv. 83.

Note return to page Strabo here appears to have followed Aristotle, who attributes to Sesostris the construction of the first canal connecting the Mediterranean, or rather the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, with the Red Sea. Pliny has followed the same tradition. Strabo, Book xvii., informs us, that other authors attribute the canal to Necho the son of Psammeticus; and this is the opinion of Herodotus and Diodorus. It is possible these authors may be speaking of two different attempts to cut this canal. Sesostris flourished about 1356 years before Christ, Necho 615 years before the same era. About a century after Necho, Darius the son of Hystaspes made the undertaking, but desisted under the false impression that the level of the Red Sea was higher than that of the Mediterranean. Ptolemy Philadelphus proved this to be an error, by uniting the Red Sea to the Nile without causing any inundation. At the time of Trojan and Hadrian the communication was still in existence, though subsequently it became choked up by an accumulation of sand. It will be remembered that a recent proposition for opening the canal was opposed in Egypt on similar grounds.

Note return to page Mount El Kas.

Note return to page Tineh.

Note return to page But the immortals will send you to the Elysian plain, and the boundaries of the earth. Odyssey iv. 563.

Note return to page But ever does the ocean send forth the gently blowing breezes of the west wind. Odyssey iv. 567.

Note return to page Odyssey iv. 73.See Strabo's description of electrum, Book iii. c. ii. § 8.

Note return to page Blessed.

Note return to page The name of Arabia Felix is now confined to Yemen. A much larger territory was anciently comprehended under this designation, containing the whole of Hedjaz, and even Nedjed-el-Ared. It is probable that Strabo here speaks of Hedjaz, situated about two days' journey south of Mecca.

Note return to page Iliad xi. 20.

Note return to page Of the Mediterranean.

Note return to page Philæ was built on a little island formed by the Nile, now called El-Heif.

Note return to page This is evidently Strabo's meaning; but the text, as it now stands, is manifestly corrupt.

Note return to page El-Baretun. A description of this place will be found in the 17th book.

Note return to page At this port it was that Agesilaus terminated his glorious career.

Note return to page Iliad xiii. 1.Strabo means that Homer, after having spoken of the Trojans in general, mentions Hector in particular.

Note return to page Iliad ii. 641. Having mentioned the sons of æneus collectively, he afterwards distinguishes one of them by name.

Note return to page Iliad viii. 47.Gargarus was one of the highest peaks of Ida.

Note return to page Iliad ii. 536. Chalcis and Eretria were two cities of Eubœa.

Note return to page We have here taken advantage of Casaubon's suggestion to read ἡ πάνορμος instead of ἢ πάνορμος, the Greek name for Palermo in Sicily, which was not founded in the time of Sappho.

Note return to page Odyssey iv. 83.

Note return to page Paris.

Note return to page Where were her variously embroidered robes, the works of Sidonian females, which godlike Alexander himself had brought from Sidon, sailing over the broad ocean, in that voyage in which he carried off Helen, sprung from a noble sire. Iliad vi. 289.

Note return to page I will give thee a wrought bowl: it is all silver, and the lips are bound with gold; it is the work of Vulcan: the hero Phædimus, king of the Sidonians, gave it [to me], when his home sheltered me, as I was returning from thence. I wish to give this to thee. Odyssey xv. 115.

Note return to page But in beauty it much excelled [all] upon the whole earth, for the ingenious Sidonians had wrought it cunningly, and Phœnician men had carried it. Iliad xxiii. 742.

Note return to page The Armenians.

Note return to page The Arabs

Note return to page The Syrians

Note return to page Dwelling in caverns.

Note return to page He saw the cities of many men, and learned their manners. Odyssey i. 3.

Note return to page Having suffered many things, and having wandered much, I was brought. Odyssey iv. 81.

Note return to page See Hesiod, Fragments, ed. Loesner, p. 434.

Note return to page This derivation of Arabia is as problematical as the existence of the hero from whom it is said to have received its name; a far more probable etymology is derived from ereb, signifying the west, a name supposed to have been conferred upon it at a very early period by a people inhabiting Persia.

Note return to page That is, that the Phœnicians and Sidonians dwelling around the Persian Gulf are colonies from those inhabiting the shores of the Mediterranean.

Note return to page As to this fact, upon which almost all geographers are agreed, it is only rejected by Strabo because it stands in the way of his hypothesis.

Note return to page Half men, half dogs.

Note return to page Long-headed men.

Note return to page A celebrated poet who flourished about seven centuries before the Christian era, said to have been a native of Sardis in Lydia. Only three short fragments of his writings are known to be in existence.

Note return to page Men who covered themselves with their feet.

Note return to page Dog-headed men.

Note return to page People having their eyes in their breasts.

Note return to page One-eyed.

Note return to page The Strait of Messina.

Note return to page For thrice in a day she sends it out, and thrice she sucks it in. Odyssey xii. 105.

Note return to page For thrice in a day she sends it out, and thrice she sucks it in terribly. Mayest thou not come hither when she is gulping it; for not even Neptune could free thee from ill. Odyssey xii. 105.

Note return to page She gulped up the briny water of the sea; but I, raised on high to the lofty fig-tree, held clinging to it, as a bat. Odyssey xii. 431.

Note return to page Odyssey v. 306.

Note return to page Iliad viii. 488.

Note return to page Iliad iii. 363.

Note return to page But I held without ceasing, until she vomited out again the mast and keel; and it came late to me wishing for it: as late as a man has risen from the forum to go to supper, adjudging many contests of disputing youths, so late these planks appeared from Charybdis. Odyssey xii. 437.

Note return to page Gaudus, the little island of Gozo near Malta, supposed by Callimachus to have been the Isle of Calypso.

Note return to page It seems more probable that Callimachus intended the island of Corsura, now Pantalaria, a small island between Africa and Sicily.

Note return to page The Atlantic.

Note return to page A river of Colchis, hodie Fasz or Rion.

Note return to page Cybele, so named because she had a temple on Mount Ida.

Note return to page An island in the ægæan, now Meteline.

Note return to page Hodie Lemno or Stalimene.

Note return to page Euneos was the eldest of the children which Hypsipele, daughter of Thoas, king of Lemnos, had by Jason during his stay in that island.

Note return to page A town situated at the bottom of the Pelasgic Gulf, hodie Volo.

Note return to page A country of Thessaly, which received its designation of Achæan from the same sovereign who left his name to Achaia in Peloponnesus.

Note return to page Eumelus, whom Alcestis, divine amongst women, most beautiful in form of the daughters of Pelias, brought forth to Admetus.Iliad ii. 714.

Note return to page Named Ideessa in the time of Strabo. Strabo, book xi. c. ii. § 18.

Note return to page Sinub.

Note return to page Candia.

Note return to page Hodie The Isle of Nanfio.

Note return to page Now the Island of Callistè, founded by Theras the Lacedæmonian more than ten centuries before the Christian era.

Note return to page A name of Thessaly.

Note return to page The Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page The erroneous opinion that one of the mouths of the Danube emptied itself into the Adriatic is very ancient, being spoken of by Aristotle as a well-known fact, and likewise supported by Theopompus, Hipparchus, and many other writers.

Note return to page Odyssey x. 137.

Note return to page Odyssey xii. 70.

Note return to page Antiphanes of Berga, a city of Thrace. This writer was so noted for his falsehoods, that βεγαἷζειν came to be a proverbial term for designating that vice.

Note return to page Thirty years before the time of this Damastes, Herodotus had demonstrated to the Greeks the real nature of the Arabian Gulf.

Note return to page This river, called by the Turks Kara-sui, rises somewhere in Mount Taurus, and before emptying itself into the sea, runs through Tarsus

Note return to page The Ab-Zal of oriental writers.

Note return to page The ancient capital of the kings of Persia, now Schuss.

Note return to page The very idea that Diotimus could sail from the Cydnus into the Euphrates is most absurd, since, besides the distance between the two rivers, they are separated by lofty mountain-ridges.

Note return to page Now the Bay of Ajazzo.

Note return to page Iskuriah.

Note return to page Gosselin justly remarks that this is a mere disputing about terms, since, though it is true the Mediterranean and Euxine flow into each other, it is fully admissible to describe them as separate. The same authority proves that we ought to read 3600 and not 3000 stadia, which he supposes to be a transcriber's error.

Note return to page Castor and Pollux.

Note return to page Castor and Pollux were amongst the number of the Argonauts. On their return they destroyed the pirates who infested the seas of Greece and the Archipelago, and were in consequence worshipped by sailors as tutelary deities.

Note return to page The Phœnicians or Carthaginians despatched Hanno to found certain colonies on the western coast of Africa, about a thousand years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Strabo here follows the general belief that æneas escaped to Italy after the sack of Troy, a fact clearly disproved by Homer, Iliad xx. 307, who states that the posterity of æneas were in his time reigning at Troy. To this passage Strabo alludes in his 13th book, and, contrary to his general custom, hesitates whether to follow Homer's authority or that of certain grammarians who had mutilated the passage in order to flatter the vanity of the Romans, who took pride in looking up to æneas and the Trojans as their ancestors.

Note return to page Antenor having betrayed his Trojan countrymen was forced to fly. It is generally stated that, taking with him a party of the Heneti, (a people of Asia Minor close to the Euxine,) who had come to the assistance of Priam, he founded the city of Padua in Italy. From this people the district in which Padua is situated received the name of Henetia, afterwards Venetia or Venice.

Note return to page The coasts of Italy.

Note return to page It is generally admitted that the events of the Trojan war gave rise to numerous colonies.

Note return to page The word λιμνοθάλασσα frequently signifies a salt marsh. The French editors remark that it was a name given by the Greeks to lagoons mostly found in the vicinity of the sea, though entirely separated therefrom. Those which communicated with the sea were termed στομλἰμναι.

Note return to page See book xvii. c. iii.

Note return to page A country close upon the Euxine.

Note return to page The Strait of the Dardanelles.

Note return to page At the time of Diodorus Siculus, the people of the Isle of Samothracia preserved the tradition of an inundation caused by a sudden rising of the waters of the Mediterranean, which compelled the inhabitants to fly for refuge to the summits of the mountains; and long after, the fishermen's nets used to be caught by columns, which, prior to the catastrophe, had adorned their edifices. It is said that the inundation originated in a rupture of the chain of mountains which enclosed the valley which has since become the Thracian Bosphorus or Strait of Constantinople, through which the waters of the Black Sea flow into the Mediterranean.

Note return to page Now Midjeh, in Roumelia, on the borders of the Black Sea. Strabo alludes rather to the banks surrounding Salmydessus than to the town itself.

Note return to page The part of Bulgaria next the sea, between Varna and the Danube, now Dobrudzie.

Note return to page Tineh.

Note return to page El-Kas.

Note return to page Lake Sebaket-Bardoil.

Note return to page Probably the present Maseli. Most likely the place was so named from the γέῤῥα, or wattled huts, of the troops stationed there to prevent the ingress of foreign armies into Egypt.

Note return to page This city of Calpe was near Mount Calpe, one of the Pillars of Hercules.

Note return to page Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page The ægæan.

Note return to page Danube.

Note return to page Mingrelia.

Note return to page The river Fasz.

Note return to page Now Djanik.

Note return to page The river Thermeh.

Note return to page The Jekil-Irmak.

Note return to page Sidin, or Valisa, is comprised in the territory of Djanik, being part of the ancient kingdom of Pontus.

Note return to page The river Geihun.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks that the alluvial deposit of this river is now no nearer to Cyprus than it was at the time of the prediction.

Note return to page Cilicia and Cataonia are comprised in the modern Aladeuli.

Note return to page Iliad ix. 7.

Note return to page Being swollen it rises high around the projecting points, and spits from it the foam of the sea. Iliad iv. 425.

Note return to page The lofty shores resound, the wave being ejected [upon the beach]. Iliad xvii. 265.

Note return to page The word ὄργυια, here rendered fathoms, strictly means the length of the outstretched arms. As a measure of length it equals four πήχεις, or six feet one inch. Gosselin seems to doubt with reason whether they ever sounded such a depth as this would give, and proposes to compute it by a smaller stadium in use at the time of Herodotus, which would have the effect of diminishing the depth by almost one half.

Note return to page A city of Achaia near to the Gulf of Corinth. Pliny tells us it was submerged during an earthquake, about 371 years before the Christian era. According to Pausanias, it was a second time destroyed by the shock of an earthquake, but again rebuilt by the inhabitants who survived.

Note return to page A city placed by some in Thrace, but by others in Pontus; a more probable opinion seems to be that Bizone was in Lower Mœsia, on the western side of the Euxine. Pomponius Mela asserts that Bizone was entirely destroyed by an earthquake, but according to Strabo, (lib. vii.,) who places it about 40 stadia from the sea, it was only partially demolished.

Note return to page Ischia.

Note return to page We have here followed the earlier editions, as preferable to Kramer, who supplies μὴ before μαθημστικὸς.

Note return to page Demetrius Poliorcetes: the same intention is narrated by Pliny and other historians of Julius Cæsar, Caligula, and Nero.

Note return to page Kankri.

Note return to page Strait of Messina.

Note return to page The sea which washes the shores of Tuscany. Strabo applies the term to the whole sea from the mouth of the Arno to Sicily.

Note return to page Strait of Messina.

Note return to page Gosselin observes that Le Père Babin, who had carefully examined the currents of the Euripus of Chalcis, says that they are regular during eighteen or nineteen days of every month, the flux and reflux occurring twice in the twenty-four hours, and following the same laws as in the ocean; but from the ninth to the thirteenth, and from the twenty-first to the twenty-sixth, of each lunar month they become irregular, the flux occurring from twelve to fourteen times in the twenty-four hours, and the reflux as often.

Note return to page See Plutarch, de Plac. Philos. lib. i. c. 14, and Stobæus, Ecl. Phys. lib. i. c. 18.

Note return to page El-Kas.

Note return to page The Arabian Gulf. Mr. Stephenson, while examining the Temsah Lakes, anciently called the Bitter Lakes, discovered recent marine remains similar to those on the shores of the present sea, clearly showing that the basin of the Temsah Lakes was the head of the Arabian Gulf at a period geologically recent.

Note return to page We have here followed MSS. which all read συνελθούσης δὲ τῆς <>αλάττης. The French editors propose συνενδούσης δὲ τῆς θαλάττης, with the sense of but on the retiring of the Mediterranean, &c.

Note return to page This accusation may not seem quite fair to the English reader. Touch is the nearest term in our language by which we can express the Greek συνάπτω, the use of which Strabo objects to in this passage; still the meaning of the English word is much too definite for the Greek.

Note return to page The Atlantic.

Note return to page Viz. the Mediterranean.

Note return to page The western part of the town of Corinth situated in the sea of Crissa. Its modern name is Pelagio.

Note return to page Kankri.

Note return to page Viz. the temple of Jupiter Ammon, mentioned above.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks, Cyrene was founded 631 years before the Christian era, and at that time the limits of the Mediterranean were the same as they are now. Amongst the Greeks, dolphins were the ordinary symbols of the principal seaport towns; and if the delegates from Cyrene set up this symbol of their country in the temple of Ammon, I see no reason why Eratosthenes and Strabo should regard the offering as a proof that the temple was on the sea-shore.

Note return to page We have thought it necessary, with the French translators, to insert these words, since although they are found in no MS. of Strabo, the argument which follows is clearly unintelligible without them.

Note return to page Hipparchus, believing that the Danube emptied itself by one mouth into the Euxine, and by another into the Adriatic Gulf, imagined that if the waters of the Mediterranean were raised in the manner proposed by Eratosthenes, the valley through which that river flows would have been submerged, and so formed a kind of strait by which the Euxine would have been connected to the Adriatic Gulf.

Note return to page The Lipari Islands.

Note return to page There is some mistake here. Strabo himself elsewhere tells us that the islands of Thera and Therasia were situated in the ægæan Sea, near to the island of Nanfio.

Note return to page Defending from danger. More probably, in this instance, the Securer of Foundations.

Note return to page Egripo.

Note return to page This plain was near the city of Chalcis, which at the present day bears the same name as the island itself.

Note return to page And reached the two fair-flowing springs, where the two springs of the eddying Scamander rise. The one, indeed, flows with tepid water, and a steam arises from it around, as of burning fire; whilst the other flows forth in the summer time, like unto hail, or cold snow, or ice from water Iliad xxii. 147.

Note return to page Tantalus lived about 1387, B. C.

Note return to page Lydia and Ionia form the modern provinces of Aidin and Sarukan in Anadoli. A part of the Troad still preserves the name of Troiaki.

Note return to page A mountain in Mæonia, close to the city of Magnesia.

Note return to page Ilus, who ascended the throne about 1400 years before the Christian era, founded the city, to which he gave the name of Ilium. The old city of Troy stood on a hill, and was safe from the inundation.

Note return to page These two cities were built on little islets adjoining the continent. Alexander connected them with the mainland by means of jetties. Clazomenæ was situated on the Gulf of Smyrna, near to a place now called Vurla or Burla. The present appellation of Tyre, on the coast of Phœmicia, is Sur.

Note return to page Tineh.

Note return to page El-Kas.

Note return to page Of Suez.

Note return to page That part of the Mediterranean adjoining Egypt.

Note return to page The Red Sea.

Note return to page The Red Sea and Mediterranean.

Note return to page Sta. Maura.

Note return to page Odyss. xxiv. 376.

Note return to page The island of Ortygia, now St. Marcian.

Note return to page Diakopton.

Note return to page Probably Bulika, according to others Trypia or Niora.

Note return to page Methone is the same town which Pausanias (l. ii. c.32)names Methona, it was situated in the Argolis between Trœzene and Epidaurus. The above writer tells us that in the reign of Antigonus, son of Demetrius king of Macedonia, there was a breaking out of subterranean fires close to Methona. This event, which it is probable Strabo alludes to, occurred some where between the year 277 and 244, before the Christian era. The town still exists under its ancient name of Methona.

Note return to page An error in all the MSS. The Saronic Gulf is intended.

Note return to page Vide Strabo, b. ix. c. ii. § 34, 35.

Note return to page In Bœotia.

Note return to page The Second Iliad, or Catalogue of Ships.

Note return to page And those who inhabited grape-clustered Arne, and those [who in- habited] Mideia. Iliad ii. 507.

Note return to page This Thracian lake or lagoon is now called Burum. It is formed by the mouths of several rivers, and lies to the north of the isle of Thaso.

Note return to page Diaskillo, al. Biga.

Note return to page These are certain little islands at the mouth of the river Achelous, the modern Aspropotamo, which formed the boundary between Acarnania and ætolia. Now Curzolari.

Note return to page It is supposed we should here read Herodotus. Conf. Herod. ii. 10.

Note return to page Daskalio.

Note return to page Now there is a certain rocky island in the middle of the sea, between Ithaca and the rugged Samos, Asteris, not large; and in it there are havens fit for ships, with two entrances. Odyssey iv. 844.

Note return to page That is to say, the territory opposite Issa; probably the ruins near to Kalas Limenaias.

Note return to page The present island of Metelino.

Note return to page η δὲ αντισσα νῆσος ν πότεον, ὡς μυσίλος φησί τῆς δὲ λέσβου καλουμένης πὀτεον ισσης, καὶ τὴν νῆσον αντισσαν καλεῖσθσι συνέβη. Our rendering of this passage, though rather free, seemed necessary to the clear explication of the Greek.

Note return to page Procita.

Note return to page Ischia.

Note return to page Miseno, the northern cape of the Gulf of Naples.

Note return to page Capri.

Note return to page Reggio.

Note return to page These two mountains are separated from each other by the river Penæus.

Note return to page παγάς,a rent or chink. This town was sixty miles from Ecbatana; it was named by the Arabs Raï, and is now in ruins. It is the Rhages in Tobias.

Note return to page Certain mountain defiles, now called Firouz-Koh.

Note return to page A western promontory of Eubœa, called by the modern Greeks Kabo Lithari. The Lichadian Islands, which now bear the name of Litada, are close by.

Note return to page A city of Eubœa; hood. Dipso.

Note return to page In Eubœa, now Orio.

Note return to page Now Echino; belonged to Thessaly and was near the sea.

Note return to page Now Stillida; situated on the Bay of Zeitoun.

Note return to page A little town situated in a plain amongst the mountains. It received its name from a tradition that Hercules abode there during the time that the pyre on Mount Œta was being prepared, into which he cast himself.

Note return to page Lamia in Thessaly.

Note return to page A city of the Epi-Cnemidian Locrians in Achaia; its present name is Bondoniza.

Note return to page A town close to Scarpheia; its ruins are said to be still visible at Palaio Kastro.

Note return to page Now Agriomela or Ellada, a river descending from Mount Œta, and emptying itself into the Bay of Zeitoun.

Note return to page A torrent near Thronium; its present name is Boagrio.

Note return to page Three cities of the Opuntian Locrians; Cynus, the port of Opus, is now called Kyno.

Note return to page One of the principal cities of Phocis, near the river Cephissus; a little village called Leuta stands on the ancient site.

Note return to page Probably the Alpene in Locris mentioned by Herodotus.

Note return to page The modern Talanta.

Note return to page Egripo.

Note return to page The Western Iberians are the people who inhabited Spain, and were said to have removed into Eastern Iberia, a country situated in the centre of the isthmus which separates the Euxine from the Caspian Sea. The district is now called Carduel, and is a region of Georgia.

Note return to page The river Aras.

Note return to page The river Kur.

Note return to page The mountains which border Colchis or Mingrelia on the south.

Note return to page According to Herodotus, Sesostris was the only Egyptian monarch who ever reigned in Ethiopia. Pliny says he penetrated as far as the promontory of Mosylon.

Note return to page Veneti.

Note return to page A small people of Thessaly, who latterly dwelt near Mount Œta, which separated them from ætolia and Phocis.

Note return to page A city and plain in Thessaly, near to Mount Ossa.

Note return to page A people of Macedon, at the time of Strabo dwelling north of the river Peneius.

Note return to page Few nations have wandered so far and wide as the Galatæ. We meet with them in Europe, Asia, and Africa, under the various names of Galatæ Galatians, Gauls, and Kelts. Galatia, in Asia Minor, was settled by one of these hordes.

Note return to page There were many kings of Phrygia of this name.

Note return to page The text of Kramer follows most MSS. in reading Kimmerians, but he points it out as a manifest error; and refers to Herodotus i. 103.

Note return to page By Hyperboreans are meant people who dwelt beyond the point from whence the north wind proceeded: Hypernotii therefore should be those who lived beyond the point of the procession of the south wind. The remark of Herodotus will be found, lib. iv. § 36. It is simply this: Supposing Hyperboreans, there ought likewise to be Hypernotii.

Note return to page Those who exult over the misfortunes of their neighbours.

Note return to page Those who rejoice in others' prosperity.

Note return to page Gosselin observes, that what Strabo here says, is in accordance with the geographical system of the ancients, who supposed that Africa did not extend as far as the equator. As they distinguished the continent situated in the northern from a continent which they believed to exist in the southern hemisphere, and which they styled the Antichthones, they called the wind, blowing from the neighbourhood of the equator, in the direction of the two poles, a south wind for either hemisphere. For example, if sailors should be brought to the equator by a north wind, and that same wind should continue to waft them on their course after having passed the line, it would no longer be called a north, but a south wind.

Note return to page According to Gosselin, this does not allude to the size of the whole earth, but merely that part of it which, according to the theory of the ancients, was alone habitable.

Note return to page Most probably Gherri in Sennaar.

Note return to page Eratosthenes supposed that Meroe, Alexandria, the Hellespont, and the mouth of the Borysthenes or Dnieper, were all under the same meridian.

Note return to page The Dardanelles.

Note return to page Iceland.

Note return to page This Island of the Egyptians is the same which Strabo elsewhere calls the Island of the Exiles, because it was inhabited by Egyptians who had revolted from Psammeticus, and established themselves in the island. Its exact situation is unknown.

Note return to page Ceylon.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page France.

Note return to page Between the Rhine and Elbe.

Note return to page The latitudes of Marseilles and Constantinople differ by 2° 16′ 21″. Gosselin enters into a lengthened explanation on this subject, i. 158.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page The eastern mouth of the Ganges.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page In the opinion of Strabo and Eratosthenes, the narrowest portion of India was measured by a line running direct from the eastern embouchure of the Ganges to the sources of the Indus, that is, the northern side of India bounded by the great chain of the Taurus.

Note return to page Cape Comorin is the farthest point on the eastern coast. Strabo probably uses the plural to indicate the capes generally, not confining himself to those which project a few leagues farther than the rest.

Note return to page The Euphrates at Thapsacus, the most frequented passage; hod. El-Der.

Note return to page The Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, now Thineh or Farameh.

Note return to page Close by Aboukir.

Note return to page Cape S. Mahé.

Note return to page Ushant.

Note return to page The text has τὸ πλέον, but we have followed the suggestions of the commentators in reading τὸ μὴ πλέον.

Note return to page It is remarkable that this is the same idea which led Columbus to the discovery of America, and gave to the islands off that continent the name of the West Indies.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer in reading δι' αθηνῶν, instead of the διὰ θινῶν of former editions.

Note return to page The Nile being thought to separate Africa from Asia, and the Tanais, or Don, Europe.

Note return to page The Red Sea.

Note return to page The name of the mouth of the lake Sirbonis or Sebaket-Bardoil, which opens into the Mediterranean. A line drawn from this embouchure to the bottom of the Arabian Gulf, would give the boundary between Africa and Asia.

Note return to page Places in Attica.

Note return to page Probably Thyros, a place situated close to the sea, just at the boundary of the two countries.

Note return to page Oropo, on the confines of Attica and Bœotia.

Note return to page Aristotle was the giver of this sage counsel.

Note return to page A people of Asia.

Note return to page The Strait of Messina.

Note return to page The Gulf of Aïas. The town of Aïas has replaced Issus, at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page That is, the Mediterranean on the coast of Syria.

Note return to page Strabo does not here mean the Caucasus or Balkan, but the mountains which stretch from Persia to Cochin China. At a later period the several chains were known to the Greeks by the names of Paropamisus, Emodi Montes, Imaüs, &c.

Note return to page Samsun.

Note return to page Sinub.

Note return to page The great chain of the Taurus was supposed to occupy the whole breadth of Asia Minor, a space of 3000 stadia. Eratosthenes is here attempting to prove that these mountains occupy a like space in the north of India.

Note return to page Lit. to the equinoctial rising.

Note return to page Another designation of the Caspian.

Note return to page Balk

Note return to page Read 18,100 stadia.

Note return to page i. e. The breadth of India.

Note return to page Literally, estimate at so much, referring to the estimate at the conclusion of § 2.

Note return to page Caucasus, in the north of India.

Note return to page By the term ἑῴα θάλαττα, rendered eastern ocean, we must understand Strabo to mean the Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page The Alexandrian.

Note return to page Seleucus Nicator and Antiochus Soter.

Note return to page The length of India is its measurement from west to east.

Note return to page Not Allahabad, as supposed by D'Anville, but Patelputer, or Patali- putra, near Patna.

Note return to page There would seem to be some omission here, although none of the MSS. have any blank space left to indicate it. Groskurd has been at considerable pains to supply what he thinks requisite to complete the sense, but in a matter so doubtful we deemed it a surer course to follow the Greek text as it stands.

Note return to page Thrace, now Roumelia.

Note return to page The situation of Illyria was on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page Read 18,100 stadia.

Note return to page The mouth of the Dnieper.

Note return to page Hipparchus stated 3800 stadia, not 3700.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks that these 3700, or rather 3800 stadia, on proceeding from Marseilles, would reach the latitude of Paris, and that of the coasts in the neighbourhood of Tréguier. Eratosthenes and Hipparchus were out but 14′ and some seconds in their calculation of the latitude of Marseilles; but Strabo's error touching the same amounted to 3° 43′ 28″; he consequently fixed the northern coasts of France at 45° 17′ 18″, which is about the latitude of the mouth of the Garonne.

Note return to page These 8800 stadia, at 700 to a degree, amount to 12° 34′ 17″ of latitude. This would be about the middle of Abyssinia.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page The island of Ceylon.

Note return to page Viz. between its southern extremity and that of India.

Note return to page Strabo and Eratosthenes supposed the extremity of India farther south than Meroe; Hipparchus fixes it a little north of that city, at a distance of 12,600 stadia from the equator.

Note return to page These 30,000 stadia, added to the 12,600 of the preceding note, would place Bactria under 60° 51′ 26″ north latitude, which is more than 24 degrees too far north.

Note return to page Both Aria and Margiana are in the present Khorasan.

Note return to page This portion of the Taurus is called by the Indians Hindou Kho.

Note return to page This was the principal Greek liquid measure, and was 3–4ths of the medimnus, the chief dry measure. The Attic metretes was half as large again as the Roman Amphora quadrantal, and contained a little less than 7 gallons. Smith.

Note return to page The medimnus contained nearly 12 imperial gallons, or 11 bushel. This was the Attic medimnus; the æginetan and Ptolemaic was half as much again, or in the ratio of 3: 2 to the Attic. Smith.

Note return to page Matiana was a province of Media on the frontiers of the present Kurdistan; Sacasena, a country of Armenia on the confines of Albania or Schirvan; Araxena, a province traversed by the river Araxes.

Note return to page Mount Argæus still preserves the name of Ardgeh. The part of the Taurus here alluded to is called Ardoxt Dag.

Note return to page Sinub.

Note return to page Samsoun.

Note return to page The Gihon of the oriental writers.

Note return to page The Caspian.

Note return to page Gosselin says, the Oxus, or Abi-amu, which now discharges itself into Lake Aral, anciently communicated with the Caspian.—The vessels carrying Indian merchandise used to come down the Oxus into the Caspian; they then steered along the southern coasts till they reached the mouth of the Cyrus; up this river they sailed to the sources of the Phasis, (the Fasch,) and so descended into the Black Sea and Mediterranean. About the middle of the 17th century the Russians endeavoured to re-open this ancient route, but this effort was unsuccessful.

Note return to page The north of France.

Note return to page At the time of Strabo France was covered with forests and stagnant water, which rendered its temperature damp and cold. It was not until after considerable drainage about the fourth century that the vine began to attain any perfection.

Note return to page The Crimea.

Note return to page The Strait of Zabache.

Note return to page Kertsch in the Crimea.

Note return to page Strabo is too fond of this kind of special pleading: before, in order to controvert Hipparchus, he estimated this distance at 3000 stadia; now he adds an additional thousand stadia in order to get a latitude which shall be the southern limit of the habitable earth.

Note return to page The Greek has κιναμωμοφόυ ινδικῆς. We have omitted the latter word altogether from the translation, as being a slip of the pen. Strabo certainly never supposed the Cinnamon Country to be any where in India.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page Perhaps it may aid the reader in realizing these different reasonings if we give a summary of them in figures. Strabo supposes that Hipparchus, reckoning from the equator to the limits of the inhabited earth,8,800 stadia should have fixed the southern extremity of India more to the north by4,000 and the northern extremity of India, according to the measures of Deimachus, still more to the north by30,000 ——— Total42,800 Now, Strabo adds, following Hipparchus, the northern shores of Keltica and the mouth of the Dnieper, are distant from the equator34,000 Ierne, in a climate almost uninhabitable, was, according to Strabo's own impression, situated to the north of Keltica5,000 ——— 39,000 Then, according to Hipparchus, the habitable latitudes would extend still farther than Ierne by3,800 ——— Total42,800 The great fertility of Bactriana, according to Strabo, appeared to be inconsistent with a position so far towards the north. In this he was correct.

Note return to page These 4000 stadia do not accord with the distances elsewhere propounded by Strabo. Possibly he had before him various charts constructed on different hypotheses, and made his computations not always from the same.

Note return to page Viz. 3800.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page France.

Note return to page The astronomical cubit of the ancients equalled 2 degrees. It therefore follows that in the regions alluded to by Hipparchus, the sun at the winter solstice rose no higher than 18 degrees above the horizon. This Would give a latitude of a little above 48 degrees. We afterwards find that Hipparchus placed the mouth of the Dnieper, and that part of France here alluded to, under 48° 29′ 19″, and we know that at this latitude, which is only 20′ 56″ different from that of Paris, there is no real night during the longest days of the summer.

Note return to page Read 7700.

Note return to page Lit., during the winter days, but the winter solstice is evidently intended.

Note return to page Read about 10,500. This correction is borne out by the astronomical indications added by Hipparchus.

Note return to page Strabo supposed the latitude of Ireland to be 52° 25′ 42″. Countries north of this he considered to be altogether uninhabitable on account of their inclemency.

Note return to page Equinoctial hours.

Note return to page Read 10,500, as above.

Note return to page Ireland.

Note return to page The equinoctial line.

Note return to page There is no doubt that the expressions which Deimachus appears to have used were correct. It seems that he wished to show that beyond the Indus the coasts of India, instead of running in a direction almost due east, as the Greeks imagined they did, sloped in a direction between the south and the north-east, which is correct enough. As Deimachus had resided at Palibothra, he had had an opportunity of obtaining more exact information relative to the form of India than that which was current at Alexandria. This seems the more certain, as Megasthenes, who had also lived at Palibothra, stated that by measuring India from the Caucasus to the southern extremity of the continent, you would obtain, not its length, as the Greeks imagined, but its breadth. These correct accounts were obstinately rejected by the speculative geographers of Alexandria, because they imagined a certain uninhabitable zone, into which India ought not to penetrate.

Note return to page The truth of these facts depends on the locality where the observations are made. In the time of Alexander the most southern of the seven principal stars which compose the Greater Bear had a declination of about 61 degrees, so that for all latitudes above 29 degrees, the Wain never set. Consequently if Deimachus were speaking of the aspect of the heavens as seen from the northern provinces of India, the Punjaub for instance, there was truth in his assertion, that the two Bears were never seen to set there, nor the shadows to fall in contrary directions. On the other hand, as Megasthenes appears to be speaking of the south of India, that is, of the peninsula situated entirely south of the tropic, it is certain that he was right in saying that the shadows cast by the sun fell sometimes towards the north, at others towards the south, and that accordingly, as we proceeded towards the south, the Bears would be seen to set. The whole of Ursa Major at that time set at 29 degrees, and our present polar star at 13 degrees. β of the Lesser Bear was at that time the most northern of the seven principal stars of that constellation, and set at 8° 45′. So that both Bears entirely disappeared beneath the horizon of Cape Comorin.

Note return to page This would be at Syene under the tropic.

Note return to page Small zones parallel to the equator; they were placed at such a distance front each other, that there might be half an hour's difference between each on the longest day of summer. So by taking an observation on the longest day, you could determine the clima and consequently the position of a place. This was equivalent to observing the elevation of the pole. At the end of this second book Strabo enters into a long description of the climata.

Note return to page This observation, taken at the time of Hipparchus, would indicate a latitude of 16° 48′ 34″.

Note return to page Nearchus in speaking of the southern extremity of India, near Cape Comorin, was correct in the assertion that in his time the two Bears were there seen to set.

Note return to page Hipparchus fixed the latitude of Meroe at 16° 51′ 25″, and the extremity of India at 18°. In the time of Alexander, the Lesser Bear was not observed to set for either of these latitudes. Strabo therefore drew the conclusion, that if Hipparchus had adopted the opinion of Nearchus, he would have fixed the extremity of India south of Meroe, instead of north of that city.

Note return to page Now Ruins, near Jerobolos, or Jerabees, the ancient Europus; not Deer or Deir.

Note return to page Probably the present Barena, a branch of the Taurus

Note return to page This is rather free, but the text could not well otherwise be rendered intelligibly.

Note return to page σφαγίδας is the Greek word; for which section is a poor equivalent, but the best we believe the language affords.

Note return to page The name of a considerable portion of Asia.

Note return to page From Eratosthenes' description of India, preserved by our author in his 15th book, we gather that he conceived the country to be something in the form of an irregular quadrilateral, having one right, two obtuse, and one acute angle, consequently none of its sides parallel to each other. On the whole Eratosthenes' idea of the country was not near so exact as that of Megasthenes.

Note return to page The Caspian Gates are now known as the Strait of Firouz Koh.

Note return to page The ruins of Babylon, still called Babil, are on the Euphrates, neat Hilleh. Susa is now Suz or Schuss, and not Schoster or Toster. The ruins of Persepolis remain, and may be seen near Istakar, Tchilminan and Nakchi-Rustan.

Note return to page Between Thapsacus and Armenia.

Note return to page Karmelis.

Note return to page The Altun-Suyi, or River of Gold.

Note return to page Erbil.

Note return to page Hamedan.

Note return to page Viz. at the Gates of the Caspian

Note return to page This ancient embouchure of the Euphrates is now known as Khor- Abdillah.

Note return to page Read 3300.

Note return to page Thought by Col. Rawlinson to be the Chal-i-Nimrud, usually sup. posed to mark the site of the Median wall of Xenophon.

Note return to page Situated on the Tigris.

Note return to page A line drawn from the frontiers of Carmania to Babylon would form with the meridian an angle of about 500. One from the Caspian Gates to Thapsacus would form with the parallel merely an angle of about 30°

Note return to page Namely, 1000 stadia, by the hypothesis of Hipparchus, or 800 according to Eratosthenes.

Note return to page Or second side.

Note return to page Hipparchus found by this operation that the distance from the parallel of Babylon to that of the mountains of Armenia was 6795 stadia.

Note return to page See Humboldt, Cosmos ii. p. 556, note, Bohn's edition.

Note return to page Eratosthenes estimated 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth.

Note return to page Odyssey ix. 291; Iliad xxiv. 409

Note return to page Strabo estimated the length of the continent at 70,000 stadia from Cape St. Vincent to Cape Comorin, and 29,300 stadia as its breadth.

Note return to page The ancient geographers often speak of these kind of resemblances. They have compared the whole habitable earth to a soldier's cloak or mantle, as also the town of Alexandria, which they styled χλαμυδοειδές. Italy at one time to a leaf of parsley, at another to an oak-leaf. Sardinia to a human foot-print. The isle of Naxos to a vine-leaf. Cyprus to a sheep-skin; and the Black Sea to a Scythian bow, bent. The earliest coins of Peloponnesus, struck about 750 years before the Christian era, bear the impress of a tortoise, because that animal abounded on the shores, and the divisions and height of its shell were thought to offer some likeness to the territorial divisions of the little states of Peloponnesus and the mountain-ridges which run through the middle of that country. The Sicilians took for their symbol three thighs and legs, arranged in such an order that the bended knees might resemble the three capes of that island and its triangular form.

Note return to page The chain of the Taurus.

Note return to page The Indus.

Note return to page The Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page India.

Note return to page Viz. Indians.

Note return to page Ariana, or the nation of the Arians.

Note return to page By 800 stadia.

Note return to page Viz. of the Euphrates.

Note return to page Or Nineveh.

Note return to page Syria, properly so called, extended from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Euphrates. Between the Euphrates and the Tigris lay Mesopotamia, and beyond the Tigris, Assyria. The whole of these countries formerly bore the name of Syria. The Hebrews denominated Mesopotamia, Syria of the Rivers. The name Assyria seems to be nothing more than Syria with the article prefixed. Nineveh stood on the eastern bank of the Tigris.

Note return to page Mesene comprehends the low and sandy grounds traversed by the Euphrates, immediately before it discharges itself into the Persian Gulf.

Note return to page Tineh.

Note return to page Moadieh, near to Aboukir.

Note return to page Along the coasts of Egypt, past Palestine and Syria, to the recess of the Gulf of Issus, where Cilicia commences.

Note return to page Canopus, near to Aboukir.

Note return to page It was a mistake common to Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, and Strabo, to fancy that Rhodes and Alexandria were under the same meridian. The Longitude of the two cities differs by 2° 22′ 45″.

Note return to page Due east.

Note return to page The following is a Resumé of the argument of Hipparchus, The hypotenuse of the supposed triangle, or the line drawn from Babylon to the Caspian Gates being only 6700 stadia, would be necessarily shorter than either of the other sides, since the line from Babylon to the frontiers of Carmania is estimated by Eratosthenes at 9170, and that from the frontiers of Carmania to the Caspian Gates above 9000 stadia. The frontiers of Carmania would thus be east of the Caspian Gates, and Persia would consequently be comprised, not in the third, but in the second section of Eratosthenes, being east of the meridian of the Caspian Gates, which was the boundary of the two sections. Strabo, in the text, points out the falsity of this argument.

Note return to page Viz. 6700 stadia.

Note return to page These two words, continues Hipparchus, are not in the text, but the argument is undoubtedly his.

Note return to page Cape Comorin.

Note return to page 400 stadia, allowing 700 to a degree, would give 34′ 17″ latitude. According to present astronomical calculations, the distance between the parallels of Rhodes and Athens is 1° 36′ 30″.

Note return to page Viz. 400 stadia, or 34′ 17″ of latitude.

Note return to page The difference of latitude between Thapsacus and Pelusium is about 4° 27′.

Note return to page The text here is evidently corrupt.

Note return to page Gosselin makes some sensible remarks on this section; we have endeavoured to render it accurately, but much fear that the true meaning of Strabo is now obscured by corruptions in the text.

Note return to page Moadieh, the mouth of the river close to Aboukir.

Note return to page Certain little islets at the mouth of the canal of Constantinople, in the Black Sea. These islands want about a degree and a quarter of being under the same meridian as Moadieh.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks, that the defile intended by Strabo, was probably the valley of the river Kur, or the ancient Cyrus, in Georgia; and by Mount Caspius we are to understand the high mountains of Georgia, whence the waters, which fall on one side into the Black Sea, and on the other into the Caspian, take their rise.

Note return to page Gosselin also observes, that on our charts this distance is about 8100 stadia of 700 to a degree. Consequently the difference between the meridian of Thapsacus and that of Mount Caspius is as much as 4° 45′, in place of the 300 stadia, or from 25′ to 26′ supposed by Hipparchus.

Note return to page On the contrary, Mount Caspius is east of the meridian of Thapsacus by about 2500 stadia, of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page Now Iskouriah. Dioscurias, however, is 800 stadia from the Phasis, of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page According to our improved charts, the distance from the meridian of the Cyaneæ to that of the Phasis is 6800 stadia, of 700 to a degree; from the Cyaneæ to Mount Caspius, 8080.

Note return to page The meridian of Mount Caspius is about 2625 stadia nearer the Caspian Gates than that of Thapsacus.

Note return to page μετὰ τὸν πόντον, literally, after the Pontus.

Note return to page Gosselin observes, that Eratosthenes took a general view of the salient points of land that jutted into the Mediterranean, as some of the learned of our own time have done, when remarking that most of the continents terminated in capes, extending towards the south. The first promontory that Eratosthenes speaks of terminated in Cape Malea of the Peloponnesus, and comprised the whole of Greece; the Italian promontory likewise terminated Italy; the Ligurian promontory was reckoned to include all Spain, it terminated at Cape Tarifa, near to the middle of the Strait of Gibraltar. As the Ligurians had obtained possession of a considerable portion of the coasts of France and Spain, that part of the Mediterranean which washes the shores of those countries was named the Ligurian Sea. It extended from the Arno to the Strait of Gibraltar. It is in accordance with this nomenclature that Eratosthenes called Cape Tarifa, which projects farthest into the Strait, the Ligurian promontory.

Note return to page Cape Colonna.

Note return to page Cape Malio, or St. Angelo.

Note return to page Strabo means the Saronic Gulf, now the Bay of Engia.

Note return to page The peninsula of Gallipoli by the Dardanelles.

Note return to page πὸς τὸ σούνιον. Strabo's meaning is, that the entire space of sea, bounded on the north by the Thracian Chersonesus, and on the south by Sunium, or Cape Colonna, forms a kind of large gulf.

Note return to page Or Black Gulf; the Gulf of Saros.

Note return to page The Gulfs of Contessa, Monte-Santo, Cassandra, and Salonica.

Note return to page Durazzo, on the coast of Albania.

Note return to page The Gulf of Salonica.

Note return to page Read 13,500 stadia.

Note return to page It was an error alike shared in by Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, and Strabo, that Alexandria and Rhodes were under the same meridian, notwithstanding the former of these cities is 2° 22′ 45″ east of the latter.

Note return to page This is an error peculiar to Eratosthenes The meridians of Carthage and the Strait of Messina differ by 5° 45′.

Note return to page The Strait of Messina.

Note return to page Spain and France.

Note return to page The Getæ occupied the east of Moldavia and Bessarabia, between the Danube and the Dniester. The Bastarnæ inhabited the north of Moldavia and a part of the Ukraine.

Note return to page The Greek has simply, κατὰ τὴν ἠπειρῶτιν, in the continent, but Strabo, by this expression, only meant to designate those parts of the continent best known and nearest to the Greeks. The other countries, in regard to which he pleads for some indulgence to be shown to Eratosthenes, are equally in the same continent. Kramer and other editors suspect an error in the text here.

Note return to page According to Plutarch, both Thales and Pythagoras had divided the earth into five zones. Since Parmenides lived one hundred and fifty years after the first of these philosophers, he cannot be considered the author of this division. As Posidonius and Strabo estimated the breadth of the torrid zone at 8800 stadia, and Parmenides is said to have nearly doubled it, this would give 17,600 stadia, or 25° 8′ 34″, taking this at 25° it would appear that Parmenides extended the torrid zone one degree beyond the tropics.

Note return to page The Arctic Circles of the ancients were not the same as ours, but varied for every latitude. Aristotle limited the temperate zone to those countries which had the constellation of the crown in their Arctic Circle, the brilliant star of that constellation in his time had a northern declination of about 36° 30′, consequently he did not reckon that the temperate zone reached farther north or south than 53° and a half. We shall see that Strabo adopted much the same opinion, fixing the northern bounds of the habitable earth at 54° 25′ 42″. Gosselin.

Note return to page For the circumference.

Note return to page Viz. none for those who dwell under the equator, or at the poles.

Note return to page Strabo's argument seems to be this. It matters but little that there may not be Arctic Circles for every latitude, since for the inhabitants of the temperate zone they do certainly exist, and these are the only people of whom we have any knowledge. But at the same time the objection is unanswerable, that as these circles differ in respect to various countries, it is quite impossible that they can fix uniformly the limits of the temperate zone.

Note return to page The polar circles, where the shadow, in the summer season, travels all round in the twenty-four hours.

Note return to page Those who live north and south of the tropics, or in the temperate zones, and at noon have a shadow only falling one way.

Note return to page Having at mid-day in alternate seasons the shadow falling north and south.

Note return to page Viz. Posidonius allowed for each of these small zones a breadth of about 30′, or 350 stadia, of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page A plant, the juice of which was used in food and medicine. Bentley supposes it to be the asa-fœtida, still much eaten as a relish in the East.

Note return to page Posidonius was here mistaken; witness the Niger, the Senegal, the Gambia, &c.

Note return to page The expression of Strabo is so concise as to leave it extremely doubtful whether or not he meant to include the human race in his statement. Looking at this passage, however, in connexion with another in the 15th Book, we are inclined to answer the question in the affirmative.

Note return to page Or living on fish, a name given by the Greek geographers to various tribes of barbarians; but it seems most frequently to a people of Gedrosia on the coast of the Arabian Gulf. It is probably to these that Strabo refers.

Note return to page Viz. the Heteroscii, or inhabitants of the temperate zones.

Note return to page The ancients named the people of southern Africa, Ethiopians; those of the north of Asia and Europe, Scythians; and those of the north-west of Europe, Kelts.

Note return to page That is, by arctic circles which differed in respect to various latitudes. See Book ii. chap. ii. § 2. p. 144.

Note return to page Viz. The partition of the earth into two hemispheres, by means of the equator.

Note return to page Gosselin concludes from this that Eratosthenes and Polybius gave to the earth the form of a spheroid flattened at the poles. Other philosophers supposed it was elongated at the poles, and flattened at the equator.

Note return to page Gosselin justly observes that this passage, which is so concise as to appear doubtful to some, is properly explained by a quotation from Geminus, which states the arguments adduced by Polybius for believing that there was a temperate region within the torrid zones.

Note return to page Strabo seems to confound the account (Herodotus iv. 44) of the expedition sent by Darius round southern Persia and Arabia with the circumnavigation of Libya, (Herod. iv. 42,) which Necho II. confided to the Phœnicians about 600 B. C., commanding them distinctly to return to Egypt through the passage of the Pillars of Hercules. See Humboldt's Cosmos, ii. 488, note, Bohn's edition.

Note return to page Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, flourished towards the end of the fifth century before Christ.

Note return to page The ruins of this city still preserve the name of Cyzik. It was situated on the peninsula of Artaki, on the south of the Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page Games in honour of Proserpine, or Cora.

Note return to page Ptolemy VII., king of Egypt, also styled Euergetes II.; he is more commonly known by the surname of Physcon. His reign commenced B. C. 170.

Note return to page The ancients believed that crystals consisted of water which had been frozen by excessive cold, and remained congealed for centuries. Vide Pliny, lib. xxxvii. c. 9.

Note return to page Cleopatra, besides being the wife, was also the niece of Ptolemy, being the offspring of his former wife, whom he had divorced, by her former marriage with Philometor.

Note return to page Ptolemy VIII. was nominally king, but his mother Cleopatra still held most of the real authority in her hands.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page Western Mauritania, the modern kingdom of Fez.

Note return to page This river is now named Lucos, and its mouth, which is about 30 leagues distant from Cadiz, is called Larais or Larache.

Note return to page Humboldt, Cosmos ii. 489, note, mentions the remains of a ship of the Red Sea having been brought to the coast of Crete by westerly currents.

Note return to page Pozzuolo, close by Naples.

Note return to page Gosselin observes, that this steady westerly wind, so far from carrying him towards India, would be entirely adverse to him in coasting along Africa, and doubling Cape Bojador; and infers from hence that Eudoxus never really went that expedition, and that Strabo himself was ignorant of the true position of Africa.

Note return to page A name common to many sovereigns of the different parts of Mauritania; the king Bogus, or Bocchus, here spoken of, governed the kingdom of Fez.

Note return to page Round Africa.

Note return to page A term by which incredible narrations were designated. It owes its origin to Antiphanes, a writer born at Bergè, a city of Thrace, and famous for trumping up false and auld-world stories. βεγαζειν, was a proverbial and polite term for lying.

Note return to page The wall mentioned in Iliad, vii. 436, et seq. Gosselin says that in the time of Aristotle the commentators of the Iliad, having vainly sought for the ruins or other traces of the wall, the Philosopher came to the conclusion that the wall was altogether a fiction of Homer's Strabo speaks further on this subject in the 13th Book.

Note return to page As the above assertion is at variance with the statement of Strabo, in his 7th Book, concerning Posidonius's views on this subject, it seems probable that the passage as it stands is corrupt. It is more likely Strabo wrote, It is the opinion of Posidonius that the emigration of the Cimbrians and other kindred races from their native territory was not occasioned by an inundation of the sea, since their departure took place at various times.

Note return to page Odyssey i, 23.

Note return to page Aratus, who lived about B. C. 270, was the author of two Greek astronomical poems, called φαινόμενα and διοσημεία. It is from the former of these that the above quotation is taken. Aratus, Phænom. v. 61.

Note return to page Evemerus, or Euhemerus, a Sicilian author of the time of Alexander the Great and his immediate successors, and a native of Messina. He is said to have sailed down the Red Sea and round the southern coasts of Asia to a very great distance, until he came to an island called Panchæa. After his return from this voyage, he wrote a work entitled ιερὰ ανα- γραφή, which consisted of at least nine books. The title of this Sacred History, as we may call it, was taken from the ἀναγραφαί, or the inscriptions on columns and walls, which existed in great numbers in the temples of Greece; and Euhemerus chose it, because he pretended to have derived his information from public documents of that kind, which he had discovered in his travels, especially in the island of Panchæa. The work contained accounts of the several gods, whom Euhemerus represented as having originally been men who had distinguished themselves either as warriors, kings, inventors, or benefactors of mankind, and who, after their death, were worshipped as gods by the grateful people. This book, which seems to have been written in a popular style, must have been very attractive; for all the fables of mythology were dressed up in it as so many true narratives; and many of the subsequent historians adopted his mode of dealing with myths, or at least followed in his track, as we find to be the case with Polybius and Dionysius. Vide Smith.

Note return to page Every one will observe, that this criticism of Strabo is entirely gratuitous and captious. Polybius cites Dicæarchus as a most credulous writer, but states that even he would not believe Pytheas: how then could so distinguished a writer as Eratosthenes put faith in his nonsense?

Note return to page On the contrary, the distance in a right line from Cape Tenarum, off the Peloponnesus, to the recess of the Adriatic Gulf, is only about half the distance from the Peloponnesus to the Pillars of Hercules. This mistake of Dicæarchus is a proof of the very slight acquaintance the Greeks could have had with the western portions of the Mediterranean in his time, about 320 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Literally, He assigns 3000 to the interval which stretches towards the Pillars as far as the Strait, and 7000 from the Strait to the Pillars. The distance from Cape Tenarum to the Strait of Messina is in proportion to the distance from the Strait of Messina to Gibraltar, about 3 to 10, not 3 to 7 as given by Dicæarchus.

Note return to page That part of the Mediterranean which lies on the coast of Italy, from the mouth of the Arno to Naples.

Note return to page The sea which washes the western coast of Sardinia.

Note return to page Viz. from the Peloponnesus to the Pillars of Hercules.

Note return to page Santa Maura, an island in the Ionian Sea.

Note return to page Corfu.

Note return to page The mountains of Chimera, forming the Cape della Linguetta on the coast of Albania.

Note return to page The maritime portion of Liburnia, comprised between the coasts of Dalmatia and Istria. It is now comprehended in the district of Murlaka.

Note return to page In all 8250 stadia.

Note return to page Issus, now Aïas, a town of Cilicia on the confines of Syria, famous for the battle between Alexander the Great and Darius, in consequence of which it was called Nicopolis.

Note return to page Salamoni.

Note return to page Cape Krio.

Note return to page Cape Passaro.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Total 28,500 stadia.

Note return to page Spoken of by Polybius.

Note return to page The Gulf of Genoa.

Note return to page These measures are taken along the coast, in stadia of 700 to a degree. Of these, from Marseilles to Gibraltar there are 9300, and from the ancient promontory of Pyrenæum to Gibraltar 7380. Consequently the corrections of Polybius were neither inaccurate nor uncalled for.

Note return to page These 6000 stadia, taken in a direct line, are just the distance from Cape St. Vincent to the chain of the Pyrenees.

Note return to page Kelts.

Note return to page The rising of the sun in summer.

Note return to page The east.

Note return to page This is an error into which Strabo fell with most of the ancient geographers. The course of the Don certainly begins from the north, but afterwards it turns eastward, and then suddenly shifts to the west. Sc that its entire course as known in the time of Strabo, differed from the Palus Mæotis and Sea of Azof by about 9 degrees of longitude. Polybius is here more exact than Strabo.

Note return to page Palus Mæotis.

Note return to page This was the opinion of Theophanes of Mytilene, who followed Pompey in his expeditions to the East. The Caucasus here mentioned is that which bounds Georgia in the north, and from whence the modern river Kuban (the Vardanus of Pompey) takes its rise. This river does incline slightly to the north, and afterwards turns westward in its course to the Palus Mæotis. It is possible that some confusion between this river and the Don gave occasion to the belief that the latter rose in the Caucasus.

Note return to page Cape Malio, in the Morea. See also Humboldt's Cosmos ii. 482.

Note return to page Cape Malio. Gosselin is of opinion that some omission has occurred in this passage, and proposes to substitute the following:The two former of these Polybius describes in the same manner as Eratosthenes, but he subdivides the third. He comprehends within Cape Malea all the Peloponnesus; within Cape Sunium the whole of Greece, Illyria, and a part of Thrace.

Note return to page Cape Colonna.

Note return to page The Strait of the Dardanelles.

Note return to page The Rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page The Italian Promontory.

Note return to page The Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca.

Note return to page ἡ δὲ φυσικὴ ἀετὴ τις. We learn from the work entitled De Placitis Philosophorum, commonly attributed to Plutarch, that the Stoics dignified with the name of ἀετὴ, the three sciences of Physics, Ethics, and Logic, φυσικὴ, ηθικὴ, λογικὴ. The exact meaning of ἀετὴ in these instances it is impossible to give, and Strabo's own explanation is perhaps the best that can be had; we have here rendered it, perfect science, for want of a better phrase.

Note return to page φυσικοὶ.

Note return to page We have followed the suggestion of Gosselin in reading τῷὅλῳthe whole, instead of τῷ πόλῳ,the pole, as in the text. Strabo having just previously stated that the axis of the earth was stationary, it does not seem probable that he would immediately after speak of the motion of the pole.

Note return to page Odyssey xi. 156, 157.

Note return to page From this point Strabo, strictly speaking, commences his exposition of the principles of Geography.

Note return to page Strabo supposed this circle at a distance of 38,100 stadia from the equator, or 54° 25′ 42″ or latitude.

Note return to page The whole of what follows to the end of the section is extremely embarrassing in the original; we must therefore claim the indulgence of the reader for any obscurity he may find in the translation.

Note return to page The Greeks, besides the division of the equator into 360 degrees, had also another method of dividing it into sixty portions or degrees.

Note return to page These 21,800 stadia would give to Alexandria a latitude of 31° 8′ 34″; according to modern calculation it is 31° 11′ 20″ of latitude. The following presents Strabo's calculations of the latitude of the preceding places in a tabular form. Names of places.Particular Distance.Total Distance.Latitudes. Stadia.Stadia. Equator000° 0′ 0″ Limits of the habitable earth8800880012° 34′ 17″ Meroe30001180016° 51′ 25″ Syene and the Tropic50001680024° 0′ 0″ Alexandria50002180031° 8′ 34″

Note return to page Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, and Strabo, all believed that the longitude of Rhodes was the same as that of Alexandria, although actually it is 2° 22′ 45″ west of that place. The coasts of Caria, Ionia, and the Troad incline considerably to the west, while Byzantium is about 3° east of the Troad, and the mouth of the Dnieper is above 3° 46′ east of Byzantium.

Note return to page The Roxolani inhabited the Ukraine. It has been thought that from these people the Russians derived their name.

Note return to page Strabo here alludes to Ireland, which he placed north of England, and believed to be the most northerly region fitted for the habitation of man. He gave it a latitude of 36,700 stadia, equivalent to 52° 25′ 42″, which answers to the southern portions of that island.

Note return to page The Sauromatæ, or Sarmatians, occupied the lands north of the sea of Azof on either side of the Don.

Note return to page The Scythians here spoken of dwelt between the Don and the Wolga; east of this last river were the Eastern Scythians, who were thought to occupy the whole north of Asia.

Note return to page The tropic being placed at 24° from the equator by Strabo, and most probably by Pytheas also, the latitude of Thule, according to the observation of this traveller, would be fixed at 66°, which corresponds with the north of Iceland.

Note return to page Hipparchus.

Note return to page Hipparchus placed Marseilles and Byzantium at 30,142 stadia, or 43° 3′ 38″ of latitude, and estimated the parallel for the centre of Britain at 33,942 stadia, or 48° 29′ 19″. Whereas Strabo only allowed for this latter 32,700 stadia, or 46° 42′ 51″.

Note return to page Viz. the 36° of latitude. The actual latitudes are as follow: The Pillars of Hercules, or Strait of Gibraltar, 360. The Strait of Messina, 38° 12′. Athens, 38° 5′. The middle of the Isle of Rhodes, 36° 18′; and the city, 36° 28′ 30″.

Note return to page This mistake of Strabo caused the derangement in his chart of the whole contour of this portion of the Mediterranean, and falsifies the position of the surrounding districts.

Note return to page Strabo having allowed 25,400 stadia, or 36° 17′ 8″, for the latitude of Rhodes and the Strait of Messina, determined the latitude of Marseilles at 27,700 stadia, or 39° 34′ 17″; its real latitude being 43° 17′ 45″, as exactly stated by Pytheas.

Note return to page Or about 70. The actual difference in latitude between Rhodes and Byzantium is 4° 32′ 54″.

Note return to page On the contrary, Marseilles is 2° 16′ 21″ north of Byzantium.

Note return to page 3800 stadia, or 5° 25′ 43″.

Note return to page The following is a tabular form of the latitudes as stated by Strabo: Stadia.Latitude. From the equator to Alexandria21,80031° 8′ 34″ From Alexandria to Rhodes, he computes in this instance 3600 stadia25,40036 17′ 8″ From the parallel of Rhodes to Marseilles, about 2300 stadia27,70039° 34′ 17″ From the parallel of Rhodes to the bottom of the Galatic Gulf, 2500 stadia27,90039° 51′ 25″ From Marseilles to the northern extremity of Gaul, or the southern extremity of Britain, 3800 stadia31,50045° 0′ 0″ From Marseilles to the middle of Britain, 5000 stadia32,70046° 42′ 51″ From the northern extremity of Gaul to the parallel of the northern extremity of Britain, 2500 stadia34,00048° 34′ 17″ From the northern extremity of Gaul to Ierne, 5000 stadia36,50052° 8′ 34″ From the northern extremity of Britain to the limits of the habitable earth, 4000 stadia38,00054° 17′ 9″

Note return to page Namely, 29,300.Stadia. From Rhodes to Byzantium Strabo estimated4900 From Byzantium to the Dnieper3800 —– 8700 From the Dnieper to the northern limits of the habitable earth4000 —— 12,700 From Rhodes to the southern limits of the habitable earth16,600 —— Total29,300

Note return to page The artificial globe of 10 ft. diameter.

Note return to page Tuscany.

Note return to page Strabo was of Amasea, a city of Pontus, close to the Euxine. He travelled through Egypt and reached Philæ, which is about 100 stadia above Syene, the commencement of Ethiopia.

Note return to page The Getæ occupied a portion of present Moldavia; the Tyrigetæ were those of the Getæ who dwelt along the banks of the Tyras or Dniester.

Note return to page The Bastarnæ occupied the south and eastern portions of Poland.

Note return to page The Georgians of the present day.

Note return to page Corcan.

Note return to page The precise time when this writer lived is unknown. The work here referred to is also mentioned by Athenæus, xv. p. 682.

Note return to page Prefect of Egypt in the reign of Augustus. This expedition into Arabia completely failed, through the treachery of the guide, a Roman named Syllæus. A long account of it is given by Strabo in the 16th book. It would be extremely interesting. says Professor Schmitz, to trace this expedition of ælius Gallus into Arabia, but our knowledge of that country is as yet too scanty to enable us to identify the route as described by Strabo, who derived most of his information about Arabia from his friend ælius Gallus.

Note return to page Red Sea.

Note return to page Myos-hormos, Mouse's Harbour, a sea-port of Egypt on the coast of the Red Sea. Arrian says that it was one of the most celebrated ports on this sea. It was chosen by Ptolemy Philadelphus for the convenience of commerce, in preference to Arsinoe or Suez, on account of the diffi- culty of navigating the western extremity of the gulf. It was called also Aphroditis Portus, or the Port of Venus. Its modern name is Suffangeel-Bahri, or Sponge of the Sea. Lemspriere.

Note return to page Humboldt commends Strabo's zeal in prosecuting his gigantic work, Cosmos ii. 557.

Note return to page The Gulf of Aïas.

Note return to page The Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page Strabo seems here to confound the parallel of Ierna with that of the northern limits of the habitable earth, although a little above, as we have seen, he determines these limits at 15,000 stadia north of Ierna.

Note return to page These narrowed extremities of the continent are, Spain on the west, terminated by Cape St. Vincent, and on the east the peninsula of India, terminated by Cape Comorin. This cape Strabo supposed was continued in an easterly direction, and thus formed the most eastern portion of Asia.

Note return to page The island of Ceylon.

Note return to page Strabo supposed the Hyrcanian or Caspian Sea communicated with the northern ocean.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent is north of Cadiz by 30′ 30″, north of the Strait of Gibraltar, or Pillars of Hercules, by 1° 2′, south of the Strait of Messina by 1′ 10″, and north of Rhodes by 33′ 30″.

Note return to page Casaubon conjectures that the words τὸν κάνωβον originally occupied the space of the lacuna. The passage would then stand thus—From the coast of Cadiz and Iberia the star Canopus is said to have been formerly observed. Groskurd rejects this, and proposes to read τοὺς πλνσιατάτους τοῦ κανώβου ἁστέας, the stars nearest to Canopus. But this too is not certain, and the passage is otherwise evidently corrupt.

Note return to page The most southern.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page The Artabri inhabited the country around Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Principally contained in the modern kingdom of Portugal.

Note return to page The Scilly Islands off the Cornwall coast.

Note return to page We have long had the custom of tracing on every map the parallels of latitude and longitude at every degree, or every five or ten degrees, as the case may be. By means of these lines drawn at equal distances, the eye at once recognises the relative position of any place in the map. This method was not in use when Strabo wrote: at that time it was customary to draw a meridian or longitude, and a parallel of latitude, for every important place of which the position was considered as determined. This was certainly an obscure way of dividing the globe; nevertheless it is requisite to keep it in mind, in order that we may the more readily understand the general language of our geographer, who instead of simply stating the latitude and longitude of places, says such a place is situated under the same latitude, or about the same latitude, as such another place, &c. Ptolemy seems to have been the first who freed the study of geography from the confusion inseparable from the ancient method. He substituted tables easy of construction and amendment; where the position of each place was marked by isolated numbers, which denoted the exact latitude and longitude.

Note return to page Demosthenes, Philipp. III. edit. Reisk. t. i. p. 117, 1. 22.—Demosthenes is here alluding to the cities which different Grecian colonies had founded in the maritime districts of Thrace. The principal of these was the opulent and populous city of Olynthus, which, together with others, was taken, and razed to its foundations, by Philip of Macedon. Olynthus has become famous through the three orations of Demosthenes, urging the Athenians to its succour.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page The entrance to the Arabian Gulf is about six or seven marine leagues, that of the Mediterranean two and three-fourths. The entrance to the Persian Gulf is seven or eight leagues in extent; while the Caspian, being a lake, has of course no outlet whatever.

Note return to page Mediterranean.

Note return to page Strabo here means the countries bordering the Mediterranean.

Note return to page Viz. the Mediterranean.

Note return to page The state of Genoa.

Note return to page The Gulf of Genoa.

Note return to page Vide Humboldt's Cosmos, ii. 480.

Note return to page Corsica.

Note return to page Vento Tiene.

Note return to page Ponza.

Note return to page Elba.

Note return to page Saint Honorat.

Note return to page Ischia.

Note return to page Procida.

Note return to page Capri.

Note return to page A small island off the Capo della Licosa.

Note return to page The western side.

Note return to page Majorca and Minorca.

Note return to page Iviça.

Note return to page The island of Pantalaria.

Note return to page Al Djamur, at the entrance of the Gulf of Tunis.

Note return to page The Strait of Messina, and the strait separating Sicily and Cape Bona on the African coast.

Note return to page Of which Cyrene, now Curen, was the capital.

Note return to page The Gulf of Cabes.

Note return to page The Island of Gerbi.

Note return to page The Island of Kerkeni.

Note return to page Sidra, or Zalscho.

Note return to page Hesperides is the same city which the sovereigns of Alexandria afterwards called Berenice. It is the modern Bernic or Bengazi.

Note return to page Automala appears to have been situated on the most northern point of the Greater Syrtes, on the confines of a small gulf, near to a place called Tine, or the Marsh.

Note return to page Now Reggio, on the Strait of Messina, which was also sometimes called the Strait of Rhegium.

Note return to page These were the Epizephyrian Locrians, or dwellers near the promontory of Zephyrium. They were situated towards the extremity of Italy, near Rhegium. Traces of their city are seen at Motta di Bourzano on the eastern coast of Ulterior Calabria.

Note return to page Messina.

Note return to page Syragusa.

Note return to page Cape Passaro.

Note return to page The Gulf of Lepanto.

Note return to page Cape Leuca or Finisterre.

Note return to page The lower part of the Adriatic was designated the Ionian Gulf

Note return to page The portion of Greece opposite Corfu.

Note return to page The Gulf of Arta.

Note return to page The Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page The Islands of Cherso and Ossero.

Note return to page Apparently the Curicta of Pliny and Ptolemy, corresponding to the island of Veglia.

Note return to page The Libyrnides are the islands of Arbo, Pago, Isola Longa, Coronata, &c., which border the coasts of ancient Liburnia, now Murlaka.

Note return to page Lissa.

Note return to page The Island of Traw.

Note return to page Curzola.

Note return to page Lesina.

Note return to page The Islands of Tremiti.

Note return to page From Cape Pachynus or Passaro to Cape Krio, the ancient Criu- metopon, on the western extremity of the Island of Crete, measures 4516 stadia of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page Corful.

Note return to page Sibota, Sajades; certain small islands between Epirus and Corcyra.

Note return to page Cefalonia.

Note return to page Zante.

Note return to page The Curzolari Islands at the mouth of the Aspro-Potamo.

Note return to page The Gulf of Engia.

Note return to page A district of the Peloponnesus.

Note return to page A part of the modern Livadia.

Note return to page Cerigo.

Note return to page Poro, or Poros, near the little Island of Damala, and connected to it by a sand-bank.

Note return to page Egina or Engia.

Note return to page Koluri.

Note return to page Islands surrounding Delos.

Note return to page Egio-Pelago.

Note return to page The Gulf of Saros.

Note return to page The Dardanelles.

Note return to page The sea surrounding the Islands of Icaria and Carpathos, now Nikaria and Scarpanto.

Note return to page Stanko.

Note return to page Samo.

Note return to page Skio.

Note return to page Mytileni.

Note return to page Tenedo

Note return to page Egripo, or Negropont.

Note return to page Skyro.

Note return to page Probably Piperi; others suppose it to be Skopelo or Pelagonesi.

Note return to page Stalimene.

Note return to page Thaso.

Note return to page Imbro.

Note return to page Samothraki.

Note return to page The distance from the southern coast of Crete to the northern shores of the ægæan is just 4200 stadia, or 120 marine leagues.

Note return to page This is just the distance from Cape Colonna to Rhodes.

Note return to page Cape Colonna.

Note return to page The Gulf of Saloniki.

Note return to page Those of Kassandra, Monte-Santo, and Contessa.

Note return to page The peninsula of Gallipoli.

Note return to page Semenik, or according to others, Jalowa.

Note return to page Maïto, or according to others, Avido.

Note return to page Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page Karadje-Burun, the southern point of the Crimea.

Note return to page Kerempi-Burun.

Note return to page We should here read 1500 stadia. See French Translation, vol. i. p 344, n. 3.

Note return to page The Euxine.

Note return to page Also called the Island of Achilles, and the Island of the Blessed. now Ilan-Adassi.

Note return to page The Strait of Zabache.

Note return to page The Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page The Island of Cyzicus was joined to the mainland by Alexander, and thus formed a peninsula, notwithstanding Strabo describes it as an island. Its present name is Artaki.

Note return to page The extent of the ægæan amongst the ancients was the same as the Egio-Pelago, or Archipelago, with us. It was comprehended between the southern coasts of Crete, the western coasts of Peloponnesus, the southern coasts of Macedonia and Thrace, and the western borders of Asia Minor. Strabo however, in his description, seems to comprise under the name of the ægæan not only those parts of the Mediterranean south of the meridian of Cape Matapan, but also the Propontis and the Euxine, as far as the mouth of the river Halys, now Kizil-Ermak. In this however he seems to be unique.

Note return to page This is just the distance, says Gosselin, from the northern part of Rhodes to Alexandria, but the route, instead of being from north to south as supposed by the ancients, is S. S. W.

Note return to page Tarsous.

Note return to page Samsoun.

Note return to page Themiscyra, a town of Cappadocia at the mouth of the Thermodon, (now the Termeh,) belonging to the kingdom of the Amazons. The territories around it bore the same name. The plain is now comprehended in the modern Djanik.

Note return to page Kizil-Ermak.

Note return to page Lit. the before-mentioned parts of the sea on either side.

Note return to page Asia Minor, or Anadoli.

Note return to page The Sidra of the moderns.

Note return to page Iskouriah.

Note return to page The Gulf of Aïas.

Note return to page Samsoun.

Note return to page The ruins of this city are said to be called by the modern Greeks φενάκη or πλατένα indiscriminately.

Note return to page Dwellers in waggons, or huts fixed on wheels for the purpose of transportation from one pasturage to another, as necessity might require.

Note return to page From Cape Gata in Granada to the borders of Asturias the distance is about 5000 stadia. But the greatest breadth of Spain is from Cape Gata to Cape Belem in Gallicia, which equals 5890 stadia of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page The Gulf of Lyon.

Note return to page The Gulf of Aquitaine or Gascony.

Note return to page The Cevennes.

Note return to page This ridge commences at the eastern part of the Pyrenees. Its ramifications extend to about Dijon.

Note return to page Genoa.

Note return to page The Romans gave to the whole of this country, which was peopled by a race of Keltic extraction, the name of Cisalpine Gaul, because situated on this side the Alps, with respect to them. France was designated Transalpine Gaul.

Note return to page The Tyrrhenian or Tuscan Sea commenced about the mouth of the Arno, and extended as far as Naples. The Ligurian Sea is the Gulf of Genoa. The Ausonian Sea, afterwards called the Sea of Sicily, washes the southern parts of Italy. The Adriatic Gulf, is the Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page The Getæ inhabited Moldavia. The Tyrigetæ, or Getæ of Tyras or the Dniester, dwelt on the banks of that river. The Bastarni inhabited the Ukraine. The Sarmatians, or Sauromatians, extended along either bank of the Don and the environs of the Sea of Azof, the ancient Palus Mæotis.

Note return to page Thrace and Macedonia form part of the modern Roumelia: Illyria comprehended Dalmatia, Bosnia, Croatia, &c.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page The Scilly Isles.

Note return to page Majorca and Minorca.

Note return to page Iviça, Formentera, Spalmador, &c. They were called Phœnician Islands, because the Carthaginians had sent out a colony thither 160 years after the founding of their city.

Note return to page Namely all the islands of the Icnian and ægæan Seas, from Corfu to the Dardanelles.

Note return to page The Sea of Azof.

Note return to page The Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page The North.

Note return to page The Northern Ocean.

Note return to page The south.

Note return to page The Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page Sarmatian Mæotæ in the Greek text, but apparently incorrect.

Note return to page Inhabitants of Georgia.

Note return to page Inhabitants of Shirvan.

Note return to page The Scythians here alluded to are the Tartars of Kuban; the Achæans and Zygi are the modern Ziketi; the Heniochi are the Abkazeti.

Note return to page East of the Caspian.

Note return to page These Scythians are the Tartars of the Kharasm. The Hyrcanians are the inhabitants of Daghistan and the Corcan. The Parthians occupied the north of Khorasan; the Bactrians the country of Balk. The Sogdians inhabited Bukaria, where are Samarcand and the valley of Al-Sogd.

Note return to page Mingrelia.

Note return to page Cappadocia comprehended a portion of the modern Roum and Karamania between the Euphrates and the river Halys.

Note return to page Under this name Strabo included a portion of the kingdom of Pontus and other small tribes as far as Colchis.

Note return to page Now the Kizil-Irmak.

Note return to page The northern and western portions of Phrygia.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation.

Note return to page The mountaineers of Paropamisus were those who inhabited the mountains which separate Bactriana from India. The Parthians occupied the mountains north of the modern Khorasan. Under the name of Medians Strabo comprehends the various nations who inhabited the mountainous country between Parthia and Armenia. The Cilicians in habited Aladeuli; the Lycaonian mountaineers the mountains which separate Karaman from Itch-iili; and the Pisidians the country of Hamid.

Note return to page The Bay of Bengal.

Note return to page Ceylon.

Note return to page The Arians inhabited Sigistan and a part of modern Persia. Strabo gave the name of Arians to all the people who occupied the portions of Asia comprised between the Indus and Persia, and between the chain of the Taurus and Gedrosia and Carmania. In after-times the designation of Arians was restricted to the inhabitants of the modern Khorasan. Gedrosia is Mekran; Carmania yet preserves the name of Kerman.

Note return to page Ancient Persia is the modern province of Fars, Pars, or Paras; our Persia being much more extensive than the ancient country designated by the same name

Note return to page The Susians inhabited the modern Khosistan.

Note return to page The Babylonians occupied the present Irak-Arabi.

Note return to page Now al-Djezira.

Note return to page Viz. the Ethiopians occupying the territory from Syene to Abyssinia.

Note return to page The Troglodyte Arabians.

Note return to page The Cilicians occupied the modern Itch-iili and Aladeuli; the Trachiotæ or mountaineers, the former of these countries.

Note return to page Pamphylia is the modern Tekieh.

Note return to page Or Oases, according to the common spelling.

Note return to page That is to say, from Tunis to Gibraltar. The Maurusians, called by the Latins Mauritanians, occupied the present Algiers and Fez.

Note return to page Probably asa-fœtida.

Note return to page The Troglodytic extended along the western coast of the Arabian Gulf.

Note return to page The Ichthyophagi of Gedrosia inhabited the barren coasts of Mekran.

Note return to page The term of Ethiopians was a generic name given by the Greeks and Romans to the most southern inhabitants of Africa they at any time happened to be acquainted with; consequently the position of this country frequently shifted.

Note return to page The Garamantæ inhabited the Kawan; Garama, their capital, is now named Gherma. The Pharusians and Nigritæ dwelt south of the present kingdom of Morocco.

Note return to page The Marmaridæ extended west from Egypt, as far as Catabathmus, near the present Cape Luco.

Note return to page Viz. to the south and west.

Note return to page The Gulfs of Sydra and Cabes.

Note return to page The Psylli and Nasamones inhabited the eastern parts of the present kingdom of Tripoli, above the Greater Syrtes and the desert of Barca.

Note return to page The Asbystæ were a people of Libya above Cyrene, where the temple of Ammon stood; Jupiter is sometimes called on that account Asbysteus.

Note return to page The Byzacii occupied the southern parts of the kingdom of Tunis.

Note return to page Greek, Nomades, or wandering shepherds, from which the Latins formed the name Numidæ. These people inhabited Algiers.

Note return to page Carthage extended as far west as the promontory of Tretum, now Sebta-Ras or the Seven Heads. From thence the Masylies inhabited as far as Cape Carbon; and from thence the Masesylii possessed the country as far as the river Molochath, now the Maluia, beyond which were the Maurusians extending to the Atlantic.

Note return to page Numidæ.

Note return to page The climata are zones parallel to the equator. The ancients generally reckoned seven climata, which in the time of Hipparchus terminated at 48° 30′ 35″, where the longest day consisted of sixteen hours. He however multiplied these divisions and extended them farther towards the poles. It is a great pity that Strabo has not noted all of them.

Note return to page According to Strabo, 12° 34′ 17″.

Note return to page According to Strabo, 52° 25′ 42″.

Note return to page Now Gherri, on the banks of the Nile.

Note return to page i. e. they are the most southern of those for whom, &c.

Note return to page Bab-el-mandeb, The Gate of Tears.

Note return to page The east.

Note return to page The west.

Note return to page This passage proves that in Strabo's opinion the continent of Africa did not extend so far south as the equator.

Note return to page This town was sometimes called Ptolemais Epitheras, having been built by Eumedes in the reign of Philadelphus for the chase of elephants and other wild animals.

Note return to page On the west.

Note return to page The east.

Note return to page About Cape Comorin.

Note return to page The east.

Note return to page The west.

Note return to page Kramer follows Gosselin in proposing to substitute τία in place of ἑπτά.

Note return to page The west side.

Note return to page Algiers and Fez.

Note return to page The eastern side.

Note return to page Lower Egypt is intended.

Note return to page Khosistan.

Note return to page The modern province of Fars.

Note return to page Kerman.

Note return to page Upper Mekran

Note return to page S. Jean d' Acre.

Note return to page Seide.

Note return to page Tsur.

Note return to page Eksenide.

Note return to page Siragusa.

Note return to page Caria occupied the southern and western parts of Anadoli, near the Island of Rhodes. Lycaonia formed a part of the modern Karaman. Cataonia was comprised in Aladeuli. Media is now Irak-Adjami. The Caspian Gates are the defiles of Firouz-Koh.

Note return to page Eski-Stambul.

Note return to page Emboli or Jamboli.

Note return to page Polina.

Note return to page Isnik.

Note return to page Eksemil

Note return to page Karasi in Anadoli.

Note return to page Sinoub.

Note return to page Corcan and Daghistan.

Note return to page Balk.

Note return to page To the north.

Note return to page Or 17° 30′. This would indicate a latitude of 48° 38′ 40″.

Note return to page The astronomical cubit was equal to two degrees.

Note return to page Read 23,100.

Note return to page The northern extremity of the Hellespont.

Note return to page κόσμ, the universe.

Note return to page The pole of the ecliptic.

Note return to page The neck, &c.

Note return to page Note. The pages of Casaubon's edition of 1620 are given to facilitate reference to various editions and translations of Strabo.

Note return to page The Pyrenees, on the contrary, range from east to west, with a slight inclination towards the north. This error gives occasion to several of the mistakes made by Strabo respecting the course of certain of the rivers in France.

Note return to page France.

Note return to page The Gulfs of Lyons and Gascony.

Note return to page Gosselin remarks that the distance between S. Jean de Luz and Tarragona, is rather less than that between Bayonne and Narbonne.

Note return to page The Atlantic.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Africa.

Note return to page The Mauritanians.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent is about 1600 stadia west of Cape Spartel in Africa. Strabo imagined that beyond this cape the African coast inclined to the south-east. In reality it advances eleven degrees and a half farther west to Cape Verd, which is 8° 29′ west of Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Herodotus is the first who speaks of a people of Iberia, to whom he gives the name of κυνήσιοι or κύυητες· he describes them as inhabiting the most western part of Europe, beyond the Pillars of Hercules.

Note return to page This passage of Strabo relative to the rocking-stones has occasioned much perplexity to the critics. We have attempted to render the Greek words as near as possible. Many curious facts relative to rocking and amber stones have been collected by Jabez Allies, F. S. A., in his work on the Antiquities of Worcestershire, now in the press.

Note return to page We extract the following notice on this passage from Humboldt (Cosmos, vol. iii. 54, Bohn's edition). This passage has recently been pronounced corrupt, (Kramer i. 211,) and δι' ὑαλων (through glass spheres) substituted for δί αὐλῶν (Schneider, Eclog. Phys. ii. 273). The magnifying power of hollow glass spheres, filled with water, (Seneca i 6,) was, indeed, as familiar to the ancients as the action of burning glasses or crystals, (Aristoph. Nub. v. 765,) and that of Nero's emerald (Plin. xxxvii. 5); but these spheres most assuredly could not have been employed as astronomical measuring instruments. (Compare Cosmos i. p. 619.) Solar altitudes taken through thin light clouds, or through volcanic vapours, exhibit no trace of the influence of refraction.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page ανας.

Note return to page The Tagus, the Guadiana, and the Guadalquiver, pursue a course nearly parallel to each other, and all incline towards the south before discharging themselves into the sea; the inclination of the Tagus is not equal to that of the other rivers.

Note return to page Lusitania occupied the greater part of the present kingdom of Portugal. It was from the countries north of the Tagus that the Romans caused certain of the inhabitants to emigrate to the south side of that river.

Note return to page The Carpetani occupied a portion of New Castile, where the cities of Madrid, Toledo, &c. are now situated.

Note return to page These people inhabited the southern portions of New Castile, now occupied by the cities of Calatrava, Ciudad-real, Alcaraz, &c. They also possessed a part of the Sierra-Morena.

Note return to page The Vettones inhabited that part of Estremadura, where the cities of Alcantara, Truxillo, &c. are now situated.

Note return to page Bætis.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page The course of the Guadiana is longer than that of the Guadalquiver.

Note return to page Beetis.

Note return to page Viz. Turdetania.

Note return to page The mountainous country in which the Guadalquiver takes its source.

Note return to page The rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page This Timosthenes was the admiral of Ptolemy II. Strabo mentions him repeatedly.

Note return to page The place on which this town formerly stood is now designated Val de Vacca.

Note return to page Rio Barbate.

Note return to page Now Azzila.

Note return to page Called by Pliny and Ptolemy Julia Transducta. It appears to have been situated at the western entrance of the Bay of Gibraltar, at the place now called Al-Gesira.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page An Athenian king, who led the Athenians against Troy. The port of Menestheus is now Puerto Sta. Maria.

Note return to page Hodie Lebrixa.

Note return to page Bætis.

Note return to page At or near the port of Menestheus just mentioned.

Note return to page Quintus Servilius Cæpio, a famous Roman general. Vide lib. iv. c. i. § 13.

Note return to page This city is not to be confounded with others of the same name in Spain.

Note return to page Strabo is the only writer who speaks of this temple of Phosphorus. It was no doubt a temple to Diana, who was named αρτεμις φωσφόος. This temple, according to the Spanish authors quoted by Lopez in his translation of Strabo, corresponds to the present San-Lucar de Barrameda.

Note return to page Strabo here gives the Latin Lucem dubiam in Greek characters, λοῦκεμ δουβίαν.

Note return to page The Guadiana at the present day has but one mouth.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page Bætis.

Note return to page Cordova, situated on the Guadalquiver in Andalusia, We do not know whether it were founded by the Marcellus who was prætor in Thither Iberia, and created consul in the year of Rome 601, or Marcellus who joined Pompey's party against Cæsar. This city served for the winter quarters of the Romans, who during summer made war on the inhabitants of the western and northern parts of Spain. It was the native place of the two Senecas and Lucan, and the chief emporium of Iberia. We may form some idea of the amount of its population from the number of those who perished when taken by Cæsar, as narrated by Hirtius, Spanish War, § 34. But the period in which Cordova's glory was at its zenith was during the empire of the Moors, in the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries, when it numbered 300,000 inhabitants.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page Seville. This city was surnamed Julia Romulensis. It was founded by Cæsar, and regarded as the second city of the province, although, as we see, in the time of Strabo it was only third-rate.

Note return to page Strabo is the only writer who mentions this city of Bætis. Casaubon and others are inclined to the opinion that the MSS. are corrupted, and that formerly another name stood here.

Note return to page This city, the native place of the emperors Trajan and Adrian, and the poet Silius Italicus, was founded by Publius Scipio in the second Punic war, who placed here the soldiers incapacitated from the performance of military service. It is supposed to correspond to Sevilla la Vieja, about a league distant from Seville.

Note return to page The Ilipa Ilia of Pliny and Illipula Magna of Ptolemy. Its exact position is not determined.

Note return to page Hodie Ecija on the Xenil.

Note return to page Carmona.

Note return to page Monda, seven leagues west of Malaga.

Note return to page Osuna.

Note return to page Hodie Martos, Pliny gave it the surname of Augusta Gemella.

Note return to page The Itucci of Pliny, to which he gives the surname Virtus Julia.

Note return to page We should probably read 430.

Note return to page Kramer, using the criticism of Lachmann, observes that this is a misreading for Midaium, and that a like mistake occurs in Appian.

Note return to page Furnius and Titius.

Note return to page In Lusitania.

Note return to page About the spot where this city is supposed to have stood, between Xerez and Tribugena, there is still a place called Mesa de Asta.

Note return to page Strabo uses ὸλκάσιν ἀξιολόγοις, but the English hulk would not bear the same import in this place as the Greek.

Note return to page Betis.

Note return to page Cotillas, or perhaps Constantina near Almaden.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page Experience does not seem to warrant this conclusion.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Of Gibraltar.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page The text here is evidently corrupt, but it is not easy to determine to what extent the overflow reached at the time Strabo wrote.

Note return to page Lebrixa.

Note return to page Gibraleon.

Note return to page Spain.

Note return to page οἱ εποι.

Note return to page Majorca and Minorca.

Note return to page In his third book, Strabo, speaking of Campania, regards the oil of Venafrum as superior to any other. In this he agrees with Pliny, who places in the second class the oils of Bætica and Istria. Pausanias considers these two oils, both for beauty of colour and excellence of flavour, inferior to that produced at Tithorea in Phocis, and which was sent to Rome for the service of the emperor's table.

Note return to page Coccus tinctorius, used to dye scarlet.

Note return to page Sinoub, still a Turkish city of importance.

Note return to page A people inhabiting the western parts of the Caucasus.

Note return to page This name occurs only in Strabo: of the various conjectures which have been hazarded on the subject, one of the most probable seems to be that we should read Saltigetæ, a people of Bastetania, mentioned by Ptolemy.

Note return to page These were evidently rabbits.

Note return to page Spain.

Note return to page Majorca and Minorca.

Note return to page According to Pliny, (lib. viii. c. 55,) this deputation was sent to Augustus to demand of him a military force, apparently for the purpose of assisting the inhabitants in destroying the rabbits. The same writer has brought together a variety of instances in which cities have been abandoned or destroyed through similar causes. Vide lib. viii. c. 29. The inhabitants of Abdera in Thrace were forced to quit their city on account of the rats and frogs, and settled on the frontiers of Macedonia. (Justin. lib. xv. c. 2.)

Note return to page Ferrets.

Note return to page Pozzuolo.

Note return to page We have here followed Gosselin's suggestion of λιμνασίαν instead of ηυμνασίαν, the reading of MSS.

Note return to page A kind of whale, mentioned also by Aristotle, but which does not seem to have been identified.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page A kind of shell-fish with a wreathed shell, which might be used as a sort of trumpet. It is mentioned by Aristotle.

Note return to page The cotyla held about three-fourths of a pint.

Note return to page This weight equalled 15 oz. 83 3/4 grs.

Note return to page The Euboic or Attic talent, which is here meant, equalled almost 57 lb.

Note return to page A kind of cuttle-fish or squid.

Note return to page Sardinia.

Note return to page Turdetania.

Note return to page The mineral riches of Spain are lauded in equal terms by Herodotus, Aristotle, Pliny, and many other writers. We can only remark, that at the present day the mineral wealth of that country scarcely justifies such descriptions.

Note return to page The Cevennes.

Note return to page Pliny, (lib. xxxiii. c. 4,) writing on the same subject, says, Inveni- untur ita massæ; necnon in puteis etiam denas excedentes libras. Palacras Hispani, alii palacranas, iidem quod minutum est balucem vocant.

Note return to page This passage is evidently corrupt, nor do any of the readings which have been proposed seem to clear up the difficulties which it presents.

Note return to page Archimedes' Screw. It was called the Egyptian screw because in- vented by Archimedes when in Egypt, and also because it was much employed by the Egyptians in raising water from the Nile for the irrigation of their lands.

Note return to page We read τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν, according to Kramer's suggestion.

Note return to page The following is the enigma alluded to. We have extracted it from Mackenzie's Translation of the Life of Homer, attributed to Herodotus of Halicarnassus. While the sailors and the towns-people of the Isle of Ios (Nio) were speaking with Homer, some fishermen's children ran their vessel on shore, and descending to the sands, addressed these words to the assembled persons: Hear us, strangers, explain our riddle if ye can. Then some of those who were present ordered them to speak. We leave, say they, what we take, and we carry with us that we cannot take. No one being able to solve the enigma, they thus expounded it. Having had an unproductive fishery, say they in explanation, we sat down on the sand, and being annoyed by the vermin, left the fish we had taken on the shore, taking with us the vermin we could not catch,

Note return to page These people inhabited the province of Gallicia in Spain.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Caslona.

Note return to page Bætis.

Note return to page The Sierra Cazorla.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page These 900 stadia are equal to from 25 to 26 leagues, which is exactly the distance from the sources of the Guadalquiver near to Cazorla to the lagoons named Ojos de Guadiana, adjacent to Villa-Harta.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page A Greek poet born at Himera in Sicily, and who flourished about B. C. 570: he lived in the time of Phalaris, and was contemporary with Sappho, Alceus, and Pittacus.

Note return to page The rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page This is exactly the distance from Cadiz to Cape St. Vincent, following the coasts. It is from 48 to 49 leagues.

Note return to page Gaul.

Note return to page The bright light of the sun fell into the ocean, drawing dark night over the fruitful earth. Iliad viii. 485.

Note return to page Wandering rocks.

Note return to page Entwining or conflicting rocks. Euripides, Medea, verse 2, gives them the title of Symplegades.

Note return to page Gibraltar.

Note return to page The Strait of Messina.

Note return to page Ulisipo or Lisbon.

Note return to page A proverbial expression by which the Greeks described a victory equally prejudicial to the victors and the vanquished.

Note return to page But still it would be disgraceful to remain here so long, and to return home without fitting booty. Iliad ii. 298.

Note return to page We should probably here read Menestheus.

Note return to page But the immortals will send you to the Elysian plain, and the boundaries of the earth, where is auburn-haired Rhadamanthus; there of a truth is the most easy life for men. There is nor snow nor long winter, nor ever a shower, but ever does the ocean send forth the gently blowing breezes of the west wind to refresh men. Odyssey iv. 563.

Note return to page There then I beheld Minos, the illustrious son of Jove, having a golden sceptre, giving laws to the dead. Odyssey xi. 567. Bohn's edition.

Note return to page The Canary Islands.

Note return to page Hamilcar, the father of Hannibal.

Note return to page We have preferred, in common with the French translation, and the manuscript cited by Xylander, to read φιάλαις, instead of φάτναις, thinking it probable that Strabo referred in the first instance to the drinking vessels, and afterwards to the wine barrels, as being made of silver.

Note return to page Herodotus, who wrote about a century after the time of Anacreon, expressly tells us that Arganthonius reigned during eighty years, and lived one hundred and twenty (l. i. c. 163). Cicero, Valerius Maximus, and Pliny report the same, apparently on the testimony of Herodotus. Lucian, Phlegon, and Appian however state the life of Arganthonius at one hundred and fifty years; and what is remarkable, the two former, Lucian and Phlegon, cite as their authority Anacreon and Herodotus. Pliny, citing Anacreon, has taken the reign of one hundred and fifty years, mentioned by the poet, as a life of that duration. The passage of Strabo is evidently changed from its original form.

Note return to page Of the number are Pomponius Mela and Pliny.

Note return to page Bæctis.

Note return to page That is, been admitted to all the privileges of Roman citizenship. Pliny tells us that in Bætica alone there were thirty cities enjoying this distinction.

Note return to page Beja in Alentejo: others, with less show of probability, say Badajoz the capital of Estremadura.

Note return to page Merida.

Note return to page Saragossa.

Note return to page Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Capo Espichel.

Note return to page Coray reads two hundred and ten stadia, Groskurd and the French translators adopt 200; but the whole passage is so manifestly corrupt, that it scarcely seemed safe to hazard the correction.

Note return to page The text is here very corrupt, and the explanations of the editors and translators unsatisfactory.

Note return to page A city of Lusitania, hod. Al-Merim.

Note return to page Literally towards the sunset at the equinox.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page Bætus.

Note return to page Durius.

Note return to page This city is not mentioned elsewhere in Strabo.

Note return to page Caslona.

Note return to page Oreto.

Note return to page μυρίων καὶ τισχιλίων, in text, but plainly the result of some error.

Note return to page We have followed the suggestion of Kramer in the rendering of this passage, the Greek text being evidently corrupt.

Note return to page Munda.

Note return to page Vacua.

Note return to page Durius.

Note return to page A city situated near Soria in Old Castile.

Note return to page Now the Lima.

Note return to page Xylander and many of the commentators propose to read οβλιουιῶνα, or Oblivion, in place of βελιῶνα. The conjecture seems extremely probable.

Note return to page The Minho of the present day.

Note return to page The Minho is far surpassed in size, both by the Duero and the Tagus.

Note return to page The text here is evidently incorrect. In the first place, the καὶ αὐτὸν, which we have rendered this too, evidently sustained some relation, no longer subsisting, to what preceded; and in the second, the sources of the Minho were not in Cantabria, but Gallicia.

Note return to page Strabo here appears to confound the mouth of the Minho with a small bay about five leagues distant, near to the city of Bayona in Gallicia, and before which there is still the small island of Bayona.

Note return to page Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Anas.

Note return to page Limæa.

Note return to page Or the river of Oblivion, apparently because they forgot to return to their own country.

Note return to page A few of the MSS. read fifty, which number seems to be counte- nanced by the statement of Pliny, that forty-six nations inhabited Lusitania: but then the limits he set to the country were more extended than those allowed by Strabo.

Note return to page The κούφος of the text signifies also a volatile disposition.

Note return to page Some part of the sentence seems here to be wanting. It probably contained a description of the kind of sword made use of.

Note return to page Durius.

Note return to page This reminds one of the glibs the Irish used to wear down to a recent period.

Note return to page This passage is not found in any of the odes of Pindar now remaining.

Note return to page The French translators observe, that we should probably understand this passage as follows, They exercise themselves as light-armed infantry, heavy-armed infantry, cavalry, &c.

Note return to page Xenophon describes this, or one very similar, as the Persian dance: τέλος δὲ τὸ πεσικὸν ὠχεῖτο, κοτῶν τὰς πέλτας καὶ ὤκλαζε, καὶ ἐξανίατατο. Last of all he danced the Persian dance, clashing his bucklers, and in dancing fell on his knees, then sprang up again. Xen. Anab. b. vi. c. 1, 10.

Note return to page This is said to distinguish them from their neighbours, the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca, whose peculiar marriage ceremonies are thus described by Diodorus Siculus, lib. v. c. 18: παράδοξον δέ τι καὶ κατὰ τοὺς γάμους νόμιμον παρ' αὐτοῖς ἐστιν ἐν γὰρ ταῦς κατὰ τοὺς γάμους εὐωχίαις, οἰκείων τε καὶ φίλων κατὰ τὴν ὴλικίαν ὁ πρῶτος άνὰ και ὁ δετερος, καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς, μίσγονται ταῖς νύμφαις ἀνὰ μέρος, ἐσχάτου τοῦ νυμφίου τυγχάνοντος ταύτης τῆς τιμῆς.

Note return to page The mention of Egyptians here seems surprising, inasmuch as no writer appears to have recorded this as one of their customs. Of the Assyrians it is stated, both by Herodotus, i. 197, and also by Strabo him- self xvi. cap. i. 746. It seems therefore most probable that Assyrians are intended, Egyptians being merely an error of the transcriber.

Note return to page Inhabitants of Biscay.

Note return to page People of Navarre.

Note return to page Who the Pleutauri were, we do not know. The Bardyete appear to be the same people whom Strabo afterwards speaks of as Bardyiti, or Bardyali, who occupied a narrow slip of land between the east of Alava and the west of Navarre. The Allotriges Casaubon supposes to be the same as the Autrigones, who occupied the coast from Laredo to the Gulf of Bilboa.

Note return to page Inhabitants of Biscay.

Note return to page Iberus.

Note return to page πλὴν τουίσοι· these words are manifestly corrupt, but none of the various conjectural readings seem at all probable.

Note return to page From the Pillars to the Sacred Promontory, or Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page The rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Viz. from Carthagena.

Note return to page Malaga.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page Pomponius Mela gives this city the name of Hexi, or Ex, according to another reading; Pliny names it Sexi, with the surname of Firmum Julium; and Ptolemy, Sex. This is merely a difference relative to the aspiration of the word, which was sometimes omitted, at other times expressed by the letters H or S indifferently.

Note return to page Mentioned by Pliny, Athenæus, Galen, and also by Martial, lib. vii. Epigramm. 78, Cum Saxetani ponatur cauda lacerti; Et bene si cœnas, conchis inuncta tibi est; Sumen, aprum, leporem, boletos, ostrea, mullos, Mittis; habes nec cor, Papile, nec genium.

Note return to page Adra.

Note return to page Lisbon.

Note return to page Asclepiades of Myrlea, a city of Bithynia, was a grammarian, and disciple of the celebrated grammarian, Apollonius. According to Suidas he taught literature at Rome, under Pompey the Great. And it is probable that it was with Pompey he afterwards passed into Spain.

Note return to page Teucer, the son of Telamon, king of the island of Salamis, being driven out of the country by his father, founded in Cyprus the city of Salamis. Justin adds, that after the death of his father he returned to the island of Salamis; but being prevented by the son of Ajax, his brother, from debarking, he went into Iberia, and took up his abode on the spot where Carthagena was afterwards built: that subsequently he removed into the country of the Gallicians, and settled amongst them.

Note return to page The Hellenes derived their name from Hellen the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. This name, which at first designated only a small people of Thessaly, became afterwards the general appellation of the inhabitants of the whole of Greece.

Note return to page Amphilochus, on his return from Troy, founded with Mopsus the city of Mallos in Cilicia. He afterwards retired to Argos, but not being contented there he rejoined Mopsus, who however would no longer divide with him the government of their common colony. This dispute resulted in a remarkable combat, which cost the life of both. (Compare Strabo, 1. xiv. c. 4.) Sophocles and other tragic poets have taken advantage of this tradition. Herodotus likewise speaks of the voyages of Amphilochus into Cilicia, and of the city of Posideium which he founded there, but he tells us nothing of his death. Thucydides merely says that Amphilochus on his return home after the Trojan war, being discontented with his compatriots, founded in the Gulf of Ambracia a city which he named after his fatherland, Argos. None of these traditions mention a voyage to Iberia.

Note return to page Siebenkees suspects that this name should be read Ocella. The Oce- lenses in Lusitania are commended by Pliny.

Note return to page Some MSS. read Opsicella.

Note return to page Strabo, or rather Artemidorus, seems to have confused the two kinds of lotus mentioned by the ancients. That whereof they ate the roots and the grain is the lotus of the Nile, and a plant of the species nymphtœa. The lotus alluded to in this instance is a shrub, (the rhamnus lotus of Linnæcus,) named seedra by the inhabitants of Barbary, with whom the fruit is an article of food. Herodotus mentions both kinds, (lib. ii. c. 92, and iv. c. 177,) and Polybius describes the second, as an eye-witness.

Note return to page The Island of Zerbi.

Note return to page The Gulf of Cabes.

Note return to page A celebrated stoic philosopher and grammarian contemporary with Aristarchus. He was of Mallos, a city of Cilicia, and surnamed the Critic and the Homeric, on account of the corrections, explanations, and remarks which he composed in nine books on the poems of Homer.

Note return to page Sertorius, on the return of Sylla to Rome, took refuge in Spain. where he put himself at the head of the Romans who had revolted against the republic; he was assassinated by one of his officers.

Note return to page Adra.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Sucro.

Note return to page That is, the ancient name, Sucro.

Note return to page Malaga.

Note return to page Denia or Artemus.

Note return to page Denia.

Note return to page Isola Plana.

Note return to page S. Pola.

Note return to page Islote.

Note return to page A sauce so named from the garus, a small fish, from which originally it was prepared. Afterwards it was made with mackerel and other fish. Vide Pliny 1. xxxi. c. 7, 8.

Note return to page Peniscola.

Note return to page Tortosa.

Note return to page Tarragona.

Note return to page New Carthage, or Carthagena, is intended.

Note return to page Sent from Rome.

Note return to page Majorca and Minorca.

Note return to page Iviça.

Note return to page Ampurias.

Note return to page The text is here manifestly corrupt. Various other numbers, from 4 to 400, have been conjectured as the true reading. Gosselin and Groskurd are in favour of 200.

Note return to page Sic text. Siebenkees and Coray propose to read πόδος, and Casaubon also πόδη, now Rosas.

Note return to page Marseilles.

Note return to page Probably the river Fluvia, the Alba of the ancients.

Note return to page Iberia, or Spain, was anciently divided into two grand divisions, to which the Romans gave the names of Citerior and Ulterior Iberia. Augustus subdivided this latter into the two provinces of Bætica and Lusitania, giving the name of Tarraco to Citerior Iberia. Nevertheless the ancient names of Citerior and Ulterior continued in use long after this division.

Note return to page Tarragona.

Note return to page We are not exactly acquainted with this place, it is probably Vidre- ras; though others suppose it to be Colonia Sagerra.

Note return to page Tortosa.

Note return to page Murviedro.

Note return to page Xativa.

Note return to page The cordage of the famous vessel built by Hiero of Syracuse was formed from the spartum of Iberia. Vid. Athenæus, lib. v. p. 206.

Note return to page Yniesta.

Note return to page Caslona.

Note return to page Porcuna.

Note return to page Cordova and Cadiz.

Note return to page Fought against Pompey.

Note return to page The mountains of Burgos and Cuença, the Sierras of Oca, Lorenzo and Moncayo.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Malaga.

Note return to page The Sierra de Toledo.

Note return to page Saragossa.

Note return to page Xelsa.

Note return to page They occupied the northern half of Catalonia.

Note return to page Lerida.

Note return to page Huesca.

Note return to page Calahorra.

Note return to page Tarragona.

Note return to page Denia.

Note return to page ὑπὸ καίσαος τοῦ <>εοῦ, by the deified Cæsar. We have adopted the Latin divus as the most suitable epithet for the emperor in an English version.

Note return to page Gosselin here labours to reconcile these distances with the actual topography of those parts, but it is useless to attempt to make all the loose statements furnished by Strabo tally with the exact distances of the places he mentions by supposing the stadia to be so continually varied.

Note return to page Pampeluna.

Note return to page Gosselin is of opinion that this Œaso, is not Ojarço near Fontarabia, but trunks it probable that Ea near Cape Machicaco is the site where it stood.

Note return to page People of Biscay.

Note return to page The ancient Anas.

Note return to page The ruins of Numantia are seen a little to the north of Soria.

Note return to page Bætis.

Note return to page Probably the small village of Varea, about half a league from Logrono; D'Anville supposes it to be Logrono itself.

Note return to page Aliter Bardyali.

Note return to page Kramer has altered the text into εδητανῶν, all MSS. having διττνῶν. There is little doubt they are the same people mentioned in section 14 as Sidetani.

Note return to page Palencia.

Note return to page Saragossa.

Note return to page Baubola.

Note return to page Sasamo, west of Briviesca.

Note return to page Allusion is here made to the custom of the Roman generals, who caused to be carried at their triumphs, representations in painting or sculpture, not only of the kings or generals of the enemy, who had been slain, but likewise of the forts, cities, mountains, lakes, rivers, and even seas, conquered from the enemy. This usage explains the words of Cicero, portari in triumpho Massiliam vidimus. Appian, on occasion of the triumph of Scipio, says, πυργοι τε πααφενται μιμὴατα τῶν εἰλημμένων πὀλεων.

Note return to page Sucro, now Xucar.

Note return to page The same people as the Edetani, mentioned in section 12.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Malaga.

Note return to page At the present day the best castor comes from Russia, but the greater part of that found in shops is the produce of Canada. It is denominated a stimulant and antispasmodic. Formerly it was much used in spasmodic diseases, as hysteria and epilepsy. It is now considered almost inert, and is seldom employed. After this description, it is scarcely necessary to warn the reader against the vulgar error of confusing castor with castor oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis or castor oil plant, a shrub growing in the West Indies.

Note return to page Apuleius, Catullus, and Diodorus Siculus all speak of this singular custom.

Note return to page A note in the French edition says, This surprise of the Vettones is nothing extraordinary. Amongst all barbarous nations, savages especially, the promenade is an unknown exercise. When roused by necessity or passion, they will even kill themselves with fatigue; at other times they remain in the most perfect inaction. The first thing which strikes a Turk on coming to any of the polished nations of Europe, is to see men pro- menading without any other aim but that of pleasure or health.

Note return to page Head-dress shaped like a drum.

Note return to page At the present day in Bilboa, the capital of Biscay, the women work far more than the men; they load and unload vessels, and carry on their heads burdens which require two men to place there.

Note return to page We must remark that so far from the dowry given by men to their wives being an evidence of civilization, it is a custom common amongst barbarous people, and indicative of nothing so much as the despotic power of the man over the wife. These dowries were generally a sum of money from the husband to the father of his intended, on the payment of which he acquired the same power over her as over a slave. Aristotle, speaking of the ancient Greeks, tells us expressly that they bought their wives, (Polit. ii. c. 8,) and observing that amongst barbarous nations women were always regarded in the same light as slaves, he cites the example of the Cyclopes, who exercised, according to Homer, sovereign authority over their families (Odyss. 1. ix. 114). This custom was so well established amongst the Greeks at the time of the poet, that he does not hesitate to introduce it amongst the gods (Odyss. viii. 318). It was not unknown among the Jews, and Strabo, in his fifteenth book, tells us that the Indians bought their wives.

Note return to page Cæsar and Athenæus attribute this custom to the Gauls, and Valerius Maximus to the Keltiberians. Those men who attached themselves to the interests of any prince or famous personage, and who espoused all his quarrels, even devoting themselves to death on his account, are named by Athenæus σιλοδοῦοι, and by Cæsar soldurii. Speaking of 600 soldiers devoted in this manner to a Gaulish prince, named Adcantuannus, Cæsar (1. iii. c. 22) says, Sibi mortem consciscant; neque adhuc hominum memoriâ repertus est quisquam, qui, eo interfecto cujus se amicitiæ devovisset, mori recusaret. Plutarch tells us that Sertorius had in his suite many thousand Iberians devoted to him. The following epitaph of these men, who, after the death of Sertorius, sacrificed themselves, being unwilling to survive him, was extracted by Swinburne from the Annals of Catalonia. Hic multæ quæ se manibus Q. Sertorii turmæ, et terræ Mortalium omnium parenti Devovere, dum, eo sublato, Superesse tæderet, et fortiter Pugnando invicem cecidere, Morte ad presens optata jacent. Valete posteri. For the appalling means they adopted to hold out the city of Calaguris to the last, see Valerius Maximus, lib. vii. cap. vi.

Note return to page The country between the Ebro and the Pyrenees.

Note return to page These Igletes are the same which Stephen of Byzantium names Gletes, and by an error of the copyist Tletes. Herodotus places them between the Cynetæ, and the Tartessians, and Theopompus in the neigh- bourhood of the Tartessians. The position between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, which Asclepiades the Myrlean thus gives them, supports the opinion of those who reckon that Rosas was founded by the Rhodians, and that the people of Marseilles did not settle there till afterwards; it is more than probable that the Igletes were nothing more than Ignetes or Gnetes of the Isle of Rhodes.

Note return to page Caslona.

Note return to page Merida.

Note return to page Casaubon supposes that this is the river Ptolemy names Merus. Lopez, Geograf. de Estrabon, lib. iii. p. 232, thinks it the Narcea.

Note return to page Pomponius Mela and Pliny coincide with Strabo in making this city belong to the Asturians; Ptolemy however describes it under the name of Neoga Cassia as pertaining to the Cantabrians. Some say it corresponds to the present Navix, others to Praia. Groskurd reckons it Gabon, or Navix, or Scamander.

Note return to page Carthagena.

Note return to page Tarragona.

Note return to page Murviedro.

Note return to page Iviça.

Note return to page Majorca.

Note return to page Palma.

Note return to page Pollença.

Note return to page Gosselin observes that the greatest length of Majorca is 14 leagues and a half; its breadth at the narrowest part 8 leagues; and adds, that by confounding stadia of unequal value, Strabo makes Majorca a long narrow island, whereas in fact its form approaches nearer to that of a square.

Note return to page Minorca.

Note return to page Viz. the Phœnicians.

Note return to page Immediately after the word μελαγκρανας, which we have translated black rush, the text of our geographer runs on as follows: resembling the schenus, a species of rush from which cords are made. Philetas in his Mercury [says] 'he was covered with a vile and filthy tunic, and about his wretched loins was bound a strip of black rush, as if he had been girt with a mere schœnus. It is evident that this passage is the scholium of some ancient grammarian, and we have followed the example of the French editors in inserting it in a note, as it is a great impediment in the middle of Strabo's description of the equipment of the island warriors.

Note return to page Cibum puer a matre non accipit, nisi quem, ipsa monstrante, percussit. Florus, lib. iii. c. 8. The same thing is stated by Lycophron, v. 637, and Diodorus Siculus, 1. v. c. 18.

Note return to page Cadiz.

Note return to page The rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page This mouth of the Guadalquiver, opposite Cadiz, no longer exists.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Padua.

Note return to page The length of the island of Leon, at the extremity of which the city of Cadiz is situated, is about 9500 toises, which are equivalent to 100 Olympic stadia.Gosselin.

Note return to page L. Cornelius Balbus was a native of Cadiz, and descended from an illustrious family in that town. His original name probably bore some resemblance in sound to the Latin Balbus. Cadiz being one of the federate cities, supported the Romans in their war against Sertorius in Spain, and Balbus thus had an opportunity for distinguishing himself. He served under the Roman generals Q. Mettellus Pius, C. Memmius, and Pompey, and was present at the battles of Turia and Sucro. He distinguished himself so much throughout the war, that Pompey conferred the Roman citizenship upon him, his brother, and his brother's sons and this act of Pompey was ratified by the law of the consuls, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus and L. Gellius, B. C. 72. It was probably in honour of these consuls that Balbus took the Gentile name of the one, and the prænomen of the other. It was for this Balbus that Cicero made the defence which has come down to us. The reason which induced Strabo to notice, as something remarkable, that Balbus had received the honours of a triumph, we learn from Pliny, who, noticing the victories which he had gained over the Garamantes and other nations of Africa, tells us he was the only person of foreign extraction who had ever received the honour of a triumph. Omnia armis Romanis superata et a Cornelio Balbo triumphata, uni huic omnium externo curru et Quiritium jure donato. Plin. ib. v. c. 5. Solinus likewise says of him, (cap. xxix. p. 54,) Primus sane de externis, utpote Gadibus genitus accessit ad gloriana nominis triumphalis.

Note return to page This word signifies The Twins.

Note return to page Gosselin says, the temple of Saturn appears to have stood on the site of the present church of S. Sebastian, and that of Hercules at the other extremity of the island on the site of St. Peter's.

Note return to page Groskurd supposes that we should here read, [certain citizens of Cadiz have appropriated to themselves possessions in the interior of the island,] but the whole sea-shore is inhabited in common, that is, by shepherds who pastured the grounds in common.

Note return to page Gosselin shows that we ought to read 500 stadia in this place.

Note return to page The rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page The Ape-mountain near Ceuta.

Note return to page The text is corrupt, but it is needless to go through all the emendations proposed.

Note return to page This passage of Pindar has not come down to us.

Note return to page ψε̄σμα φοινικικόν, a proverbial mode of speaking, having its origin in the bad faith of the Phœnicians [fides Punica]

Note return to page Regio.

Note return to page Strabo, in his 17th book, gives a different locality to these altars.

Note return to page These were twelve altars, of fifty cubits each, erected to the twelve gods. Vide Diodorus Siculus, 1. xvii. c. 95.

Note return to page The text is ἐν τοῖς πααδόξοις, which Gosselin renders, Les ouvrages qui traitent des choses merveilleuses.

Note return to page Strabo's argument is here so weak, that one can hardly believe it can have ever been seriously made use of.

Note return to page This method of explaining the ebb and flow of the sea, by comparing it to the respiration of animals, is not so extraordinary, when we remember that it was the opinion of many philosophers that the universe was itself an animal. Pomponius Mela, (De Situ Orbis, lib. iii. c. 1,) speaking of the tides, says, Neque adhuc satis cognitum est, anhelitune suo id mundus efficiat, retractamque cum spiritu regerat undam undique, si, ut doctioribus placet, unum (lege universum) animal est; an sint depressi aliqui specus, quo reciprocata maria residant, atque unde se rursus exuberantia attollant: an luna causas tantis meatibus præbeat.

Note return to page Thirty degrees.

Note return to page The Persian Gulf.

Note return to page Alcolea.

Note return to page Some MSS. read 50 stadia.

Note return to page This is the sense of the text, πᾶσαν τὴν κύκλῳ ταωκεανῖτιν.

Note return to page We are not aware that the Ebro passes through any lake.

Note return to page This is probably a description of the appearance of the Druids. Tacitus, (Ann. lib. xiv. 30,) speaking of the consternation into which the Druids of Anglesey threw the Roman soldiers who had disembarked there, says, Druidæque circum, preces diras, sublatis ad cœlum manibus, fundentes, novitate adspectus perculere milites, ut, quasi hærentibus membris, immobile corpus vulneribus præberent. Immediately before these words he thus describes the women, "Stabat pro litore diversa acies, densa armis virisque, intercursantibus feminis in modum furiarum, quæ veste ferali, crinibus dejectis, faces præferebant.

Note return to page Viz. that the Cassiterides are farther removed from the coasts of Spain than the rest of the southern coasts of England.

Note return to page Transalpine Gaul.

Note return to page Gaul is properly divided into the four grand divisions of the Narbonnaise, Aquitaine, Keltica, and Belgica. Strabo has principally copied Cæsar, who appears only to have divided Gaul into Aquitaine, Keltica, and Belgica. Cæsar however only speaks of the provinces he had conquered, and makes no mention of the Narbonnaise, which had submitted to the Romans before his time. Strabo seems to have thought that the Narbonnaise formed part of Keltica.

Note return to page Lyons.

Note return to page The whole of this passage, says Gosselin, is full of mistakes, and it would seem that Strabo quoted from an inexact copy of Cæsar. To understand his meaning, we must remember that he supposed the Pyrenees extended from north to south, instead of from east to west; and since he adds that these mountains divide the Cevennes at right angles, he must have supposed that this second chain extended from cast to west, instead of from north to south. He likewise fancied that the Garonne, the Loire, and the Seine ran from north to south like the Rhine. Starting from such premises, it was impossible he could avoid confusion; thus we find him describing the Aquitani as north of the Cevennes, when in fact they dwelt north of the Pyrenees, between those mountains and the Garonne, and west of the southern portions of the Cevennes. Where he says that the Kelts dwelt on the other side or east of the Garonne, and towards the sea of Narbonne and Marseilles, it is clear that he prolonged Keltica into the Narbonnaise, since this last province extended along the Mediterranean from the frontiers of Spain to the Alps. Cæsar had stated that the Gauls (the Kelts of Strabo) ipsorum lingua Keltæ, nostri Galli, dwelt between the Garonne, the Seine, the Marne, and the Rhine. Finally, Strabo appears to have assigned the greater part of Gaul to the Belgæ in making them extend from the ocean, and the mouth of the Rhine, to the Alps. This considerably embarrassed Xylander, but as we have seen that Strabo transported a portion of the Kelts into the Narbonnaise, it is easy to imagine that, in order to make these people border on the Belgæ, he was forced to extend them as far as the Alps, near the sources of the Rhine. Cæsar located the Belgæ between the Seine, the ocean, and the Rhine.

Note return to page Liger.

Note return to page From the ocean to the Mediterranean, and vice versa.

Note return to page Alluding to the superiority of the climate on the shores of the Mediterranean.

Note return to page We shall see in the course of this book, that under the name of Alps Strabo includes the different mountain-chains separated from the range of Alps properly so called. This accounts for his extending those mountains on the west as far as Marseilles, and on the east beyond Istria.

Note return to page The Marseillese.

Note return to page The Salyes inhabited Provence.

Note return to page As Strabo has made no previous mention of this river, the words as we have said before are evidently interpolated.

Note return to page This temple was built on Cape Creus, which on that account received the name of Aphrodisium. Many geographers confound this temple with the portus Veneris, the modern Vendres, which is at a short distance from Cape Creus.

Note return to page Nimes.

Note return to page Beaucaire.

Note return to page Aix.

Note return to page Gosselin, who considers that the former numbers were correct, enters at some length on an argument to prove that these 53 miles were 62, and differs also in computing the succeeding numbers.

Note return to page The cantons of Vaison and Die.

Note return to page Cottius possessed the present Briançonnais. That portion of the Alps next this canton took from this sovereign the name of the Cottian Alps. Cottius bore the title of king; and Augustus recognised his independence; he lived till the time of Nero, when his possessions became a Roman province.

Note return to page Nimes.

Note return to page Durance and Cavaillon.

Note return to page Embrun.

Note return to page Briandon.

Note return to page Sezanne, or perhaps Chamlat de Seguin.

Note return to page Uxeau.

Note return to page About 600 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page αφίδυμά τι τῶν ἱεῶν. Gosselin gives a note on these words, and translates them in his text as follows, one of the statues consecrated in her temple.

Note return to page τιμοῦχος, literally, one having honour and esteem.

Note return to page We have seen no reason to depart from a literal rendering of the Greek in this passage, its meaning, whose ancestors have not been citizens, &c., being self-evident.

Note return to page This name has evidently been corrupted, but it seems difficult to determine what stood originally in the text; most probably it was Rhodanusia.

Note return to page Agde.

Note return to page Taurenti.

Note return to page Eoube.

Note return to page Antibes.

Note return to page Nice.

Note return to page The people of Marseilles.

Note return to page Aquæ Sextiæ, now Aix.

Note return to page Solinus tells us that in his day the waters had lost their virtue, and that their fame had declined. Quarum calor, olim acrior, exhalatus per tempora evaporavit; nec jam par est fame priori.Solin. cap. 8. The victory of Sextius, mentioned by Strabo, is said to have been gained in the year of Rome 629.

Note return to page The Cape de Creus, a promontory on which was the temple of the Pyrenæan Venus.

Note return to page The Gulf of Lyons.

Note return to page The Cape de Cette.

Note return to page Gosselin says, The Island of Blascon is a rock opposite Agde, on which remains a fortified castle, which preserves the name of Brescon. This rock has been connected with the mainland, to form the port of Agde.

Note return to page αταξ.

Note return to page At the present day Narbonne is not situated on the Aude, the course of that river being changed. The lake of Narbonne, mentioned by Strabo, is not the present lake of Narbonne, but the lake of Rubine.

Note return to page Arles.

Note return to page πσκίνων.

Note return to page ὁ ιλιιρρις.

Note return to page Viz. Ruscino, now superseded by Perpignan on the Tet; and Ilibirris, now Elne on the Tech.

Note return to page This ancient city, says Gosselin, "no longer exists, with the exception of an old tower, scarcely a league from Perpignan, which still bears the name of the Tower of Roussillon.

Note return to page This river does not rise in the Cevennes, but in the Pyrenees.

Note return to page ορ<>ις.

Note return to page This name is evidently corrupt; the Arauris of Mela and Ptolemy (the modern Herault) is probably intended.

Note return to page The Orbe.

Note return to page Beziers.

Note return to page Agde.

Note return to page The French bise.

Note return to page βάσται σεισμοί, earthquakes attended with a violent fermentation.

Note return to page The text has, "both of their opinions are credible,' (πιθανὸς μὲν οὑν ὁ πα ἀμφοῖν λόγος,) but this is discountenanced by the whole sentence.

Note return to page From the Prometheus Loosed, which is now lost.

Note return to page The historian, son of Andromachus.

Note return to page The mouths of the Rhone, like those of other impetuous rivers, are subject to considerable changes, and vary from one age to another. Ptolemy agrees with Polybius in stating that there are but two mouths to the Rhone, and those which he indicates are at the present day almost entirely filled up; the one being at Aigues-Mortes, the other the canal now called the Rhône-Mort.

Note return to page Two Helvetian tribes who united themselves to the Cimbri to pass into Italy, and were defeated near Aix by Marius.

Note return to page Now l'étang de Berre or de Martigues.

Note return to page The French editors propose to read here five mouths, thus referring to the opinion of Timæus. This, Kramer observes, Strabo probably in- tended to do. Still, as there were some who were of opinion the Rhone has seven mouths, as appears from Apoll. Rhod. Argonaut. iv. 634, he did not venture to touch the text.

Note return to page Taurenti.

Note return to page Eoube.

Note return to page Antibes.

Note return to page Nice.

Note return to page Fréjus.

Note return to page Inhabitants of Provence.

Note return to page Les Isles d' Hières, a row of islands off Marseilles.

Note return to page Isle St. Honorat.

Note return to page Isle Ste. Marguerite.

Note return to page Fréjus.

Note return to page Between the river d' Argents and Antibes.

Note return to page Cavaillon.

Note return to page From the mouth of the Durance to the mouth of the Isère, following the course of the Rhone, the distance is 24 leagues, or 720 Olympic stadia.

Note return to page The Vocontii occupied the territories of Vaison and Die. The Tricorii appear to have inhabited a small district east of Die, on the banks of the Drac. The Iconii were to the east of Gap; and the Medylli in La Maurienne, along the Aar.

Note return to page The Sorgue.

Note return to page Vedene.

Note return to page Avignon.

Note return to page Orange.

Note return to page Le mont Ventoux.

Note return to page Casaubon remarks that æmilianus is a name more than this Roman general actually possessed.

Note return to page Livy states that 120,000 Kelts were slain, and Pliny, 130,000.

Note return to page Lyons.

Note return to page αα.

Note return to page The Allobroges and Segusii were separated by the Rhone; the former inhabiting the left bank of the river.

Note return to page The Saone rises in the Vosges.

Note return to page These people are elsewhere called by Strabo Lingones, the name by which they are designated by other writers.

Note return to page The Doubs rises in the Jura, not in the Alps. Ptolemy falls into the same mistake as Strabo.

Note return to page We have here followed the proposed correction of Ziegler.

Note return to page Nîmes.

Note return to page This name is written diversely, Tectosages, Tectosagæ, and Tectosagi. It appears to be composed of the two Latin words, tectus, covered, and sagum, a species of cassock.

Note return to page Viz. between Lodève and Toulouse; we must remember that Strabo supposed the chain of the Cevennes to run west and east.

Note return to page Angora.

Note return to page These three nations inhabited Galatia, of which Ancyra was the capital.

Note return to page 279 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Justin tells us that the Tectosages on returning to Toulouse from the expedition, were attacked with a pestilential malady, from which they could find no relief until they complied with the advice of their augurs, and cast the ill-gotten wealth into a lake. Justin, lib. xxxii. c. 3.

Note return to page The Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Note return to page αα.

Note return to page The Lexovii inhabited the southern banks of the Seine, Lizieux was anciently their capital. The Caleti occupied the opposite side of the Seine, and the sea-coast as far as Tréport.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Auvergne.

Note return to page The ancient Liger.

Note return to page αταξ.

Note return to page The whole of Gaul bore the name of Keltica long before the Romans had penetrated into that country. After their conquest of the southern provinces, they distinguished them from the rest of Keltica by conferring on them the name of Gallia Narbonensis. Aristotle gave the name of Kelts to the inhabitants of the country near Narbonne. Polybius tells us that the Pyrenees separated the Iberians from the Kelts; while Diodorus Siculus fixed the position of the Kelts between the Alps and the Pyrenees.

Note return to page Strabo, says Gosselin, always argues on the hypothesis that the Pyrenees run from south to north; that the Garonne and the Loire flowed in the same direction; that the Cevennes stretched from west to east; and that the coasts of Gaul, from the Pyrenees, rose gently towards the north, bending considerably east.

Note return to page The Garonne becomes navigable at Cazères near to Rieux, in the ancient Comté de Comminges. From this point to its mouth, following the sinuosities of the river, there are about 68 leagues of 20 to a degree, or 2030 Olympic stadia. The Loire is navigable as far as St. Rambert, about three leagues from St. Etienne-en-Forez, that is to say, double the distance assigned by Strabo. 2000 stadia measured from the mouth of the Loire would extend merely as far as Orleans.

Note return to page Probably the Arriége, the Tarn, and the Dordogne.

Note return to page ιοσκῶν MSS.

Note return to page The present Saintes was the capital of this nation.

Note return to page Bordeaux.

Note return to page Poictiers was the capital of the Pictones or Pictavi, and Nantes of the Namnetæ.

Note return to page Scipio æmilianus.

Note return to page Saintes.

Note return to page The Gulfs of Gascony and Lyons.

Note return to page The Tarbelli occupied the sea-coast from the Pyrenees to the Lake of Arcachon.

Note return to page The Canton of Comminges.

Note return to page St. Bertrand.

Note return to page Xylander thinks that these Onesii may be identical with the Monesi of Pliny. Gosselin says that the hot springs are probably the baths of Bagnières-sur-l' Adour.

Note return to page The territory of the city of Auch.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Vivarais.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Vélai.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Auvergne.

Note return to page The Limousins.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Périgord, Agénois, Querci, and Berri.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Périgord, Agénois, Querci, and Berri.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Périgord, Agénois, Querci, and Berri.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Périgord, Agénois, Querci, and Berri.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Saintonge and Poitou.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Rouergue and Gévaudan.

Note return to page Gosselin supposes that this city is Clermont in Auvergne at some dis- tance from the Allier.

Note return to page Orleans.

Note return to page The people of the Chartrain.

Note return to page Cæsar himself (lib. vii. c. 76) states the number at 248,000 men.

Note return to page A city near Clermont.

Note return to page Alise. The ruins of Alesia, says Gosselin, still exist near to Flavigni in Burgundy, on Mount Auxois, between two small rivers, the Oze and the Ozerain, which flow into the Brenne.

Note return to page The Sorgue.

Note return to page In Athenæus, (lib. iv. p. 152,) this name is written Luernius.

Note return to page Lyons.

Note return to page MSS. read ὑπὸ, under, we have not hesitated to translate it ἐπὶ, like the Italian, French, and German versions; although Kramer remarks paulo audacius, of Coray's reading ἐπὶ in the Greek.

Note return to page αα.

Note return to page Kramer says that ἄλλος is manifestly corrupt.—I have ventured to translate it another altar.

Note return to page Kramer concurs with Falconer and Gosselin in understanding this passage to have been originally between the Rhone and the Loire.

Note return to page σηκοάνος.

Note return to page The Sequani.

Note return to page Châlons-sur-Saone.

Note return to page Autun, according to Gosselin. Beurect, according to Ferrarius.

Note return to page Cæsar, Tacitus, and other writers, also speak of this relationship of the ædui with the Romans.

Note return to page Lit. As for the ædui on these accounts indeed.

Note return to page The sources of the Rhine take their rise in Mount St. Gothard and Mount Bernardin, while the Adda rises in the glaciers of the Valteline. Adula, however, may have been the name of the Rhætian Alps.

Note return to page The Lake of Como.

Note return to page The Lake of Constance.

Note return to page The Rhæti occupied the Tirol; the Vindelici that portion of Bavaria south of the Danube.

Note return to page Ptolemy says it has three. It appears that the ancient mouths of this river were not the same as the present.

Note return to page Lyons.

Note return to page The Swiss.

Note return to page Gosselin identifies the Cimbri as the inhabitants of Jutland or Denmark.

Note return to page Casaubon remarks that the text must be corrupt, since Strabo's account of the Helvetii must have been taken from Cæsar, who (lib. i. c. 29) states the number of slain at 258,000, and the survivors at 110,000.

Note return to page The Sequani occupied La Franche-Comté.

Note return to page Metz was the capital of the Mediomatrici.

Note return to page These people dwe'; between the Rhine and the Vosges, nearly from Colmar to Hagenau.

Note return to page The Allobroges dwelt to the left of the Rhone, between that river and the Isère.

Note return to page The Arverni have given their name to Auvergne, and the Carnutes to Chartrain.

Note return to page Strabo here copies Cæsar exactly, who, speaking of his second passage into Britain, (lib. v. c. 8,) says: Ad solis occasum naves solvit . . . . accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus meridiano fere tempore.

Note return to page The capital of these people is Trèves.

Note return to page Viz. to the western bank of the river.

Note return to page The Nervii occupied Hainault, and the Comté de Namur.

Note return to page The Sicambri occupied the countries of Berg, Mark, and Arensberg. They afterwards formed part of the people included under the name of Franci or Franks.

Note return to page Bavai, to the south of Valenciennes, was the capital of the Nervii Duricortora, now Rheims, of the Remi; Arras of the Atrebates, and Ton- gues of the Eburones.

Note return to page Térouane was the principal city of the Morini, Beauvais of the Bellovaci, Amiens of the Ambiani, Soissons of the Suessiones, and Lilebonne of the Caleti.

Note return to page Cæsar (lib. vi. c. 29) describes the forest of Ardennes as 500 miles in extent.

Note return to page Ardennes.

Note return to page West of the Rhine.

Note return to page Ptolemy names it Lucotecia; Cæsar, Lutetia. Julian, who was proclaimed emperor by his army in this city, names it Leucetia.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Vannes and the surrounding country.

Note return to page Neque enim his nostrae rostro nocere poterant; tanta erat in his firmitudo. Cæsar, lib. iii. c. 13.

Note return to page Vide Cæsar, lib. iii. c. 14.

Note return to page The Boii, who passed into Italy, established themselves near to Bologna.

Note return to page The Senones, or inhabitants of Sens, are thought to have founded Sienna in Italy.

Note return to page The promontory of Calbium, the present Cape Saint-Mahé, is here alluded to.

Note return to page Gosselin observes, These people called themselves by the name of Kelts; the Greeks styled them Galatæ, and the Latins Galli or Gaus.

Note return to page The Cimbri inhabited Denmark and the adjacent regions.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the Beauvoisis.

Note return to page Vide Cæsar, lib. ii. c. 4.

Note return to page This slashed garment is the smock frock of the English peasant and the blouse of the continent.

Note return to page Conf. Cæsar, lib. vi. c. 13. Plebs pene servorum habetur loco, quæ per se nihil audet, et nulli adhibetur consilio.

Note return to page By the others are probably meant the Bards and Vates.

Note return to page These opinions are also to be found in the Pythagorean philosophy.

Note return to page These particulars are taken from Posidonius. See also Diodorus Siculus, lib. v. c. 29.

Note return to page A similar custom existed amongst the Spartans; the young people were obliged to present themselves from time to time before the Ephori, and if of the bulk thought proper for a Spartan, they were praised, if on the contrary they appeared too fat, they were punished. Athen. 1. xii. p. 550. ælian, V. H. I. xiv. c. 7. At Rome likewise it was the duty of the censor to see that the equites did not become too fat; if they did, they were punished with the loss of their horse. Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. l. vii. c. 22.

Note return to page Transalpine Gaul.

Note return to page The coasts occupied by the Morini extended from la Canche to the Yser.

Note return to page The Menapii occupied Brabant.

Note return to page General opinion places the port Itius at Wissant, near Cape Grisnez; Professor Airy, however, is of opinion that the portus Itius of Cæsar is the estuary of the Somme. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 1852, vol. ii. No. 30, p. 198.

Note return to page Cæsar passed twice into Britain: the first time he started about midnight, and arrived at the fourth hour of the day; the second time he started at the commencement of the night, and did not arrive until the following day at noon, the wind having failed about midnight.

Note return to page The fleet consisted of 1000 vessels, according to Cotta. (Athen. 1. vi. c. 21.) The great loss spoken of by Strabo occurred before the first return of Cæsar into Gaul. (Cæsar, 1. iv. c. 28.) As to his second return, it was occasioned, to use his own words, propter repentinos Galliæ motus. L. v. c. 22.

Note return to page Called by Cæsar, Hibernia; by Mela, Juverna; and by Diodorus Siculus, Iris.

Note return to page This custom resembles that related by Herodotus (lib. i. c. 216, and iv. 26) of the Massagetæ and Issedoni. Amongst these latter, when the father of a family died, all the relatives assembled at the house of the deceased, and having slain certain animals, cut them and the body of the deceased into small pieces, and having mixed the morsels together, regaled themselves on the inhuman feast.

Note return to page Strabo intends by φανερῶς what Herodotus expresses by μίξιν ἐμφθανέα, καθάπερ τοῖσι ποβάτοισι (concubitum, sicutipecoribus, in propa- tulo esse).

Note return to page Herodotus, (l. iv. c. 180,) mentioning a similar practice amongst the inhabitants of Lake Tritonis in Libya, tells us that the men owned the children as they resembled them respectively. Mela asserts the same of the Garamantes. As to the commerce between relations, Strabo in his 16th Book, speaks of it as being usual amongst the Arabs. It was a custom amongst the early Greeks. Homer makes the six sons of æolus marry their six sisters, and Juno addresses herself to Jupiter as Et sorer et conjux. Compare also Cæsar, lib. v.

Note return to page An extremity to which the Gauls were driven during the war they sustained against the Cimbri and Teutones, (Cesar, lib. vii. c. 77,) and the inhabitants of Numantia in Iberia, when besieged by Scipio. (Valerius Maximus, lib. vii. c. 6.) The city of Potidea in Greece experienced a similar calamity. (Thucyd. lib. ii. c. 70. )

Note return to page Pytheas placed Thulè under the 66th degree of north latitude, which is the latitude of the north of Iceland.

Note return to page Transalpine Gaul.

Note return to page Port Monaco.

Note return to page Vadi.

Note return to page Albinga.

Note return to page Vintimille.

Note return to page Kramer conjectures that instead of αλπιόρνια, we should read αλπεινὰ.

Note return to page These people occupied the borders of the province of Murlaka, near to Istria, on the Gulf of Venice. Mount Albius is still called Alben.

Note return to page Casaubon observes that the Roman writers separated the name Albium Ingaunum, in the same manner as Albium Intemelium.

Note return to page These two tribes inhabited the country round Fréjus and Antibes as far as the Var.

Note return to page Or amber.

Note return to page μόνοικος, an epithet of Hercules signifying sole inhabitant. According to Servius, either because after he had driven out the Ligurians he remained the sole inhabitant of the country; or because it was not usual to associate any other divinities in the temples consecrated to him.

Note return to page λἰγυες, or Ligurians.

Note return to page λιγυστικὴ, or Liguria.

Note return to page κελτολίγυες, or Kelto-Ligurians.

Note return to page Kramer is of opinion that we should adopt the suggestion of Mannert, to read here Avignon.

Note return to page We have adopted the reading of the older editions, which is also that of the French translation. Kramer however reads <>όβον, and adds φόρον in a note.

Note return to page The Albieci are named Albici in Cæsar; the capital city is called by Pliny Alebece Reiorum; it is now Riez in Provence.

Note return to page Nimes.

Note return to page There are two rivers of this name which descend from the Alps and discharge themselves into the Po. The Durias which rises near the Durance is the Durias minor of the ancients, and the Doria Riparia of the moderns; this river falls into the Po at Turin.

Note return to page Gosselin observes:—The Salassi occupied the country about Aouste, or Aoste. The name of this city is a corruption of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum, which it received in the time of Augustus. The Durias which passes by Aouste is the Durias major, the modern Doria Baltea. Its sources are between the Great Saint Bernard and Mont Blanc.

Note return to page The Ister of the classics.

Note return to page Augusta Taurinorum, hodie Turin, was the capital of these people.

Note return to page Various conjectures have been hazarded concerning this name, of which there appears to be no other mention.

Note return to page The Kentrones occupied la Tarentaise; the Catoriges, the territories of Chorges and Embrun; the Veragri, a part of the Valais south of the Rhone; and the Nantuatæ, Le Chablais.

Note return to page The Lake of Geneva.

Note return to page Saint Gothard.

Note return to page The Adda does not flow from the same mountain as the Rhine.

Note return to page The Lake of Como.

Note return to page The Rhæti are the Grisons; the Vennones, the people of the Va Telline.

Note return to page The Lepontii inhabited the Haut Valais, and the valley of Leventina; the Tridentini occupied Trente; the Stoni, Sténéco.

Note return to page The valley of Aouste.

Note return to page These two routes still exist. The former passes by the Great Saint Bernard, or the Pennine Alps; the latter traverses the Little Saint Bernard, and descends into La Tarentaise, formerly occupied by the Centrones.

Note return to page Anciently Durias.

Note return to page Modena.

Note return to page It does not appear that Julius Cæsar is here intended, for he mentions nothing of it in his Commentaries. It seems more probable that Strabo used the expression of Cæsar in its wider sense of Emperor, and alludes to Augustus, of whom he speaks immediately after.

Note return to page Ivrea.

Note return to page Aouste.

Note return to page The limits of these barbarous nations were continually varying according to their success in war, in general, however, the Rhæti possessed the country of the Grisons, the Tyrol, and the district about Trent. The Lepontii possessed the Val Leventina. The Camuni the Val Camonica. The Vindelici occupied a portion of Bavaria and Suabia; on their west were the Helvetii or Swiss, and on the north the Boii, from whom they were separated by the Danube; these last people have left their name to Bohemia. The Norici possessed Styria, Carinthia, a part of Austria and Bavaria to the south of the Danube. The Breuni have given their name to the Val Braunia north of the Lago Maggiore; and the Genauni appear to have inhabited the Val Agno, between Lake Maggiore and the Lake of Como, although Strabo seems to place these people on the northern side of the Alps, towards the confines of Illyria.

Note return to page The people of Franche Comté.

Note return to page The Germans of Wirtemberg and Suabia.

Note return to page The Licattii appear to have inhabited the country about the Lech, and the Clautinatii that about the Inn; the Vennones the Val Telline.

Note return to page This disgusting brutality however is no more barbarous than the intention put by Homer into the mouth of Agamemnon, the king of men, which Scholiasts have in vain endeavoured to soften or excuse— τῶν μήτις ὑπεκφύγοι αἰπὺν ὂλεθον, χεῖάς θ ἡμετερασ' μηδ' ὅντινα γαστέι μήτηρ κοῦρον ἐόντα φέροι, μηδ' ὅς φύγοι ἀλλ ἅμα πάντες ιλίου ἐξαπολοίατ', ἀκηδεστοι καὶ ἂφαντοι. Iliad vi. 57–60.

Note return to page This expedition of Tiberius took place in the eleventh year of the Christian era; Strabo therefore must have written his fourth book in the 44th year.

Note return to page The Carnic, or Julian Alps, is intended.

Note return to page αταξ.

Note return to page There is, remarks Gosselin, a palpable mistake in this passage. We neither know of a river named the Isar nor yet the Atax discharging themselves into the Adriatic. Atesinus or Athesis are the ancient names of the Adige, but this river flows into the Adriatic, and not, as Strabo seems to say, into the Danube. The error of the text appears to result from a transposition of the two names made by the copyists, and to render it intelligible we should read thus:—There is a lake from which proceeds the Atesinus, (or the Adige,) and which, after having received the Atax, (perhaps the Eisach, or Aicha, which flows by Bolzano,) discharges itself into the Adriatic. The Isar proceeds from the same lake, and [passing by Munich] discharges itself into the Danube.

Note return to page Apparently the lake of Constance.

Note return to page The Black Forest.

Note return to page These two chains are in Murlaka, they are now named Telez and Flicz.

Note return to page The Traun or Würm.

Note return to page The Glan in Bavaria.

Note return to page The Julian Alps, and Birnbaumerwald.

Note return to page Probably Mödling.

Note return to page Auersperg, or the Flecken Mungava.

Note return to page Möttnig or Mansburg.

Note return to page Windisch Grätz, or Brindjel.

Note return to page Now Sisseck.

Note return to page The text reads Rhine, but we have, in common with Gosselin, followed the correction of Cluvier, Xylander, and Tyrwhitt.

Note return to page The Dacians occupied a part of Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, and a portion of Moldavia.

Note return to page Coray suggests Nauportus, now Ober-Laibach in Krain. This suggestion is extremely probable, however Pamportus occurs twice in the text.

Note return to page The river Laibach.

Note return to page The Pannonians occupied a portion of Austria and Hungary. The Taurisci, who formed part of the former people, inhabited Styria.

Note return to page Segesta.

Note return to page The ancient Colapis.

Note return to page This is a description of the elk (cervus alces of Linn.). This animal no longer exists either in France or in the Alps.

Note return to page Lyons.

Note return to page La Saintonge.

Note return to page Gascony.

Note return to page Beauvoisis.

Note return to page Picardie.

Note return to page From Lyons this route passed by Vienne, Valence, Orange, and Avignon; here it separated, leading on one side to Tarascon, Nimes, Beziers, and Narbonne, and on the other to Arles, Aix, Marseilles, Fréjus, Antibes, &c.

Note return to page This other route, says Gosselin, starting from Aouste, traversed the Great Saint Bernard, Valais, the Rhone, a portion of the Vaud, Mount Jura, and so to Besançon and Langres, where it separated, the road to the right passing by Toul, Metz, and Trèves, approached the Rhine at Mayence; while that to the left passed by Troies, Châlons, Rheims, and Bavai, where it again separated and conducted by various points to the sea-coast.

Note return to page The Italians also went into Spain, and there engaged in working the mines. Vide Diodorus Siculus, lib. v. c. 36, 38.

Note return to page A mountain of Laconia.

Note return to page In Arcadia, some suppose it to be the modern Tetragi, others Diaphorti, and others Mintha.

Note return to page In Phocis, Iapara, or Liokura.

Note return to page Olympus is a mountain range of Thessaly, bordering on Macedonia, its summit is thirty miles north of Larissa, in lat. 40° 4′ 32″ N., long. 22° 25′ E. Its estimated height is 9745 feet.

Note return to page Petras or Zagora.

Note return to page Now Kissovo; it is situated to the east of the river Peneus, immediately north of Mount Pelion, and bounds the celebrated vale of Tempe on one side.

Note return to page Gosselin observes, both Polybius and Strabo extended the Alps from the neighbourhood of Marseilles to beyond the Adriatic Gulf, a distance twice 2200 stadia. It appears probable from the words of Polybius himself, (lib. ii. c. 14,) that he merely intended to state the length of the plains situated at the foot of the mountains, which bound Italy on the north; and in fact the distance in a right line from the foot of the Alps about Rivoli or Pignerol to Rovigo, and the marshes formed at the mouths of the Adige and Po, is 63 leagues, or 2200 stadia of 700 to a degree.

Note return to page This route passes from Tortona, by Vadi, Albinga, Vintimille, and Monaco, where it crosses the maritime Alps, and thence to Nice, Antibes, &c. Gosselin.

Note return to page This route passes by Briançon, Mont Genèvre, the Col de Sestrière, and the Val Progelas.

Note return to page The passage by the Val Aouste.

Note return to page This route, starting from Milan, passed east of the lake of Como by Coire, and then by Bregentz to the Lake of Constance.

Note return to page The Lago di Garda.

Note return to page Lago Maggiore.

Note return to page Ticinus. We have followed the example of the French translators in making the Ticino to flow from the Lago Maggiore, and the Adda from the Lake of Como; by some inexplicable process the text of Strabo has been corrupted and these rivers transposed. Kramer notices the inconsistency of the text.

Note return to page The Lake of Como.

Note return to page The Gulf of Salerno.

Note return to page Venetians.

Note return to page Rimini.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca.

Note return to page Venetians.

Note return to page The peninsula occupied by the people named Brettii, or Bruttii.

Note return to page The peninsula now designated Terra di Lecce, and called by the ancients sometimes Iapygia, at others Messapia, Calabria, and Salentina. The isthmus of this peninsula was supposed to be formed by a line drawn from Brindisi to Taranto.

Note return to page The Gulf of Venice.

Note return to page The Sea of Tuscany.

Note return to page The Gulf of Salerno.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Capo dell' Armi.

Note return to page Of Vannes.

Note return to page From the Heneti, whence is the race of wild mules. Iliad ii. 857.

Note return to page Transpadana.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page The whole of the coast from Ravenna to Aquileia at the bottom of the Gulf of Venice is still covered with marshes and lagoons, as it was in the time of Strabo. The largest of these lagoons are at the mouths of the Po, the others at the mouths of the torrents which descend from the Alps.

Note return to page Milan.

Note return to page Apparently a mistake for Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus; we are unacquainted with any Caius Scipio.

Note return to page The Lake of Como.

Note return to page The source of the Adda is at the foot of Mount Braulio; the three sources of the Rhine issue from Mounts St. Bernardin, St. Barnabé, and Crispalt, at a considerable distance from the source of the Adda.

Note return to page Padua.

Note return to page This appears to have been the last census of the three taken under the reign of Augustus. The first occurred in the year of Rome 726, twenty-eight years before the Christian era; the number of citizens then amounted to 4,064,000, or, according to Eusebius, 4,011,017. The second was in the year of Rome 746, eight years before the Christian era; the number of citizens was then found to be 4,163,000. The third census was in the year of Rome 767, in the fourteenth year of the Christian era; the number of citizens at this time was 4,037,000, according to the monument of Ancyra, but according to Eusebius, 9,070,000.

Note return to page Chioggia.

Note return to page The Bacchiglione.

Note return to page ξυλοπαγὴς ὅλη. We have followed the rendering of the French translators; however, Guarini, Buonaccivoli, Xylander, Siebenkees, and Bréquigny, all understand Strabo to mean that the city was built entirely of wood.

Note return to page Altino.

Note return to page Butrio.

Note return to page Spinazino.

Note return to page Oderzo.

Note return to page Adria.

Note return to page Vicenza.

Note return to page About the year 186 before the Christian era.

Note return to page Friesach in Steiermark.

Note return to page 113 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Giovanni del Carso.

Note return to page The present Timavo.

Note return to page The Adriatic.

Note return to page The three islands of Tremiti, namely Domenico, Nicola, and Caprara, opposite Monte Gargano.

Note return to page Arpino.

Note return to page Phaethusa, Lampetie, and Lampethusa. See Virg. cel. vi. 62; æn. x. 190; Ovid Met. ii.

Note return to page Either this passage has undergone alteration, or else Strabo is the only writer who informs us that certain mythological traditions distinguished the Eridanus from the Po, placing the former of these rivers in the vicinity of the latter. The père Bardetti thinks the Greeks originally confounded the Eretenus, a tributary of the Po, with the name Eridanus.

Note return to page Probably Guinea-hens.

Note return to page Strabo seems here to doubt that the Electrides islands ever existed, but the French translators, in a very judicious note, have explained that the geographical features of the country about the mouths of the Po had undergone very considerable changes on account of the immense alluvial deposit brought down from the mountains by that river, and suggest that these islands had been united to the main-land long before Strabo's time, for which reason he would not be able to verify the ancient traditions. Even at the present day the Cavalier Negrelli is employing his celebrated engineering science in making the communication between the Po and the Adriatic navigable, and so rendering the countries bordering on the Ticino, Adda, Mincio, Trebbia, Panono, and the adjacent lakes ac- cessible to steam-boats from the Adriatic.

Note return to page The Timavum, or temple consecrated to Diomede.

Note return to page The Isola di Brioni, Conversara, and S. Nicolo. Pliny calls them Insulæ Pullarie.

Note return to page This name is probably corrupt; Coray proposes to read Insubri.

Note return to page This name is probably corrupt; Coray proposes to read Insubri.

Note return to page Vadi.

Note return to page The Umbrians, or Umbri, of Roman History.

Note return to page Piacenza

Note return to page Rimini.

Note return to page Modena.

Note return to page Bologna.

Note return to page Probably corrupt.

Note return to page Reggio in Modena.

Note return to page Between Parma and Modena, the Val di Montirone and Orte Ma.

Note return to page Quaderna.

Note return to page Imola.

Note return to page Faenza.

Note return to page Ancient Sapis.

Note return to page Probably Pisatello.

Note return to page The Marecchia.

Note return to page Pavia.

Note return to page The Ticino.

Note return to page Castezzio.

Note return to page Tortona.

Note return to page Acqui, on the left bank of the Bormia.

Note return to page Ucello.

Note return to page δουίας.

Note return to page The ancient Druentia.

Note return to page Transalpine Gaul.

Note return to page From here to the word Derthon the text appears to be corrupt.

Note return to page Tuscany.

Note return to page Cluvier proposes to read from Placentia to Parma; he has been followed throughout the passage by the French translators.

Note return to page M. æmilius Scaurus.

Note return to page Strabo here falls into a mistake in attributing to C. Flaminius Nepos, who was consul in the year of Rome 567, 187 years before the Christian era, the construction of the Via Flaminia which led from the Portus Flumentana to the city of Ariminum. According to most Latin authors, this grand route was formed by C. Flaminius Nepos, censor in the year of Rome 534, and 220 years before the Christian era (the same who three years afterwards was slain at the battle of Thrasymenus). Livy, whose authority is certainly of great weight, speaking of the grand road made by C. Flaminius Nepos, consul in the year of Rome 567, states expressly that it led from Bologna to Arezzo. Hist. lib. xxxix. § 2.

Note return to page Bologna.

Note return to page Maffei proposes to substitute Placentia for Aquilena.

Note return to page Cisalpine Gaul.

Note return to page The ancient æsis, now Esino, named also Fiumesino.

Note return to page Probably the Pisatello.

Note return to page Modena.

Note return to page The Scultanua of antiquity.

Note return to page Padua.

Note return to page A kind of cassock with long hair.

Note return to page Probably Victimolo.

Note return to page Piacenza.

Note return to page Gallia Cispadana.

Note return to page ομβικὴ, now Ombria.

Note return to page Or nearest to the Adriatic.

Note return to page Rimini.

Note return to page Larcher calculates that it was about the year of Rome 91, or 663 years before the Christian era, that Demaratus, flying from the tyranny of Cypselus at Corinth, established himself in Tyrrhenia.

Note return to page Strabo here mentions only one son of Demaratus, to whom he gives the name of Lucumo; in this latter statement he is supported by Dionysius Halicarnassus. Livy also mentions a young citizen of Clusium named Lucumo. But there is reason to believe that these three writers were deceived by the writers whom they followed. It seems to be incontestable that Lucumo was the designation of the chief of each of the twelve cities of Etruria.

Note return to page Dionysius Halicarnassus relates that after a brisk war the cities of Etruria submitted to Tarquinius Priscus, and that the Romans permitted him to accept this foreign royalty, and still hold the throne of Rome. No historian that we are aware of, with the exception of Strabo, mentions the benefits received by Etruria from that prince.

Note return to page Chiusi.

Note return to page B. C. 508.

Note return to page The people of Cerveteri.

Note return to page This is also related by Livy and Valerius Maximus.

Note return to page A Grecian form of salutation, equivalent to our good-morning.

Note return to page Cræri, according to Holstenius, the Bagni di Sasso, Cluvi con- sidered it Bagni di Stigliano.

Note return to page And there is a different language <*> mixed together; there are in it Achaians, and <*> and Cydonians, and crest-shaking Dorians,<*>.Odyssey xix. 175.

Note return to page The Salambria, Costum.

Note return to page Iliad xvi. 223.

Note return to page Metelino.

Note return to page Hippothous led the tribes of the spear-skilled Pelasgians, of those who inhabited fertile Larissa.Iliad ii. 840

Note return to page We have followed the example of the French translators in reading ὤκησεν with all MSS. Groskurd and Kramer adopt the views of Xylander and Siebenkees in substituting ὤκισεν.

Note return to page οἱ τὴν ατθίδα συγγράψαντες. ατθὶς was a title given to their works by many authors who wrote on Athenian Antiquities, as Philochorus, Androtion, Amelesagoras, Hellanicus, &c.

Note return to page Or Storks.

Note return to page Volterra.

Note return to page Ruins near Ansedonia.

Note return to page Coray here reads αὐκ. Kramer considers the passage corrupt.

Note return to page The French translation here gives 1460, and a note by Gosselin.

Note return to page σελήνη, the moon.

Note return to page The bay of Spezia.

Note return to page The mountains of Carrara.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Other writers mention a river Macra, but none of them, as it appears, a district in Italy bearing that name. Kramer supposes that Strabo wrote ποτάμιον, and not χωίον, the reading of all MSS.

Note return to page Near the mouth of the river Basiento.

Note return to page The ancient Arnus.

Note return to page Corresponding to the present Serchio, which discharges itself into the sea, and not into the Arno. The time when this change of direction took place is not recorded, but traces of the ancient name and course of the river remain in the Osari, which, after flowing a short distance through a marshy district, falls into the sea between the Serchio and Arno.

Note return to page Arezzo.

Note return to page Volterra.

Note return to page Eighty-one years B. C.

Note return to page This was a regular business. A man was posted on a high place, from which he could see the shoals coming, and make a sign to the fishermen.

Note return to page Corsica.

Note return to page The island of Elba.

Note return to page The French translation has 200 in text, while it states in a note that all manuscripts give 300, and continues to discuss the real distance at some length. Kramer says, in a note, that MS. Vatic. No. 482, has 200.

Note return to page πλαταμῶνας is here adopted is preference to any attempt at translation. It is probable they were quarries of the cream-coloured limestone of the island.

Note return to page Porto Ferrajo.

Note return to page Gosselin supposes that the crystals of iron, abundant in the island of Elba, are here alluded to.

Note return to page The testimony of Diodorus is just to the contrary. The Corsican slaves appear better fitted than any others for performing useful services; their physical constitution being peculiarly adapted thereto. Diodor. Sic. 1. v. § 13.

Note return to page None of these names are found in Ptolemy's description of Corsica. Diodorus Siculus has names somewhat similar.

Note return to page It is uncertain to whom Strabo here alludes. The French translators are of opinion that he alludes to the chart of Agrippa.

Note return to page The French translators read with their manuscript 1394, πεὶ τις χιλίος, κ. τ. λ., about 3200.

Note return to page Cagliari.

Note return to page Cluvier is of opinion that the modern Palma di Solo corresponds to Sulchi.

Note return to page Some manuscripts read Diagebres.

Note return to page The nephew of Hercules, being the son of Iphiclus, his brother.

Note return to page That is, Corsica and Sardinia run in a line north and south, and Elba lies to one side; the παάλληλοι σχεδὸν αί τπεῖς is an example showing how happily a circumstance may be expressed in Greek, while no amount of labour will adapt an English equivalent.

Note return to page The real distance, according to Gosselin, is 115 miles.

Note return to page Porto Ercole

Note return to page The Stagno d'Orbitello.

Note return to page Situated in the marshy plain commanded by the heights of Corneto, between the Mignone and the Marta.

Note return to page This town stood on the site of the present S. Severa, at the mouth of the Rio-Castrica.

Note return to page The ancient Alsium occupied the site of the place now called Statua; below it are the vestiges of the Portus Alsiensis, at the embouchure of the Rio-Cupino, a little to the east of Palo.

Note return to page Torre Macarese.

Note return to page The Roman Lucina, in later times identical with Diana.

Note return to page About the year 384 before the Christian era.

Note return to page Corsica.

Note return to page Arezzo.

Note return to page Perugia.

Note return to page Bolsena.

Note return to page Sutri.

Note return to page Bieda.

Note return to page The French translation understands this to be the modern Ferenti, near Viterbo.

Note return to page Sta. Maria di Falari.

Note return to page Probably another name for Falerium.

Note return to page Nepi.

Note return to page Castro, or Farnese, near Lake Mezzano.

Note return to page This ancient city was probably situated near the Isola Farnesia, about the place where Storta now stands.

Note return to page Fidenæ was situated on the left bank of the Tiber, near its confluence with the Anio, now the Teverone, 40 stadia from Rome. The ruins are near the villages Giubileo and Serpentina.

Note return to page Hodie Otricoli: the ancient town was situated nearer the Tiber than the modern.

Note return to page Monte di S. Silvestro.

Note return to page Arezzo.

Note return to page Chiusi.

Note return to page Perugia.

Note return to page Tyrrhenia.

Note return to page An aquatic plant, perhaps the Typha of Linnæus, used in making lamp-wicks, and for other purposes to which tow was applied.

Note return to page The downy substance growing on the flowering reed.

Note return to page The Lago di Vico or di Ronciglione.

Note return to page Lago di Bolsena.

Note return to page Now only marshes.

Note return to page Lago di Bracciano.

Note return to page All MSS. are corrupt at this word. It is now called Lago di Perugia.

Note return to page Rimini.

Note return to page Sinigaglia.

Note return to page Apparently an interpolation; vide Kramer's edition, vol. i. p. 358, n.

Note return to page The æsis.

Note return to page Sentina.

Note return to page Fano.

Note return to page Umbria.

Note return to page Otricoli.

Note return to page No such city as this is mentioned in any other writer; the word as it now stands is evidently corrupt.

Note return to page Narni

Note return to page The ancient Nar.

Note return to page Bevagna.

Note return to page Mevania stood at the junction of the Tinia (now Timia) and the Topino.

Note return to page Forfiamma, or Ponte-Centesimo, or the village of Vescia.

Note return to page Nocera Camellaria.

Note return to page Fossembruno.

Note return to page Terni.

Note return to page Spoleto.

Note return to page Between Spoleto and Camerino.

Note return to page The left side of the Via Flaminia.

Note return to page Amelia.

Note return to page Todi.

Note return to page Hispello.

Note return to page Eugubbio, or Gubbio, where the celebrated inscriptions were found in 1440.

Note return to page ζειὰ.

Note return to page Sabinaand Latium.

Note return to page Probably Lamentana Vecchia.

Note return to page Groskurd considers this to be Amatrice.

Note return to page Rieti.

Note return to page Interdoco, between Rieti and Aquila.

Note return to page Civita Tommassa, or rather Forcella.

Note return to page Monte Leone della Sabina.

Note return to page Chaupy considers this to be Rimane.

Note return to page Rieti.

Note return to page He flourished about 216 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Gosselin calls our attention to the difference between Strabo's relation of these occurrences, and the events as commonly recounted by the Greek and Latin authors.

Note return to page Near the spot now called Patemo.

Note return to page Cluvier placed the ancient Alba on the east shore of Lake Albano, about Palazzuolo. Holstenius thinks that it was on the southern shore in the locality of Villa-Domitiana. The Abbe de Chaupy places it farther to the east of Monte Albano.

Note return to page Albano.

Note return to page The sites of these places are much disputed.

Note return to page Kramer considers this 40 an interpolation.

Note return to page Usually Ambarvalia, sacrifices performed by the Fratres Arvales, who formed" a college or company of twelve in number, and were so called, according to Varro, from offering public sacrifices for the fertility of the fields. That they were of extreme antiquity is proved by the legend which refers their institution to Romulus; of whom it is said, that when his nurse, Acca Laurentia, lost one of her twelve sons, he allowed himself to be adopted by her in his place, and called himself and the remaining eleven-Fratres Arvales. (Gell. vi. 7.) We also find a college called the Sodales Titii, and as the latter were confessedly of Sabine origin, and instituted for the purpose of keeping up the Sabine religious rites, (Tac. Ann. i. 53,) there is some reason for the supposition of Niebuhr, that these colleges corresponded one to the other—the Fratres Arvales being connected with the Latin, and the Sodales Titii with the Sabine element of the Roman state; just as there were two colleges of the Luperci, the Fabii and the Quinctilii, the former of whom seem to have belonged to the Sabines. The office of the Fratres Arvales was for life, and was not taken away even from an exile or captive. They wore, as a badge of office, a chaplet of ears of corn fastened on their heads with a white band. The number given on inscriptions varies, but it is never more than nine; though, according to the legend and general belief, it amounted to twelve. One of their annual duties was to celebrate a three days' festival in honour of Dea Dia, supposed to be Ceres . . . . Of this the master of the college, appointed annually, gave public notice from the temple of Concord on the Capitol. On the first and last of these days, the college met at the house of their president, to make offerings to the Dea Dia; on the second day they assembled in the grove of the same goddess, about five miles south of Rome, and there offered sacrifices for the fertility of the earth. An account of the different ceremonies of this festival is preserved in an inscription, which was written in the first year of the emperor Heliogabalus, (A. D. 218,) who was elected a member of the college under the name of M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix. The same inscription contains a hymn, which appears to have been sung at the festival from the most ancient times. Besides this festival of the Dea Dia, the Fratres Arvales were required on various occasions under the emperors to make vows and offer up thanksgivings, an enumeration of which is given in Forcellini. Strabo indeed informs us that, in the reign of Tiberius, these priests performed sacrifices called the Ambarvalia at various places on the borders of the Ager Romanus, or original territory of Rome; and amongst others, at Festi. There is no boldness in supposing that this was a custom handed down from time immemorial; and, moreover, that it was a duty of this priesthood to invoke a blessing upon the whole territory of Rome. It is proved by inscriptions that this college existed till the reign of the emperor Gordian, or A. D. 325, and it is probable that it was not abolished till A. D. 400, together with the other colleges of the pagan priesthoods. The private Ambarvalia were certainly of a different nature to those mentioned by Strabo, and were so called from the victim hostia Amber- valis that was slain on the occasion, being led three times round the corn-fields, before the sickle was put to the corn. This victim was accompanied by a crowd of merry-makers, (chorus et socii,) the reapers and farm-servants, dancing and singing, as they marched along, the praises of Ceres, and praying for her favour and presence while they offered her the libations of milk, honey, and wine. (Virg. Georg. i. 338.) This ceremony was also called a lustratio, (Virg. Ecl. v. 83,) or purification; and for a beautiful description of the holiday, and the prayers and vows made on the occasion, the reader is referred to Tibullus (ii. 1). It is perhaps worth while to remark that Polybius (iv. 21, § 9) uses language almost applicable to the Roman Ambarvalia in speaking of the Mantincians, who, he says, (specifying the occasion,) made a purification, and carried victims round the city and all the country. There is, however, a still greater resemblance to the rites we have been describing, in the ceremonies of the Rogation or gang-week of the Latin church. These consisted of processions through the fields, accompained with prayers (rogationes) for a blessing on the fruits of the, earth, and were continued during three days in Whitsun-week. The custom was abolished at the Reformation in consequence of its abuses, and the poram- bulation of the parish boundaries substituted in its place. Vid Hoomer, Eccl. Pol. v. 61, 2; Wheatley,, Com. Pray. v 20. Bohn's standard Library edition.)

Note return to page The Camenæ, says Dr. Smith, were prophetic nymphs, and belonged to the religion of ancient Italy, although later traditions represent them as having been introduced into Italy from Arcadia. Two of the Camenæ were Antevorta and Postvorta; the third was Carmenta or Carmentis, a prophetic and healing divinity, who had a temple at the foot of the Capitoline hill, and altars near the Porta Carmentalis. The traditions which assigned a Greek origin to her worship at Rome, state that her original name was Nicostrata, and that she was called Carmentis from her prophetic powers. (Serv. ad æn. viii. 51, 336; Dionys. i. 15, 32.) According to these traditions, she was the mother of Evander, the Arcadian, by Hermes; and after having endeavoured to persuade her son to kill Hermes, she fled with him to Italy, where she gave oracles to the people and to Hercules. She was put to death by her son at the age of 110 years, and then obtained divine honours. Dionys. i. 31, &c.

Note return to page This name is written in Strabo sometimes αἴκοι, sometimes αἴκουοι; the Latin writers also named them differently, æqui, æcani, æquicoli, &c.

Note return to page Privernates of Pliny; the chief city is now called Piperno.

Note return to page 604 years B. C.

Note return to page Suessa surnamed Pometia, to distinguish it from Suessa Aurunca, is here alluded to. Its exact position does not appear to be known.

Note return to page La Riccia.

Note return to page Capo d' Anzo.

Note return to page Monte Dragone.

Note return to page Monte Circello.

Note return to page According to Cluvier, Strabo was mistaken in making Latium extend to the country of the Peligni, as these latter were always separated from Latium by the Marsi.

Note return to page Sezza.

Note return to page The vine to which the term arbustive or hautain is applied, which the French translators explain as a vine trained from the foot of a tree.

Note return to page Castor and Pollux.

Note return to page Near Paterno.

Note return to page Storas, the Astura of Pliny.

Note return to page Libs.

Note return to page Hodie, the Porto di Paula, connected with the Lake of S. Maria.

Note return to page This does not appear to be in accordance with the statement of Dionysius Halicarnassus and Pliny, that the Ausonians anciently possessed the whole coast, from the Strait of Messina to the entrance of the Adriatic.

Note return to page Or mountainous.

Note return to page We should doubtless here read the Ufens, the modern Ufente.

Note return to page βροεντέσιον, now Brindes.

Note return to page Mola di Gaeta.

Note return to page The ruins of this town are extant on either bank of the Garigliano, the ancient Liris.

Note return to page Rocca di Monte Dragone.

Note return to page Compare Horace, Satir. l. i. sat. 5.

Note return to page Tarracina and Formiæ.

Note return to page Gaëta.

Note return to page At Sperlunga.

Note return to page The Garigliano.

Note return to page Vestini, MSS.

Note return to page Ponza.

Note return to page Sezza. The French translators think this should be Vescia.

Note return to page Albano.

Note return to page Called also the Quirinal, and often Salara, according to Ovid.

Note return to page Anio.

Note return to page The Nar.

Note return to page The Teneas of Strabo.

Note return to page ὸ κλάνις, there were other rivers called Clanis as well as this.

Note return to page Chiusi.

Note return to page Suetonius likewise mentions this fact. Dion Cassius informs us that Augustus, in the year of Rome 732, and twenty-two years before our era, commanded that the curule ædiles should promptly endeavour to arrest the progress of conflagrations, and for this purpose placed at their disposal 600 guards. Fifteen years afterwards he established a company of seven freedmen, presided over by one of the equestrian order, to see what means could be taken in order to prevent these numerous fires. Augustus, however, was not the first to take precautions of this nature, as we may learn from Livy, 1. ix. § 46; 1. xxxix. § 14; Tacit. Annal. 1. xv. § 43, and various other authorities.

Note return to page Subsequent emperors reduced this standard still lower. See what Tacitus says of Nero in regard to this point, Annal. l. xv. § 43. Trajan forbade that any house should be constructed above 60 feet in height. Sextus Aurelius Victor, Epit. § 27.

Note return to page There were five modes of playing at ball; 1. Throwing it up and catching it; 2. Foot-ball; 3. A throwing of the ball from one to another in a large party of players; 4. A dashing of the ball to the ground with force enough to rebound, when it was struck down again with the palm of the hand, and a reckoning was kept of the number of times the feat was repeated; and 5. A ball thrown among the players, who all endeavoured to obtain possession of it; this was a game of which we have no accurate account, it was called ἁπαστὸν, and Galen speaks of it, πεὶ μικρο̄ς οφαιας, c. 2, p. 902.

Note return to page Coray proposes to read δίσκῳ, at quoits.

Note return to page The tomb of Augustus.

Note return to page θῆκαι, urns, Greek.

Note return to page The Campus Martius.

Note return to page The modern Gavua.

Note return to page S. Maria di Capoa.

Note return to page Tascolo.

Note return to page L'Ostera deil' Aglio.

Note return to page Ferentino, near to Vitorchiano.

Note return to page Frusinone.

Note return to page Falvaterra.

Note return to page Trerus.

Note return to page Aquino.

Note return to page Melpis.

Note return to page Teano.

Note return to page Calvi.

Note return to page Nova Capua.

Note return to page Sezza.

Note return to page Segni.

Note return to page πὸ δὲ ταὺτης. It seems doubtful whether ταύτης refers to Signia, or the Via Appia.

Note return to page This city was sacked by the last Tarquin.

Note return to page Core.

Note return to page Probably Torre Petrara.

Note return to page Kramer supposes this name to be an interpolation; the idea of Cluvier, adopted by Siebenkees and Coray, is that we should here read σουέσσα τῶν πωμεντίνων, Suessa Pometia.

Note return to page Veiletri.

Note return to page Alatri.

Note return to page Ceperano.

Note return to page 125, B. C.

Note return to page Now called l' Osteria del Pantano, situated very near the Castel dell' Osa, and close by the lake Pantan de' Griffi.

Note return to page Palestrina.

Note return to page Anagni.

Note return to page Cerretano.

Note return to page Liris.

Note return to page Venafro.

Note return to page Vulturnus.

Note return to page Capua.

Note return to page Castel di Volturno.

Note return to page Isernia.

Note return to page Allife.

Note return to page 90 years B. C.

Note return to page Tivoli.

Note return to page The modern Pentima is supposed to occupy the site where the citadel of Corfinium stood, and the church of S. Pelino, about three miles from Popoli, stands on that of the ancient city of Corfinium.

Note return to page We read with all MSS. and editions, Valeria, but Kramer, following the conjectures of Cluvier and others, has adopted Varia in his text.

Note return to page Carsoli.

Note return to page Albi.

Note return to page Groskurd considers this to be Cucullo, alias Scutolo.

Note return to page Il Tuscolo, above the modern town of Frascati.

Note return to page The classic Anio.

Note return to page The waters from the sulphur-lake; named the Solfatara di Tivoli.

Note return to page Now the Lago di S. Giovanni, or Bagni di Grotta Marozza.

Note return to page Prob. Cretona, not Monte Rotondo.

Note return to page The younger Marius being entirely defeated by Sulla in the decisive battle fought near Sacriportus, B. C. 82, Marius threw himself into Præneste, where he had deposited the treasures of the Capitoline temple. (Pliny H. N. 1. xxxiii. s. 5.) Sulla left Lucretius Opella to prosecute the siege while he hastened on to Rome. Various efforts were made to relieve Præneste, but they all failed; and after Sulla's great victory at the Colline gate of Rome, in which Pontius Telesinus was defeated and slain, Marius despaired of holding out any longer, and in company with the brother of Telesinus attempted to escape by a subterraneous passage, which led from the town into the open country; but finding that their flight was discovered, they put all end to one another's lives. According to other accounts, Marius killed himself, or was killed by his slave at his own request. Marius perished in the year of his consulship. Smith, Diet. Biogr. and Myth.

Note return to page The Abbé Chaupy is inclined to think that this was a name given to the part nearest the source of the river which Strabo, § 9, calls the Trerus, but Kramer thinks it was originally written ὸ τρῆρος, and corrupted by the copyists.

Note return to page Monte Cavo.

Note return to page We have translated literally ἔχει δ' ὅρυμνὴν ἄκραν, but it is possible that Strabo may have meant that the citadel was built on a height above the town; if so the citadel would occupy the site of la Riccia.

Note return to page Civita Lavinia, or, Città della Vigna.

Note return to page Or Grove of Diana.

Note return to page Nemus Ariciæ.

Note return to page The text here appears to be mutilated.

Note return to page Monte Cavo.

Note return to page The Lago d'Albano.

Note return to page Alba Fucensis is here intended: hod. Albi.

Note return to page The Judicello.

Note return to page Catania, in Sicily.

Note return to page See Pliny in reference to the Aqua Marcia, Hist. Nat. l. xxxi. § 24, also 1. ii. § 106.

Note return to page It served successively as a place of confinement for the kings Syphax, Perseus, and Bituitus.

Note return to page Cisalpine Gaul.

Note return to page Rimini.

Note return to page The Fiumesino.

Note return to page Giulia Nova.

Note return to page Osimo.

Note return to page S. Severino.

Note return to page Probably for Pollentia, on the Chiento, opposite Urbisaglia.

Note return to page Ruins, on the river Potenza, near to Porto di Recanati.

Note return to page Fermo.

Note return to page Porto di Fermo.

Note return to page Near to the river Monecchia, not far from Marano.

Note return to page Truentum.

Note return to page The position of this city is still disputed, it has been identified with Porto d'Ascoli, Torre di Seguro, and other places.

Note return to page Giulia Nova.

Note return to page Matrinus.

Note return to page Atri.

Note return to page Ascoli.

Note return to page The text is here defective.

Note return to page The Vestini appear to have occupied the region where at present Aquila, Ofena, Civita Aquana, Civita di Penna, Civita di St. Angelo, and Pescara are situated.

Note return to page They inhabited the canton in which are built Tagliacozzo, Scurcola, Albi, Celano, Pescina, and the environs of Lake Celano.

Note return to page Inhabited the territories of Sulmona, Pentima, and Popolo.

Note return to page Occupied the district of Tieti or Chieti.

Note return to page Inhabited the right bank of the Sangro, the territory of Guasto, the banks of the Trigno and Biferno, the district of Larino, the left bank of the Fortore, and extended north-west towards Pescara.

Note return to page 91 B. C.

Note return to page Pentima near Popoli.

Note return to page The first consuls were Q. Pompædius Silo, and C. Aponius Mutilus; the prætors were Herius Asinius for the Marucini, C. Veltius Cato for the Marsi, M. Lamponius and T. Cleptius for the Leucani, Marius Egnatius Trebatius and Pontius Telesinus for the Samnites, C. Judacilius for the Apuli or Picentini, and A. Cluentius for the Peligni. Many other officers besides these distinguished themselves in the several campaigns of the Marsian war.

Note return to page A note in the French translation would make the duration of the Marsian war twelve years.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus agrees with Strabo, in asserting that this war was called Marsian, because it had been commenced by the Marsi, ωνομᾶσθα δέ φησι μασικὸν [i. e. πόλεμον] ἐκ τῶν ἁξάντων τῆς ἀποστάσεως. however, Velleius Paterculus asserts that the people of Asculum commenced the war, which was continued by the Marsi; and Livy (Epit. lib. lxxii.) makes the Picentini the first to raise the standard of revolt.

Note return to page Quintus Pompædius Silo.

Note return to page Now Sulmona, about seven miles south-east of Corfinium. It was the birth-place of Ovid. Sulmo mihi patria est gelidis uberrimus undis. Ovid. Trist. iv. El. 9.

Note return to page Marruvium, veteris celebratum nomine Marri, Urbibus est illis caput. Sil. Ital. viii. 507. We must place this city, with Holstenius, at San Benedetto, on the eastern shore of the lake, where inscriptions have been found which leave no doubt on the subject. The coins of Marruvium have MARUB on the reverse and a head of Pluto.

Note return to page Now Chieti, on the right bank of the Pescara. The family of Asinius Pollio came originally from this place.

Note return to page Pescara.

Note return to page Ortona-a-Mare.

Note return to page Romanelli, (tom. iii. p. 40,) founding his opinion on ancient ecclesiastical records and the reports of local antiquaries, informs us that the ruins of Buca exist at the present Penna.

Note return to page According to Holstenius and Romanelli, Civitate; according to others, Ponte Rotto.

Note return to page Kramer is of opinion that this passage, from Ortonium to life, is an interpolation posterior to the age of Strabo.

Note return to page Romanelli affirms that the mountain from which the river Alaro flows is called Sagra, and Cramer considers that river to be the ancient Sagrus.

Note return to page The Daunii formed only a portion of the Apuli.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer's reading, τετακοσίων ἐνενήκοντα.

Note return to page The ruins of Monte Dragone.

Note return to page Punta di Miseno.

Note return to page The bay of Naples.

Note return to page Punta della Campanella.

Note return to page This passage is not found in the works of Polybius, as handed down to us.

Note return to page Sorrento.

Note return to page Torre di Patria.

Note return to page Liternus.

Note return to page Vulturnum.

Note return to page Venafro.

Note return to page κύμη. The Greeks gave a singular form to this name of the ancient seat of the Sibyl. Her chamber, which was hewn out of the solid rock, was destroyed when the fortress of Cumæ was besieged by Narses, who undermined it.

Note return to page Eusebius states that it was founded 1050 B. C., a few years before the great migration of the Ionians into Asia Minor.

Note return to page We may observe that Strabo seems not to have restricted the φλέγαιον πέδιον to that which modern geographers term the Phlegræan plains, which are contained between Cumæ and the hills bordering the Lake Agnano, a little beyond Pozzuolo, but, like Pliny, to have extended it to the whole region, at present termed Terra di Lavoro.

Note return to page A note in the French translation observes, that Diodonus Siculua (lib. xii. § 76) places this event in the fourth year of the 89th Olympiad, 421 B. C. Livy (lib. iv. § 44) seems to place it a year later.

Note return to page It is now called Pineta di Castel Volturno.

Note return to page Forty years B. C.

Note return to page Punta di Miseno.

Note return to page Lago di Fusaro.

Note return to page Lago Lucrino. This lake has almost disappeared, owing to a subterraneous eruption, which in 1538 displaced the water and raised the hill called Monte Nuovo.

Note return to page Lago d'Averno.

Note return to page νηκυῖα, the title of the 11th book of the Odyssey.

Note return to page νεκυομαντεῖον, another title of the same (11th) book.

Note return to page Strabo is not the only one who mentions this: Virgil says, Spelunca alta fuit, vastoque immanis hiatn, Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro, nemorumque tenebris; Quam super hand ullæ poterant impune volantes Tendere iter pennis; talis esse halitus atris Faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat; Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Avernum. æneid. vi. 237.

Note return to page The Greeks applied the term Plutonian to places where disagreeable and pestilential exhalations arose.

Note return to page Nor ever does the light-giving Sun shine upon them. Odys. xi. 15.

Note return to page The text here appears to have been corrupted.

Note return to page We agree with Kramer in considering as an interpolation the words, τε καὶ ἐπὶ νέαν πόλιν ἐκ δικαιαχίας ἐπὶ ταῖς βααις, and likewise another at Neapolis from Diœarchia to Baicœ. It is generally supposed that the Grotta di Pausilipo, or Crypta Neapolitana, is of much greater antiquity than the Augustan age, when Cocceius flourished. There is good reason to refer that great undertaking to the Cumæi, of whose skill in works of this nature we have so remarkable an instance in the temple of their sibyl.

Note return to page Dion Cassius tells us, on the contrary, that owing to the exertions of Agrippa, the gulfs both of Avernus and Lucrinus became excellent ports, λιμένας ναυλοχωτάτους ἀπέδειξεν.

Note return to page Pozzuoli.

Note return to page La Solfa-terra.

Note return to page Naples.

Note return to page Innumerable accounts exist relative to the foundation of this city. The most prevalent fiction was that the siren Parthenope was cast upon its shores, and from her it derived the name, by which it was usually designated by the ancient poets. Sirenum dedit una suum memorabile nomen Parthenope muris Acheloïas: æquore cujus Regnavere diu cantus, quum dulce per undas Exitium miseris caneret non prospera nautis. Sil. Ital. xii. 33. Scymnus of Chios mentions both the Phocæi and Cumæi as its founders. Stephanus of Byzantium attributes its foundation to the Rhodians; their proximity is favourable to the claims of the Cumæi, and hence the con- nexion of Naples with Eubœa, alluded to by Statius, who was born there. At te nascentem gremio mea prima recepit Parthenope, dulcisque solo tu gloria nostro Reptasti; nitidum consurgat ad æthera tellus Eubois, et pulchra tumeat Sebethos alumna. Silv. i. 2. A Greek inscription mentions a hero named Eumelus as having had divine honours paid to him, possibly as founder of the city. [See Capaccio, Hist. Nap. p. 105. Martorelli de' Fenici primi abitatori di Napoli.] This may illustrate the following lines,— Di patrii, quos auguriis super æquora magnis Littus ad Ausonium devexit Abantia classis, Tu ductor populi longe emigrantis Apollo, Cujus adhuc volucrem leva cervice sedentem Respiciens blande felix Eumelis adorat. Silv. iv. 8, 45. originally] by the Cumæi, but afterwards being peopled by Chalcidians, and certain Pithecussæans and Athenians,

Note return to page Probably those mentioned in a fragment of Timæus, quoted by Tzetzes, (ad Lycophr. v. 732–737,) as having migrated to Italy under the command of Diotimus, who also instituted the λαμπαδηφοία, which was still observed at Naples in the time of Statius: Tuque Actæa Ceres, cursu cui semper anhelo Votivam taciti quassamus lampada mystæ. Silv. iv. 8, 50.

Note return to page Neapolis, or Naples, signifying the new city.

Note return to page Places of exercise for youth.

Note return to page Societies.

Note return to page Grotta di Pausilipo.

Note return to page Pausilypus mons was the name of the ridge of hills which separates the bay of Naples from that of Pozzuoli. This was probably given to it on account of its delightful situation and aspect, which rendered it the favourite residence of several noble and wealthy Romans.

Note return to page Puteoli.

Note return to page Seneca, in describing the Crypta Neapolitana, as it was then called, gives an exaggerated account of the sombre horrors of the place. Perhaps in his time the apertures had become obstructed, which was evidently not the case at the time when Strabo, or the authority whom he follows, visited the place.

Note return to page Hercolano, or Herculaneum, by Cicero (to Atticus, vii. 3) called Herculanum. It is probable that the subversion of this town was not sudden, but progressive, since Seneca mentions a partial demolition which it sustained from an earthquake. (Nat. Quœst. vi. 1.) So many books have been written on the antiquities and works of art discovered in Herculaneum, that the subject need not be enlarged upon here.

Note return to page Several inscriptions in Oscan, and Etruscan, characters have been discovered in the ruins of Herculaneum. Lanzi, (tom. iii.,)—Romanelli Viaggio a Pompei ed Ercolano.

Note return to page Pompeii.

Note return to page The ancient Sarnus.

Note return to page These Pelasgi were established among the Tyrrhenians.

Note return to page It is believed that the Samnites possessed both places, 310, B. C.

Note return to page The Romans must have been masters of these cities 272, B. C. (Livy, Epit. xiv.)

Note return to page Nola resisted, under the able direction of Marcellus, all the efforts of Hannibal after the battle of Cannæ. A remarkable inscription in Oscan characters relative to this town is explained by Lanzi, (tom. iii. 612,) its name is there written NUFLA. See Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. ii. p. 211.

Note return to page Nocera de' Pagani.

Note return to page Sorrento.

Note return to page Punta della Campanella.

Note return to page The Sirenusæ were three small rocks detached from the land, and celebrated as the islands of the Sirens; they are now called Galli. See Holsten. Adnot. p. 248; Romanelli, torn. iii. p. 619. Virgil, æn. v. 864, describes them as, Jamque adeo scopulos advecta subibat; Difficiles quondam, multorumque ossibus albos. It had been decreed that the Sirens should live only till some one hearing their song should pass on unmoved, and Orpheus, who accompanied the Argonauts, having surpassed the Sirens, and led on the ship, they cast themselves into the sea, and were metamorphosed into these rocks.

Note return to page The bay of Naples.

Note return to page Punta di Miseno.

Note return to page Procida.

Note return to page Ischia.

Note return to page It appears that Hiero the First is here alluded to; he ascended the throne 478 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page The volcanos of Sicily, Lipari, Pithecussæ, or Ischia, and Mount Vesuvius. See Humboldt (Cosmos i. 238, note).

Note return to page We, in common with the French translators and Siebenkees, have adopted the νήσους found in the MS. of Peter Bembo, and some others cited by Casaubon.

Note return to page Pindar Pyth. Od i. 32; Conf. Pindar. Olymp. Od. iv. 2.

Note return to page This writer flourished about 264 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Epopeus mons, now sometimes called Epomeo, but more commonly Monte San Nicolo.

Note return to page The waters at the source Olmitello, in the southern part of the island, are the most efficacious for this disease.

Note return to page Capri.

Note return to page Teano.

Note return to page Galazze. We have not hesitated to read Callateria, with all MSS. Kramer has printed καλατία in text. Numismatic writers ascribe to this, and not the Samnite Calatia, the coins with the head of Jupiter on the obverse, and the legend, KALAT, and KALATI, in retrograde Oscan characters on the reverse. Mionnet. Med. Ant. Suppl. vol. i. p. 232; Sestini, Monet. Vet. p. 13.

Note return to page S. Maria di Goti, near to Forchia Caudina.

Note return to page Benevento.

Note return to page Nova Capua.

Note return to page Volturno.

Note return to page The text has μεδίμνου; but we have adopted μυὸς, the word proposed by most of the Greek editors; Valerius Maximus, Pliny, and Frontinus all agreeing in the statement, that it was a rat which fetched this enormous price.

Note return to page Calvi.

Note return to page Castel di Sessola, near Maddaloni.

Note return to page Holstenius says that the ruins of Atella are still to be seen near S. Arpino, or S. Elpidio, about two miles beyond Aversa.

Note return to page Now Nola. It was one of the most ancient and important cities of Campania; though situated in an open plain, it resisted all the efforts of Hannibal after the battle of Cannæ. Here Augustus expired, in the same room in which his father Octavius had breathed his last.

Note return to page Nocera.

Note return to page Acerra near the source of the Agno, the ancient Clanius.

Note return to page Avella Vecchia.

Note return to page Such was Nola, which our author in his sixth book evidently places in the territory of the Samnites.

Note return to page Bojano.

Note return to page Isernia.

Note return to page The ruins of Telesia are to be seen about a mile from the modern Telese. Allifæ was between Telesia and Venafrum.

Note return to page Benevento.

Note return to page Venosa. The coins of Venusia have on the reverse the inscription VE., and an eagle resting on a thunderbolt. On the obverse, a head of Jupiter, and sometimes of Bacchus. Sestini, Monet. Vet. p. 15. The Antiquitates Venusinæ and the Iter Venusinum were published at Naples in the last century.

Note return to page Casaubon conjectures that in place of the τῷ ἔτει τούτῳ, we should read τῷ ἔαρι τούτω, or, the productions of the spring: and it certainly would seem that Strabo is here describing what the Latins called a ver sacrum. An ancient historian, speaking of the occurrence mentioned by Strabo, says, Quondam Sabini fernntur vovisse, si res communis melioribus locis constitisset, se ver sacrum facturos. Sisenn. Hist. lib. iv. ap. Non. Marcell. De doctor. indag. ed. 1683, fol. 2531. Festus, Sext. P. Fest. De verb. sign. F. ed. 1699, p. 478, seems to have mentioned the same thing.

Note return to page The animals and fruits are intended.

Note return to page Devoted to Mars.

Note return to page Or little Sabines.

Note return to page From Pitane, a place in Laconia.

Note return to page B. C. 216.

Note return to page 211 B. C.

Note return to page B. C. 59.

Note return to page We concur with Kramer in considering that the words μέχρι φρεντανῶν, which occur immediately after σαυνῖτιν, have been interpolated.

Note return to page The Gulf of Salerno.

Note return to page Pesti.

Note return to page This city must have been founded nearly 540 years B. C., for Herodotus says that the Phocæans were chiefly induced to settle on the shores of ænotria by the advice of a citizen of Posidonia, and they founded Velia in the reign of Cyrus. B. i. 164.

Note return to page 442 B. C.

Note return to page B. C. 274.

Note return to page Apparently the Fiume Salso.

Note return to page Pesti.

Note return to page Vietri.

Note return to page Pompeii.

Note return to page Nocera.

Note return to page The ancient Silaris.

Note return to page We are inclined to read Leucania with Du Theil. The Paris manuscript, No. 1393, reads κανίαν.

Note return to page Pliny, in his Natural History, (lib. ii. § 106,) has confirmed Strabo's account. It appears from Cluvier that the people who inhabit the banks of the Silaro are not acquainted with any circumstances which might corroborate the statement. (Cluvier, Ital. Ant. lib. iv. c, 14.)

Note return to page About B. C. 201.

Note return to page The ancient Silaris.

Note return to page Pesti.

Note return to page It is now called Licosa, and sometimes Isola piana; several vestiges of buildings were discovered on the island in 1696. Antonin. della Lucan. p. ii. disc. 8.

Note return to page Capo della Licosa.

Note return to page Punta della Campanella.

Note return to page Golfo di Salerno.

Note return to page Strabo here cites the historian Antiochus, but it is surprising that he does not rather cite the writer from whom Antiochus seems to have borrowed this account, we mean Herodotus, who relates it (lib. i. § 164). But Strabo, probably, looking upon Herodotus as a collector of fables, chose rather to yield to the authority of Antiochus, who had written very accurate memoirs upon Italy, and who was, likewise, himself a very ancient author, (Dion. Halicarn. Antiq. Rom. lib. i. § 12,) and flourished about 420 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Or Velia, founded 532 B.C., mentioned by Horace, Epist. I. xv. l, Quæ sit hyems Veliæ, quod cœlum, Vala, Salerni.

Note return to page The modern Alento.

Note return to page Now unknown.

Note return to page Pliny affirms that these two islands were called, the one Pontia, the other Ischia; Contra Veliam Pontia et Ischia. Utræquc uno nomine Œnotrides, argumentum possesses ab Œnotriis Italiæ. Hist. Nat. lib. iii. § 13. If this reading be not faulty, Pliny will have placed in the latitude, of which our author is now giving a description, a small island bearing the same name, Pontia, as the island lying off Cape Misenum.

Note return to page The Buxentum of the Latins.

Note return to page 471 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Gulf of Policastro.

Note return to page Now the river Laino.

Note return to page Called Laino in the time of Cluverius. Lib. iv. cap. 14.

Note return to page Upon this coast.

Note return to page Founded about the year 510 B. C.

Note return to page About the year 390 before the Christian era.

Note return to page i. e. the Gulf of Tarentum.

Note return to page Strabo seems here to distinguish the Chones from the Œnotri, and the CEnotri from the Greeks. According to Cluvier (Ital. Antiq. cap. 16, p. 1323) here was a double error: not only (says he) Aristotle, but Antiochus, according to Strabo's own testimony, positively affirmed that the Chones and Œnotri were one and the same nation, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Antiq. Roman. lib. i. § 11) makes no doubt that the Œnotri were of Greek origin. But Mazochi justifies the distinction between the Chones and the Œnotri, and shows cause to doubt that the Œnotri were of Greek origin.

Note return to page ἐκβεβαβαῶσθαι. We think with Mazochi (Prodrom. ad Heracl. pseph. diatrib. 2, cap. 7, sect. 2) that, by the above word, Strabo probably expressed that, at the time when he wrote, Tarentum, Rheggio, and Naples were the only cities founded by the Greeks in Italy, which, although become Roman, retained the language, laws, and usages of their mother country.

Note return to page It has been well observed by Cramer in his Ancient Italy, that Strabo confused this Petilia of the Leucani with another better known of the Bruttii, the foundation of which was attributed to Philoctetes. It is observed by Antonini that Strabo contradicts himself, by ascribing to Philoctetes the origin of a town in Leucania, for he states a few lines further on that that hero occupied a part of the coast near Crotona, which was in the territory of the Bruttii. Strabo's account, however, of the existence of a Leucanian Petilia is confirmed by many inscriptions of early date. The ruins of the town remain on the Monte della Stella. Antonin. della Lucan. p. i. disc. 8. Romanelli, tom. i. p. 350.

Note return to page According to some judicious antiquaries, the site of Chone is located at Casabuona, near Strongoli.

Note return to page Trapani del Monte.

Note return to page The ruins of this city, which was anciently called also Egesta, Acesta, and Segesta, may be seen at Barbara, in the valley of Mazzara.

Note return to page Kramer, following the suggestion of Xylander, has printed γουμεντὸν. I am inclined, however, to think that πουμεντὸν, the reading of Manuscripts, is correct. According to Barrio, it occupied the situation of Gerenza, on the right bank of the Nieto.

Note return to page Verzine on the Nieto. (Barr. lib. iv. cap. 18. Maraf. lib. iii. c. 18.)

Note return to page Calasarna is supposed by the Calabrian topographers to accord with the site of Campania.

Note return to page Venosa, situated about 15 miles south of the Aufidus. It was a colony of importance before the war against Pyrrhus. After the disaster at Cannæ, it afforded a retreat to Varro and the few who escaped that signal overthrow. Horace was born there in the year of the city 688. About six miles from Venosa, on the site named Palazzo, was the Fons Bandusiæ. (Chaupy, Des c. de la maison de Camp. d' Horace, tom. iii. p. 538.)

Note return to page Cluvier thought that we should read θουριανὴ instead of ταυριανὴ.

Note return to page Laos, now Lao.

Note return to page Torre di Mare.

Note return to page Golfo di S. Eufemia.

Note return to page Golfo di Squillace. Scylletium was once a Greek city of note, communicating its name to the gulf. Servius observes that the Athenians who founded the colony were returning from Africa. There was a Greek inscription found in 1791 relative to the λαμπαδηδομία, which seems to confirm the tradition of the Athenian origin of Scylletium. It was the birth-place of Cassiodorus.

Note return to page σιλαις. The Silaro, which divides Lucania from Campania, takes its rise in the Apennines, in a district which formerly belonged to the Hirpini; and after receiving the Tanager, now Negro, and the Calor, now Calore, falls into the Gulf of Salerno. Silius Italicus (viii. 582) states that this river possessed the property of incrusting twigs with a calcareous deposit: Nunc Silarus quos nutrit aquis, quo gurgite tradunt Duritiem lapidum mersis inolescere ramis. At its mouth was a haven named Portus Albernus.

Note return to page Torre di Mare.

Note return to page Cirella.

Note return to page This measure, upon our charts, is 330 Olympic stadia. Gosselin.

Note return to page Golfo di Squillace.

Note return to page The Golfo di S. Eufemia. πὸς ἅπαντας. Lit. He stirred up every body against every body. It is conceived that the hostilities of the Bruttii were fomented by Dion in order to prevent the tyrant Dionysius from deriving any aid from his Leucanian allies. The advancement of the Bruttii to independence is computed by Diodorus Siculus to have taken place about 397 years after the foundation of Rome, that is, 356 before the Christian era.

Note return to page ἐξετάραξ.

Note return to page The situation of Temesa has not yet been fully determined. Cluve- rius fixes it about ten miles south of Amantea, near Torre Loppa. Romanelli observes, however, that Cluverius has not allowed for the difference between the ancient and modern computation of distance. To rectify this oversight, he makes choice of Torre del piano del Casale, nearly two miles north of Torre Loppa, as the locality of this ancient site. The silver coins of Temesa are scarce. They have the Greek epigraph, TEM.

Note return to page After the second Punic war it was colonized by the Romans, who called it Tempsa, B. C. 195.

Note return to page We concur with Kramer in approving the proposition of Groskurd to understand the words ἐκεῖνον μὲν ον διά πολλοῦ as having been originally written in the text immediately before ἐπικεῖσθαι αὐτοῖς.

Note return to page They had been compelled to sacrifice a virgin annually in order to appease his disturbed spirit.

Note return to page Borgo di Tamasso.

Note return to page These words in parenthesis seem to have been interpolated by the transcribers of our author. Both Temesa and Tamassus were rich in metal, but the spelling of the name in Homer is more in accordance with Temesa than Tamassus, and other poets have alluded to it, as Ovid. Met. xv. 706, Evincitque fretum, Siculique angusta Pelori, Hippotadæque domos regis, Temesesque metalla. Ovid. Met. xv. 706 And Fast. v. 441, . . . . . Temesæaque concrepat sera. Fast. v. 441 And Statius, Silv. i. 42, Et cui se toties Temese dedit hausta metallis.Statius, Silv. i. 42

Note return to page Odyssey i. 184.

Note return to page Nocera.

Note return to page Hannibal took refuge in Calabria about 209 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Cosenza, near the source of the Crathis, now Crati, represents Cosentia. It was taken by Hannibal after the surrender of Petilia, but towards the end of the war the Romans regained it.

Note return to page αἰακίδη, προφύλαξαξο μολεῖν αχερούσιον ὕδωρ πανδοσίην θ', ὅθι τοι θάνατος πεπρωμένος ἐστί. Son of æacus, beware of approaching the Acherusian water and Pandosia, where death is destined for thee.

Note return to page About B. C. 330.

Note return to page Commentators generally agree that this is the Pandosia memorable for the defeat and death of Alexander, king of Epirus. The early Calabrian antiquaries have placed it at Castel Franco. D'Anville, in his map, lays it down near Lao and Cirella. Modern investigators have sought its ruins near Mendocino, between Cosenza and the sea, a hill with three summits having been remarked there, which answers to the fatal height pointed out by the oracle, πανδοσία τρικόλωνε, πολύν ποτε λαὸν ὀλέσσε<>ς together with a rivulet, Maresanto or Arconti; which last name recalls the Acheron denounced by another prediction, as so inauspicious to the Molossian king. Scylax, in his Periplus, seems to place Pandosia, together with Clampetia and Terina, near the western coast.

Note return to page Afterwards Vibo Valentia, now Monte-Leone.

Note return to page Surnamed the Epizephyrii. Heyne supposes this took place B. C. 388.

Note return to page B. C. 193.

Note return to page There was a temple erected to Proserpine in these meadows, and a building called Amalthea's horn, raised by Gelon of Syracuse.

Note return to page The present harbour of Bivona.

Note return to page He reigned from B. C. 317 to B. C. 289.

Note return to page Now Le Formicole. The promontory named Capo Vaticano seems to have been anciently known under the same appellation.

Note return to page Medma, or Mesma, was situated on the right bank of the river Mesima, which seems to retain traces of the name of the ancient city. Antiquaries report that its ruins are seen between Nicotera and the river Mesima. The epigraph on the coins of this city is generally μεσμα, Or μεσμαιων, and in a single instance μεδαμα.

Note return to page That is, the Epizephyrian Locrians.

Note return to page Cluverius considers this to be the modern Bagnara.

Note return to page The ancient river Metaurus is now also called Marro, and sometimes Petrace. It was noted for the excellence of the thunny fish caught at its mouth.

Note return to page Metaurum. The site of this place is supposed to accord with that of the town of Gioja.

Note return to page Homer, Odyssey, lib. x.

Note return to page There have been many suggestions for the correction of this passage. Kramer thinks that Cluverius was happy in proposing ποταμὸς instead of μέτανος, and that then the Cratais, now Solano, or Fiume de' Pesci, would be the river which Strabo intended.

Note return to page According to Pliny, these two promontories were separated by an interval of twelve stadia, or a mile and a half, which accords with the statement of Polybius. Thucydides, however, allows about two miles and a half, which he considers to be the utmost possible distance. Topographers are divided as to the exact point of the Italian coast which answers to Cape Cænys. The Calabrian geographers say the Punta del Pezzo, called also Coda del Volpe, in which opinion Cluverius and D'Anville coincide, but Holstenius contends for the Torre del Cavallo, which the French translators seem to favour. In fact, that may be the narrowest point, still it does not answer so well to Strabo's description of the figure and bearing of Cape Cænys as the Punta del Pezzo.

Note return to page The temple or altar of Neptune.

Note return to page The Columna Rhegina, as remarked by Cramer, (vol. ii. p. 427,) was probably a pillar set up to mark the consular road leading to the south of Italy. Strabo speaks of it as a small tower (book iii. c. v. § 5, p 265). In the Itinerary of Antoninus it is simply termed Columna, but In the inscription relative to the Via Aquilia, it is called Statua. The situation of this tower is generally identified with the site of La Catona.

Note return to page Now Reggio, one of the most celebrated and flourishing cities of Magna Grecia, founded about 696 years B. C. Cato affirms that it was once in the possession of the Aurunci. The connexion which subsisted between Rhegium and the Chalcidian colonies in Sicily, induced its inhabitants to take part with the Athenians in their first hostilities against the Syracusans and Locrians. In the great Sicilian expedition, the Rhegians observed a strict neutrality. While the Athenian fleet was moored in their roads, they refused to admit the army within their walls, which therefore encamped near the temple of Diana outside the town. Rhegium subsequently pursued a similar policy, and suffered severely under tyrants, but the Roman senate at length freed the unfortunate citizens.

Note return to page Strabo here alludes to the crime which was perpetrated in the reign of Teleclus, about 811 years before the Christian era. The division of the Messenians into two parties, the one wishing and the other refusing to give satisfaction, lasted about 150 years. See book vi. cap. iii. § .3.

Note return to page It Was taken by the Lacedæmonians about B. C. 668.

Note return to page It seems probable that Strabo here refers to Morgantium in Sicily, which had disappeared in his days, and which he mentions in b. vi. c. ii. § 4.

Note return to page Sextus Pompeius, having received from the senate the command of the fleet, B. C. 43, in a short time made himself master of Sicily, which he held till 36.

Note return to page This is a quotation from one of the missing works of æschylus.

Note return to page Virgil speaks of this great catastrophe, æn. iii. 414, Hæc loca, vi quondam et vasta convulsa ruina (Tantum ævi longinqua valet mutare vetustas,) Dissiluisse ferunt: cum protinus utraque tell us Una foret, venit medio vi pontus, et undis Hesperium Sicuto latus abscidit: arvaque et urbes Litore diductas angusto interluit æstu.æn. iii. 414

Note return to page Procida.

Note return to page It appears from the more ancient coins of Rhegium, that the original name was RECION. In these the epigraph is REC. RECI. RECINOS, in characters partaking more of the Oscan than the Greek form; those of more recent date are decidedly Greek, PHT. PHTINQN, being inscribed on them. A note in the French translation shows that the inhabitants of Rhegium did not participate in the rights of Roman citizens till about 90 years before the Christian era.

Note return to page Among these were many followers of Pythagoras, also Theagenes Hippys, Lycus surnamed Butera, and Glaucus, who were historians; Ibicus, Cleomenes, and Lycus the adoptive father of Lycophron, who were poets; Clearchus and Pythagoras, who were sculptors.

Note return to page The Rhegians firmly opposed the designs of this tyrant; and when, under pretence of courting their alliance, he sought a consort from their city, they replied with independent feeling that he might have their hangman's daughter. (See Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 44.) Had the other states of Magna Grecia displayed the same energy, the ambitious views of this artful prince might have been frustrated; but after the defeat of their forces on the Elleporus, now Callipari, they succumbed, and Rhegium, after a gallant defence which lasted nearly a year, was compelled to yield, about the year 398 B. C. The insulting tyrant sentenced the heroic Phyton, who had commanded the town, to a cruel death, and removed the few inhabitants that remained to Sicily.

Note return to page B. C. 360.

Note return to page B. C. 280.

Note return to page B.C. 91.

Note return to page The defeat of Sextus Pompeins is referred to the year 36 B. C., but there is no precise date mentioned for the establishment of the veteran soldiers in Rhegium, which probably took place about the year 31 B. C.

Note return to page Pliny computes the distance from Rhegium to Cape Leucopetra at 12 miles; there is probably some error in the text, as there is no cape which corresponds with the distance of 50 stadia from Rhegium. A note in the French translation proposes to read 100 instead of 50 stadia. Topographers are not agreed in fixing the situation of the celebrated Leucopetra. D'Anville places it at Capo Pittaro, Grimaldi at the Punta della Saetta, and Cluverius, Holstenius, and Cellarius at the Capo dell' Armi. This latter opinion seems more compatible with the statement of Pliny, and is also more generally accredited.

Note return to page The Herculeum Promontorium is known in modern geography as Capo Spartivento.

Note return to page The Promontorium Iapygium, or Sallentinum, as it was sometimes called, formed a remarkable feature in the figure of Italy, while the art of navigation was in its infancy. It was a conspicuous land-mark to mariners bound from the ports of Greece to Sicily. The fleets of Athens, after having circumnavigated the Peloponnesus, usually made for Corcyra, whence they steered straight across to the promontory, and then coasted along the south of Italy. It seems from Thucydides (vi. 44) that there was a haven here which afforded a shelter to vessels in tempestuous weather.

Note return to page Now Capo di Bruzzano.

Note return to page The one 710, the other 734 years B. C.

Note return to page The opinion of Ephorus seems to be supported by many other writers, and is generally preferred by modern critics.

Note return to page Monte Esope.

Note return to page This wicked prince, having been expelled from Syracuse, had found refuge among the Locrians from the storm which threatened his existence, but, depraved as he was degraded, he repaid the kindness of the people, who treated him as their kinsman because his mother Doris had been the daughter of one of their principal citizens, with the basest treachery and ingratitude. He introduced into their city a number of miscreants and having overpowered the inhabitants, gave loose to all the vicious propenalties of his nature.

Note return to page Horrid as is the vengeance which the Locri took on these unfortunate victims of a husband's and a father's crimes, it serves to confirm the accounts of the iniquity and barbarity of a prince, whose mean and imbecile conduct at other times sanctions the notion that his intellect was disordered.

Note return to page We could almost wish to read this passage—rendered them more plausible, but impaired their utility.

Note return to page The ancient Halex.

Note return to page Although Strabo ascribes Mamertium to the Bruttii, it is more probable that it was a colony of Campanian mercenaries, deriving their name from Mamers, the Oscan Mars, who served under Agathocles, and other princes of Sicily. The Mamertini were employed by the Romans against Pyrrhus, whom they attacked in the woods and defiles about Rhegium. Barrio (lib. ii. c. 10) and Maraf. (lib. iii. c. 25, f. 222) have identified the site of this ancient town with Martorano, but it seems too distant from Locri and Rhegium to accord with Strabo's description. Cluverius, D'Anville, and Romanelli place it at Oppido, a bishop's see above Reggio, and Gerace, where old coins are said to have been discovered. Cramer (vol. ii. p. 439) thinks that the Melæ mentioned by Thucydides may have been identical with Mamertium. Several remains of antiquity exist on the site called Mela, in the vicinity of Oppido.

Note return to page The pix Bruttia is noticed by Pliny, Columella, Dioscorides, and other authorities mentioned by Bochart, Canaan, p. 595. Bochart looks upon the Bruttii as a people known to the Phoenicians at a very remote period.

Note return to page Geographers differ much as to the modern river which corresponda to this stream. Romanelli and Swinburne consider it to be the Alam.

Note return to page During the war against Pyrrhus, whose cause was espoused by Cau- lonia, the city was pillaged by the Mamertini, the allies of the Romans. The town was subsequently occupied by the Bruttii, who defended it against the Romans in the second Punic war. Barrio and other Calabrian topographers have fixed its site at Castro Vetere, but Strabo placed it on the left bank of the Sagras, which is inconsistent with their supposition, and it is still a subject of inquiry.

Note return to page Cluvier (Sicil. ant. lib. ii.) reckons this place was situated between Caltanis and Pietrapreccia.

Note return to page Now Squillace.

Note return to page Servius observes that these Athenians were returning from Africa, Serv. æn. iii. 552.

Note return to page Saumaise (Exercit. Plin. p. 47, 57) thinks the true reading should be Scylaceium, or Virgil could not have made the penultimate long. . . . Attollit se diva Lacinia contra Caulonisque arces, et navifragum Scylaceum. æn. iii. 652. Dionysius [the elder] allotted a portion of it to the Locri, whilst it was in the possession of the Crotoniatæ.

Note return to page About B. C. 389.

Note return to page Book vi. cap. i. § 4.

Note return to page Pliny seems to attribute to Dionysius the elder the project of cutting not walling off the isthmus: Itaque Dionysius major intercisam eo loco adjicere Siciliæ voluit. Hist. Nat. lib. iii. § 15. Grimaldi also is of opinion that the circumstance mentioned by Strabo should be referred to the first years of Dionysius the younger, about B. C. 366–359.

Note return to page By those who dwelt without, Strabo doubtless intended the Croto- niatæ, and their allies.

Note return to page These three capes are now called Capo delle Castella, Capo Rizzuto, and Capo della Nave.

Note return to page Lacinium was about six miles from Crotona. The celebrated temple of Juno derived its name from the promontory. According to Diodorus Siculus, some ascribe its origin to Hercules. (Diod. Sic. iv. 24.) Its ruins are in the early Doric style, with fluted pillars broader at the base than at the capital. It measured about 132 yards in length, and 66 in breadth. Its principal entrance opened to the west.

Note return to page Gosselin follows the opinion that Polybius wrote 1300 stadia.

Note return to page The Strait of Sicily.

Note return to page The modern names of Cape Lacinium, viz. Capo delle Colonne and Capo Nao, are derived from the remains of the temple, which is still visible on its summit.

Note return to page The text is here evidently deficient. Groskurd says that Strabo most probably wrote as follows, As the chorographer says, Artemidorus reckons that [the journey would take 12 days for one travelling on foot], with his girdle on; [but, to one sailing, the distance is 2000 stadia:] leaving at the same time as many [for the mouth, as Polybius has given] for the breadth of the mouth of the gulf. The French translators, however, have attempted to read the text as follows, The chorographer makes it 240 miles, and Artemidorus says that it is 380 for a light traveller; a computation in which the breadth of the mouth is not included; but comment on it in several extensive notes.

Note return to page South-east.

Note return to page The ancient æsar.

Note return to page Groskurd observes, Im Texte καὶ λιμὴν. Besser also, liest man mit Cluv. λιμνη, and translates it a salt-marsh; but Cramer, in his description of ancient Italy, observes that the mouth of the river Esaro formed a haven, which, however incommodious compared with those of Tarentum and Brundusium, was long a source of great wealth to Crotona, as we are assured by Polybius, Frag. x. 1.

Note return to page Neæthus. This river was said to derive its name from the circumstance of the captive Trojan women having there set fire to the Grecian fleet.

Note return to page νέαιθος, from νῆας and αἰθεῖν, to burn the ships.

Note return to page There is much obscurity in this oracular response. The various manuscripts offer many readings.

Note return to page A note in the French translation observes that the establishment of Myscellus at Crotona took place about 709 or 703 years B. C., and that Syracuse was founded as early as 735 years B. C.

Note return to page According to some traditions, Crotona was very ancient, and derived its name from the hero Cro'o. Thus Ovid: Vixque pererratis quæ spectant littora terris, Invenit æsarei fatalia fluminis ora: Nec procul hinc tumulum, sub quo sacrata Crotonis Ossa tegebat humus. Jussaque ibi mœnia terra Condidit; et nomen tumulati traxit in urbem. Ovid. Metam. xv. 53.

Note return to page Milo is said to have carried off the prize for wrestling from the 62nd Olympiad, B. C. 532, and also to have commanded the 100,000 Crotoniatæ who engaged the hostile armies of Sybaris and destroyed their city, about B. C. 509. Diod. Sic. xii. 9, &c.

Note return to page Sybaris was said to have been founded by the people of Trœzene not long after the siege of Troy. Aristot. Politic. lib. v. cap. 3. Solin. viii. But those were subsequently joined by a more numerous colony of Achmæans, about B. C. 720. Euseb. Chron. ii.

Note return to page ὁ κᾶθις. There was a stream of the same name in Achaia, from whence the Italian Crathis, now Crati, derived its name. The Crathis and Sybaris now join about 14 miles from the sea.

Note return to page Now Cochile.

Note return to page Koray objected to the old reading, ὸ ισελικενς, and proposed instead οἰς. . . . ελικεὺς; Groskurd thought it better to translate it Ihr Erbauer war Is .....aus He like; and Kramer has adopted this latter view, which we have followed.

Note return to page Helice was mentioned, book i. chap. iii. § 18. Ovid, Metam. xv. 293, also speaks of this city, Si quæras Helicen et Buram Achaïdas urbes, Invenies sub aquis...Ovid, Metam. xv. 293

Note return to page The Epitome gives nine days.

Note return to page The events which led to this catastrophe are thus related by Diodorns Siculus: A democratical party, at the head of which was Telys, having gained the ascendency, expelled 500 of the principal citizens, who sought refuge at Crotona. This city, upon receiving a summons to give up the fugitives, or prepare for war, by the advice of Pythagoras chose the latter. The armies met near the river Triunti, in the territory of Crotona, where the brave citizens gained a complete victory.

Note return to page At the instigation of Pericles, the Athenians sent out a colony under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus, which arrived about 55 years after the overthrow of Sybaris. Two celebrated characters are named among those who joined this expedition, which was collected from different parts of Greece. These were Herodotus, and Lysias the orator.

Note return to page "Compare ælian. Hist. Anim. ii. 36.

Note return to page From B. C. 390 to 290.

Note return to page About B. C. 194.

Note return to page Cæsar however calls it Thurii, and designates it a municipal town. Civ. Bell. iii. 22.

Note return to page Now La Nucara.

Note return to page It is not ascertained whether this leader were the architect of the Horse of Troy.

Note return to page Antiquaries seem agreed in fixing the site of this town at Policoro, about three miles from the mouth of the Agri, where considerable remains are still visible. The city is famous as the seat of the general council of the Greek states, and the celebrated bronze tables on which the learned Mazzocchi bestowed so much labour were discovered near its site. Its coins represent Hercules contending with the lion, and bear the epigraph ηρα or ηρακληιων.

Note return to page ακιις.

Note return to page σῖις

Note return to page This accords very well with the distance given in the Itinerary of Antoninus.

Note return to page About B. C. 580.

Note return to page Kramer reads χώνων in the text. We have followed the opinion of the French translators, who have rendered it possédée par des Troyens. MSS. give various readings.

Note return to page Kramer reads ἐπὶ τεύθαντος, but thinks with Groskurd that ἐπὶ τοῦ τάεντος, the Traens or modern Trionto, is the true reading.

Note return to page About B. C. 444.

Note return to page About B. C. 433.

Note return to page In the time of Pausanias, this city was a heap of ruins, and nothing remained standing but the walls and theatre. Considerable vestiges, situated near the station called Torre di Mare, indicate the site it an- ciently adorned.

Note return to page θερος χρυσοῦν. Xylander and others have thought this was a statue representing Summer; others have reckoned that golden sheaves were intended. The coins of Metapontium, which are greatly admired as works of art, have a head of Ceres, and on the reverse an ear of corn. A large sum of these might be justly called a golden harvest.

Note return to page Neleus had twelve sons, eleven of whom were slain by Hercules, while Nestor alone escaped; we must therefore infer from this passage, that rites were celebrated at Metapontium in honour of his brothers.

Note return to page The Greek words might either mean that Metapontium was destroyed or that the sacrifices were abolished. From the succeeding sentence it would be most natural to suppose that Strabo meant to say the city was overthrown.

Note return to page These words are not in the Greek text, but seem to have been accidentally omitted by the transcriber.

Note return to page A city of Phocis, now Krisso.

Note return to page The ordinary reading is Trinacis, but Kramer found it given Thrinacia in the Vatican Manuscript, No. 482, which seems to suit the rest of the sentence better. Dionysius Perieg. vers. 467, says, τρινακίη δ' ἐπὰ τῆσιν, ὑπὲρ πὲδον αὐσονιήων εκτέταται.Dionysius Perieg. vers. 467 And Homer, Strabo's great geographical authority, in book xi. of the Odyssey, line 106, terms it θινακίῃ νήσῳ. Virgil, æn. iii. 440, says, Trinacria fines Italos mittere relicta.Virgil, æn. iii. 440

Note return to page Capo Passaro.

Note return to page Capo di Marsalla, or Capo Boeo.

Note return to page The south-west.

Note return to page Milazzo.

Note return to page S. Maria di Tindaro.

Note return to page The MSS. of Strabo read Agathyrsum, but the town is more commonly called Agathyrnum. Livy, book xxvi. cap. 40, and Silius Italicus, book xiv. ver. 260, call it Agathyrna. Cluverius considers it to have been situated near S. Marco; others would place it nearer to Capo d'Orlando; while D'Anville is in favour of Agati.

Note return to page I Bagni, or S. Maria de' Palazzi. Groskurd gives it as Torre di Pittineo by Tusa, or Torre di Tusa. Cicero writes the name without a diphthong, statim Messana litteras Halesam mittit. Cic. in Verr. ii. c. 7. Diodorus spells it αλεσα. Silius Italicus, lib. xiv. ver. 219, makes the penultimate long: Venit ab amne trahens nomen Gela, venit Halæsa.Silius Italicus, lib. xiv. v. 219 And the inscription in Gruter, p. 212, gives the name of the river near it, αλαισος.

Note return to page Cefalù.

Note return to page Modern critics consider this to be the Fiume-Grande, which takes its rise near Polizzi and the Fiume Salso, the latter flows from a source within a few miles of the Fiume-Grande, and after a course of about 80 miles, falls into the sea near Alicata. The Fiume Salso was also called Himera, and both rivers taken to be one.

Note return to page Palermo.

Note return to page Castel-à-Mare.

Note return to page Capo Boeo.

Note return to page Probably ruins at the embouchure of the Platani. Groskurd also gives for it Bissenza.

Note return to page At the mouth of the Fiume di Girgenti. Virgil calls Agrigentum by the Greek name, æn. iii. 703, Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe Mœnia, magnanimûm quondam generator equorum.æn. iii. 703

Note return to page As the distance from Agrigentum to Camarina greatly exceeds another 20 miles, Kramer supposes that the words, and to Gela, 20, have been omitted by the copyist.

Note return to page Torre di Camarana.

Note return to page The Paris MS. No. 1393, used by the French translators, has 33; the Paris MS. 1396, and the Medici pint. 28, No. 5, give 20 miles.

Note return to page Taormina.

Note return to page Gossellin observes, that the distance from Messina to Cape Pelorias, which would complete the circuit of Sicily, is about 9 miles.

Note return to page i. e. by land.

Note return to page Messina.

Note return to page An intelligent critic has imagined that this road may have been commenced by M. Valerius Maximus Messala, consul in the year 263, and censor in 253, before the Christian era. D'Orvill. Sic. c. ii. p. 12.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer, who inserts [διακόσια] before τιάκοντα πέντε.

Note return to page i. e. to give its parallels of latitude and longitude.

Note return to page i. e. wherein all three sides are unequal.

Note return to page i. e. Pelorias.

Note return to page Or, lies towards the east, with a northern inclination.

Note return to page South-east.

Note return to page A river of the Peloponnesus, now called Ruféa.

Note return to page Cape Matapan.

Note return to page The French translation gives 1160 stadia.

Note return to page Gossellin observes, that from Pachynus to Lilybæum the coast runs from the south to the north-west, and looks towards the south-west.

Note return to page This person, according to Varro, was named Strabo. See Varr. ap. Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. vii. § 21, page 386.

Note return to page This coast of Sicily rises very little as it advances towards the east, and looks almost continually towards the north, with the exception of a very short space near Lilybæum. The æolian islands lie to the north.

Note return to page Taormina.

Note return to page Naxos was not situated between Catana and Syracuse, but was most probably built on the left bank of the Fiume Freddo, the ancient Asines, near Taormina. It is possible that Strabo originally wrote, between Messina and Syracuse. Naxos was founded about 734 B. C., and destroyed by Dionysius the elder about the year 403. Naxos is thought by some to be the modern Schisso.

Note return to page Megara was founded on the right of the Cantaro, the ancient Alabus. It was destroyed about 214 years B. C.

Note return to page Reggio.

Note return to page Thucydides says ξάγκλιον is a Sicilian word.

Note return to page B. C. 289.

Note return to page B. C. 264 to 243.

Note return to page B. C. 44.

Note return to page B. C. 36.

Note return to page Now called Garafalo.

Note return to page Taormina.

Note return to page κοπρία.

Note return to page These wines, although grown in Sicily, were reckoned among the Italian wines. See Athen. Deipnos. lib. i, cap. 21, ed. Schweigh. tom. i. p. 102. And from the time of Julius Cæsar they were classed in the fourth division of the most esteemed wines. See Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xiv. § 8, No. 4 and § 17.

Note return to page At the same time as Syracuse.

Note return to page A note in the French translation suggests that we should read Sicilians of Hybla. τῶν ἐν υβλῃ σικελῶν instead of ζαγκλαίων.

Note return to page Hiero in Greek was ιέων. The line of Pindar in Kramer's edition is, ξύνες ὅ τοι λέγω, ζαθέων ἱεῶν ὁμώνυμε πάτε κτίστο αἴτνας. The words played on are ιέων and ὶεῶν.

Note return to page This occurred in the year 468.

Note return to page About 461.

Note return to page Cluvier considers that the monastery of Saint Nicolas de Arenis, about 12 modern miles from Catana, is situated about the place to which Strabo here alludes.

Note return to page τὴν καταναίαν. The spelling of this name, like very many in the present work, was by no means uniform in classic authors. Strabo has generally called it Catana (κατάνη); Ptolemy, κατάυν κολώνια; Pliny, lib. iii. cap. 8, Colonia Catina; Pomponius Mela, lib. ii. cap. 7, Catina; Cicero, Catina; and on ancient coins we find καταναιων.

Note return to page This feat was recorded by divers works of art set up in different places: it must have taken place in one of the eruptions, 477, 453, or 427, before the Christian era. The place where they lived was called Campus Piorum.

Note return to page δι' ἡμερῶν τεσσάων ἤ πέντε, in Kramer's text; in his notes he particularizes the readings of the different manuscripts and editions, some reading forty or fifty. He also records his sorrow at having preferred the reading of fifty days to thirty, in the passage relating to the fat beasts of Erythia, book iii. cap. 5, § 4, (page 255).

Note return to page Literally, changes into coagulation.

Note return to page About 758 or 735 B. C.

Note return to page Book vi. chap. 1, § 12.

Note return to page According to other authorities he was descended from Bacchus.

Note return to page At present Corfû.

Note return to page Cape Bruzzano.

Note return to page Cicero's Oratio Frumentaria supports this character of the country. Silius Italicus, lib. xiv. vers. 23, thus celebrates the richness of the soil, Multa solo virtus: jam reddere fœnus aratris, Jam montes umbrare olea, dare nomina Baccho; Nectare Cecropias Hyblæo accendere ceras: Silius Italicus, lib. vix. vers. 23 and Florus terms it Terra frugum ferax.

Note return to page Strabo makes a distinct mention of Siculi and Sicani, as if they were different people. Philologists have been much divided as to whether they were not different appellations of the same nation.

Note return to page Such as the Elymi, or Helymi, who occupied the districts bordering on the Belici in the western part of the island.

Note return to page It is probable that Morgantium was situated on the right bank of the Giaretta, below its confluence with the Dattaino, but at some little distance from the sea; at least such is the opinion of Cluverius, in opposition to the views of Sicilian topographers. Sic. Ant. book ii. cap. 7, pp. 325 and 335.

Note return to page The first settlement of the Carthaginians in Sicily was about 560 B. C.

Note return to page 212 years B. C.

Note return to page 42 years B. C.

Note return to page They were called Nesos, [the island Ortygia,] Achradina, Tycha, Neapolis, and Epipolæ. Ausonius applies the epithet fourfold, Quis Catinam sileat? quis quadruplices Syracusas? Dionysius however fortified Epipolæ with a wall, and joined it to the city.

Note return to page Twenty-two miles four perches English. Swinburne spent two days in examining the extent of the ruins, and was satisfied as to the accuracy of Strabo's statement.

Note return to page A river of Elis.

Note return to page Virgil thus deals with the subject: Sicanio prætenta sinu jacet insula contra Plemmyrium undosum: nomen dixere priores Ortygiam Alpheum fama est huc, Elidis amnem, Occultas egisse vias subtar mare; qui nunc Ore, Arethusa, tuo Sicniss confunditur undis. æn. iii. 69.

Note return to page The words of Pindar are, ἄμπνευμα σεμνὸν αλφεοῦ, κλεινᾶν συρακοσσᾶν θάλος, ορτυγία. The French translators have rendered them, Terme saint du tourment d' Alphée Bel ornement, de Syracuse Ortygia!" And Groskurd, Ehrwürdige Ruhstatt Alpheos', Ruhmzweig Syrakossai's, o Du Ortygia. Liddell and Scott call ἀνάπνευμα a resting-place, referring to this passage, but I can see no reason for not allowing to it the signification most suitable to the passage. ἀναπνέω is, to breathe again, and, according to the supposition of the ancients, the Alpheus might justly be said to breathe again on appearing at Arethusa, after its passage beneath the bed of the sea from Greece. ἀναπνοὴ also, means a recovering of breath.

Note return to page Pindar, Nem. Od. i. vers. 1. See also Bohn's Classic. Lib. Pindar.

Note return to page Conf. Antig. Caryst. Hist. Min. cap. 155.

Note return to page According to Strabo himself, book viii. chap. 3, § 12, the Alpheus flows through a subterraneous course before it comes to Olympia; the objection therefore which he here takes, rests only on the circumstance of the river pursuing a visible course all the way to the sea, from the point where the chalice had fallen into it.

Note return to page A river of Elis.

Note return to page The play from which this is quoted is not extant.

Note return to page A people of Thessaly.

Note return to page A people of Argos.

Note return to page Aspro-potamo.

Note return to page In the Peloponnesus.

Note return to page The Lao or the Pollina.

Note return to page Pollina.

Note return to page The Porto Maggiore of Syracuse is scarcely half so large.

Note return to page Centorbe, to the south-west of ætna. Silius, lib. xiv., mentions it as Centuripe, largoque virens Entella Lyæo.

Note return to page The ancient Symæthus.

Note return to page Now Camarana: it was founded 600 years B. C.

Note return to page Girgenti.

Note return to page Apparet Camarina procul, campique Geloi. Virg. æn. iii. 701.

Note return to page Marsalla.

Note return to page I Bagni.

Note return to page S. Maria di Tindaro.

Note return to page Castel-à-Mare.

Note return to page Cefalù.

Note return to page Now ruins at Barbara.

Note return to page Also called Acestes.

Note return to page Castro-Ioanni.

Note return to page Ovid, in the fourth book of his Fasti, thus alludes to the temple, Grata domus Cereri, multas ea possidet urbes, In quibus est culto fertilis Enna solo. From this place we have the adjective Enneus, and the Ennea virgo of Sil. lib. xiv., for Proserpine, Tum rapta præceps Ennea virgine flexit. Diodorus Siculus, lib. v. cap. 3, says that there was a fable about the seizure of the virgin [Proserpine] in the meadows near Enna. The locality is very near the town, embellished with violets and all kinds of beautiful flowers. An ancient coin of the place described by Ezech. Spanheim, page 906, is inscribed with the letters M U N. H E N N A E. Pliny, lib. iii. cap. 8, writes, Municipes Hennenses.

Note return to page About 146 years B. C.

Note return to page The sentence from Eryx to notice, placed between daggers, seems to have been transposed from the end of § 5; it should immediately succeed the words ægestus the Trojan.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus, lib. iv. § 83, tom. i. p. 326, gives a different account of the state of this place at this time.

Note return to page The Carthaginians had destroyed it about 409 years B. C.

Note return to page Some colonists from Rhodes made a settlement here 45 years after the foundation of Syracuse. It was overthrown about 279 years B. C.

Note return to page Milazzo.

Note return to page About 649 B. C.

Note return to page It is supposed that Callipolis anciently occupied the site of Mascalis.

Note return to page Those who inhabited Hybia Minor. We know that Selinus was in existence 640 B. C., and destroyed 268 B. C.

Note return to page Now ruins called di Pollece on the river Madiuni in the Terra de' Pulci.

Note return to page The Leontini arrived in Sicily 728 B. C., and founded Leontini, now Lentini.

Note return to page Eubmœa was destroyed by the tyrant Gelon, who reigned from 491 to 478 B. C. Eubali, Castellazzio, and a place near the little town of Licodia, not far from the source of the Drillo, have been supposed to be the site of the ancient Eubœa. Siebenkees thinks that the words between daggers at the end of § 7 should follow Eubœa.

Note return to page Lit. barbarians.

Note return to page About 134 B. C.

Note return to page Castro-Ioanni.

Note return to page Kramer and Siebenkees consider that the sentence between daggers, from The to prosperity, has been transferred from its proper place. See note 12, page 412.

Note return to page The French translators infer from this passage that Strabo had never visited Sicily.

Note return to page Sicilian topographers vary exceedingly in defining the position of these mountains. Groskurd makes them Madonia.

Note return to page To the south-west.

Note return to page See Humboldt, Cosmos, i. 242.

Note return to page Book v. chap. iv. § 9.

Note return to page I Bagni di Sciacca.

Note return to page Now ruins at Barbara, in the valley of Mazzara.

Note return to page Girgenti.

Note return to page A modern traveller is of opinion that these correspond with certain peculiar marshes near Girgenti, in the midst of the Macaluba mountains, supplied by a spring of salt water. The soil here is chalky, and the mountains abound in a grey and ductile clay. See Monsieur le Com- mandeur de Dolomieu, Voyage aux iles de Lipari, pp. 165 et seqq.; also Fazell. Decad. i. lib. i. cap. 5, p. 45.

Note return to page The place dedicated to these avengers of perjury is frequently located near Mineo and Palagonia; others, thinking to gain the support of Virgil's testimony, place it near Paterno, much farther north, between Catana and Centorbi, and not far from the banks of the Giaretta, the ancient Symæthus.

Note return to page Cluvier supposes this cavern must have been near Mazarum [Mazara]. The river named Mazarus by the ancients, runs through a rocky district, abounding in stone quarries. It is possible that this river, much hemmed in throughout its course, might have anciently flowed beneath some of these massive rocks.

Note return to page Orontes.

Note return to page According to Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. vi. § 31, tom. i. p. 333, the Tigris is ingulfed on reaching a branch of Mount Taurus, at a place called Zoroanda, which M. D'Anville identifies with the modern Hazour.

Note return to page λιβύη in Strabo.

Note return to page Kramer here persists in reading πὸ, and rejects ἀπὸ we have endeavoured to translate it with Kramer, but the French translation of 1809 renders it, a little below its sources.

Note return to page A river of Argolis: see book viii. Casaub. pp. 371 and 389.

Note return to page Argolis.

Note return to page This ancient city was found in ruins by Pausanias, who says (Arcadic or book viii. cap. 44, p. 691) that at less than 20 stadia distant from the Athenæum are found the ruins of Asea, as well as the hill on which the citadel of the town was built, which was surrounded by walls, the vestiges of which still remain. About 5 stadia from Asea, and not far from the main road, is the source of the Alpheus, and, quite close, even at the edge of the road, that of the Eurotas.... [At a short distance] the two rivers unite and run as one for about 20 stadia; they then both cast themselves into a chasm, and, continuing their under-ground course, they afterwards reappear; one (the Eurotas) in Laconia, the other in the territory of Megalopolis. Such is what Pausanias relates in one place. But when, in this account, he fixes the source of the Alpheus at about 5 stadia from Asea, we must understand him to allude to a second source of the river; for further on (book viii. cap. 54, p. 709) he says distinctly that the main source of the Alpheus is seen near Phylace in Arcadia; then adds that that river, on coming to the district of Tegea, is absorbed under the ground, to re-issue near Asea.

Note return to page See § 4 of this chapter, page 408.

Note return to page The ancient Timavus. See book v. chap. i. § 8, page 319.

Note return to page The French translation, en divers endroits de I' Italic. Some manuscripts read ιταλίαν. We have followed Kramer and Groskurd.

Note return to page Founded about B. C. 580.

Note return to page Thermessa, at present called Vulcano, is doubtless the same mentioned in Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. iii. § 14, tom. i. p. 164, as Therasia, by the error of the copyist. Paulus Orosius, lib. iv. cap. 20, says that it rose from the bed of the sea, B. C. 571. It is however certain that it was in existence B. C. 427, confer. l'hucyd. lib. iii. § 88, and was for a considerable time called Hiera.

Note return to page See Pausan. Phoc. or lib. x. cap. 16, p. 835.

Note return to page See Pausan. Phoc. or lib. x. cap. 2, p. 824.

Note return to page M. le Comm. de Dolomieu, in his Voyage aux iles de Lipari, ed. 1783, p. 75 et seq., supports the character here given of the fertility of this island, and praises the abundance of delicious fruits it produces.

Note return to page M. le Comm. de Dolomieu considers it probable that the Liparæans obtained this alum by the lixiviation of earths exposed to the acidosulphurous vapours of their volcanos, pp. 77, 78.

Note return to page These hot springs are not much frequented, although they still exist.

Note return to page See Humboldt, Cosm. i. 242.

Note return to page This is 30 feet in the epitome.

Note return to page Odyss. lib. x. 21.

Note return to page Here follow some words which convey no intelligible meaning.— They are written in the margin of some of the manuscripts. Kramer inserts them between asterisks as follows:Εστιν ἡ ἐπίστασις τῆς ἐν αργείας λέγοιτ' ἄν,. . . . . . ἐπίσης τε ψάρ ἄμθω πάρεστι, καί διαθέσει καὶ τῇ ἐναργείᾳ ἥ γε ἡδονὴ κοινὸν ἀμφοτέων Groskurd thinks the passage might be translated, [Great, undoubtedly,] is the impression produced by animated energy, [of which] it may be asserted [that it excites in a marked degree both admiration and pleasure]. For both arise equally from graphic representation and animated description. Pleasure at least is common to both. The following are Groskurd's own words: Gross allerdings ist der Eindruck kräftiger Lebendigkeit, [von welcher] man behaupten darf, [dass sie vorzüglich sowohl Bewunderung als Vergniigen gewahre]. Denn Beide erfolgen gleichermassen, sowohl durch Darstellung als durch Lebendigkeit; das Vergniigen wenigstens ist Beiden gemein.

Note return to page Stromboli.

Note return to page στρογγύλος means round. M. Dolomieu, p. 113, says that the island of Stromboli, seen from a distance, appears like a cone; when, however, it is more particularly examined, it looks like a mountain terminated by two peaks of different heights, and the sides appear disturbed and torn by craters opened in various parts, and streams of lava which have flowed down. It might be about 12 miles in circumference.

Note return to page Most of the ancient authors agree in considering Lipari as the residence of & æolus. See Cluver. Sic. Ant. lib. ii. cap. 14.

Note return to page δίδυμος, double. Cluverius identifies this with the island now called Salini. M. Dolomieu says that Didyma is situated to the west of Lipari; it is nearly circular, and contains three mountains placed so as to form a triangle. Two of the mountains are connected at their bases, the third is separated from them by a valley which runs right across the island, so that while sailing at some distance in the sea on the south side it has the appearance of two islands, from which circumstance it took its ancient name of Didyma: its present name, Salini, is derived from salt works there.

Note return to page Ericussa, now called Alicudi or Alicurim, is covered with trees, it is inhabited, but little cultivated. The pasturage is pretty good.

Note return to page Phœnicussa, now Felicudi or Filicurim, abounds in rich pastures; both wheat and the vine are here cultivated.

Note return to page Cluverius, Sic. Ant. lib. ii. p. 414, identifies this island with Lisca- Bianca, to the east of Lipari, but M. le commandeur Dolomieu, Voyage pittoresqne de Naples et de Sicile, tom. iv. part ii. chap. 14, considers that it corresponded with the present Panaria, which is about eight times the circumference of Lisca-Bianca. He says the neighbouring islets are but the detached portions of a vast crater now submerged; the denomination, Formocoli or the Little Ants, is aptly illustrative of their minuteness and numbers. The most important are Datolo, Lisca- Nera, Lisca-Bianca, and Basiluzzo. M. Gossellin very justly remarks that it is quite possible the volcanos, which continually burn in the islands of æolus, may have formed some new one, and gives some good reasons for identifying Didyma with Panaria.

Note return to page Rich. Pocock, Descr. de I' Or., &c. vers. Fr. part iii. chap. 24, tom. vi. p. 327, considers that Strabo meant to say that Euonymus lies most to the left hand as you sail from Sicily to the island of Lipari, and proposes Ustica, the westernmost of the Lipari Islands, as its modern representative.

Note return to page See Humboldt, Cosmos ii. 557.

Note return to page A note in the French translation suggests that, notwithstanding the accord of all manuscripts, we should, doubtless, understand Titus Quinctius Flaminius, prætor in A.. U C. 628, and B. C. 126.

Note return to page πὸς ἄρκτον, in Kramer's text. We have followed the example set by the French translators, and approved by Groskurd, who proposes to read πρὸς ἀρκτικὸν ἄκον. Kramer however justly remarks, that many other things in this passage are exceedingly confused, and remain incapable of conjectural elucidation.

Note return to page From Ericodes, now Alicudi, to Phœnicodes, now Felicudi, the distance given by the chorographer is the same as that set down by Ptolemy, and by far too much for that which, according to our charts, separates Felicudi from Salini, but tallies exactly with that to the island Panaria, so that the evidence, both of the chorographer and Ptolemy, seems to point to Panaria, not to Salini, as the ancient Didyma. Further, the 29 miles given in Strabo's text as the distance from Didyma to Lipari, are reduced to 19 miles in the chart of Ptolemy, and even this last distance would be much too great for the interval which separates Salini from Lipari, but agrees with the distance from Lipari to Panaria, and seems likewise to confirm the identity of Panaria and Didyma. The 19 miles, from Lipari to Sicily, agree with Ptolemy and our charts. Ptolemy gives the equivalent of 44 miles as the distance between Sicily and Strongyle, while our modern maps confirm his computation. M. Gossellin observes that the 16 miles of the existing text of Strabo must be a transcriber's error; but the construction of the text might very well allow the distance to be from Didyma to Strongyle, which would be nearly correct.

Note return to page Malta.

Note return to page Towards Africa and the south.

Note return to page μελιτωῖα.

Note return to page All other classic authors, both Greek and Latin, give the name of Gaulus to this island; it is the modern Gozzo.

Note return to page Pantelaria.

Note return to page This M. Gossellin very satisfactorily proves to be 88.

Note return to page A note in the French translation observes, that the Iapygia of Strabo was confined to the peninsula of Tarentum.

Note return to page The Sallentini, or Salentini, cannot be distinguished with accuracy from the Calabri, as the name is used by several writers in a very ex tensive sense, and applied to the greater part of Iapygia.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca.

Note return to page The district occupied by the Calabri seems to have been that maritime part of the Iapygian peninsula extending from the ancient Brundusium to the city of Hydruntum, answering nearly to what is now called Terra di Lecce.

Note return to page Dionysius of Halicarnassus derives the name of this people from Peucetius, son of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, but they are generally spoken of in history as barbarians, differing in no essential respect from the Daunii, Iapyges, and other neighbouring nations.

Note return to page A note in the French translation remarks, that Strabo would have done well to add, and also the Apuli properly so called. If we follow Strabo's testimony solely, we may almost describe the bounds of the Peucetii by four lines, viz. 1. From Tarentum to Brindisi. 2. Along the sea-shore from Brindisi to Bari. 3. From Bari to Garagnone or Gorgoglione, the ancient Sylvium, if not even still nearer to Venosa. 4. From Garagnone to Tarentum, constituting what is called in modern geography Terra di Bari.–The following are the limits of the Dannii. 1. From Garagnone to Bari. 2. From Bari to Peschici or to Rodi. 3. Thence to Lucera; and, 4 from Lucera to Garagnone. Thus they occupied a great part of La Puglia, with a portion of the Terra di Bari. With regard to those who, according to Strabo, were properly Apuli, they extended from the neighbourhood of Lucera to Rodi or Peschici, thence to the mouth of the river Fortore, thence to Civitate, (the ancient Teanum Apulum,) which was included, and from Civitate to Lucera; this district would answer to the northern portion of La Puglia, which the Fortore separates from La Capitanata.

Note return to page The name of Pœdiculi was given to the inhabitants of that portion of Peucetia which was more particularly situated on the coast between the Aufidus and the confines of the Calabri. Pliny (iii. 11) states that this particular tribe derived their origin from Illyria.

Note return to page Brindisi.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca.

Note return to page We have followed Groskurd's example in introducing this thousand. The French translators thought it too hardy to venture, and Kramer was fearful to insert it in his text, but he approves of it in his notes.

Note return to page Manuscripts here have blanks.

Note return to page Ruins near Torre a Mare.

Note return to page Manuscripts here have blanks.

Note return to page Mare-piccolo.

Note return to page Or twelve miles and a half. This computation does not agree with modern measurements, which reckon the circuit at sixteen miles. See Swinburne's Travels, torn. i. sect. 32. Gagliardi, Topogr. di Taranto.

Note return to page In the year 213 or 212 B. C.

Note return to page B. C. 209.

Note return to page It is said the pictures and statues taken on this occasion were nearly as numerous as those found at Syracuse.

Note return to page That which commenced about 743 B. C.

Note return to page I have here translated τοῖς τοῦ δήμου and οἱ τοῦ δήμου by free citizens. Several notes have been written on the exact meaning of the words, but I am not satisfied that we understand it properly. It might perhaps mean those appointed to the chief rule of the state by the constitution.

Note return to page There is little doubt that this passage is corrupt.

Note return to page κυνέη, a leathern cap or hat, a helmet, &c. See also page 426.

Note return to page I have here translated τοῖς τοῦ δήμου and οἱ τοῦ δήμου by free citizens. Several notes have been written on the exact meaning of the words, but I am not satisfied that we understand it properly. It might perhaps mean those appointed to the chief rule of the state by the constitution.

Note return to page About eight miles to the east or south-east of Taranto, upon the coast, we find a place named Saturo. In this place the country open to the south presents the most agreeable aspect. Sheltered from the north wind, and watered by numerous running streams, it produces the choicest fruits, oranges, citrons, lemons, pomegranates, figs, and all manner of garden produce, with which Taranto is abundantly supplied. Ant. de Ferrar. Galat. de sit. Iapyg. edit. nell. Raccolt. d' Opusc. sc. et philol. tom. vii. p. 80.

Note return to page Mazoch. Prod. ad Heracl. pseph. diatr. ii. cap. 4, sect. 4, page 96, not. 51, considers that we should not make a distinction between these barbarians and Cretans, but that they were identical.

Note return to page According to Sicilian topographers, Camici was the same as the citadel of Acragas [Girgenti].—Cluvier, Sic. Ant. lib. ii. cap. 15, p. 207, is of opinion that Camici occupied the site of Siculiana, on the Fiume delle Canne. D'Anville, Géogr. Anc. tom. i. p. 219, and tom. iii. p. 146, seems to locate Camici at Platanella, on the Fiume di Platani.

Note return to page There are various readings of this name.

Note return to page There is a tradition that Taras was born to Neptune by Satyræa, daughter of Minos.

Note return to page About 745 B. C.

Note return to page Statius, lib. 4, Theb., thus mentions Ithome, Planaque Messena, montanaque nutrit Ithome.Statius, lib. 4, Theb.

Note return to page πῖλος λακωνικός.

Note return to page See Heyne, Opusc. Acad. tom. ii. p. 223, not. h.

Note return to page He is said to have entertained Plato during his sojourn here. Archytas flourished about the commencement of the fourth century B. C., and was still living in the year 349 B. C.

Note return to page About 332 or 339 B. C. See Heyn. Opusc. Acad. tom. ii. p. 141.

Note return to page About 338 B. C.

Note return to page About 303 B. C.

Note return to page About 330 B. C.

Note return to page About 281 B. C.

Note return to page Cramer, in his Ancient Italy, has very justly remarked that the name of the small river Calandro, which discharges itself into the sea a little below Capo di Roseto, bears some affinity to the river Acalandrus mentioned by Strabo. However, some have thought it identical with the Salandrella and the Fiume di Roseto, while Cluverius was of opinion that we should here read κυλίσταρνος instead of ακάλανδρος, and identify it with the modern Racanello.

Note return to page 326 B. C.

Note return to page 209 B. C.

Note return to page 124 B. C.

Note return to page Some suspect this last sentence to be an interpolation; certain it is that there is great difficulty in finding a time to correspond with all the circumstances contained in it. According to M. Heyne, this war must have taken place 474 B. C., but then Heraclea was not founded till 436 B. C. It seems too that the people of Iapygia had kings as late as 480 B. C.

Note return to page Brundusium, now Brindisi.

Note return to page Castro. This temple is now changed into the church of Sancta Maria in finibus terra. See Capmart. de Chaupy, tom. iii. page 529.

Note return to page Capo di Leuca. Pliny, lib. iii. cap. 11, says, Inde promontorium quod Acran Iapygian vocant, quo longissime in maria procurrit Italia. The Promontorium Iapygium, or Sallentinum, presented a conspicuous landmark to mariners sailing from Greece to Sicily. The fleets of Athens, after passing the Peloponnesus, are represented on this passage as usually making for Corcyra, from whence they steered straight across to the promontory, and then coasted along the south of Italy for the remainder of the voyage.

Note return to page The south-east.

Note return to page The Acra Iapygia.

Note return to page See notes to page 393 of this translation.

Note return to page Cramer remarks that Veretum is still represented by the old church of S. Maria di Vereto.

Note return to page That is, on land.

Note return to page Scylax, Peripl. p. 5, speaks of the Leuterni as a really existing people.

Note return to page Now Otranto. Lucan, book v. verse 374, speaking of the little river Idro which runs close to Otranto, says, Et cunctas revocare rates, quas avius Hydrûs, Antiquusque Taras, secretaque litora Leucæ. Quas recipit Salapina palus, et subdita Sipus Montibus. Lucan, v.374 And Cicero, writing of the town to Tyro, book xvi. epistle 9, says of his voyage from Cassiope, Inde Austro lenissimo, cœlo sereno, nocte illa et die postero in Italiam ad Hydruntem ludibundi pervenimus. This place was called Hydruntum by Pliny and other authors.

Note return to page Now Saseno, distant 35 minutes from Otranto.

Note return to page B. C. 239.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer's text in calling this place Aletia, several MSS. read Salepia. Cramer, in his description of Ancient Italy, vol ii. p. 316, says, Aletium is naturally supposed to have occupied the site of the church of S. Maria della Lizza.—It was called αλήτιον by Ptolemy.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer's reading; some MSS. have θυέαι, some θυαῖαι, &c.

Note return to page lit. of a certain one of the nobles.

Note return to page ούαῖαι, MSS., but a note in the French translation explains that Strabo was quoting Herodotus from memory. We follow Kramer.

Note return to page B. C. 1353.

Note return to page Brindisi.

Note return to page About B. C. 1323.

Note return to page Great changes have taken place in this locality since Strabo's description was drawn.

Note return to page Torre d' Agnazzo.

Note return to page Ceglie, south of Bari.

Note return to page Now Noja; but the identity of this place has been much canvassed.

Note return to page Canosa.

Note return to page Now Ordona, about twelve miles to the east of æca, now Troja. Livy records the defeat of the Roman forces at this place in two successive years. Hannibal removed the inhabitants and fired the town, (Livy xxvii. 1,) but it was subsequently repaired, and is noticed by Frontinus as Ardona. Ptolemy and Silius Italicus, viii. 568, mention it as Herdonia— . . . . . . . . . quosque Obscura inculsis Herdonia misit ab agris. That through Tarentum is a little to the left, it runs about a day's journey round for one traversing the whole distance; it is called the Appian Way, and is more of a carriage road than the other. On it stands the city Uria,

Note return to page Oria.

Note return to page Venosa.

Note return to page Paolisi.

Note return to page Le Galazze

Note return to page S. Maria di Capoa.

Note return to page Capoa Nova.

Note return to page Monte Dragone, or Mondragone.

Note return to page At Capua, now S. Maria di Capua.

Note return to page Eustathius explains that those mountains were called Ceraunian from the frequent falling of thunderbolts upon them. τά κεαύνια ὄη, οὕτω καλούμενα διὰ τὸ συχνοὺς ἐκεῖ πίπτειν κεαυνούς.

Note return to page Durazzo.

Note return to page It seems as if some words had been skipped in this place, for we should expect to have the distance of the other passage to the Ceraunian Mountains, but Strabo no where mentions it.

Note return to page M. Gossellin seems to think we should here read 800 and not 1800 stadia; but Kramer reckons it improbable. Groskurd concurs essentially with the opinion of M. Gossellin, and translates it something as follows for it is 1000, while the former is 800 stadia across.

Note return to page Now Torre d' Agnazzo.

Note return to page Bari.

Note return to page Silvium was situated on the Appian Way. Holstenius and Pratilli agree in fixing its position at Garagnone, about 15 miles to the south-west of Venosa. Holsten. Adnot. p. 281. Pratilli, Via Appia, 1. iv. c. 7.

Note return to page About 310 stadia.

Note return to page The Aufidus, celebrated by Horace, Od. iv. 9, Ne forte credas interitura, quæ Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum, Non ante vulgatas per artes Verba loquor socianda chordis.

Note return to page M. Gossellin considers this rather too much, and supposes 315 stadia would be nearer the truth.

Note return to page Ruins now called Salpi.

Note return to page Now Lucera.

Note return to page See book v. c. 1, § 9, p. 320. Ptolemy makes these five which is the number of the isles of Tremiti at present, if we include in the group three barren rocks, which scarce deserve the name of islands. One was called Diomedea by Pliny, and Tremitus by Tacitus, who states that Augustus appointed it as the prison of his grand-daughter Julia; the second was called Teutria. The largest is at present called Isola San Domino, the other Isola San Nicolo.

Note return to page Book v. c. i. § 9, p. 320.

Note return to page Siponto, a place in ruins near Manfredonia.

Note return to page Sestini describes a gold coin belonging to this city, on which the emblem of a cuttle fish in Greek, σηπία, is apparent. The legend is σιπο. Sestini descrizione d' una Med. p. 16.

Note return to page Lycophron calls this stream by the name of Althænus.

Note return to page Groskurd is of opinion that some words to the following effect have been accidentally lost from this place, viz. The coast of Daunia forms an extensive bay about these parts.

Note return to page Now Punta di Viesti. Strabo seems to have considered the whole of the extensive neck of land lying between the bay of Rodi and that of Manfredonia, as the Garganum Promontorium. Lucan, v. 380, thus describes its prominence, Apulus Hadriacas exit Garganus in undas.

Note return to page About 37 miles towards the east.

Note return to page Rodi.

Note return to page See <*> v. c. l. § 9, p. 320.

Note return to page Brindisi.

Note return to page M. Gossellin gives a long note to show that the chorographer and Artemidorus were both correct in the distances they gave, but asserts that Strabo was mistaken as to the length of the stadium used by Artemidorus, and consequently thought he saw a discrepancy between their accounts.

Note return to page The ancient æsis.

Note return to page We think, with Kramer, that Sena Gallica, now Sinigaglia, was the city Strabo intends.

Note return to page From the Capo della Linguetta, on the coast of Albania.

Note return to page The town of Aquileia.

Note return to page M. Gossellin suggests that Strabo omitted the coast of Istria in his calculations, when he made this observation on the length of the Illyrian shore, and refers to what Strabo will himself state in book vii. chap. v. sections 3, 4, and 9, and to his estimate of 6150 stadia from the Ceraunian Mountains to Iapygia in book ii. chap. iv. § 3, p. 159.

Note return to page Doubtless the bight between the, shore, adjacent to Peschioi, to the north of Viesti, and the Punta d' Asinella.

Note return to page A note in the French translation observes that the Apuli, properly so called, could but have occupied the shore of half this bay, for the Fortore falls into it just about the centre, which river was a common boundary between the Apuli and Frentani.

Note return to page B. C. 216.

Note return to page Cramer says, the lake which Strabo speaks of as being near Teanum, but without mentioning its name, is called by Pliny Lacus Pontanus, (iii. 11,) now Lago di Lesina.

Note return to page The city of Teanum stood on the right bank of the Fortore, the ancient Frento; its ruins are stated to exist on the site of Civitate, about a mile from the right bank of the Fortore, and ten miles from the sea. Cramer, vol. ii. p. 273.

Note return to page Now Teano, six miles from Sessa, and fifteen from Capua.

Note return to page Pozzuolo.

Note return to page M. Gossellin observes that from the head of the bay of Naples to the shores bordering the ancient Teanum, there are 80 minutes, or 933 stadia of 700.

Note return to page Romanelli is of opinion that the ruins of Buca exist at the present Penna.

Note return to page Book v. chap. iv. § 2, p. 359.

Note return to page In the year 747 B. C.

Note return to page In the year 594 B. C.

Note return to page The Latins were first subjected in 499 B. C., but not totally subjugated; the Sabines were almost annihilated in the war which happened about 450 B. C.

Note return to page See Poly b. Hist. book i. chap. vi. § 1, edit. Schweigh, tom. i. p. 12.

Note return to page This battle was fought in the year 405 B. C.

Note return to page Concluded 387 B. C.

Note return to page About 338 B. C.

Note return to page About 310 B. C.

Note return to page About 275 B. C.

Note return to page In the year 264 B. C.

Note return to page In the year 241 B. C.

Note return to page 218 B. C.

Note return to page 146 B. C.

Note return to page λιβὺη.

Note return to page The ancient Halys.

Note return to page Antiochus ceded Asia Minor in the year B. C. 189.

Note return to page Perseus was taken in the year B. C. 167.

Note return to page Ister.

Note return to page The ancient Halys.

Note return to page In the year B. C. 133.

Note return to page In the year B. C. 140.

Note return to page B. C. 72.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Biscay.

Note return to page B. C. 19.

Note return to page About A. D. 17 or 18.

Note return to page From this expression we may gather that Strabo wrote this 6th Book of his Geography during the life-time of Juba, and, as we shall presently see, about A. D. 18; while he did not compile the 17th Book till after Juba's death, which must have taken place before A. D. 21. See M. l' Abbé Sevin, Rech. sur la Vie, &c., de Juba, Ac. des Inscr. et Belles- Lettres, vol. iv. Mém. p. 462.

Note return to page Attalus III., king of Pergamus, died 133 B. C., and constituted the Roman people his heir.

Note return to page We may here observe that the Seleucidæ ceased to reign in Syria as early as 83 B. C., when that country, wearied of their sad dissensions, willingly submitted to Tigranes the king of Armenia, but their race was not extinct, and even in the year 64 B. C. when Pompey made the kingdom a Roman province, there were two princes of the Seleucidæ, Antiochus Asiaticus and his brother Seleucus-Cybiosactes, who had an hereditary right to the throne; the latter however died about 54 B. C., and in him terminated the race of the Seleucidæ.

Note return to page The race of the kings of Paphlagonia became extinct about 7 B. C. See M. l' Abbé Belley, Diss. sur l' ère de Germanicopolis, &c. Ac. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, vol. xxx. Mém. p. 331.

Note return to page The royal race of Cappadocia failed about 91 B. C.

Note return to page The race of the Lagidæ terminated with Ptolemy Auletes, who died 44 B. C., leaving two daughters, Cleopatra and Arsinoë. Ptolemy Apion died 96 B. C.; he left Cyrene, whereof he was king, to the Roman people

Note return to page Now the Fasz or Rion.

Note return to page The Forat, Ferat, or Frat.

Note return to page The ancient Ister.

Note return to page Strabo will relate in book vii. chap. iv. § 4, that after the defeat of Mithridates Eupator they became subject to the Romans.

Note return to page See more as to these people in book vii. chap. iii. § 17.

Note return to page Inhabitants of tents.

Note return to page In the year 20 B. C. See book xvi. chap. i. § 28.

Note return to page Compare Tacitus, Annales, lib. ii. § 1.

Note return to page As Vonones, mentioned by Tacitus in his second book.

Note return to page Compare the words of Tacitus, Annal. lib. i. § 9, Non aliud discordantis patriæ remedium fuisse, quàm ut ab uno regeretur.

Note return to page Germanicus was appointed to take charge of the East in A. D. 17, in 18 he took possession of his government, and died in 19. Drusus was in command of the armies of Germany in A. D. 17. Thus we may safely conclude this 6th book of Strabo's Geography to have been written in A. D. 18.

Note return to page The ancient Tanais.

Note return to page Palus Mæotis.

Note return to page The ancient Ister.

Note return to page The ancient Propontis.

Note return to page Strabo, in a subsequent passage, states that the distance from the Danube to the city Trieste, at the head of the Adriatic, is about 1200 stadia.

Note return to page The ancient Tyras.

Note return to page The Borysthenes.

Note return to page The Bastarnæ were a people occupying portions of the modern Moldavia, Podolia, and the Ukraine.

Note return to page The Tyregetæ, or the Getæ of the river Tyras, were a people dwelling on the Dniester, to the south of the Bastarnæ.

Note return to page The ancient geographers supposed that the Northern Ocean extended to the 56° of north latitude. Their notions of the existence of the Baltic were vague. They therefore confounded it with the Northern Ocean, thus making the continent of Europe to extend only to the 56° of north latitude.

Note return to page See book iv. chap. iv. § 2, pp. 291, 292.

Note return to page Strabo's words are, γνήσιοι γά οὶ γεμανοὶ κατὰ τὴν πωμαίων διάλεκτον. It is possible he may be endeavouring to explain that the yep in Germani is equivalent to the Latin verus, true, the wahr of modern German, and that Germani signifies the true men of the country, the undoubted autochthones of Galatia or Gaul.

Note return to page The Marsi were a people dwelling on the banks of the Ems, near Munster.

Note return to page The Sicambri were located near the Menapii. See above, p. 289.

Note return to page The Albis.

Note return to page Amasias.

Note return to page The name of this tribe is written variously by different authors. They are supposed to have occupied the lands between the Rhine, the Ems, and the Lippe, but their boundaries were very uncertain, on account of their continual wars.

Note return to page This refers to the chain of mountains which, running from the north of Switzerland, traverses Wurtemberg, Franconia, Bohemia, Moravia, and joins Mount Krapak.

Note return to page The Hercynian Wood, or Black Forest, was either one or a succession of continuous forests, extending from the banks of the Rhine to the confines of Persia and Bactriana.

Note return to page The Suevi occupied a considerable portion of Germany, to the north and east of Bohemia.

Note return to page Coldui manuscripts. Kramer agrees with Cluverius in this instance, and we have followed Kramer's text.

Note return to page The Lugii of Tacitus.

Note return to page Zeus thinks these were the Burri of Dio Cassius, lxviii. 8. See Zeus, Die Deutschen, &c., p. 126.

Note return to page Kramer has γούτωνας, although the MSS. have βούτωνας. He is led to this emendation by Cluverius and others. Cluv. Germ. Antiq. lib. iii. c. 34, page 625.

Note return to page The Gambrivii of Tacitus, Germ. cap. 2.

Note return to page Cluverius considers these were the Chamavi.

Note return to page We have followed Kramer's text. MSS. read Bucteri.

Note return to page For Caulci, Campsiani, Cluverius would read Cathulci, Campsani. A little further on Strabo calls the Campsiani Ampsani.

Note return to page Amasias.

Note return to page Visurgis.

Note return to page Lupias.

Note return to page Salas.

Note return to page Borcum. Pliny calls this island Burchana, and adds, that the Romans gave it the name of Fabaria, on account of the beans (in Latin Faba) which grow there.

Note return to page Segimundus in Tacitus, Annal. lib. i. cap. 57.

Note return to page ægimerus in Tacitus, Annal. lib. i. cap. 71.

Note return to page Acrumerus, according to the correction of Cluverius. He is Actumerus in Tacitus, Annal. lib. xi. 16, 17.

Note return to page MSS. Batti, which Vossius reckons were the Batavi.

Note return to page Cluverius considers these were the Marsi of Tacitus, Annal. lib. ii. cap. 25.

Note return to page Called Tubantes by the Roman writers.

Note return to page Schwartz Wald, or Black Forest.

Note return to page The Lake Constance.

Note return to page Strabo could hardly have intended 300, since the diameter of the lake is given at 200. Velser conjectures that 500 or 600 would be the proper reading. Its exact circumference is about 550 stadia.

Note return to page Gossellin considers that by Keltica we are to understand Cisalpine Gaul, and the neighbourhood of Milan and Mantua.

Note return to page Gossellin says that the sources of the Danube are about 14 leagues distant from the western extremity of the Lake Constance.

Note return to page The Rhæti possessed the countries of the Grisons and the Tyrol, extending to the eastern shores of the Lake Constance.

Note return to page The Helvetii, or Swiss, possessed the southern borders of the Lake Constance.

Note return to page The Vindelici occupied the country on the northern borders of the lake, with the regions of Swabia and Bavaria south of the Danube, and reaching to the Inn. Gossellin.

Note return to page It is evident that some words have been omitted in this place. The words we have inserted are the conjecture of Cluverius and Groskurd.

Note return to page As far as we can make out from Strabo and Pliny, book iii. cap. 27, the desert of the Boii stretched along the shores of the Danube from the river Inn to the mountains a little west of Vienna, which were the boundary between the Norici and the Pannonians. This strip of land is now called the Wiener-Wald, or Forest of Vienna. Doubtless it took its name of Desert of the Boii on account of its contiguity to the south of the country occupied by those people, and which still bears the name of Bohemia.

Note return to page The Pannonians occupied the districts of Hungary west of the Danube.

Note return to page The Norici inhabited that part of Austria which lies between the Danube and the Alps.

Note return to page The Insubri occupied the Milanese.

Note return to page The Carni have left their name to Carniola.

Note return to page See also book ii. chap. 3, § 6. Festus relates that the Ambrones abandoned their country on account of this tide. The Ambrones were a tribe of the Helvetii, and more than once joined with the Cimbri.

Note return to page The French translation has happily paraphrased, not translated, this passage as follows: For although it is true that the ocean has tides of more or less height, still they occur periodically, and in an order constantly the same.

Note return to page Aristotle, Ethics, Eudem. lib. iii. cap. 1, Nicolas of Damascus, and ælian, Var. Histor. lib. xii. cap. 23, have attributed the like extravagant proceedings to the Kelts or Gauls. Nicolas of Damascus, Reliq. pp. 272, 273, says that the Kelts resist the tides of the ocean with their swords in their hands, till they perish in the waters, in order that they may not seem to fear death by taking the precaution to fly.

Note return to page It is probable that Clitarchus obtained his information from the Gauls. As for the sudden influx of the tide, there are several other examples of the kind, in which the troops surprised were not so successful in getting off.

Note return to page Tacitus, De Morib. Germanor. cap. viii., says that these priestesses were held in great reputation, and mentions one Veleda as diu apud plerosque numinis loco habitam.

Note return to page Pliny, lib. xix. cap. 1, describes this carbasus as very fine flax, grown in the neighbourhood of Tarragona in Spain. The Père Hardouin considers that the carbasus or fabric manufactured of this flax was similar to the French batiste.—The flax and the fabric were alike called carbasus.

Note return to page The Sicambri, or Sugambri, dwelt to the south of the Lippe.

Note return to page The Cimbri occupied Jutland, the ancient Cimbrica Chersonesus.

Note return to page The shores of the Baltic.

Note return to page Gossellin places the Jazyges in the southern districts of the Ukraine, between the Dniester and the Sea of Azoff.

Note return to page Gossellin considers that the name of Russia is derived from these Roxolani.

Note return to page The Bastarne and Tyregetæ, mentioned in chap. i. § I, of this book, to whom, in book ii. chap. v. § 30, Strabo adds also the Sauromatæ.

Note return to page The Sauromatæ, or Sarmatians, living to the east of the Sea of Azoff and along the banks of the Don.

Note return to page The term Atlantic was applied with much more latitude by Strabo and Eratosthenes than by us.

Note return to page But he himself turned back his shining eyes apart, looking towards the land of the equestrian Thracians and the close-fighting Mysians. Iliad xiii. 3.

Note return to page The Strait of the Dardanelles.

Note return to page Milkers of mares.

Note return to page People who live on milk.

Note return to page Devoid of riches.

Note return to page Dwelling in waggons.

Note return to page Perhaps Teurisci.

Note return to page A note in the French translation suggests that Capnobatæ has some connexion with the practice of intoxication by inhaling smoke, and of using the vapour of linseed, burned upon red-hot stones, as a bath. See Herodot. book i. chap. 202; book iv. chap. 75.

Note return to page And the illustrious Hippemolgi, milk-nourished, simple in living and most just men. Iliad xiii. 5.

Note return to page δεκάτῳ text: but there is no doubt it should be the thirteenth.

Note return to page People without life.

Note return to page The Greek is ἀνεστίους, literally without hearths.

Note return to page Strabo does not intend by the word κυνισμὸς which he here uses, the profession of a Cynic philosopher, which some of the Stoics affected in consequence of their not thoroughly understanding the dogmas of Zeno, the founder of their sect. It was to these ultra-Stoics that the name of Stoaces [στόακες] was given by way of ridicule. Athenæus, book xiii. chap. 2, remarks that a like propensity to overdo the precept of the teacher led the disciples of Aristippus, who recommended rational pleasures, to become mere libertines.

Note return to page Heraclides of Pontus, page 215, gives them even as many as thirty wives.

Note return to page Kramer reads δαπάναις, which we have rendered by expenses, but all manuscripts have ἀπάταις. The French translation gives a note with Koray's conjecture of δαπάναις, which is supported by a very similar passage respecting Alcibiades, where Isocrates (P. I. page 354, ed. Coray) says, He was so lavish in the sacrifices and other expenses for the feast. Both the French and German translations adopt the emendation.

Note return to page ζάλμοξις is the reading of the Paris manuscript, No. 1393, and we should have preferred it for the text, as more likely to be a Getæn name, but for the circumstance of his being generally written Zamolxis.

Note return to page D'Anville imagines that this is the modern mountain Kaszon, and the little river of the same name on the confines of Transylvania and Moldavia.

Note return to page See Strabo's former remarks on this identical subject, book i. chap. ii. § 3, page 25.

Note return to page εἰς τὸν πόντον.

Note return to page Ister.

Note return to page Tanaïs.

Note return to page Borysthenes.

Note return to page Hypanis.

Note return to page Phasis.

Note return to page Thermodon.

Note return to page Halys.

Note return to page Gossellin observes, that these must have been the Scythians inhabiting the Taurica Chersonesus, now the Crimea. The people on the opposite or southern shore were less savage. The Ionians had made settlements amongst these as early as the sixth century B. C.

Note return to page Africa.

Note return to page The Mediterranean.

Note return to page Od. book iv. line 83. See Strabo's remarks on this reading of Zeno, book i. chap. ii. § 34, page 66.

Note return to page See the notes on these various monsters, book i. chap. ii. § 35, p. 68.

Note return to page The Riphæan Mountains were probably the chain of the Ural Mountains, which separate Russia from Siberia.

Note return to page This mountain is unknown.

Note return to page The Gorgons were Stheino, Euryalé, and Medusa, the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto. See also book i. chap. ii. § 8, page 29.

Note return to page The Hesperides were the daughters of Night. They dwelt on an island on the western edge of the world. See also Apollodorus, book ii. chap. v. § 11.

Note return to page ælian, Var. Histor. book iii. chap. 18, says that Theopompus related an interview between Midas, king of Phrygia, and Silenus, in which Silenus reported the existence of an immense continent, larger than Asia, Europe, and Africa taken together, and that amongst others a race of men called Meropes occupied several extensive cities there.

Note return to page Ephorus speaks of the Cimmerii who dwelt round the Lake Avernus. See Strabo, book v. chap. iv. § 5, page 263.

Note return to page See Strabo, book ii. chap. iv. § 2, page 158.

Note return to page A note in the French translation says that this place has not been identified in the works of Aristotle now remaining, and suggests that there may be some error in the text.

Note return to page See what Strabo has said on this subject in book i. chap. ii. § 37, pp. 70, 71.

Note return to page Strabo will speak further on the subject of Gerena in book viii. chap. iii. § 7, and § 29.

Note return to page Reference is here made to the epithet a ἀκάκητα, which Homer applies to Mercury, Iliad xvi. 185. The grammarians explain it correctly as free from evil, or who neither does nor suffers wrong. However. there were some who interpreted it differently. They maintain that Mercury was so called from a cavern in Arcadia, called Acacesium, (see Schol. in Homer, edit. Villois. pag. 382,) which was situated near Cyllene, a mountain of Arcadia, where he was born. See Apollodor. Biblioth. lib. iii. cap. x. § 2. Hesiod, however, applies the same epithet to Prometheus, (Theogon. verse 613,) who, according to the scholiast, was thus designated from Acacesium, a mountain, not a cavern, of Arcadia, where he was greatly revered.

Note return to page Homer, Iliad iii. verse 201, in speaking of Ulysses, says, ος τάθη ἐν δήμῳ ιθάκης. Some writers affirmed that the δῆμος was the name of a place in Ithaca, while others think it a word, and understand the passage who was bred in the country of Ithaca. On comparing this passage with others, Iliad xvi. vss. 47, 514, and with a parallel expression of Hesiod, Theogon. verse 971, one is greatly astonished at the ignorance and eccentricity of those who sought to make a place Demus out of this passage of Homer.

Note return to page According to some, Pelethronium was a city of Thessaly; according to others, it was a mountain there, or even a part of Mount Pelion.

Note return to page There is no mention of any Glaucopium throughout the writings of Homer. Eustathius, on the Odyssey, book ii. page 1451, remarks that it was from the epithet γλαυκῶπις, blue-eyed or fierce-eyed, which he so often gives to Minerva, that the citadel at Athens was called the Glaucopium, while Stephen of Byzantium, on αλαλκομένιον, asserts that both the epithet γλαυκῶπις and the name of the citadel Glaucopium comes from Glaucopus, the son of Alalcomeneus.

Note return to page And the close-fighting Mysians, and the illustrious Hippemolgi milk- nourished, simple in living, and most just of men.Iliad xiii. 5. The word which Cowper renders blest with length of days, and Buckley simple in living, is ἄβιοι. Its signification is very uncertain. Some propose to derive it from a, privative, and βιὸς, a bow, or bowless; while others regard it as a proper name, Abii. In Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead, xv. 3, it means, without a living, poor, as derived from a, privative, and βίος, a means of living, livelihood. Cowper's meaning is made up from a, intensive, and βίος, life.

Note return to page Pontus Axenus.

Note return to page This word is corrupt in the MSS.

Note return to page He was called Idanthyrsus. See Herodotus, book iv. chap. 127.

Note return to page Satyrus is supplied by Koray. See also chapter iv. of this book, § 4, and book xi. chap. ii. § 7. Groskurd refers also to Diodorus, book xiv. 93, and says that Leuco was the son of Satyrus.

Note return to page The mountains in the north of Thrace still bear the name of Emineh- Dag, or Mount Emineh, at their eastern point; but the western portion is called the Balkan.

Note return to page Piczina, at the embouchure of the Danube, between Babadag and Ismail.

Note return to page A note in the French translation says, these were the Carni and the Iapodes, who having followed Sigovesus, in the reign of the elder Tar- quin, had taken up their abode in the neighbourhood of the Adriatic; and refers to the Examen Critique des Anciens Historiens d' Alexandre, by M. de Sainte Croix, page 855.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus, in Excerpt. Peiresc. pag. 257; Memnon apud Photium, cod. 214, cap. 6; and Plutarch, in Demetrio, § 39 and 52, confirm what Strabo says here of the manner in which Dromichætes treated Lysimachus.

Note return to page This is not in Plato's Republic, but in his fourth book of Laws.

Note return to page This passage, if it is the writing of Strabo, and not the marginal note of some learned reader, should doubtless be transferred back to the end of § 7 of this chapter.

Note return to page Iliad xiii. 5.See note 4 to page 460.

Note return to page Kramer quotes Nækius in proof that we should here read Xerxes instead of Darius; and Groskurd refers to another passage in Strabo, book xiii chap. i. § 22.

Note return to page Casaubon observes that Diodorus Siculus attributes the invention of the potter's wheel to Talus, a nephew of Dædalus, and that Theophrastus awards it to one Hyberbius of Corinth.

Note return to page Iliad xviii. 600. Posidonius chose to regard this passage as an interpolation, and would not give the praise of the invention to any other than Anacharsis.

Note return to page ἀβίους.

Note return to page Iliad xiii. 5.

Note return to page See chap. iii. § 3, 4, of this book.

Note return to page ἄνδα γόητα, one who used a kind of howling incantation while repeating spells.

Note return to page See book vii. chap. iii. § 5, page 456.

Note return to page Gossellin observes that the Dacians did not extend to the sources of the Danube, but to Bohemia, near the middle of the course of the Danube.

Note return to page Gossellin seems to think that these Daæ are identical with the inhabitants of Daghistan. Davus is not found as the name of a slave amongst the Greeks till after the conquests of Alexander the Great.

Note return to page Hyrcania comprehended the Corcan and Daghistan.

Note return to page From Lydia and Syria.

Note return to page μάισος ποταμός,

Note return to page ὁ δανούιος.

Note return to page ὁ ιστος. Stephen of Byzantium says that the Ister was called δάνουβις, and that in very ancient times it was called Matoas. According to Ptolemy the lower part of the Danube was called Ister from Axiopolis, now Rassovat; according to Agathemerus, from Vienna.

Note return to page σαυομάται.

Note return to page The ancient Tyras.

Note return to page Bessarabia and the southern part of Moldavia.

Note return to page Peter the Great, at the beginning of the last century, incurred the risk of falling into the hands of the Turks almost on the same spot where Darius and Lysimachus had been in distress.

Note return to page Now Piczina.

Note return to page Ammianus Marcellinus, book xxii. chap. 8, gives the names of these mouths. He calls the Sacred Mouth by the name of the island Peuce.

Note return to page There has been much geographical change in this locality since Strabo wrote.

Note return to page The Tyras.

Note return to page Gossellin supports this distance.

Note return to page The Lake Ovidovo.

Note return to page Now Akkerman.

Note return to page Gossellin could not identify Niconia with any modern town. Groskurd marks it as destroyed.

Note return to page Groskurd identifies this with Palanka.

Note return to page Groskurd calls this Ilan-Adassi, or Schlangeninsel. Gossellin likewise translates Ilan-Adassi as Isle of Serpents.

Note return to page The ancient Borysthenes.

Note return to page Gossellin considers that Strabo wrote 1600 stadia, for at that distance from the sea there are cataracts which stop the ships that come from the sea.

Note return to page Strabo's word is υπανις. Gossellin observes that we should look for the υπανις to the east of the Dnieper, while the Bog lies to the west of that river.

Note return to page Gossellin identifies this island with the modern Berezan.

Note return to page Now the Dnieper.

Note return to page Olbia, or Olbiopolis, would, according to this measure, be about the junction of the Bog and Dnieper.

Note return to page Mannert has attempted to read γεωγοί, because Herodotus, book iv. chap. 18, has so termed those Scythians who cultivated their fields. Is it not possible that the Latin Regii was the word Strabo had in his mind?

Note return to page Piczina.

Note return to page Some MSS. read this name πωξανοί, others πωξανοι, and others πωξοανοί, but whether there is any distinction to be drawn between these and the πωξαλανοί of book ii. chap. v. § 7, is not to be ascertained.

Note return to page The Tanais.

Note return to page The Sea of Zabache.

Note return to page The Borysthenes.

Note return to page The Gulf of Perecop, called also Olou-Degniz. Gossellin.

Note return to page The Isthmus of Perecop, which connects the Peninsula of Crimea, the ancient Taurica Chersonesus.

Note return to page The Strait of Zabache, or Iéni-Kalé.

Note return to page Panticapæum, now Kertsch or Wospor in Europe.

Note return to page Phanagoria was on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus.

Note return to page We entirely agree with Kramer in favouring Coray's emendation of πλοῦν for πηλόν, the reading of MSS.

Note return to page Herodotus, book iv. chap. 53, says this fishing was carried on in the Dnieper. ælian, de Natur. Animal. book xiv. chap. 26, refers it to the Danube.

Note return to page Strabo has before alluded to this fact, book ii. chap. i. § 16, p. 114.

Note return to page Lucian, in Macrob. § 10, spells his name Anteas, and relates that he was killed in this war when upwards of 90 years of age.

Note return to page Father of Alexander the Great.

Note return to page The Island of Berezan.

Note return to page M. Gossellin identifies this as Cape Czile.

Note return to page 190 toises.

Note return to page 63 1/2 toises.

Note return to page The Dromos Achillis is pretty well laid down in D'Anville's Orbis Romani Pars Orientalis, 1764, but at present it presents a very different appearance.

Note return to page There is a note by Gossellin in the French translation to the following effect. The western part of this strip of land is known as the Island of Tendra, because it is separated by a cut. The eastern part of the strip is called Djarilgatch. The entire length of the tongue of land is 800 Olympic stadia, the two extremities are a little farther from the mainland than Strabo says, and the isthmus is about 50 Olympic stadia broad. D'Anville has run this isthmus through the tongue of land, and jutting out into the sea, so as to form a cape, which he also calls Tendra, and which would answer to the Tamyraca of Strabo. In the most recent maps there is no trace of this cape, but we see the port of which Strabo speaks. As these tongues of land are composed of a shifting sand, they may experience alterations of form and variations of extent.

Note return to page Gossellin observes that the direction of the Gulf Carcinites, or Gulf of Perecop, is from west to east, with a slight inclination towards the north, on arriving from the south. Its northern shore commences at the isthmus of the Course of Achilles, and would measure about 1000 Olympic stadia if we were to follow all the sinuosities.

Note return to page Perekop. The isthmus is about 5 1/2 miles across, according to M, Huot's map, which accompanies Prince Demidoff's Travels in Russia.

Note return to page The Crimea.

Note return to page The Sivash, or Putrid Lake. It communicates at the present day, not by a large opening, but by the narrow strait of Yenitche, or Tonka, with the Sea of Azof, (the Palus Mæotis,) from which it is separated by the Tonka, or Tongue of Arabat.

Note return to page ῥαπτοῖς πλοίοις. Boats probably composed of frame-work covered with hides.

Note return to page Casaubon suggests, and Gossellin adopts, the reading καλὸς λιμὴν, Fair Haven, for ἄλλος λιμὴν, another harbour. Whatever harbour was meant, its situation is uncertain.

Note return to page Tereklias.

Note return to page The ancient Tyras.

Note return to page In speaking of the Virgin as some goddess, it may be doubted whether Diana is here meant, or some Scythian or Eastern divinity. Parthenium, a village, is mentioned, c. 4, 5. The scene of the Iphigenia in Tauris of Euripides is laid some where on these shores.

Note return to page The New Chersonesus, Cape Cherson, and the three small harbours ear Khut.

Note return to page The Heracleotic Chersonese was comprehended in the triangle formed by Ctenus, (Inkerman,) Parthenium, (Cape Cherson,) and Symbolon Limen (Baluklava). The Gulf of Ctenus is now the Gulf of Sebastopol, a name substituted for that of Akhtiar in the time of Catherine II. of Russia. On the first small bay to the west of the town of Sebastopol, was situated the New city Chersonesus, flourishing in the time of Strabo; the Old Chersonesus, described as in ruins, was situated on the small peninsula, the extreme western point of which is Cape Cherson. Both here and in various parts of the Crimea were very interesting remains of antiquity, but Dr. Clarke complains of their wanton destruction. Ctenus is probably derived from κτενώδης, like a comb, descriptive of the indented nature of the gulf. Both Gossellin and D'Anville have mistaken the true position of the Heracleotic Chersonese.

Note return to page So named after the wife or sister of Leucon. C. Now Kaffa.

Note return to page Cape Aia and Cape Keremp.

Note return to page The opposite coasts are not visible from the middle passage.

Note return to page The engraving in Pallas shows it to be, as the name implies, a table mountain, now Tchadir-Dagh, or Tent Mountain.

Note return to page Trebizond.

Note return to page The name seems to be preserved in that of one of the districts near the mountains, Eski-Krim. G. In Prince Demidoff's map it is called Staröi-Krime.

Note return to page Kertch.

Note return to page The Sea of Azof.

Note return to page Caffa.

Note return to page i. e. from Kertch to Taman, or from Yenikaleh near Kertch to Taman. Prince Gleb, son of Vladimir, A. D. 1065, measured this latter distance on the ice, and found it to be 30.057 Russian fathoms, or nearly 12 miles. Here the battle was fought on the ice. See chap. iii. § 18.

Note return to page The Tanais.

Note return to page According to modern maps, the Don separates into two branches, and there again into several others, which form the mouths of the river. The extreme branches are at a considerable distance from each other.

Note return to page Azof.

Note return to page Yenikaleh.

Note return to page Kazandib.

Note return to page The amount is enormous, if it refers to the quantity of corn shipped in a single year. Neither manuscripts nor translations afford any various reading. The abbreviator, however, instead of 2,100,000, (μυριάδας μεδίμνων διακοσίας καί δέκα, gives 150,000 (μεδίμνους μυπιαδασιε.) But instead of correcting Strabo by his abbreviator, it is more probable that the text of the latter should be changed to 2,100,000, or even to 2,150,000 (μυπιαδας σιε.). Brequigny, by an oversight, or because he thought proper to change the μυπιαδας of the text to χιλιαδας, translates 210,000 medimni. However it may be, we know from Demosthenes, that this same prince of the Bosporus mentioned by Strabo, sent annually to Athens 400,000 medimni of corn, a quantity far below that mentioned in the text. To reconcile these authors, Mr. Wolf supposes that we ought to understand by 2,100,000 medimni of corn, the shipment made in the year of the great famine, which occurred in the 105th Olympiad, (about 360 B. C.,) and of which Demosthenes speaks in a manner to give us to understand, that the quantity sent that year by Leucon greatly exceeded that of former years. A very probable conjecture. F. T. The medimnus was about 1 1/2 bushel.

Note return to page ὄψημα.

Note return to page ἀβίους.

Note return to page I have adopted the reading suggested by the F. T., πύγους καθ' ἔκαστα στάδια δέκα. The wall of Ansander may still be traced. Pallas.

Note return to page Places to me unknown. G. Pallas erroneously supposes Palacium to be the modern Balaklava.

Note return to page Named after Mithridates Eupator. Koslof, now again Eupatoria.

Note return to page δοκάδες.

Note return to page Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page The Veliki Balkan.

Note return to page The southern part of Dalmatia bounded by the Narenta, which takes its source in the Herzogovina.

Note return to page Called Monte Argentaro by the Italians, Basilissa by the Greeks, Rulla by the Turks. Baudrand. Despoto Dagh.

Note return to page Occupied the neighbourhood of the river Titius, Kerca, which discharges itself near Siberico.

Note return to page The mountainous country south of Servia.

Note return to page The text presents some difficulty; another reading is Tænii. Gossellin supposes the lake to be the Czirknitz-See near Mount Albius, now Alben or Planina.

Note return to page The Margus? See chap. v. § 12.

Note return to page At the confluence of the Kalpa and the Save, afterwards Siscia, now Sizsek.

Note return to page Occupied the coast of Morlacca from the Gulf of Quarnero to Zara.

Note return to page According to Pliny, the name of this place is derived from the fable of the ship Argo, which was brought up the Danube and the Save, and thence carried on men's shoulders to the Adriatic. Now Porto Quieto.

Note return to page To the north of Trieste.

Note return to page Trieste.

Note return to page Carniola.

Note return to page The Czirknitz-See.

Note return to page The Kuipa.

Note return to page Gulf of Cataro.

Note return to page Now celebrated for the remains of a Roman amphitheatre.

Note return to page Ancona.

Note return to page The Venetian territory.

Note return to page I am not acquainted with the sites of these places. G.

Note return to page ζειᾷ καὶ κέγχρῳ.

Note return to page Scardona.

Note return to page The Kerka.

Note return to page The modern names of these numerous islands must be matter of conjecture. Issa is Lissa.

Note return to page Salona.

Note return to page Inhabitants, probably, of the peninsula Sabioncello.

Note return to page Curzola.

Note return to page Varalii, MSS.; but manifestly wrong.

Note return to page Risano in the Gulf of Cataro.

Note return to page The river Drin.

Note return to page Kramer suggests the omission of these words, which render the passage obscure.

Note return to page Galabrii. The name of this people is unknown. Probably it should be changed to Taulantii, an Illyrian tribe, or considered as a second name of the Taulantii, or that of a tribe belonging to them. The name Galabrus, or Galaurus, king of the Taulantii, has come down to us, which gives some probability to the second conjecture. C.

Note return to page The Mædi occupied the mountains which separate Macedonia from Thrace, between the river Strymon and Mount Rhodope. G.

Note return to page The Gulf of Cataro

Note return to page Alesso

Note return to page A fortified rock near.

Note return to page Durazzo

Note return to page Ergent, or Beratino.

Note return to page Lao, or Vousoutza.

Note return to page Polina. Thucydides calls Apollonia a colony of the Corinthians, and not of the Corinthians and Corcyræans. He states it, however, (b. i. c. 24,) to have been the practice for colonies which in their turn founded other colonies, to unite with them, on these occasions, citizens of the mother city.

Note return to page One of the peaks of Pindus.

Note return to page Amphilochian Argos, now Filochia. G.

Note return to page On the boundary of Cilicia and Syria.

Note return to page Appear to have been situated on the Gulf of Valona. G.

Note return to page The name, Ionian Gulf, appears to have extended from the Acro- ceraunian mountains to the southern part of Dalmatia, near Lissus, now Alessio, to the bottom of the Gulf of Drin. G.

Note return to page The word αδρίας is translated Adriatic. In the version of the New Testament it is translated Adria. Acts xxvii. 27.—The Tartaro.

Note return to page Narenta.

Note return to page A common opinion among ancient geographers. See b. i. c. ii. § 39.

Note return to page παρακούσματα λαοδογματικά

Note return to page The Agrianæ occupied the neighbourhood of Mount Pangæus on the confines of Thrace and Macedonia. The Triballi, at the time alluded to by Strabo, possessed nearly the whole of the country included between the Adriatic and the Euxine. The Scordisci, who were at first confined to the territory situated between the Drave and the Save, in their turn took possession of all this country. It is not possible, in consequence of the continual wars which existed amongst these people, to determine with exactness the places which they successively occupied. G.

Note return to page Probably the Save. G.

Note return to page Mædi.

Note return to page Cities not identified.

Note return to page The Dobrudscha.

Note return to page Mangalia, Tomesvar, the place of Ovid's exile, Kara-Herman.

Note return to page Istropolis or Kara-Herman.

Note return to page Tomesvar.

Note return to page Mangalia.

Note return to page Sizepoli.

Note return to page Baltchik, near Kavarna.

Note return to page Varna.

Note return to page Cape Emineh-in the English charts Emona, but there is no fixed system of spelling for names of places in this part of the world. Emineh is probably a corruption of Hæmus.

Note return to page Missemvria.

Note return to page Or Meneburgh, we should say. The Thracian was a language cognate with that of the Getæ; see Strabo, book vii. chap. iii. § 10; and the Getæ were Gothic. We have the Liber Aureus in the Moeso Gothic language still.

Note return to page Ahiolou.

Note return to page Places no longer known. G.

Note return to page In the English charts Kyanees. They do not correspond to the de- scription here given. The well-known poetical name is Symplegades.

Note return to page In Italian, Pelamide, or Palamide, well known in the Mediterranean. It is not to be compared in size to the Thunny, but is much larger than the Mackerel, of a dark blue and streaked. Like the Thunny, it is migratory. Aristotle erroneously conjectures the Pelamide to be the young of the Thunny.

Note return to page The ancient Byzantium, there are grounds for believing, was marked by the present walls of the Seraglio. The enlarged city was founded by the emperor Constantine, A. D. 328, who gave it his name, and made it the rival of Rome itself. It was taken from the Greeks in 1204, by the Venetians under Dandolo; retaken by the Greeks in 1261 under the emperor Michael Palæologus, and conquered by the Turks in 1453. The crescent found on some of the ancient Byzantine coins was adopted as a symbol by the Turks.

Note return to page B. C. 1570. He was king of Argos.

Note return to page The Peloponnesus, which before the arrival of Pelops was called Apia.

Note return to page Eumolpus took possession of Eleusis B. C. 1400. He is said to have there instituted the mysteries of Ceres.

Note return to page Cadmus, son of Agenor, king of Tyre, arrived in Bœotia B. C. 1550. The citadel of Thebes was named after him.

Note return to page Sues, σύας, swine, in allusion to their ignorance.

Note return to page There were two kings of Athens named Cecrops. The first of this name, first king of Attica and Bœotia, came from Egypt. Cecrops II. was the 7th, and Codrus the 17th and last king of Attica. Strabo informs us, b. x. c. i. § 3, that Œclus and Cothus were brothers of Ellops, who founded Ellopia in Eubœa, and gave the name to the whole island.

Note return to page B. v. c. ii. § 4.

Note return to page The capture of Troy by Hercules. See Grote i. 388.

Note return to page B. C. 168.

Note return to page Ipsala.

Note return to page Maritza.

Note return to page D'Anville (Mesures Itineraires) conjectures the difference between Polybius and Strabo to arise from the Greek foot being less than the Roman foot in the ratio of 24 to 25; or 24 Roman stadia = 25 Greek stadia containing the same number of feet.

Note return to page Polina.

Note return to page Durazzo.

Note return to page Lago d' Ochrida.

Note return to page Vodina.

Note return to page The ruins of Pella are at a little distance on the east of the lake Tenidscheh.

Note return to page Saloniki.

Note return to page Gulf of Arta.

Note return to page Iemboli.

Note return to page Balkan applies to the whole mountainous range of Hæmus; Emineh to the part bordering on the Black Sea.

Note return to page Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page Gulf of Saros.

Note return to page Cape Colonna.

Note return to page Karasu, or Mesta.

Note return to page The site of Dodona is unknown.

Note return to page Panormo.

Note return to page Santi Quaranta.

Note return to page Corfu.

Note return to page Cassiopo.

Note return to page Brindisi.

Note return to page Butrinto.

Note return to page Syvota.

Note return to page C. Bianco.

Note return to page The Thyamus, or Thyamis, is now called Glycys, and the Acheron, Calamas.

Note return to page Sopoto.

Note return to page Porto Fanari.

Note return to page The ruins of Nicopolis are to the north of Prevesa.

Note return to page Cæsar Augustus (then Cæsar Octavianus) obtained the celebrated victory of Actium over Marcus Antonius, B. C. 31. The latter, after his defeat, fled into Egypt with Cleopatra. The battle would appear to have taken place at the entrance into the Gulf of Arta, and therefore probably off La Punta, opposite Prevesa, and not off the modern town of Azio.

Note return to page In the Austrian map a ground-plan of the ruins of Nicopolis are given, at about one mile to the north of Prevesa.

Note return to page The Gulf of Ambracia, and the rivers which flow into it, are much distorted in D'Anville. According to more modern maps, the Arathus is the most western of the streams which flow into the gulf, and the ancient city was situated at about 15 miles from the mouth. The Loru (the Arathus); the Mauro Potamo or Glykys (the Acheron); the Zagura (the Selleis?) which falls into it; and the Tercino, which falls into the Kalamas, (the Thyamis or Thyamus,) all rise in the mountain ridge Olytkiza, about 10 miles to the west of Ianina.

Note return to page Livy xxxviii. c. 3.

Note return to page Virg. æn. iii. 280.

Note return to page Virg. æn. iii. 280.

Note return to page Descendants of the seven chiefs who fought and perished before Thebes.

Note return to page These nations are mentioned by other authors; they were probably separated by the numerous mountain ridges to the west of Pindus. See below, § 9. But compare D Anville and the Austrian military map.

Note return to page Alcomene.

Note return to page Styberra, Polyb.; Stubera, Liv.; Stobera, Suid.

Note return to page Iliad, book xvi. 233.

Note return to page ὺποθῆται.

Note return to page τομοῦοι.

Note return to page τομούους.

Note return to page θέμιστας.

Note return to page βουλαί.

Note return to page τομούους.

Note return to page τομαούους.

Note return to page βουλὴν.

Note return to page ὺποφῆται.

Note return to page ποφῆται.

Note return to page The Fragments are collected from the Palatine (EPIT.) and Vatican (E.) Epitomes; and, in the opinion of Kramer, much is not lost. By the diligence and research of Kramer, the former length of these Fragments is more than doubled; but for a more particular account of his labours, the reader is referred to his preface and notes.

Note return to page This proverb is quoted in Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus.

Note return to page Indesche Karasu.

Note return to page Oxas.

Note return to page Ipsala.

Note return to page The Maritza.

Note return to page Schardagh.

Note return to page Egrisoudagh.

Note return to page Despotodagh.

Note return to page Velikidagh.

Note return to page Above Agios-Mamas, in the Bay of Cassandra.

Note return to page The Gallico.

Note return to page Kramer quotes the following passage from Eustathius: In the passage ἐπίκιδναται αἴῃ, or αἶαν, (for there are two readings,) some have understood αἶαν not to mean the earth, but a spring, as is evident from the words of the geographer, where he says that the Amydon of Homer was afterwards called Abydos, but was razed. For there is a spring of clearest water near Amydon, called æa, running into the Axius, which is itself turbid, in consequence of the numerous rivers which flow into it. There is, therefore, he says, an error in the quotation, αξίον κάλλις- τον ὕδω ἐπικίδναται αἴῃ, as it is clearly not the Axius which diffuses its water over the spring, but the contrary. The geographer rather intemperately finds fault with the supposition of αἷαν meaning the earth, and seems anxious to reject altogether this reading in the Homeric poem.

Note return to page Buræus.

Note return to page Gulf of Salonica.

Note return to page Cape Pailuri.

Note return to page The ruins of Potidæa, or Cassandria, are near Pinako.

Note return to page Karafaja.

Note return to page Monte Santo.

Note return to page Gulf of Zeitun.

Note return to page G. of Volo.

Note return to page G. of Salonica.

Note return to page G. of Cassandra.

Note return to page G. of Monte Santo.

Note return to page G. of Orfane

Note return to page Cape Stauros.

Note return to page C. Demitri.

Note return to page C. Pailuri.

Note return to page C. Drepano

Note return to page C. St. George.

Note return to page C. Monte Santo.

Note return to page Kavala.

Note return to page δάτον ἀγαθῶν. αγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες.

Note return to page This extract should be numbered 42, and not 43. As the error in Kramer continues to the end of the book, it has not been corrected.

Note return to page Gulf of Saros.

Note return to page Kavaktshai.

Note return to page The ancient Tanais.

Note return to page These words are interpolated. Casaubon.

Note return to page λιμένες, περίπλοι, περιοσοι γῆς.

Note return to page The territory of the Acarnanes is still called Carnia, south of the Gulf of Arta. The rest of the countries mentioned by Strabo no longer retain the ancient divisions, Bœotia is the modern Livadhia. G.

Note return to page The Gulf of Lepanto.

Note return to page Makedunea.

Note return to page The ancient Thessaly is the modern Vlakea.

Note return to page The neighbourhood of the Gulf of Zeitun—the ancient Maliac Gulf.

Note return to page In Asia Minor, and founded the cities Miletus, Smyrna, Phocæa, &c.

Note return to page The word ægialus (αἰγιαλὸς) signifies sea-shore. The name was given to this part of the Peloponnesus (afterwards called Achaia) from the towns being situated generally along the coast. Others, however, give a different explanation to the word.

Note return to page 1113 before the Christian era. G.

Note return to page Taking the reverse order in which these peninsulas are described, the fifth and last contains all the rest, the fourth all but the difference between the fourth and fifth, and so on in order until we come to the Peloponnesus, properly so called, which is thus the least of the peninsulas. Strabo himself seems to admit the term peninsula to be improperly applied to these subdivisions, by first describing Greece to be divided into two great bodies, viz. that within and that without the Isthmus of Corinth.

Note return to page For the same reason, at a subsequent period, it obtained the name of Morea, in Greek (μοέα) which signifies mulberry, a species or variety of which tree bears leaves divided into five lobes—equal in number to the five principal capes of the Peloponnesus. See book ii. ch. i. 30.

Note return to page Cape Papa.

Note return to page Zante.

Note return to page Cephalonia.

Note return to page Theaki.

Note return to page Cape Matapan.

Note return to page Basilico.

Note return to page Gulf of Coron.

Note return to page Gulf of Colochina.

Note return to page Gulf of Napoli.

Note return to page Gulf of Castri.

Note return to page Gulf of Egina.

Note return to page Fidari.

Note return to page Aspropotamo.

Note return to page Drepano.

Note return to page Castle of Roumelia.

Note return to page Patras.

Note return to page Vostitza.

Note return to page The words in brackets are inserted according to the suggestion of Groskurd. The Gulf of Corinth is, in other passages, called by Strabo the Crissæan Gulf.

Note return to page Il. v. 545.

Note return to page Od. iii. 4.

Note return to page Od. xv. 298.

Note return to page Igliaco

Note return to page Chiarenza, in ruins.

Note return to page Cape Tornese.

Note return to page Il. ii. 650.

Note return to page Il. xv. 531.

Note return to page Od. i. 261.

Note return to page Od. ii. 328.

Note return to page Il. xi. 738.

Note return to page I read οἱ καὶ as Meineke suggests, but the whole passage from there ii to Ephyra, is, as he also remarks, probably an interpolation. Strabo has already enumerated four cities of the name of Ephyra, viz. the Eliac, the Thesprotic, the Corinthian, and the Thessalian; yet here two others are presented to our notice, the Sicyonian and the ætolian, of which Strabo makes no mention in his account of ætolia and Sicyonia.

Note return to page Il. xxiv. 78.

Note return to page Il. ii. 730.

Note return to page Il. ii. 591.

Note return to page This is supposed to be the modern Navarino. The Coryphasium is Mount St. Nicholas. G.

Note return to page κοίλη ηλις, or Cœle-Elis.

Note return to page Il. ii. 615.

Note return to page Il. xxiii. 630.

Note return to page Od. i. 344.

Note return to page Od. ii. 496.

Note return to page Il. ix. 529.

Note return to page Il. ii. 625.

Note return to page Il. ii. 756.

Note return to page —2 This passage in brackets is an interpolation to explain the subsequent inquiry who the Caucones were. Kramer.

Note return to page Il. iii. 636.

Note return to page Book vii. ch. vii. 2.

Note return to page This passage is transposed from the following section, as proposed by Groskurd.

Note return to page θρύον the meaning of this word is uncertain; Meyer in his Botanische erklarung of Strabo does not attempt to explain it.

Note return to page Od. iii. 4.

Note return to page Book xii. c. 3, 4. Little, however, can be obtained of their history, which is buried in the same obscurity as the Pelasgi and Leleges.

Note return to page This passage is an interpolation by the same hand probably as that in s. 11. Cramer.

Note return to page Dardanus was the son of Jupiter and Electra, one of the seven daughters of Atlas, surnamed Atlantides.

Note return to page Il. ii. 591.

Note return to page Il. ii. 721.

Note return to page Hercules, after killing the Hydra, dipped the arrows which he after- wards made use of against the Centaurs, in gall of this monster. Pausanias, however, speaks of one Centaur only, Chiron, or, according to others, Polenor, who washed his wounds in the Anigrus.

Note return to page The daughters of Prœtus. According to Apollodorus, Melampus cured them of madness, probably the effect of a disease of the skin.

Note return to page Alphi, Lepra alphoides. Leuce, white tetter or common leprosy. Leichen, a cutaneous disease tending to leprosy.

Note return to page The position of Pylus of Messenia is uncertain. D'Anville places it at New Navarino. Barbé de Bocage at Old Navarino. See also Ernst Curtis, Peloponnesus.

Note return to page Il. vii. 133.

Note return to page Il. ix. 153.

Note return to page Some MSS. have 120 stadia.

Note return to page Il. ii. 591.

Note return to page Il. xi. 710.

Note return to page A marsh.

Note return to page The sea-shore.

Note return to page Il. xi. 710.

Note return to page Il. ii. 697.

Note return to page Il. ii. 584.

Note return to page In the discussion which follows, Strabo endeavours to prove, that the Pylus of Nestor is the Pylus of Triphylia, and not the Pylus of Messenia.

Note return to page Od. xv. 295.

Note return to page Od. iv. 671; xv. 298.

Note return to page Il xi. 677.

Note return to page Il. xi. 681.

Note return to page Il. xi. 756.

Note return to page Il. xi. 697.

Note return to page Il. i. 528.

Note return to page Il. viii. 199.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation.

Note return to page The establishment of the Olympic games is connected with many legends and is involved in much obscurity. See Smith, Greek and Roman Antiq.

Note return to page 776 B. C.

Note return to page Il. xi. 677.

Note return to page An interpolation. K.

Note return to page Od. ii. 238.

Note return to page An interpolation. Meineke.

Note return to page An interpolation. Groskurd.

Note return to page The text of Homer gives the name of Pharis.

Note return to page Il. ix. 150.

Note return to page Il. ii. 582.

Note return to page Thucydides, b. iv. ch. 2. The expedition was under the command of Eurymedon and Sophocles. Stratocles being at the time archon at Athens.

Note return to page Thucydides, b. iv. ch. 38. The number was 292.

Note return to page Strivali.

Note return to page According to Pausanias, Mothone, or Methone, was the Pedasus of Homer. It is the modern Modon.

Note return to page Cape Gallo. The Gulf of Messenia is now the Gulf of Coron.

Note return to page The name Thyrides, the little gates, is probably derived from the fable which placed the entrance of the infernal regions at Tænarum, Cape Matapan.

Note return to page For Cinæthium I read Cænepolis, as suggested by Falconer, and ap proved by Coray.

Note return to page Vitulo.

Note return to page Scardamula.

Note return to page As Strabo remarks, in b. x., that the temple was built by Nestor on his return from Troy, Falconer suggests that it might have derived its name from the river Nedon, near Gerenia, the birth-place of Nestor.

Note return to page In the island of Cos.

Note return to page According to Pausanias, Gerenia is the Enope of Homer.

Note return to page Hira in the time of Pausanias was called Abia (Palæochora?). Some interpreters of Homer were misled by the name of a mountain, Ira, near Megalopolis, and placed there a city of the same name, but Hira was on the sea-coast.

Note return to page æpys, αἰπὐς, lofty.

Note return to page The Pirnatza.

Note return to page So called from its fertility.

Note return to page In the text 250, σν, an error probably arising from the repetition of the preceding final letter.

Note return to page The Pamisus above mentioned was never called the Amathus. There were three rivers of this name, one near the Triphyliac Pylus, which was also called Amathus; a second at Leuctrum of Laconia; and a third near Messene.

Note return to page The runs of Messene are now near the place called Mauroathia.

Note return to page Mount Vulkano.

Note return to page The first war dates from the year B. C. 743, and continued 20 years. The second, beginning from 682 B. C., lasted 14 years; the third concluded in the year 456 B. C., with the capture of Ithome, which was the citadel or fort of Messene. Diod. Sic. lib. xv. c. 66.

Note return to page The Messenians, driven from Ithome at the end of the third war, settled at Naupactus, which was given to them as a place of refuge by the Athenians, after the expulsion of the Locri-Ozolæ. It is probable that Strabo considers as a fourth war that which took place in the 94th Olympiad, when the Messenians were driven from Naupactus by the Lacedæ. monians and compelled to abandon Greece entirely.

Note return to page Leake supposes Amyclæ to have been situated between Iklavokhori and Sparta, on the hill of Agia Kyriaki, half a mile from the Eurotas. At this place he discovered on an imperfect inscription the letters αμυ following a proper name, and leaving little doubt that the incomplete ward was αμυκλαιου. See Smith.

Note return to page Cape Matapan.

Note return to page The Ass's Jaw. It is detached from the continent, and is now the island of Servi.

Note return to page Cerigo.

Note return to page 750 stadia. Groskurd.

Note return to page By others written in the singular number, Malea, now C. St. Angelo.

Note return to page The site of Gythium is identified as between Marathonisi and Trinissa.

Note return to page The Iri, or Vasili Potamo.

Note return to page Il. ii. 584.

Note return to page Rupina, or Castel Rampano. The plain of Leuce is traversed by the river Mario-revina.

Note return to page The site of Asopus appears, according to the ruins indicated in the Austrian map, to have been situated a little to the north of Rupina.

Note return to page ιρῖ, δῶ, μάψ, for κιθή δῶμα, μαψίδιον.

Note return to page Il. xix. 392.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation.

Note return to page The text here is very corrupt.

Note return to page 1090 B. C.

Note return to page Od. iii. 249, 251.

Note return to page His character is discreditably spoken of by Josephus, Antiq. b. xvi. c. 10, and Bell. Jud. b. i. c. 26.

Note return to page The cities of the Eleuthero-Lacones were at first 24 in number; in the time of Pausanias 18 only. They were kindly treated by Augustus, but subsequently they were excluded from the coast to prevent communication with strangers. Pausanias, b. iii. c. 21.

Note return to page From hence to the end of the section the text is corrupt.. See Groskurd for an attempt to amend the text of the last sentence, which is here not translated.

Note return to page This quotation, as also the one which follows, are from a tragedy of Euripides, now lost.

Note return to page The Pirnatza.

Note return to page κῆτος. Some are of opinion that the epithet was applied to Lacedæmon, because fish of the cetaceous tribe frequented the coast of Laconia.

Note return to page Il. i. 268.

Note return to page This may have taken place a little before the third Messenian war, B. C. 464, when an earthquake destroyed all the houses in Sparta, with the exception of five. Diod. Sic. b. xv. c. 66; Pliny, b. ii. c. 79.

Note return to page Pliny, b. xxxvi. c. 18, speaks of the black marble of Tænarus.

Note return to page Od. xxi. 13.

Note return to page Eustathius informs us that, according to some writers, Sparta and Lacedæmon were the names of the two principal quarters of the city; and adds that the comic poet, Cratinus, gave the name of Sparta to the whole of Laconia.

Note return to page Od. iii. 488.

Note return to page Cheramidi.

Note return to page Od. iii. 487.

Note return to page Od. ii. 359.

Note return to page The text to the end of the section is very corrupt. The following is a translation of the text as proposed to be amended by Groskurd. The epithet of Lacedæmon, hollow, cannot properly be applied to the country, for this peculiarity of the city does not with any propriety agree with the epithets given to the country; unless we suppose the epithet to be a poetical licence. For, as has been before remarked, it must be concluded from the words of the poet himself, that Messene was then a part of Laconia, and subject to Menelaus. It would then be a contradiction (in Homer) not to join Messene, which took part in the expedition, with Laconia or the Pylus under Nestor, nor to place it by itself in the Catalogue, as though it had no part in the expedition.

Note return to page Skylli.

Note return to page The islands about Delos.

Note return to page The form thus given to the Gulf of Hermione bears no resemblance to modern maps.

Note return to page Pausanias calls it Epidelium, now S. Angelo.

Note return to page The ruins are a little to the north of Monembasia, Malvasia, or Nauplia de Malvasia.

Note return to page Cerigo.

Note return to page The ruins are on the bay of Rheontas.

Note return to page Toniki, or Agenitzi.

Note return to page Napoli di Romagna. Nauplius, to avenge the death of his son Palamedes, was the cause of many Greeks perishing on their return from Troy at Cape Caphareus in Eubœa, famous for its dangerous rocks. The modern Greeks give to this promontory the name of νυλοφάγος, (Xylophagos,) or devourer of vessels. Italian navigators call it Capo d'Oro, which in spite of its apparent signification, Golden Cape, is probably a transformation of the Greek word Caphareus.

Note return to page Strabo confounds Nauplius, son of Clytoreus, and father of Palamedes, with Nauplius, son of Neptune and Amymone, and one of the ancestors of Palamedes.

Note return to page Fornos.

Note return to page Castri.

Note return to page Damala.

Note return to page I. Poros.

Note return to page A place near the ruins of Epidaurus preserves the name Pedauro. G.

Note return to page Scheno.

Note return to page Il. iv. 52.

Note return to page Il. 559.

Note return to page Il. i. 30.

Note return to page Il. ii. 681.

Note return to page Od. xviii. 245.

Note return to page Book i. 3.

Note return to page Il. ii. 684.

Note return to page Od. i. 344.

Note return to page Od. xv. 80.

Note return to page Il. iv. 171.

Note return to page Il. ii. 193.

Note return to page Od. ii. 376.

Note return to page Il. i. 3.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation. Meineke.

Note return to page The Planitza.

Note return to page Il. vi. 623.

Note return to page Il. vi. 152.

Note return to page Od. i. 344.

Note return to page Il. ii. 108.

Note return to page About 1283, B. C.

Note return to page About 1190, B. C.

Note return to page Not strictly correct, as in the time of Pausanias, who lived about 150 years after Strabo, a large portion of the walls surrounding Mycenæ still existed. Even in modern times traces are still to be found.

Note return to page Il. ii. 559

Note return to page From γαστὴρ the belly, and χεὶρ, the hand.

Note return to page Poseidon, or Neptune. This god, after a dispute with Minerva respecting this place, held by order of Jupiter, divided possession of it with her. Hence the ancient coins of Trœzen bear the trident and head of Minerva.

Note return to page πώγων, pogon or beard. Probably the name is derived from the form of the harbour. Hence the proverb, Go to Trœzen, πλεύσειας εἰς τροιζῆνα, addressed to those who had little or no beard.

Note return to page Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes.

Note return to page Pidauro.

Note return to page Methana is the modern name.

Note return to page Thucyd. b. ii. c. 34. Methone is the reading of all manuscripts and editions.

Note return to page Herodotus, b. v. c. 83, and b. viii. c. 93.

Note return to page This colony must have been posterior to that of the Samians, the first founders of Cydonia.

Note return to page Il. ii. 496.

Note return to page Il. ii. 497.

Note return to page Il. ii. 632.

Note return to page Thucyd. ii. 27; iv. 56.

Note return to page A place not known.

Note return to page Probably interpolated.

Note return to page Il. ii. 569.

Note return to page Tricorythus in place of Corinth is the suggestion of Coray.

Note return to page Iph. Taur. 508 et seq.

Note return to page Orest. 98, 101, 1246.

Note return to page οὐ παντὸς ἀνδὶς ἐς κπινθον ἕσθ' ὁ πλοῦς, which Horace has elegantly Latinized, Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum.

Note return to page ἱστοὺς—distaffs; also, masts and sailors.

Note return to page Strabo here gives the name of Crisssæan Gulf to the eastern half of the Gulf of Corinth.

Note return to page Of or belonging to asses.

Note return to page The remains of an ancient place at the distance of about a mile after crossing the Erasinus, (Kephalari,) are probably those of Cenchreæ Smith.

Note return to page Crommyon was distant 120 stadia from Corinth, (Thuc. iv. 45,) and appears to have therefore occupied the site of the ruins near the chapel of St. Theodorus. The village of Kineta, which many modern travellers suppose to correspond to Crommyon, is much farther from Corinth than 120 stadia. Smith.

Note return to page According to Pausanias, the Teneates derive their origin from the Trojans taken captive at the island of Tenedos. On their arrival in Peloponnesus, Tenea was assigned to them as a habitation by Agamemnon.

Note return to page B. C. 146.

Note return to page Aristeides of Thebes, a contemporary of Alexander the Great. At a public sale of the spoils of Corinth, King Attalus offered so large a price for the painting of Bacchus, that Mummins, although ignorant of art, was attracted by the enormity of the price offered, withdrew the picture, in spite of the protestations of Attalus, and sent it to Rome.

Note return to page This story forms the subject of the Trachiniæ of Sophocles.

Note return to page Mummius was so ignorant of the arts, that he threatened those who were intrusted with the care of conveying to Rome the pictures and statues taken at Corinth, to have them replaced by new ones at their expense, in case they should be so unfortunate as to lose them.

Note return to page The plastic art was invented at Sicyon by Dibutades; according to others, at the island of Samos, by Rœcus and Theodorus. From Greece it was carried into Etruria by Demaratus, who was accompanied by Eucheir and Eugrammus, plastic artists, and by the painter Cleophantus of Corinth, B. C. 663. See b. v. c. ii. § 2.

Note return to page Il. ii. 571.

Note return to page The ruins are situated below the monastery Kesra.

Note return to page Vasilika.

Note return to page ægialus was the most ancient name of Achaia, and was given to it on account off the greater number of cities being situated upon the coast. The Sicyonians, however, asserted that the name was derived from one of their Kings named ægialeus.

Note return to page The story is narrated differently in Pausanias, b. vii. c. 1.

Note return to page About 1044 B. C.

Note return to page The twelve cities were Phocæa, Erythræ, Clazomenæ Teos, Lebedos, Colophon, Ephesus, Priene, Myus, Miletus, and Samos and Chios in the neighbouring islands. See b. xiv. c. i. § 3. This account of the expulsion of the Ionians from Peloponnesus is taken from Poilybius, b. ii. c. 41, and b. iv. c. 1.

Note return to page And Laceduæmonians, adds Polybius, b, ii. c, 39.

Note return to page Patras and Paleocastro.

Note return to page This festival, Panionium, or assembly of all the Ionians, was celebrated at Mycale, or at Priene at the base of Mount Mycale, opposite the island of Samos, in a place sacred to Neptune. The Ionians had a temple also at Miletus and another at Teos, both consecrated to the Heliconian Neptune. Herod. i. 148; Pausanias, b. vii. c. 24.

Note return to page Il. xx. 403.

Note return to page The birth of Homer was later than the establishment of the Ionians in Asia Minor, according to the best authors. Aristotle makes him contemporary with the Ionian migration, 140 years after the Trojan war.

Note return to page ælian, De Naturâ Anim. b. ii. c. 19, and Pausanias, b. vii. c. 24, 25, give an account of this catastrophe, which was preceded by an earth. quake, and was equally destructive to the city bura. B. C, 373.

Note return to page The Syngathus Hippocampus of Linnæus, from ἵππος, a horse, and κάμπη, a caterpillar. It obtained its name from the supposed resemblance of its head to a horse and of its tail to a caterpillar. From this is derived the fiction of sea-monsters in attendance upon the marine deities. It is, however, but a small animal, abundant in the Mediterranean. The head, especially when dried, is like that of a horse. Pliny, b. xxxii. c. 9–11. ælian, De Nat. Anim. b. xiv. c. 20.

Note return to page This distinguished man was elected general of the Achæan League, B. C. 245.

Note return to page The expulsion of the Carthaginians from Sicily took place 241 B. C. The war of the Romans against the Cisalpine Gauls commenced 224 B. C., when the Romans passed the Po for the first time.

Note return to page Text abbreviated by the copyist.

Note return to page Il. ii. 576.

Note return to page Il. ii. 639.

Note return to page Il. viii. 203.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 21, 34.

Note return to page κράθις—κραθῆναι The Acrata. The site of ægæ is probably the Khan of Acrata. Smith.

Note return to page From the heights on which it was situated, descends a small river, (the Crius,) which discharges itself into the sea near Cape Augo- Campos.

Note return to page Vostitza.

Note return to page Leake places the port of ægeira at Maura-Litharia, the Black Rocks, on the left of which on the summit of a hill are some vestiges of an ancient city, which must have been ægeira.

Note return to page Phœn. 163.

Note return to page See above, § 3.

Note return to page Anab. v. 3. 8.

Note return to page Castel di Morea.

Note return to page Castel di Rumeli.

Note return to page Sun-set.

Note return to page Gossellin suggests that the name Stratos was derived from a spot called the Tomb of Sostratus, held in veneration by the inhabitants of Dyme.

Note return to page The Risso or Mana.

Note return to page From the fountain Dirce, and the rivers Asopus, Inachus, and Simoïs.

Note return to page Cape Papa.

Note return to page Now bears the name of Zyria; its height, as determined by the French commission, is 7788 feet above the level of the sea. Smith.

Note return to page The Arcadians called themselves Autochthones, indigenous, and also Proseleni, born before the moon; hence Ovid speaking of them says, Lunâ gens prior illa fuit.

Note return to page B . C. 371.

Note return to page Mauro vuni.

Note return to page Mintha.

Note return to page Partheni.

Note return to page Called Katavothra by modern Greeks.

Note return to page The Landona.

Note return to page The Carbonaro.

Note return to page The Kephalari

Note return to page The following section is corrupt in the original; it is translated according to the corrections proposed by Kramer, Gosselin, &c.

Note return to page The peninsulas described by Strabo, are: The Peloponnesus, properly so called, bounded by the Isthmus of Corinth. The peninsula bounded by a line drawn from Pagæ to Nisæa, and including the above. The peninsula bounded by a line drawn from the recess of the Crissæan Gulf, properly so called, (the Bay of Salona,) to Thermopylæ, and includes the two first. The peninsula bounded by a line drawn from the Ambracic Gulf to Thermopylæ and the Maliac Gulf, and includes the three former. The peninsula bounded by a line drawn from the Ambracic Gulf to the recess of the Thermaic Gulf, and contains the former four peninsulas.

Note return to page These words are transposed from after the word Epicnemidii, as suggested by Cramer.

Note return to page The Crissæan Gulf, properly so called, is the modern Bay of Salona. But probably Strabo (or rather Eudoxus, whose testimony he alleges) intended to comprehend, under the denomination of Crissæan, the whole gulf, more commonly called Corinthian by the ancients, that is, the gulf which commenced at the strait between Rhium and Antirrhium, and of which the Crissæan Gulf was only a portion. The text in the above passage is very corrupt.

Note return to page From Sunium to the Isthmus.

Note return to page Libadostani.

Note return to page N. W. by W., 1/4 W.

Note return to page Literally, by legs on each side. Nisæa was united to Megara, as the Piræus to Athens, by two lone walls.

Note return to page Il. ii. 546.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 685.

Note return to page See note to vol. i. page 329.

Note return to page This place is unknown.

Note return to page From a lost tragedy of Sophocles.

Note return to page Probably interpolated.

Note return to page Il. ii. 557.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 681.

Note return to page Il. iv. 327.

Note return to page Il. iv. 327.

Note return to page Il. iv. 273.

Note return to page Il. iii. 230.

Note return to page Il. ii. 557.

Note return to page These horns, according to Wheler, are two pointed rocks on the sum- mit of the mountain situated between Eleusis and Megara, On one of these rocks is a tower, called by the modern Greeks Cerata or Kerata-Pyrga.

Note return to page Lepsina.

Note return to page σηκὸς.

Note return to page κατεσκεύασεν.

Note return to page ἐποίησε. Ictinus was also the architect of the temple of Apollo Epicurius near Phigalia in Arcadia.

Note return to page Thria.

Note return to page Scaramandra; from the height above ægaleos, Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis.

Note return to page Megala Kyra, Micra Kyra.

Note return to page τὸ ἅστυ, the Asty, was the upper town, in opposition to the lower town, of Piræus. See Smith's Dictionary for a very able and interesting article, Athenœ; also Kiepert's Atlas von Hellas.

Note return to page Sylla took Athens, after a long and obstinate siege, on the 1st March, B. C. 86. The city was given up to rapine and plunder.

Note return to page Strabo thus accounts for his meagre description of the public buildings at Athens, for which, otherwise, he seems to have had no inclination.

Note return to page Hegesias was an artist of great celebrity, and a contemporary of Pheidias. The statues of Castor and Pollux by Hegesias, are supposed by Winkelman to be the same as those which now stand on the stairs leading to the Capitol, but this is very doubtful. Smith.

Note return to page In the Erechtheium.

Note return to page The Heroum, or temple dedicated to the daughters of Leos, who were offered up by their father as victims to appease the wrath of Minerva in a time of pestilence. The position of the temple is doubtfully placed by Smith below the Areiopagus.

Note return to page The well-known temple of Theseus being the best preserved of all the monuments of Greece.

Note return to page An eminent geographer. He made extensive journeys through Greece to collect materials for his geographical works, and as a collector of inscriptions on votive offerings and columns, he was one of the earlier contributors to the Greek Anthology. Smith.

Note return to page The Odeium was a kind of theatre erected by Pericles in the Ceramic quarter of the city, for the purpose of holding musical meetings. The roof, supported by columns, was constructed out of the wreck of the Persian fleet conquered at Salamis. There was also the Odeium of Regilla, but this was built in the time of the Antonines.

Note return to page The country was called Actica from Actæos. Parian Chronicle.

Note return to page Demetrius Phalereus was driven from Athens, 307 B. C., whence he retired to Thebes. The death of Casander took place 298 B. C.

Note return to page Aratus, the Achæan general, 245 B. C., drove from Attica the Lacedæmonian garrisons, and restored liberty to the Athenians.

Note return to page B. C. 87.

Note return to page C. Halikes.

Note return to page Falkadi.

Note return to page Elisa.

Note return to page Raphti

Note return to page Il. iii. 443.

Note return to page Macronisi.

Note return to page Negropont.

Note return to page From C. Colonna to C. Mantelo.

Note return to page Smith gives an alphabetical list of 160 demi.

Note return to page Monte San Giorgio.

Note return to page As Mount Hymettus was always celebrated for producing the best honey, it would appear from this passage that there were silver mines in it. It appears however that the Athenians had failed to discover silver in Hymettus. It is not impossible that Strabo has adopted literally some proverb or saying of the miners, such as, Ours is the best honey.

Note return to page In the following description of Greece, Strabo employs the term belts or bands (ταινίας) for the territory intercepted between the lines forming the peninsulas. See note, chap. i. § 1, of this book.

Note return to page About 67 yards. See also b. x. ch. i. § 8.

Note return to page Leuctra and Mantineia.

Note return to page The Thebans, who were formerly the allies of the Macedonians, were opposed to Philip of Macedon at the battle of Chæroneia. On the accession to the throne of Alexander, the city was destroyed, B. C. 335; 6000 of the inhabitants were killed, and 30,000 sold as slaves. The city was rebuilt, B. C. 316, by Casander. Pausanias, ix. 7. The ravages committed by Sylla in the war against Mithridates, which completed the final-ruin of Thebes, must have been fresh in the memory of Strabo.

Note return to page Hieros Limen.

Note return to page New Eretria stood at Paleocastro, and old Eretria at Vathy.

Note return to page Dramesi.

Note return to page Athenæus, v. 15.

Note return to page Livy states (xlv. 27) that Aulis was distant three miles from Chalcis; by Homer (11. ii. 303) it is called αὺλὶς πετρήεσσα About three miles south of Chalcis, on the Bœotian coast, are two bays, separated from each other by a rocky peninsula: the northern is small and winding, the southern spreads out at the end of a channel into a large circular basin. The latter harbour, as well as a village situated a mile to the southward of it, is called Vathy, a name evidently derived from βαθὺς λιμὴν We may therefore conclude that Aulis was situated on the rocky peninsula between these two bays. Leake and Smith.

Note return to page See above, c. ii. § 2.

Note return to page διῳκοδόμηται δ' εἰς αὐτοὐς σῦριγξ. The passage does not give a clear explanation of the fact. Livy, b. xxviii. c. 6.

Note return to page Thucydides, b. ii. ch. 23, says that Graia is on the road leading from Oropus to Athens.

Note return to page In modern maps a modern town, Skoimandri, is laid down near the ruins of Tanagra. Pausanias, b. ix. ch. 20, informs us why Tanagra was called both Poimandria and Graia. Tanagra was the daughter of æolus and wife of Poimandrus; she arrived at such an extreme old age, as to receive the title of Graia, the Old.

Note return to page Argyrokastro.

Note return to page The exact site of Harma is uncertain. Leake supposes it to have occupied the important pass on the road from Thebes to Chalcis, leading to the maritime plain. Pausanias, b. ix. ch. 19, says that it obtained its name from the chariot of Amphiaraus having disappeared there.

Note return to page We should perhaps read Harma, says Kramer; but in that case Tanagra of Bœotia would be upon the right hand. The reading Argos is a manifest error, and the whole passage is corrupt.

Note return to page Il. ii. 508.

Note return to page Leake supposes ægæ to have stood near Limni. Strabo, below, ch. vii. § 4, says that probably the ægæan Sea had its name from this place.

Note return to page Of this place, although mentioned by Thucydides, b. iii. ch. 89, very little is known, in consequence no doubt of its having almost entirely disappeared by an earthquake, which took place about 426 or 425 years B. C.

Note return to page Ktypa-vuna.

Note return to page Near Anthedon was a place called the Leap of Glaucus, where he threw himself into the sea. Pausanias, ix. 22. The ruins of Anthedon are situated 1 1/2 mile from Lukisi. Smith,

Note return to page This passage is very corrupt.

Note return to page The sites of these places are unknown.

Note return to page Mauro-potamos.

Note return to page Lake of Livadhia.

Note return to page κώπη, an oar.

Note return to page That is, by natural or artificial subterraneous channels.

Note return to page Mauroneri.

Note return to page Pliny, b. xvi. c. 36.

Note return to page Il. ii. 503.

Note return to page There were several rivers of this name. See below, c. iii. § 16.

Note return to page Il. ii. 523.

Note return to page See below, ch. iii. § 15. Elateia is represented by the modern village of Elefta.

Note return to page See ch. ii. § 26.

Note return to page It is impossible to make any exact statement respecting its extent, since it varied so much at different times of the year and in different seasons. On the northern and eastern sides its extent is limited by a range of heights, but on the opposite quarter there is no such natural boundary to its size. Smith, v. Bœotia, which contains also a useful map from Forschamer's Hellenica of the Basin of the Copais.

Note return to page There appears to be no modern lake in the position assigned to Trephea by Kiepert. Kramer suggests the omission here of the word Trephea.

Note return to page Il. v. 708.

Note return to page Makaris.

Note return to page Il. xx. 385.

Note return to page Thiva.

Note return to page Il. ii. 500.

Note return to page Il. vii. 221.

Note return to page The text is in a very imperfect state. The section is translated as proposed to be emended by Kramer,

Note return to page Morikios.

Note return to page Kalyvi.

Note return to page Mount Elatea.

Note return to page There is some doubt respecting the modern name of Thespiæ; the Austrian map places the ruins near Erimokastro.

Note return to page Placing Ascra at Pyrgaki, there is little doubt that Aganippe, whence the Muses were called Aganippides, is the fountain which issues from the left bank of the torrent flowing midway between Paleopanaghea and Pyrgaki. Around this fountain Leake observed numerous square blocks, and in the neighbouring fields stones and remains of habitations. The position of the Grove of the Muses is fixed at St. Nicholas, by an inscription which Leake discovered there relating to the Museia, or the games of the Muses, which were celebrated there under the presidency of the Thespians. Pans. b. ix. c. 31. In the time of Pausanias the Grove of the Muses contained a larger number of statues than any other place ill Bœotia, and this writer has given an account of many of them. The statues of the Muses were removed by Constantine from this place to his new capital, where they were destroyed by fire, in A. D. 404. Smith.

Note return to page Works and Days, 639.

Note return to page This is a mistake, since the loftiest summit of Helicon is barely 5000 feet high, whilst that of Parnassus is upwards of 8000 feet. Smith. Helicon is a range of mountains with several summits, of which the loftiest is a round mountain now called Paleovuni. Smith. The Austrian map gives the modern name Zagora to Helicon.

Note return to page Twenty stadia from the Grove of the Muses was the fountain Hippocrene, which was said to have been produced by the horse Pegasus striking the ground with his foot. Paus. b. ix. ch. 31. Hippocrene was probably at Makariotissa, which is noted for a fine spring of water. Smith. The Austrian map places it at Kukuva. Leibethrum, or Leibethreium, is described by Pausanias as distant 40 stadia from Coroneia, and is therefore probably the mount Zagora. Smith.

Note return to page Il. ii. 499.

Note return to page The remains of Haliartus are situated upon a hill about a mile from the village of Mazi, on the road from Thebes to Lebadeia, and at the distance of about 15 miles from either place. Although the walls of the town are scarcely anywhere traceable, its extent is marked on the east and west by two small rivers, of which that to the west issues from the foot of the hill of Mazi, the eastern, called the Kafalari, has its origin in Mount Helicon. The stream on the western side of the city is the one called Hoplites by Plutarch, where Lysander fell in battle with the Thebans, B. C. 395, and is apparently the same as the Lophis of Pausanias. The stream on the eastern side, the Kafalari, is formed by the union of two rivulets, which appear to be the Permessus and Olmeius, which are described by Strabo as flowing from Helicon, and after their union entering the Lake Copais, near Haliartus. Smith.

Note return to page It was celebrated for the worship of Athena, who is hence called Alalcomeneis in Homer. The temple of the goddess stood at a little distance from the town, on the Triton, a small stream flowing into the Lake Copais. The modern village Sulinari is the site of Alalcomenæ. Smith.

Note return to page Phœnicium, or Sphingium, now called Faga, the mountain between the Lakes Copais and Hylica, connecting Mount Ptoum with the range of Helicon. Forchamer supposes that Phœnicium and Sphingium are the names of two different mountains, separated from one another by the small plain of the stream Daulos; but the name of Phœnicium rests only on the authority of Strabo, and it is probably a corruption of Phicium. φίξ is the æolic form of σφίξ, (Hes. Theog. 326,) and therefore there can be no doubt that Phicium and Sphingium are two different forms of the same name. Smith.

Note return to page Il. ii. 502.

Note return to page It was still in existence in the time of Pausanias; the modern village Topolia occupies the site.

Note return to page Leake conjectures that there is an error in the text, and that for θεσπιῶν we ought to read θισβῶν, since there is only one spot in the ten miles between Platæa and Thespie where any town is likely to have stood, and that was occupied by Leuctra. See Smith.

Note return to page It was here that the Athenians under Tolmides were defeated by the Bœotians in B. C. 447; in consequence of which defeat the Athenians lost the sovereignty which they had for some years exercised over Bœotia. The plain of Coroneia was also the scene of the victory gained by Agesilaus over the Thebans and their allies in B. C. 394.

Note return to page Pausanias, b. ix. 33, mentions the Heroum of Lysander in Haliartus, and some ruined temples, which had been burnt by the Persians, and had been purposely left in that state. Smith.

Note return to page Leake identifies Glisas with the ruins on the bank of the torrent Platanaki, above which rises the mountain Siamata, the ancient Hypatus.

Note return to page The following is the original of this corrupt passage. Kramer suggests that the words γ. δ. have been introduced from the margin into the text. γεώλοφα καλεῖται δρί ὑποπίπται τὸ αόνιον καλούμενον πεδίον ὃ διατείνει ἀπὸ τοῦ υπάτου ὄουσ Pausanias, b. ix. ch. 19, makes mention of a tumulus covered with trees, near the ruins of Glisas or Glissas, which was the burial-place of ægialus and his companions, and also of other tumuli. These were probably the γεώλοθα δρία, woody hillocks. The obscurity, however, still remains.

Note return to page Il. ii. 505.

Note return to page The three summits of Ptoum bear the names of Palea, Stranitza, and Skroponeri.

Note return to page The ruins are situated at a short distance south of Kardhitza. The site of Cierium, the modern village Mataranga, was first discovered by Leake, who identifies it with Arne, and supposes, with much probability, that the name Arne may have been disused by the Thessalian conquerors, because it was of Bœotian origin, and that the new appellation may have been taken from the neighboring river Curalius or Cuarius.

Note return to page Il. ii. 507.

Note return to page Il. v. 43.

Note return to page Sulinari.

Note return to page Il. iv. 8.

Note return to page Petra.

Note return to page Kapurna.

Note return to page Scripu.

Note return to page On the 7th of August, B. C. 338. Of the details of this battle we have no account. The site of the monument is marked by a tumulus about a mile or a little more from the Khan of Kapurna, on the right side of the road towards Orchomenus. A few years ago (according to Mure) the mound of earth was excavated and a colossal lion discovered, deeply im- bedded in its interior. See Smith.

Note return to page Livadhia.

Note return to page Lefka.

Note return to page See below, ch. v. § 15.

Note return to page Il. ix. 381.

Note return to page Euripides, Phœn. 422.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation

Note return to page Leake places it at Tzamali, but Forchammer with more probability at Avre-Kastro.

Note return to page εὐδείελος.

Note return to page Scripu.

Note return to page Bogdana.

Note return to page Aspra-Spitia.

Note return to page Kastri.

Note return to page Daulia.

Note return to page It is a continuation of the ridge of Œta.

Note return to page La Punta.

Note return to page Od. viii. 75.

Note return to page Aspra Spitia.

Note return to page At the mouth of the Spercheius.

Note return to page The ruins are near Chryso.

Note return to page Apparently an interpolation. Groskurd.

Note return to page ἀφήτω.

Note return to page Il. ix. 404.

Note return to page A conjecture by Kramer.

Note return to page Pausanias, b. x. c. 5, speaks of a temple of Apollo at Delphi, which was supposed to have been constructed by bees, with their combs and wings.

Note return to page Of which Spintharus the Corinthian was the architect. Pausanias, b. x. c. 5.

Note return to page κιθαῳδοὶ played on the cithara, accompanying it with words.

Note return to page κιθασταὶ played on the cithara alone.

Note return to page μέλος.

Note return to page νόμος.

Note return to page σύριγξ

Note return to page Groskurd and Meineke propose emendations of the text of this passage. The translation is rather a paraphrase.

Note return to page Probably, says Palmer, the expression is derived from ἵε παίε, O strike, or ἵε παῖ, O youth.

Note return to page Aspra-Spitia.

Note return to page ὄπισθεν, behind it, but Marathus is on the opposite side of the bay. The ruins are indicated in modem maps.

Note return to page The bay of Metochi d'Hagia.

Note return to page Zagora.

Note return to page This place is represented in the Austrian map by ruins near Exarcho. But how does Strabo place not far from the Crisæan Gulf, Abæ, which was certainly near Hyampolis, on the borders of the Locri Epicne- midii? It is on the authority of this passage only that geographers have placed a second Abæ behind Ambrysus, at the foot of Parnassus.

Note return to page Distomo?

Note return to page Il. ii. 519.

Note return to page Daulia.

Note return to page Od. vii. 324.

Note return to page ἄνεμος, the wind.

Note return to page The Look-out.

Note return to page 457, B. C.

Note return to page This place was destroyed in the Persian war; no remains existed in the time of Pausanias.

Note return to page The ruins are situated on the east of Turkochorio, made a free state by the Romans. Pausanias, b. x. ch. 34.

Note return to page Demos. pro Coronâ. B. C. 338.

Note return to page Il. ii. 523.

Note return to page The quotation is from a lost poem.

Note return to page Conjectures of Groskurd, and approved by Kramer.

Note return to page Meineke supposes these words to be an interpolation, because no mention is made by other writers, nor by Strabo himself, in his enumeration of the rivers in Argolis, of the existence of a river called Cephissus at Argos.

Note return to page Polina.

Note return to page Dyrrachium, now Durazzo.

Note return to page The site appears to have been to the south-east of the modern town Neochorio.

Note return to page From hence to the close of the paragraph the text is very corrupt; the restorations are due to the conjectures of Du Theil, Groskurd, and Kramer.

Note return to page Schedius, according to Homer, Il. ii. 517, and 11. xvii. 306, was one of the chiefs of the Phocians.

Note return to page The ruins of Opus are indicated as existing between Talanti and the sea.

Note return to page A portion of the ridge of Œta, on the north-west of Talanti, now Chlomos.

Note return to page A monument, or cenotaph, common to many persons.

Note return to page The site is marked by a tower called Paleopyrgo, near the modern Lebanitis.

Note return to page Mentioned by Athenæus, b. iii. Hot springs were generally sacred to Hercules.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus asserts that <*> separated from the continent by an earthquake; but statements of this kind were commonly and hastily made, where the natural appearances were favourable to them.

Note return to page Il. xxiii. 85.

Note return to page Il. xviii. 326.

Note return to page The ruins have been discovered by Gell on an insulated hill, near the sea-shore.

Note return to page Paleocastro, in Marmara, near Romani.

Note return to page A conjecture by Groskurd.

Note return to page βῆσσαι and νάπη, wooded hollows.

Note return to page In the island of Lesbos.

Note return to page Il. ii. 535.

Note return to page Salona, or Lampeni.

Note return to page Lepanto.

Note return to page Castel de Roumeli.

Note return to page Il. ii. 640.

Note return to page From ὀζεῖν, to smell.

Note return to page Maurolimne.

Note return to page The site is unknown.

Note return to page Near Dervend-Elapha.

Note return to page The Hellada.

Note return to page B. vii. c. 198, and c. 200.

Note return to page Translated according to Kramer's proposed emendation. Demetrias, according to Leake, occupies the southern or maritime face of a height called Goritza, which projects from the coast of Magnesia between 2 and 3 miles to the southward of the middle of Volo. Pausanias, b. vii. c. 7, says that Philip called Chalcis, Corinth, and Magnesia in Thessaly, the Keys of Greece. Livy, b. xxxii. c. 37.

Note return to page C. Lithada.

Note return to page The Salambria.

Note return to page This paragraph is translated as proposed by Meineke, who has fol- owed the suggestions of Du Theil, Groskurd, and Kramer, in correcting the text.

Note return to page G. of Zeitun.

Note return to page The ten states or dynasties mentioned by Homer were those of, 1. Achilles. 2. Protesilaüs. 3. Eumelus. 4. Philoctetes. 5. Podalirius and Machaon. 6. Eurypylus. 7. Polypcetes. 8. Guneus. 9. Prothoüs. These are named in the Catalogue in the 2nd Book of the Iliad; the 10th, Dolopia, of which Phoenix was chief, in Il. xvi. 196.

Note return to page Il. ii. 681.

Note return to page Il. ix. 480.

Note return to page Il, ix. 443.

Note return to page Il. ii. 683.

Note return to page Il. ix. 498.

Note return to page Il. ix. 395.

Note return to page The Vlacho.

Note return to page Part of the range of Mount Gura.

Note return to page Satalda. The plain of Pharsalia is to the north.

Note return to page The Gura.

Note return to page Il. ii. 683.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 685.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 693, 699.

Note return to page Il. ii. 682.

Note return to page ὁ αλος, or ἡ αλος.

Note return to page Armyrus.

Note return to page Hence Virgil, Geor. 3, calls Apollo, Pastor ab Amphryso.

Note return to page Isdin or Zeitun.

Note return to page Il. ix. 484.

Note return to page Il. ii. 744.

Note return to page Above S. Theodoro.

Note return to page Il. ii. 695.

Note return to page πήγνυμι, to fasten.

Note return to page ἀφετήριον, a starting-place.

Note return to page Karlas.

Note return to page Veler<*>.

Note return to page Trikeri.

Note return to page Sciathos.

Note return to page Scopelo?

Note return to page Selidromi?

Note return to page Scyros.

Note return to page Il. ii. 729.

Note return to page Tricala.

Note return to page The ruins are pointed out to the south of Stagus Kalabak.

Note return to page Il. ii. 734.

Note return to page Il. ix. 447.

Note return to page Il. x. 226.

Note return to page Il. ix. 424.

Note return to page τίτανος, chalk.

Note return to page Tcheritchiano.

Note return to page Il. ii. 738.

Note return to page Meineke suggests the reading μετασύ, between, instead of μέχρι, as far as.

Note return to page The words after Perrhœbi, εἰς τὴν ἐν μεσογαίἁ ποταμίαν, into the country in the interior lying along the river, are omitted, as suggested by Meineke.

Note return to page Il. ii. 744.

Note return to page Groskurd suggests the insertion here of Messembria or Odessus. Kramer is inclined to adopt the latter.

Note return to page Il. ii. 748.

Note return to page Or Pelasgiotis. Groskurd.

Note return to page Il. ii. 754

Note return to page Il. ii. 756.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 301

Note return to page In the middle ages Eubœa was called Egripo, a corruption of Euripus, the name of the town built upon the ruins of Chalcis. The Venetians, who obtained possession of the island upon the dismemberment of the Byzantine empire by the Latins, called it Negropont, probably a corruption of Egripo and Ponte, a bridge. Smith.

Note return to page This expression is obscure; probably it may mean that Eubœa is not equal in length to the coast comprehended between Sunium and the southern limits of Thessaly.

Note return to page C. Lithada. The mountain Lithada above the cape, rises to the height of 2837 feet above the sea.

Note return to page C. Mantelo.

Note return to page The real length of the island from N. to S. is about 90 miles, its extreme breadth is 30 miles, but in one part it is not more than 4 miles across. See Smith art. Eubœa.

Note return to page Cape Mantelo.

Note return to page Strabo is the only ancient author who describes a place of this name as existing in Eubœa. Kiepert and the Austrian map agree in giving the name Petaliæ, which may here be meant, to the Spili islands.

Note return to page ἀντίποθμος.

Note return to page Eubœa has various names. Formerly (says Pliny, b. iv. c. 12) it was called Chalcedontis or Macris, according to Dionysius and Ephorus; Aacra, according to Aristides; Chalcis, from brass being there first discovered, according to Callidemus; Abantias, according to Menæchmus; and Asopis by the poets in general.

Note return to page The narrow channel between the island and the mainland.

Note return to page Il. ii. 536,542.

Note return to page From Abas, great grandson of Erectheus.

Note return to page From Eubœa, daughter of the river Asopus and mistress of Neptune

Note return to page From ε well, and βοῦς, a cow. The ancient coins of the island bear the head of an ox.

Note return to page Mount St. Elias, 4748 feet above the level of the sea. Bochart derives the name from an eastern word signifying narrow.

Note return to page At the base of Ploko Vuno.

Note return to page Mount Galzades, celebrated for producing medicinal plants. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. b. ix. c. 15 and 20.

Note return to page Dipso, according to Kiepert.

Note return to page Philipp. iii.

Note return to page Not the town named Histiæa-Oreus, which was on the sea-coast.

Note return to page Livy, b. xxxi. c. 46.

Note return to page διὰ τὸ ὀρείους εναι.

Note return to page Kiepert accordingly places Dium near the modern Jaitra, but the Austrian map places it to the N. E. of Ploko Vuno.

Note return to page Castel Rosso. The landing-place of the Persian expedition under Datis and Artaphernes, B. C. 490. Herod. b. vi. c. 99.

Note return to page Sturæ.

Note return to page The ruins are indicated as existing opposite the Spili islands.

Note return to page λιθος φύεται.

Note return to page τῆ τῶν λίνων πλύσει.

Note return to page C. Mantelo.

Note return to page Od. iii. 177.

Note return to page As this statement is unsupported by any other authority, Meineke suggests that the word Arabians (αραβες οὶ) is an error for Aradii (αρἁδιοι).

Note return to page Repub. b. iv. c. 3.

Note return to page According to the Scholiast in Apollon. Rhod. Argon. b i. v. 7, Canethus was a mountain on the Bœotian side of the Euripus.

Note return to page B. i. c. iii. § 16.

Note return to page B. ix. c. ii. § 13.

Note return to page Il. ii. 640.

Note return to page Od. xv. 295.

Note return to page ἐνιαυτόν for αὐτον. Meineke.

Note return to page Near Palæo-castro.

Note return to page Herod. b. iii. c. 149, and b. vi. c. 101.

Note return to page A common practice of the Dorians.

Note return to page B. viii. c. iii. §

Note return to page In Thessaly.

Note return to page Negropont. It was one of the three cities which Philip of Macedon called the chains of Greece. Brass (χαλκὸς) was said to have been first found there.

Note return to page He retired there B. C. 322.

Note return to page δόυ.

Note return to page κοντὸς.

Note return to page ή σάρισσα και ὁ ὑσσὸς Probably an interpolation. Groskurd.

Note return to page μάχην τὴν σταιδαν.

Note return to page συστάδην

Note return to page ἐκ χειός

Note return to page Il. ii. 543.

Note return to page Il. xix. 389.

Note return to page Od. viii. 229.

Note return to page Il. iv. 469.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 713, 716.

Note return to page B. vi. c. i. § 13.

Note return to page B. viii. c. vii. § 1.

Note return to page The Aspropotamo.

Note return to page G. of Arta.

Note return to page B. vi .iii. c. § iii. 11.

Note return to page B. ix. c. v. § 10.

Note return to page B. viii. c. ii. § 3.

Note return to page The promontory bears the name C. Madonna, and the ruins of Anactorium are pointed out as existing at the bottom of the small bay of Prevesa. The modern town, Azio, which is not the ancient Actium, is near these ruins.

Note return to page Near Lepenu.

Note return to page Correction by Groskurd. Trigardon is given in the Austrian map as the ancient site of $Oeniadæ, but this position does not agree with the text.

Note return to page Porto-fico according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Kandili, opposite the island Kalamo.

Note return to page Santa Maura.

Note return to page Neochori.

Note return to page Arta, but the Austrian map gives Rogus as the site.

Note return to page This is an error either of the author or in the text. Groskurd proposes to read Antirrhium (Castel Rumeli) in place of Anactorium. Kramer proposes to follow Tzschucke, and to exchange the positions of the words Stratus and Alyzia in the text.

Note return to page There has been some dispute respecting the site of Calydon. Leake supposes the ruins which he discovered at Kurtaga, or Kortaga, to the west of the Evenus, (Fidari,) to be those of Calydon.

Note return to page Lepanto.

Note return to page Leake supposes it to have stood in the plain of Marathia, opposite the island Trissonia.

Note return to page M. Coraca.

Note return to page M. Zigos.

Note return to page Xerotimæ.

Note return to page Kaki-scala.

Note return to page Varassova

Note return to page Santa Maura.

Note return to page Theaki.

Note return to page Cephalonia.

Note return to page Od. xxiv. 376.

Note return to page Il. ii. 633.

Note return to page I follow the proposed reading, ἅλμα for ἀλλὰ.

Note return to page Du Theil says, Strabo should have said a daughter of Pterelas who was in love with Cephalus. See below, § 14.

Note return to page Il. ii. 631.

Note return to page Il. ii. 625.

Note return to page Il. ii. 615.

Note return to page Il. ii. 536.

Note return to page Il. viii. 173.

Note return to page Il. ii. 633.

Note return to page Od. xiv. 100.

Note return to page Od. iv. 671

Note return to page Od. i. 246.

Note return to page Od. xvi. 249.

Note return to page Od. xv. 366.

Note return to page Il. ii. 632.

Note return to page Od. ix. 21.

Note return to page Od. iii. 81.

Note return to page Probably interpolated. Kramer.

Note return to page Od. ix. 25.

Note return to page Od. xiv. l.

Note return to page εὺδείελος is the reading of the text, but the reading in Homer is ἱππήλατος, adapted for horses, and thus translated by Horace, Epist. lib. I. vii. 41, Non est aptus equis Ithacæ locus.

Note return to page Od. iv. 607.

Note return to page Od. ix. 26.

Note return to page Il. xii. 239.

Note return to page Od. x. 190.

Note return to page For the explanation of climate, see book ii. ch. i. § 20, but in this passage the word has a different sense, and implies the division of the heavens into north, south, east, and west. The idea of Strabo seems to be that of a straight line drawn from east to west, dividing the celestial horizon into two parts, the one northern, (or arctic,) the other southern. The sun in its course from east to west continues always as regards us in the southern portion. Gossellin.

Note return to page οὐδ' ὅπον ἅρχή

Note return to page So in the text, but there is manifestly an error.

Note return to page Od. i. 181.

Note return to page I. Meganisi.

Note return to page Il. xv. 519.

Note return to page Il. ii. 631.

Note return to page Od. i. 246.

Note return to page C. Tornese.

Note return to page Monte Nero.

Note return to page We may hence conjecture that Cephallenia in the time of Homer was divided into two parts, Dulichium and Samé. It may explain at least the uncertainty of the ancients respecting the position of Dulichium. Pausanias, b. vi. c. 15, speaking of the Paleis says, that formerly they were called Dulichii; and Hesychius, that Dulichium is a city of Cephallenia.

Note return to page Situated near the modern capital Argostoli.

Note return to page Probably the site of the ruins in the harbour of Viscard.

Note return to page Dascaglio.

Note return to page Od. iv. 846.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 12.

Note return to page Il. xxiv. 753.

Note return to page Il. xxiv. 78.

Note return to page In the Valle d' Alessandro, in Cephalonia, there is still a place called Samo.

Note return to page Il. xxiv. 752.

Note return to page σάμοι.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 13.

Note return to page Zante.

Note return to page 3600 stadia? see b. xvii. c. iii. § 20.

Note return to page Curzolari, Oxia, Petala, &c.

Note return to page Od. xv. 298.

Note return to page C. Papa.

Note return to page Sophocles, Trachiniæ, v. 9.

Note return to page Il. ii. 628.

Note return to page Not identified.

Note return to page Gossellin remarks the double error committed by Winkelman, who, on the authority of this passage, states that the Hercules (not the Labours of Hercules) of Lysippus was transferred to Rome in the time of Nero, long after this Book was written.

Note return to page Dragomestre.

Note return to page The lake Xerolimne.

Note return to page Kramer proposes the transposition of the sentence within brackets to the beginning of the paragraph.

Note return to page Il. ii. 639.

Note return to page M. Zigos.

Note return to page Angelo Castron.

Note return to page Near Mauro Mati.

Note return to page See c. ii. § 3, Epictetus.

Note return to page Od. ii. 52.

Note return to page Od. xv. 16.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 116.

Note return to page Il. ix. 525.

Note return to page B. ix. c. iii. § ll.

Note return to page As distinguished from geography. See b. i. c. i. § 16, note1.

Note return to page The author of a work in several books on Eubœa. Athenæus, b. vi. c. 18.

Note return to page The unshorn.

Note return to page From Acarnan, son of Alcmæon. Thucyd. b. ii. c. 102. But the hero from whom the Curetes obtained their name is not mentioned.

Note return to page The position of this mountain is not determined.

Note return to page Œneus and his children were themselves Porthaonidæ. Œneus had possession only of Calydon, his brother Agrius and his children had a part of Pleuronia. Thestius, cousin-german of Œneus and of Agrius, received as his portion the remainder of Pleuronia and transmitted it to his children, (the Thestiadæ,) who probably succeeded in gaining possession of the whole country. The Porthaonidæ of the branch of Agrius, were Thersites, Onchestus, Prothous, Celeulor, Lycopeiis, and Melanippus. Apollodorus, b. i. c. 7, 8.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 117.

Note return to page Il. ix. 544.

Note return to page Il. ix. 525.

Note return to page "Cette digression est curieuse, sans doute * * * * Plusieurs critiques ont fait de ce morceau l'objet de leur Étude; néanmoins il demeure hérissé de difficultiés, et dernièrement M. Heyne (quel juge!) a prononcé que tout y restait à éclaircir. Du Theil. The myths relating to the Curetes abound with different statements and confusion. The following are the only points to be borne in mind. The Curetes belong to the most ancient times of Greece, and probably are to be counted among the first inhabitants of Phrygia. They were the authors and expositors of certain religious rites, which they celebrated with dances. According to mythology they played a part at the birth of Jupiter. They were sometimes called Idæan Dactyli. Hence their name was given to the ministers of the worship of the Great Mother among the Phrygians, which was celebrated with a kind of religious frenzy. The Curetes were also called Corybantes. Hence also arose the confusion between the religious rites observed in Crete, Phrygia, and Samothrace. Again, on the other hand, the Curetes have been mistaken for an ætolian people, bearing the same name. Heyne, Not. ad Virgil. æn. iii. 130. Religion. et Sacror. cum furore peract. Orig. Comm. Soc. R. Scient. Gotting. vol. viii. Dupuis, origin de tous les cultes, tom. 2. Sainte Croix Mém. pour servir a la religion Secrète, &c., Job. Guberleth. Diss. philol. de Myster. deorum Cabir. 1703. Frèret. Recher. pour servir à l'histoire des Cyclopes, &c. Acad. des Inscript. &c., vol. xxiii. His. pag. 27. 1749.

Note return to page τοσαύτη ποικιλία, will bear also to be translated, id tantum varietatis, this difference only, as Groskurd observes.

Note return to page M. de Saint Croix (Recherches sur les Mystères, &c. sect. 2, page 25) is mistaken in asserting that Strabo clearly refutes the statements of those who believed that the Cabeiri, Dactyli, Curetes, Corybantes, and Telchines, were not only the same kind of persons, but ever separate members of the same family. It appears to me, on the contrary, that this was the opinion adopted by our author. Du Theil.

Note return to page προσθεὶς τὸν οἰκεῖον τῆ ἱστορίᾳ θυσικὸν λόγον. rationem naturalem, utpote congruentum huc, histories adjiciens. Xylander. Or paraphrased, The history of this people will receive additional and a fitting illustra- tion by a reference to physical facts, such as the manner of wearing their hair, tonsure, &c.

Note return to page ἑλκεχίτεωνας. The words καὶ κρώβυλον καὶ τἐττιγα ἐυπλεχθῆναι appear, according to Berkel. ad Steph. p. 74, to be here wanting, and to bind the hair in the form of the Crobulus and ornamented with a grasshopper. The hair over the forehead of the Apollo Belvidere is an example of the crobulus.

Note return to page Herod. vii. 208.

Note return to page κουρὰν τριχὁς.

Note return to page κόραις καὶ κὀροις.

Note return to page Strabo therefore considered the 193, 194, 195 verses of II. xix. as authentic. Heyne was inclined to consider them as an interpolation, in which he is supported by other critics.

Note return to page Il. xix. 248. The text is probably mutilated, and Strabo may have quoted the verses in Homer in which Merion is represented as dancing in armour. Il. xvi. 617.

Note return to page Kramer suspects this passage to be an interpolation.

Note return to page The reading in the text is τὸν δ' ὅντως νοῦν. The translation adopts Meineke's reading, νοοῦτα.

Note return to page Quam præclare philosophatus sit Strabo, me non monente, unusquisque assequitur; præclarius, utique, quam illi, qui ex nostro ritu religioso omnnem hilaritatem exulare voluere. Heyne, Virg. iii. 130.

Note return to page The original, as Du Theil observes, is singularly obscure, ἀλλ ἡ φὑσις ἡ τῶν παιδευμἁτων, ἐξεταζέσθω, τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐνθένδε ἔχουσα.

Note return to page Following the reading suggested by Groskurd.

Note return to page This word appears here misplaced.

Note return to page The chain of mountains extending from the sources of the Sagaris (the Zagari) to the Propontis was called Dindymene.

Note return to page Sipuli Dagh.

Note return to page Possene.

Note return to page This name is not derived from any place.

Note return to page διὰ τὸ ὃμοον, for διά τε ομηρον. Meineke.

Note return to page The literal translation has been preserved in the text for the sake of the argument. The following is Potter's translation, in which, however, great liberty is taken with the original. To whom the mysteries of the gods are known, By these his life he sanctifies, And, deep imbibed their chaste and cleaning lore, Hallows his soul for converse with the skies. Enraptur'd ranging the wild mountains o'er, The mighty mother's orgies leading, He his head with ivy shading, His light spear wreath'd with ivy twine, To Bacchus holds the rites divine. Haste then, ye Bacchæ, haste. Attend your god, the son of heaven's high king. From Phrygia's mountains wild and waste To beauteous-structur'd Greece your Bacchus bring O ye Curetes, friendly band, You, the blest natives of Crete's sacred land, Who tread those groves, which, dark'ning round, O'er infant Jove their shelt'ring branches spread, The Corybantes in their caves profound, The triple crest high waving on their head, This timbrel framed, whilst clear and high Swelled the Bacchic symphony. The Phrygian pipe attemp'ring sweet, Their voices to respondence meet, And placed in Rhea's hands. The frantic satyrs to the rites advance, The Bacchæ join the festive bands, And raptur'd lead the Trieteric dance.

Note return to page There were several mountains bearing the name of Olympus. 1. In Thessaly. 2. In Peloponnesus. 3. Of Ida. 4. In Mysia. 5. In Crete.

Note return to page San Dimitri.

Note return to page Od. iii. 144.

Note return to page Adopting Kramer's suggestion of παραδοὺς τὰ for ταραδόντα.

Note return to page Bendis, Diana of the Thracians; among the Athenians th?re was a festival called Bendideia.

Note return to page Athenæus, b. xi. c. 8. æschylus in the Edoni (a fragment) calls cymbals cotylæ.

Note return to page Probably from a passage in the Erectheus, a lost play of Euripides.

Note return to page Nablas and Sambyce are Syriac words. Atheneus, b. iv. c. 24.

Note return to page The invention of Anacreon, according to Neanthus Cyzicenus.

Note return to page Athenæus, b. xiv. c. 8, 9.

Note return to page See above, ch. iii. § 1, 6, 8.

Note return to page κουροτροθήσαντες.

Note return to page κουρῆτες.

Note return to page Who were the Prasians of Rhodes I confess I cannot say. Palmer.

Note return to page From whence Strabo does not inform us.

Note return to page The Scholiast of Apollonius remarks that it was formerly called Leucosia, afterwards Samos from a certain Saiis, and Samothrace when it came into possession of the Thracians. It had also the name of Dardania.

Note return to page The true origin of the word, according to Casaubon, is to be found in the Hebrew word Cabir, signifying powerful. Tobias Gutberlethus, De mysteriis deorum Cabirotum.

Note return to page M. Sitia.

Note return to page Places unknown.

Note return to page In the plain of Troy.

Note return to page According to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhod., Arg. 5, 917 persons were initiated into the mysteries of the Cabeiri in Samothrace. The Cabeiri were four in number; Axieros, Axiokersa, Axiokersos, and Casmilos. Axieros corresponded to Demeter or Ceres, Axiokersa to Persephone or Proserpine, Axiokersos to Hades or Pluto, and Casmilos to Hermes or Mercury. See Ueber die Gottheiten von Samothrace, T. W. I. Schelling, 1815; and the Classical Journal, vol. xiv. p. 59.

Note return to page Herod. iii. 37.

Note return to page Probably a temple of Apollo Smintheus.

Note return to page Corybissa, Eureis, and æthaloeïs are unknown.

Note return to page They were called Curetes because they were boys, and κονρήτες μὲν ἀπὰ τοῦ κόρους εναι καλούμενοι. Groskurd suspects these or similar words to have followed Corybantes.

Note return to page Od. viii. 250.

Note return to page i. e. toes.

Note return to page In a lost play, The Deaf Satyrs.

Note return to page In hoc quoque dissentio, sapientes fuisse, qui ferri metalla et æris invenerunt, cum incendio silvarum adusta tellus, in summo venas jacentes liquefacta fudisset. Seneca, Epist. 90.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus, b. v., says that they obtained the name from being equal in number to the ten fingers or toes (Dactyli).

Note return to page Groskurd proposes Corybantes for these latter Idæan Dactyli.

Note return to page The common European name Candia is unknown in the island; the Saracenic Kandax, Megalo Kastron, became with the Venetian writers Candia; the word for a long time denoted only the principal city of the island, which retained its ancient name in the chroniclers and in Dante, Inferno xiv. 94. It is described by Strabo as lying between Cyrenaica and that part of Hellas which extends from Sunium to Laconia, and parallel in its length from W. to E. of these two points. The words μέχρι λακωνικῆς may be understood either of Malea or Tenarum; it is probable that this geographer extended Crete as far as Tænarum, as from other passages in his work (ii. c. v. § 20; viii. c. v. § 1) it would appear that he considered it and the W. points of Crete as under the same meridian. It is still more difficult to understand the position assigned to Crete with regard to Cyrenaica (xvii. c. iii. § 22). Strabo is far nearer the truth, though contradicting his former statements, where he makes Cimarus, the N. W. promontory of Crete, 700 stadia from Malea, and Cape Sammonium 1000 stadia rom Rhodes, (ii. c. iv. § 3,) which was one of the best ascertained points of ancient geography. Smith, v. Crete.

Note return to page τνς ελλάδος τνς ἀπὸ σουνίου μέχι λακωνικῆς.

Note return to page Gossellin observes that the false position assigned to these countries, and the contradiction perceptible in the measures in stadia, given by Strabo, and above all the impossibility of reconciling them upon one given plan, is a proof that the author consulted different histories, and different maps, in which the distances were laid down in stadia differing in length.

Note return to page The ruins are indicated as existing a little to the north of Hagios Kurghianis, in the Austrian map.

Note return to page Cimarus is given in Kiepert, as the island Grabusa Agria, at the extremity of Cape Buso, and also in the Austrian map. Kramer remarks that the promontory Cimarus is mentioned by no other author. Corycus on the other hand is placed by Strabo below, § 5, in these parts, although the reading is suspicious, and in b. viii. c. v. § 1, and in b. xvii. c. iii. § 22; but the reading again in this last reference is doubtful. Cape Cimarus is now C. Buso or Grabusa.

Note return to page In b. ii. c. iv. § 3, it is written Salmonium, (c. Salamoni,) in which passage Kramer has retained the spelling of the name, on the ground that this form is to be found in Apollonius, Arg. 4, 1693, and Dionys. Perieg. 110. Salmone in the Acts, xxvii. 7.

Note return to page C. Colonna.

Note return to page Not in the text of Kramer. Casaubon's conjecture.

Note return to page The words of the text are, πλάτει δὲ ὑπὸ τὸ μέγεθος, which Meineke translates, Its width is not in proportion to its length. Kramer says that the preposition ὑπὸ suggests the omission of the words τετκοσίων or τριακοσίων που, and that the words τ. μ. are probably introduced from the margin, and are otherwise inadmissible.

Note return to page It is impossible to say what words should fill up the hiatus in the text, but probably something to this effect, ἀπὸ τῶν ἑσπερἰων μερῶν ἀρξαμένις ν νῆσος πλατεῖά ἐστι. Kramer. Groskurd proposes ἡ νῆσος αίθνιδίως στενοχωρεῖ the island suddenly narrows.

Note return to page On the bay of Armiro.

Note return to page Castel Franco. Acts of Apostles, xxvii. 12.

Note return to page Porto Trano. At the bottom of the bay of Mirabel.

Note return to page Near Lytto.

Note return to page Girapetra.

Note return to page By the islands of the Rhodians are meant Caso, Nisari, Scarpanto, &c.

Note return to page Aspra-vuna, or Sfakia.

Note return to page Mt. Penta-Dactylon in the Morea.

Note return to page Psiloriti.

Note return to page From what point in the Cyrenaiïca is not said. From b. viii. c. iii. § 1, it would appear to be Phycus, (Ras al Sem,) but from b. xvii. c. iii. § 20, it would seem to be Apollonias, (Marsa-susa,) the maritime arsenal of the Cyrenæans, situated at about 170 stadia to the east of Phycus, and 80 stadia to the west of Cyrene.

Note return to page C. Crio

Note return to page Of 700 stadia to a degree. Gossellin.

Note return to page Cerigo.

Note return to page The distance from Samonium (Cape Salamone) to Alexandria, in a straight line, is about 5500 stadia of 111 1/9 to the degree. Gossellin.

Note return to page Gossellin's conjecture, for the number is wanting in the text.

Note return to page τριζάϊκες

Note return to page Od. xix. 175.

Note return to page So also Diod. Sic. b. v.

Note return to page τριλοφίας.

Note return to page τριλοφίας.

Note return to page τριχίνους.

Note return to page The ruins are situated at Makro Teikhos, to the south-east of Candia, the modern capital.

Note return to page Il. ii. 646; Od. xix. 178. Hagius Dheka. Pashley.

Note return to page Near Jerami, in the Austrian map. Pashley places it at Khani.

Note return to page The ruins are situated at Makro Teikhos, to the south-east of Candia, the modern capital.

Note return to page But it afterwards recovered its ancient rank of the capital city. Cnossus lies in a plain, with its ancient circum- ference of 30 stadia, between the Lyctian and Gortynian territory; [distant] 200 stadia from Gortyna, and from Lyt- tus 120, which the poet

Note return to page calls Lyctus. Cnossus is at the dis- tance of 25 stadia from the northern sea; Gortyna 90, and Lyctus 80, stadia from the African sea. Cnossus has a marine arsenal, Heracleium.

Note return to page 8. Minos, it is said, used as an arsenal Amnisus,

Note return to page where is a temple of Eileithyia. Cnossus formerly had the name of Cæratus, which is the name of the river

Note return to page which runs beside it. Minos

Note return to page is regarded as an excellent legislator, and the first who possessed the sovereignty of the sea. He divided the island into three portions, in each of which he built a city; Cnossus * * * * * *,

Note return to page opposite to Peloponnesus, which lies toward the north. According to Ephorus, Minos was an imitator of Rhada- manthus, an ancient personage, and a most just man. He had the same name as his brother, who appears to have been the first to civilize the island by laws and institutions, by founding cities, and by establishing forms of government. He pre- tended to receive from Jupiter the decrees which he promul- gated. It was probably in imitation of Rhadamanthus that Minos went up to the cave of Jupiter, at intervals of nine years, and brought from thence a set of ordinances, which he <*> the commands of Jove; for which reason the poet <*> Such is the statement of Ephorus; the ancients on the other hand give a different account, and say that he was tyrannical and violent, and an exactor of tribute, and speak in the strain of tragedy about the Minotaur, the Labyrinth, and the adventures of Theseus and Dædalus. It is difficult to determine which is right. There is another story also not generally received; some persons affirming that Minos was a foreigner, others that he was a native of the island. Homer seems to support the latter opinion, when he says, that Minos, the guardian of Crete, was the first offspring of Jupiter.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 450.

Note return to page The Cretan war was conducted by Q. Metellus, proconsul, who from thence obtained the cognomen of Creticus.

Note return to page Il. ii. 646.

Note return to page Letima or Matala, Cape Theodosia.

Note return to page The Maloniti or Messara.

Note return to page On C. Lionda.

Note return to page Strabo must have confounded two totally distinct cities, (Priansus and Prasus,) when he spoke of them under a common name, and assigned them a single situation, both close to Mount Dikte, and at the same time continuous with the Lebenians, whose city was three days' journey from the mountain. Pashley, Travels in Crete, vol. i. p. 290. Kramer does not agree with Pashley, and, until further information shall be obtained, rests upon the authority of Boeckh, C. I. No. 2556, who affirms that there is some doubt about the name Priansus, which is only found on coins and inscriptions; both Hoeck (v. Kreta I. p. 413) and Boeckh (C. I. ii. p. 405) consider Priansus and Prasus as the same place.

Note return to page M. Sitia.

Note return to page Phæn. 33.

Note return to page Callim, Hymn to Diana, 195.

Note return to page Tityrus is the ridge of mountains which terminates in Cape Spada.

Note return to page Kisamos.

Note return to page See Pashley, Travels in Crete, vol. i. c. 4, who places Aptera at Palæocastron, on the south of the bay of Siedh and Polyrrhenia, at the Palæocastron, to the south of the Gulf of Kisamos.

Note return to page Hodyitra.

Note return to page Il. ii. 648.

Note return to page Episcopiano.

Note return to page Od. iii. 191.

Note return to page Sordid avarice and covetousness have taken such hold upon them, that among the Cretans alone, of all nations, nothing in the form of gain is considered dishonourable. Polybius, b. vi.

Note return to page His father, Temenus, was the founder of Argos. See b. viii.

Note return to page There is, however, diversity of opinions on the subject.

Note return to page Aristotle, Politics, b. ii. c. 10, where he compares the Cretan with the Lacedæmonian constitution.

Note return to page τῶϝ γερόντων.

Note return to page ἱππἑων.

Note return to page According to Plutarch, with the poems of Homer.

Note return to page Herod. i. 65.

Note return to page Anciently Calliste, Herod., now Santorino, a corruption of Santa Irene, to whom it was dedicated.

Note return to page Nanphio, or Anafi.

Note return to page Standia.

Note return to page Therasia, on the west of Santorino.

Note return to page Nio.

Note return to page According to Herodotus, in the Life of Homer.

Note return to page Sikino, anciently Œnoë. Pliny iv. 12.

Note return to page Cardiodissa, or Cardiana.

Note return to page Policandro.

Note return to page Argentiere. Cretæ plura genera. Ex iis Cimoliæ duo ad medicos pertinentia, candidum et ad purpurissimum inclinans. Pliny, b. v. c. 17. Cretosaque rura Cimoli. Ovid. Met. vii. 464. But from Aristophanes, the Frogs, it would appear to have been a kind of fullers' earth.

Note return to page Siphanto, anciently also Meropia and Acis. There were once gold and silver mines in it, which were destroyed by inundation. There is also another proverb, which alluded to its poverty, a Siphnian pledge, σίφνιος ἀῤῥαβὼν. Herodotus speaks of its being once the most wealthy of the islands, iii. 57.

Note return to page Milo.

Note return to page Cape Skylli.

Note return to page Thucyd. b. v. c. 115, 116.

Note return to page Dhiles.

Note return to page Thermia. Hence Apollo Cynthius.

Note return to page Mentioned in b. vi. c. ii. § 4, as connected with the Nile. Bryant, Mytho. v. i. p. 206, derives the name from Ain Opus, The fountain of the Serpent, i. e. Python.

Note return to page Boeckh, Fragm. Pind. 58. ii. 2, p. 587.

Note return to page Thucyd. iii. 104.

Note return to page Isola Longa, or Macronisi.

Note return to page It was situated in the bay of Mandri.

Note return to page C. Colonna.

Note return to page Zia.

Note return to page Serpho.

Note return to page Polino.

Note return to page Antiparos.

Note return to page Bara.

Note return to page Naxia.

Note return to page Syra.

Note return to page Myconi.

Note return to page Tino.

Note return to page Andro.

Note return to page Jura. Pliny, viii. 29, says the inhabitants were driven from the island by mice.

Note return to page B. C. 31.

Note return to page The title (which has been much questioned by critics) of this lost work of Aratus appears to have been, from this passage, τά κατὰ λεπτόν, which Latin translators have rendered, Minuta, or Details. Casaubon is of opinion that it is the same as referred to by Callimachus, under the title ρήσεις λέπται, Clever Sayings. Ernest. ad Callim. Ep. 29. T. 1. p. 333. The translation of the lines quoted follows the corrections of Coray.

Note return to page In the middle of the Cyclades, and by far the most remarkable, is Delos, celebrated for the temple of Apollo, and for its commerce. Pliny iv. 12.

Note return to page Under L. Mummius, B. C. 146.

Note return to page Thucyd. i. 36.

Note return to page καὶ ὅτε συνεστήκει ή κόρνθος.

Note return to page Archelaüs and Metrophanes.

Note return to page Aristion, B. C. 87.

Note return to page Pausanias, viii. 33, § 2, (writing in the time of Hadrian,) says of Delos, that with the exception of the persons who came from Athens, for the purpose of protecting the temple and to perform the Delian ceremonies, it was deserted.

Note return to page Rhena, called also Dhiles; but it is the largest of the two islands now hearing that name. Pliny says it was anciently called also Celadussa from the noise of the waves, κελαδεῖν.

Note return to page Virg. æn. iii. 124. Linquimus Ortygis portus pelagoque volamus.

Note return to page Zia. Pinguia Cææ, Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta juvenci. Virg. Geor. i. 14, 15.

Note return to page Of Olbia or Olbiopolis, on the Borysthenes or Bog.

Note return to page ὁ μὴ δυνάμενος ζῆν καλῶς οῦ ζῆ κακῶς.

Note return to page Naxia.

Note return to page Andro.

Note return to page Taschos.

Note return to page Kemars.

Note return to page The marble was taken from Mt. Marpessus. Pliny xxxvi. 5; Virg æn. 6, Marpesia cautes.

Note return to page Od. xv. 402.

Note return to page Myconi.

Note return to page Myconi calva omnis juventus. Terence, Hecy. a. 3, s. 4; Pliny, b. xi. c. 37.

Note return to page It was an erroneous opinion entertained by the ancients, that frogs did not croak in this island (Sirpho); hence the proverb, a Seriphian frog, βάτραχος σερίφιος.

Note return to page Tine. Anciently it had also the names Hydrussa and Ophiussa.

Note return to page Amorgo.

Note return to page Levita.

Note return to page Lero.

Note return to page Patmo.

Note return to page The Furni; called in b. xiv. c. i. § 13, Corsiæ.

Note return to page Nicaria.

Note return to page According to the enumeration here made by Strabo, of the islands comprehended in the Icarian sea, it appears that in his opinion none of the islands situated to the north of Cos belonged to the Carpathian sea; for according to his own statement, which immediately follows, the Carpathian sea to the north was bounded by the Icarian sea.

Note return to page All the manuscripts and all editions give λέρος. Is the island spoken of in this passage the same as the one mentioned just above by the name of Leria? Pliny, Hist. Nat. b. iv. 23, appears to have been acquainted with two islands bearing the name of Leros. One, from the position he assigns to it, appears to be the one Strabo above speaks of under the name of Leria; but the second Leros of Pliny, b. v. § 36, must be placed on the coast of Caria. Strabo appears to have entertained nearly the same ideas, for we shall hereafter (b. xiv. c. i. § 6) see him give the name of Leros to an island situated in the neighbourhood of Icaria; and below (§ 19) he cites also a Leros, which would seem to have been in the neighbourhood of the southern extremity of Caria.

Note return to page Probably interpolated.

Note return to page Istanpolia, or Stanpalia.

Note return to page Tino.

Note return to page Carchi.

Note return to page Il. ii. 676.

Note return to page Calimno.

Note return to page Fæcundaque melle Calydna (v. L. Calumne). Ovid. Met. b. viii. ver. 222.

Note return to page B. ii. c. v. § 31.

Note return to page The following are the measurements of our author: Stadia. From Rhodes to Issus5,000 From Issus to the Caspian Gates10,000 From the Caspian Gates to the sources of the Indus14,000 From the Indus to the mouth of the Ganges13.500 From thence to Thin2,500 —— 45,000

Note return to page Strabo calls the Parthians, Parthyæi; and Parthia, Pathyæa.

Note return to page The Sea of Azoff.

Note return to page The Straits of Kertch or Zabache.

Note return to page The Kur or Kour.

Note return to page Eraskh or Aras.

Note return to page Georgia.

Note return to page Shirvan.

Note return to page See b. ii. c. v. § 31.

Note return to page To understand how this part of Asia formed a peninsula, according to the ideas of our author, we must bear in mind, that (1) he supposed the source of the Don to have been situated in the neighbourhood of the Northern Ocean; (2) he imagined the Caspian Sea to communicate with the same Ocean. Thus all the territory comprehended between the Don and the Caspian formed a sort of peninsula, united to the continent by an isthmus which separated the Euxine from the Caspian and on which was situated Colchis, Iberia, and Albania. The 3000 stadia assigned to the breadth of this isthmus appears to be measured by stadia of 1111 1/2 to a de- gree. Gossellin.

Note return to page The Euxine.

Note return to page Pompey appears to have visited this philosopher twice on this occa- sion, B. C. 62, and B. C. 67, on the termination of his eastern campaigns.

Note return to page Il. vi. 208. Pope.

Note return to page In many authors these names are used indifferently, the one for the other; they are however distinguished by Pliny, (iv. 13,) who states that this sea begins to be called the Caspian after you have passed the river Cyrus, (Kur,) and that the Caspii live near it; and in vi. 16, that it is called the Hyrcanian Sea, from the Hyreani who live along its shores. The western side should therefore in strictness be called the Caspian; the eastern, the Hyrcanian. Smith, art. Caspium Mare.

Note return to page A narrow pass leading from North Western Asia into the N. E provinces of Persia. Their exact position was at the division of Parthia from Media, about a day's journey from the Median town of Rhagæ. (Arrian. iii. 19.) According to Isodorus Charax, they were immediately below Mt. Caspius. As in the case of the people called Caspii, there seem to have been two mountains Caspius, one near the Armenian frontier, the other near the Parthian. It was through the pass of the Caspiæ Pyle that Alexander the Great pursued Darius. (Arrian. Anab. iii. 19; Curt. vi. 14; Amm. Marc. xxiii. 6.) It was one of the most important places in ancient geography, and from it many of the meridians were measured. The exact place corresponding with the Caspie Pylæ is probably a spot between Hark-a-Koh, and Siah-Koh, about 6 parasangs from Rey, the name of the entrance of which is called Dereh. Smith, art. Caspiæ Pylæ.

Note return to page Du Theil justly remarks on the obscurity of this passage. His translation or paraphrase is as follows: "La troisième contiendra ce qui touche à l' isthme dont nous avons parlé; et, par suite, ceux des pays qui, au sud de cet isthme et des Pyles Caspiennes, mais toujours en decà, on, au moins, dans le sein même du Taurus, se succédant de l' est à l' ouest, se rapprochent le plus de l' Europe. In B. ii. c. v. § 31, Strabo assigns Colchis to the third portion, but in this book to the first.

Note return to page The Kizil Ermak.

Note return to page B. i. c. iii. § 2.

Note return to page A district of wide extent in Central Asia, comprehending nearly the whole of ancient Persia; and bounded on the N. by the provinces of Bactriana, Margiana, and Hyrcania; on the E. by the Indus; on the S. by the Indian Ocean and the eastern portion of the Persian Gulf; and on the W. by Media and the mountains S. of the Caspian Sea. Its exact limits are laid down with little accuracy in ancient authors, and it seems to have been often confounded (as in Pliny, b. vi. c. 23, 25) with the small province of Aria. It comprehended the provinces of Gedrosia, Drangiana, Arachosia, Paropamisus mountains, Aria, Parthia, and Carmania. Smith, art. Ariana. See b. xv. c. ii. § 7, 8.

Note return to page The Aorsi and Siraci occupied the country between the Sea of Azoff, the Don, the Volga, the Caspian Sea, and the Terek. May not the Aorsi, says Gossellin, be the same as the Thyrsagetæ, Agathursi, Utidorsi, Adorsi, Alanorsi of other writers, but whose real name is Thyrsi? The Siraci do not appear to differ from the Soraci or Seraci of Tacitus, (Ann. xii. 15, &c.,) and may be the same as ιυκες, afterwards called Turcæ.

Note return to page The country to the N. and N. E. of Anapa. By Bosporus we are to understand the territory on each side of the Straits of Kertch.

Note return to page B. ii. c.v. § 31.

Note return to page Cn. Pompeius Theophanes was one of the more intimate friends of Pompey, by whom he was presented with the Roman franchise in the presence of his army. This occurred in all probability about B. C. C2. Smith, art. Theophanes.

Note return to page About B. C. 16. Smith, art. Polemon I.

Note return to page If there ever did exist such a city as Tanaïs I should expect to find it at the extremity of that northern embouchure of the Don, which I have before mentioned as bearing the very name the Greeks gave to the city, with the slightest variation of orthography, in the appellation Tdanæts or Danætz. Clarke's Travels in Russia, chap. 14.

Note return to page Strabo makes the distance too great between the two rivers Rhombites.

Note return to page Kertch.

Note return to page According to La Motraye, Achilleum corresponds to Adasbournout, but Du Theil quotes also the following passage from Peyssonel. According to Strabo, Achilleum must have been situated opposite Casau-dip, the ancient Parthenium on the point Tchochekha-Bournou (the pig's head). But perhaps the ancients placed Achilleum near the entrance of the Euxine into the Palus Mæotis. Is not the fort of Achou, which is 8 leagues more to the east on the Palus Mæotis, the true Achilleum, the name being corrupted and abridged by the Tartars?

Note return to page The point Rubanova.

Note return to page Ada.

Note return to page Taman.

Note return to page C. Takli.

Note return to page Ak Tengis.

Note return to page Another branch of the Kuban.

Note return to page The Kuban, anciently also the Vardanus.

Note return to page The Bog.

Note return to page The Dnieper.

Note return to page It is probable that the Kuban Lake is here confounded with, or considered a portion of, the Lake Ak Tengis. Considering the intricacy of all this coast, the changes that have taken place, and the absence of accurate knowledge, both in ancient and modern times, of these unfrequented parts, much must be left to conjecture. The positions therefore assigned to ancient cities are doubtful. The names indeed are inserted in Kiepert's maps, but without the assistance of recent travellers it would be hazardous to pretend to fix upon their exact sites.

Note return to page ἔστι δὲ καὶ γογιπία. Some word or words appear to be wanting here. Kiepert assigns a place to this name, but it seems doubtful whether a place or a district is to be understood. Below, § 14, the Sindic harbour and city are mentioned, which may have been situated at Sound-jouk-kale. D' Anville places them here or at Anapa, but the contour of the coast in his map does not resemble that of any modern maps.

Note return to page The modern town Phanagoria does not seem to occupy the site of the ancient city.

Note return to page ἐξ ἀπάτης.

Note return to page ἡνίοχοι.

Note return to page Pschate.

Note return to page Keremp.

Note return to page C. Aia.

Note return to page The Tschilder mountains, of which Scydeces and Paryandres are a continuation.

Note return to page Thermeh.

Note return to page On the mouth of the river Anthemus to the N. of Colchis. It was situated 100 M. P., or 790 stadia to the N. P. of the Phasis, and 2260 stadia from Trapezus (Trebizond). (Pliny, vi. 5; Arrian, Perip. pp. 10, 18.) Upon or near the spot to which the twin sons of Leda gave their name, (Mela, i. 19, § 5; comp. Am. Marc. xxii. 8, § 24,) the Romans built SEBASTOPOLIS, (Steph. B.; Procop. B. G. iv. 4,) which was deserted in the time of Pliny, but was afterwards garrisoned by Justinian. The SOTERIOPOLIS of later times has been identified with it. The position of this place must be looked for near the roadstead of Iskuria. Smith, art. Dioscurias.

Note return to page ος οὐδὲν τῶν ὄντων μέλει, or careless of the truth. Kramer observes that these words are inconveniently placed in the Greek text.

Note return to page The Rion.

Note return to page The Tschorocsu.

Note return to page The Ilori.

Note return to page Choropani.

Note return to page The point of embarkation on the Cyrus (the Kur) is supposed to have been Surham, the ancient Sura.

Note return to page Gossellin, Groskurd, and Kramer, all agree that there is here an error. Kramer is of opinion that the conjecture of Gossellin may be adopted, viz. eight or nine, instead of three or two, the letters T and B being a corruption of η and θ.

Note return to page Coray's proposed reading is adopted, καιὰ for καὶ.

Note return to page According to Heyne, this was an Assyrian goddess worshipped under various titles.

Note return to page In consequence of the intrigues of his stepmother Ino he was to be sacrificed to Zeus, but his mother Nephele removed him and his sister Helle, and the two then rode away on the ram with the golden fleece, the gift of Hermes, through the air. Helle fell into the sea, which was afterwards called, after her, the Hellespont. Smith, art. Phrixus.

Note return to page The son of Menodotus by a daughter o Adobogion, a descendant of the tetrarchs of Galatia. He was the personal friend of Cæsar, who at the commencement of the Alexandrian war (B. C. 48) sent him into Syria and Cilicia to raise auxiliary forces. Smith, art. Mithridates, and see B. xiii. c. iv. § 3.

Note return to page σκηπτουχίας.

Note return to page Casaubon would read Corax.—The Sukum.

Note return to page Adopting Kramer's proposed reading, ἔνιοι in place of εἰ μὴ.

Note return to page The Arak.

Note return to page In the English map, reduced from the Russian military map, there are two rivers Alasan, flowing in contrary directions from M. Bebala. The modern names of the other rivers here mentioned are not well ascertained.

Note return to page Tchorocsu.

Note return to page Ilori.

Note return to page Probably the Alasan flowing from M. Bebala.

Note return to page Akalziche.

Note return to page The Aras.

Note return to page Strabo mentions the Gelæ again, c. vii. § 1, but in a manner which does not agree with what he here says of their position. We must perhaps suppose that this people, in part at least, have changed their place of residence, and that now the greater part of their descendants are to be found in Ghilan, under the name of Gelæ, or Gelaki. The name of Leges, or Legæ, who have continued to occupy these regions, is recognised in that of Legi, Leski. Gossellin.

Note return to page The Mermadalis seems to be the same river called below by Strabo Mermodas. Critics and modern travellers differ respecting its present name. One asserts that it is the Marubias, or Marabias, of Ptolemy, another takes it to be the Manitsch, called in Austrian maps Calaus. Others believe it to be the small stream Mermedik, which flows into the Terek. Others again recognise the Mermadalis in the Egorlik. Gossellin.

Note return to page Unknown. Pallas thought that he had discovered their name in that of the Tscherkess, who occupied the country where Strabo places the Gargarenses, and might be their descendants.

Note return to page The same river probably before called the Mermadalis.

Note return to page This sentence has been supposed by some critics to be an interpolation. Strabo above, c. ii. § 1, has already spoken of the Siraci, who would seem to have been the inhabitants of Siracena, and may sometimes have been called Siraceni. In c. ii. § 11, he speaks of the Sittaceni, and assigns them a position which would indicate them as a different people from the Seraci, or Siraceni. Gossellin.

Note return to page Groskurd reads ἀπορία, want, instead of εὐπορία, plenty.

Note return to page χαμαικαῖται. People who lie on the ground.

Note return to page Panxani, Paxani, Penzani.

Note return to page The text is here corrupt.

Note return to page The country occupied by the Cadusii of whom Eratosthenes speaks appears to have been the Ghilan, a name probably derived from the Gelæ, who are constantly associated with the Cadusii.

Note return to page The Gihon.

Note return to page The Sihon.

Note return to page i. e. the Hyperboreans above the Adriatic, the Sauromatæ above the Danube, and the Arimaspi above the Euxine.

Note return to page The name Sacæ is to be traced in Sakita, a district on the confines of those of Vash and Gil, situated on the north of the Gihon or Oxus, conequently in ancient Sogdiana. D'Anville

Note return to page C. viii. § 2.

Note return to page At ubi cœpit in latitudinem pandi lunatis obliquatur cornibus Pliny, N. H.

Note return to page See b. ii. c. i. § 14.

Note return to page These names have here probably undergone some change. Talabroce may be the Tambrace or Tembrax of Polybius; Samariane, the Soconax of Ptolemy; Carta, Zadra-Carta; and Tape, the Syrinx of Polybius.

Note return to page The text is here corrupt.

Note return to page About 7 gallons.

Note return to page About 12 gallons.

Note return to page B. ii. c. i. 14.

Note return to page πεύκη.

Note return to page ἐλάτη.

Note return to page πίτυς.

Note return to page The country here spoken of appears to be that celebrated from the earliest times for its breed of horses to which the epithet Nesæan was applied by ancient writers. See c. xiii. § 7.

Note return to page The same statement was made to Pompey, when in these regions in pursuit of Mithridates.

Note return to page The modern name is uncertain.

Note return to page αὐτοῦ in this passage, as Kramer remarks, is singular.

Note return to page From what point our author does not say.

Note return to page There is some confusion in the text, which Groskurd attempts to amend as follows: "But among the barbarians the heights of Ariana, and the northern mountains of India, are separately called Emoda, &c.

Note return to page B. xv. c. i. § 11. The name is derived from the Sanscrit himavat, which is preserved in the Latin hiems, winter, and in the modern name Himalaya. See Smith, art. Imaus.

Note return to page On advancing from the S. E. of the Hyrcanian Sea towards the E.

Note return to page The Syr-Daria.

Note return to page Aparni, Xanthii, and Pissuri, in this passage, seem to be the same as Parni, Xandii, and Parii, in c. ix. § 3, if we may understand in the present passage these people to be referred to only by name, but not as living in the country here described.

Note return to page These gods, otherwise unknown, are mentioned again in b. xv. c. iii. § 15.

Note return to page The Northern Ocean.

Note return to page διαδήματα.

Note return to page τοῖς ὅλοις ὲδάφεσιν.

Note return to page There is great doubt where it was situated; the distances recorded by ancient writers not corresponding accurately with known ruins. It has been supposed that Damgham corresponds best with this place; but Damgham is too near the Pylee Caspiæ: on the whole it is probable that any remains of Hecatompylos ought to be sought in the neighbourhood of a place now called Jah Jirm. Smith, art. Hecatompylos.

Note return to page Now Herat, the capital of Khorassan. See Smith, art. Aria Civitas.

Note return to page Zarang.

Note return to page Sigistan.

Note return to page Ulan Robât, but see Smith, art. Arachotus.

Note return to page Balkh. See Smith.

Note return to page The sum total is 15,210 stadia, and not 15,300 stadia. This latter sum total is to be found again in b. xv. c. ii. § 8, but the passage there referred to has served to correct a still greater error in the reading of this chapter, viz. 15,500. Corrections of the text have been proposed, but their value is doubtful.

Note return to page Its present name is said to be Comis.

Note return to page The Rents.

Note return to page Adopting Tyrwhitt's conjecture, πρὸς ἄλλοις.

Note return to page The Parapomisus. Kramer's proposed correction is adopted.

Note return to page For Isamus in the text, Imaus is adopted by Groskurd considers this reading highly probable. Isamus is not found in any other passage, but Mannert, (Geogr. v. p. 295,) finding in Pliny (N. H. vi. 21, § 17) the river Iomanes, proposes to read in this passage ιομάνου, in which he recognises the Jumna

Note return to page Tatta or Sindi.

Note return to page Adraspa. B. xv. c. ii. § 10.

Note return to page Mentioned nowhere else. Kramer seems to approve of Du Theil's proposed correction, Tapunia.

Note return to page ἐνταφιαστὰς.

Note return to page B. x. c. v. § 6.

Note return to page The text is corrupt.

Note return to page παρωνόμασαν.

Note return to page i. e. on the same parallel.

Note return to page That is, from the Caspian Gates to Thinæ. Gossellin.

Note return to page Strabo does not here determine either the parallel from which we are to measure, nor the meridian we are to follow to discover this greatest breadth, which according to him is less than 10,000 stadia. This passage therefore seems to present great difficulties. The difficulties respecting the parallel can only be perceived by an examination and comparison of the numerous passages where our author indicates the direction of the chain of mountains which form the Taurus.

Note return to page I do not see where this statement is to be found, except implicitly. Strabo seems to refer us in general to various passages where he endea- vours to determine the greatest length of the habitable world, in b. ii. Du Theil.

Note return to page I am unable to fix upon the author's train of thought. For immediately after having assigned to this portion of the Habitable Earth (whose dimensions he wishes to determine) 30,000 stadia as its greatest length, and 10,000 stadia as its greatest breadth, Strabo proceeds to prove what he had just advanced respecting its greatest length. Then he should, it seems, have endeavoured to furnish us, in the same manner, with a proof that its greatest breadth is not more, as he says, than 10,000. But in what follows there is nothing advanced on this point; all that he says is to develope another proposition, viz. that the extent of the Hyrcanian—Caspian Sea is at the utmost 6000 stadia. The arguments contained in this paragraph on the whole appear to me strange; they rest on a basis which it is difficult to comprehend; they establish explicitly a proposition which disagrees with what the author has said elsewhere, and lastly they present an enormous geographical error. It will therefore be useful to the reader to explain, as far as I understand it the argument of our author. The exact form of the chlamys is unknown to us, but it was such, that its greatest breadth was to be found, it' not exactly in, at least near, the middle of its length. The Habitable Earth being of the form of a Chlamys, its greatest breadth would be found about the middle of its greatest length. The greatest length of the Habitable World being 70,000 stadia, its greatest breadth ought to be found at the distance of 35,000 stadia from its eastern or western extremity, but this greatest breadth is only 30,000 stadia, and it does not extend, on the north, beyond the parallel of the mouth of the Hyrcanian Sea. B. ii. The meridian which passes at the distance of 35,000 stadia from the eastern or western extremities of the Habitable Earth, is that which, drawn from the mouth of the Hyrcanian Sea to the Northern Ocean, and prolonged in another direction through the mouth of the Persian Gulf to the sea called Erythræan, would pass through the city Artemita. Consequently it is on the meridian of Artemita that we must look for the greatest breadth of the Habitable Earth. On this same meridian, we must reckon from the parallel of the last habitable country in the south to the mouth of the Persian Gulf; about 8000 stadia; then from the mouth of the Persian Gulf to Artemita, 8000 stadia; and from Artemita to the bottom of the Hyrcanian Sea, 8000 stadia: total 24,000 stadia. It being established that the breadth of the Habitable Earth is 30,000 stadia, and not to extend it northwards beyond the parallel of the mouth of the Hyrcanian Sea, where it communicates with the Northern Ocean, the distance to this point from the bottom of this same sea must. be calculated at 6000 stadia. Du Theil.

Note return to page The modern Shirban is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page Namely 6000. B. ii. c. i. § 17.

Note return to page Introduced from the margin according to Groskurd's opinion, sup- ported also by Kramer.

Note return to page i. e. To northern or southern Asia. B. ii. c. I. § 20.

Note return to page There are five islands off the Hiera Acta, which is now Cape Khelidonia The Greeks still call them Cheledoniæ, of which the Italians make Celidoni; and the Turks have adopted the Italian name, and call them Shelidan. Smith, art. Chelidoniæ Insulæ.

Note return to page Amanus descends from the mass of Taurus, and surrounds the Gulf of Issus.

Note return to page Dudschik Dagh.

Note return to page It is generally supposed that the modern town Al Bostan on the Sikoon, Seihun, or Sarus, is or is near the site of Comana of Cappadocia, Smith, art. Comana.

Note return to page Malatia.

Note return to page Dzophok.

Note return to page Azerbaijan

Note return to page The range overhanging Cerasus, now Kerasun.

Note return to page Camasch. The country situated N. W. of the Euphrates in about 38° lat.

Note return to page The range of Kurdistan on the E. of the Tigris.

Note return to page The range lying between the Euphrates and the Tigris, between 37° and 38° lat.

Note return to page Nisibin or Netzid.

Note return to page Meja-Farkin, by above these cities, would appear to mean overhanging them both, as it is situated between them.

Note return to page Nepat-Learn.

Note return to page B. ii. c. i. § 22.

Note return to page Hamadan.

Note return to page An interpolation; probably introduced from Matiane below. Falconer. Kramer.

Note return to page Its ancient name according to Kramer was Kapotan. Kaputan- Dzow, The Blue Lake, now the Lake Urmiah.

Note return to page καπυωθεῖσιν Kramer observes that the meaning of the word in this passage is not clear. It may possibly mean some colour to which the name of the lake was given.

Note return to page It is uncertain whether this is a place, or a district.

Note return to page Adopting Groskurd's emendation χειμάδιαν.

Note return to page In the text χειμάδων. Kramer suggests the reading βασίλειον.

Note return to page Lucerne?

Note return to page Groskurd proposes length.

Note return to page πῖλος.

Note return to page Heroic monuments of Jason.

Note return to page Kharput.

Note return to page An almost uniform tradition has pointed out an isolated peak of this range as the Ararat of Scripture. It is still called Ararat or Agri-Dagh, and by the Persians Kuh-il-Nuh, mountain of Noah. Smith.

Note return to page Formerly the mass of ruins called Takt-Tiridate, (Throne of Tiridates,) near the junction of the Aras and the Zengue, were supposed to represent the ancient Artaxata. Col. Monteith fixes the site at a remarkable bend of the river somewhat lower down than this. See Smith, art. Artaxata.

Note return to page Kars is the capital of this country.

Note return to page σκώληκς and θῖπας, species of worms. See Smith, art. Chorzene.

Note return to page Melitene. Groskurd.

Note return to page It corresponds, Kramer observes, with Táron, a province of Armenia, which is called by Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 24, Taraunitium (not Taranitium) region.

Note return to page We should read probably Matiane. The meaning of the word proposed by Strabo may easily be proved to be incorrect, by reference to the Armenian language, in which no such word is to be found bearing this sense. As Kapoit in the Armenian tongue signifies blue, this explanation of Strabo's appears to refer to the lake Spauta or Kapauta, above, c. xiii. § 2. Kramer.

Note return to page The lake Arsissa, Thospitis or Van.

Note return to page This is an error; one of the branches of the Tigris rises among the mountains on the S. W. of the lake Van, and which form part of the range of Nepat-Learn or Niphates.

Note return to page The Kurds.

Note return to page Groskurd proposes Syspiritis.

Note return to page ἀ πήγχθη. Meineke.

Note return to page It is doub ful whether this colour was red, blue, or purple.

Note return to page Herod. i. 202.

Note return to page Arbil.

Note return to page That this is an error is manifest. Falconer proposes Armenia; Groskurd, Assyria; but what name is to be supplied is altogether uncertain. The name of the city is also wanting, according to Kramer, who proposes Nisibis.

Note return to page The beginning is wanting, according to the opinion of critics, Xy- lander, Casaubon, and others.

Note return to page The range of mountains to the S. of Caramania.

Note return to page Kizil-Irmak.

Note return to page Itsch-Ili.

Note return to page Archeaus received from Augustus (B. C. 20) some parts of Cilicia on the coast and the Lesser Armenia. In A. D. 15 Tiberius treacherously invited him to Rome, and kept him there. He died, probably about A. D. 17, and his kingdom was made a Roman province.

Note return to page Herod. i. 6, 28.

Note return to page Eregli near the lake Al-gol.

Note return to page That is, surrounded by mountains, as below.

Note return to page The range on the west of the river Sarus, Seichun, now bearing vari- ous names.

Note return to page Supposed to be Al-Bostan.

Note return to page The Crimea.

Note return to page Dschehan-Tschai.

Note return to page The text is here corrupt.

Note return to page The reading is doubtful.

Note return to page The passage is corrupt. Groskurd proposes Asbamean in place of Dacian, mention being made of a temple of Asbamean Jove in Amm. Marcell. xxiii. 6. Kramer also suggests the transposition of this sentence to the end of § 6.

Note return to page Probably the Kermel-su, a branch of the Pyramus.

Note return to page There is some confusion in this statement.

Note return to page Kara-Hissar.

Note return to page Between the mountains Bulghar-Dagh and Allah-Dagh.

Note return to page Kaisarieh.

Note return to page Edsehise-Dagh, the highest peak, has been estimated at 13,000 feet above the sea.

Note return to page The Kara-su, the black river, a branch of the Kizil-Irmak. The modern name appears common to many rivers.

Note return to page αημάτων, the reading proposed by Kramer.

Note return to page i. e. the kingdom of Pontus.

Note return to page Kara-Hissar.

Note return to page Du Theil quotes Justin, 38, c. 2, where it is stated that Ariobarzanes was appointed king by the Romans. Probably the election was confirmed by the Senate.

Note return to page Kizil-Irmak.

Note return to page Who lived on the west of the river Sidenus (Siddin).

Note return to page Amassera.

Note return to page Erekli, or Benderegli.

Note return to page Erekli.

Note return to page The Bithynians, or rather Thyni, occupied the sea-coast from the Bosphorus to the river Sagaris (Sakaria). The Mariandyni extended to Heracleia (Erekli); and the Caucones to the east as far as the river Parthenius (Tschati-su).

Note return to page Sizeboli, south of the Gulf of Burgas.

Note return to page Midjeh.

Note return to page B. vii. c. iii. § 2.

Note return to page Kramer is of opinion that Strabo is mistaken in this account of the origin of Heracleia.

Note return to page Atbenæus, b. vi. c. 85, vol. i. p. 414, Bohn's Class. Library.

Note return to page Tilijos

Note return to page B. viii. c. iii. § 17.

Note return to page Il. ii. 855.

Note return to page Kidros.

Note return to page On the bay of the modern Sebastopol, b. vii. c. iv. § 2.

Note return to page Mangalia.

Note return to page Some of the smaller mountain streams which descend from the range of hills extending from Scutari to the Sangaria. According to Gossellin the Psillis may be the river near Tschileh, and the Calpas the river near Kerpeh.

Note return to page Il. xvi. 719.

Note return to page The virgin river, from its flowers and tranquil course.

Note return to page Il. ii. 851.

Note return to page B. v. c. i. § 4.

Note return to page Herod. i. 6.

Note return to page About the Thermodon, now Termeh.

Note return to page The country about Samsoun.

Note return to page Il. ii. 853.

Note return to page Kara-Aghatsch.

Note return to page Il. i. 855.

Note return to page Between C. Tchakras and Delike-Tschili.

Note return to page B. vii. c. iv. § 3.

Note return to page Kinoli.

Note return to page Ineboli, near the mouth of the Daurikan-Irmak.

Note return to page Ak-Liman.

Note return to page B. vii. c. vi. § 2.

Note return to page The eunuch Bacchides, or Bacchus, according to others, whom Mithridates, after despairing of success, commissioned with the order for his women to die. Plutarch, Life of Lucullus.

Note return to page Probably a celestial globe constructed by Billarus, or on the principles of Billarus, a person otherwise unknown. Strabo mentions, b. ii. c. v. § 10, the Sphere of Crates, Cicero the Sphere of Archimedes and of Posidonius. History speaks of several of these spheres, among others of that of Ptolemy and Aratus. Leontinus, a mechanician of the sixth century, explains the manner in which this last was constructed.

Note return to page Lucullus, upon his entry into Sinope, put to death 8000 Cilicians whom he found there. The rest of the inhabitants, after having set fire to the town, carried with them the statue of Autolycus, the founder of Sinope, the work of Sthenis; but not having time to put it on board ship, it was left on the sea-shore. Autolycus was one of the companions of Hercules in his expedition against the Amazons. Sthenis, as well as his brother Lysistratus, was a celebrated statuary; he was a native of Olynthus and a contemporary of Alexander the Great.

Note return to page The temple of Jupiter Urius near Chalcedon.

Note return to page He was also the author of a History of the Tyrants of Ephesus. Athenœus, b. vi. c. 59, p. 395, Bohn's Class. Library.

Note return to page ἀπὸ τῶν ἁλῶν.

Note return to page B. iv. c. iv. § 3.

Note return to page ζόκες.

Note return to page Wesir Kopti.

Note return to page The district between the Halys (Kizil Irmak) and the Iris (Jeschil Irmak).

Note return to page Some words of the text are lost.

Note return to page The tract of country between the Iris and the Thermodon.

Note return to page The territory on the east of the Thermodon (Termeh).

Note return to page Jeschil Irmak.

Note return to page Tasch Owa.

Note return to page Gumenek.

Note return to page Kas Owa.

Note return to page Turchal.

Note return to page Tschoterlek Irmak.

Note return to page Amasija.

Note return to page Germeili Tschai.

Note return to page At the mouth of the river Puleman.

Note return to page Fatsa?

Note return to page Samsun.

Note return to page According to Arrian, Pharnacia in his time was the name of Cerasus (Kerasun).

Note return to page Trebisond.

Note return to page The temple of Jupiter near Chalcedon.

Note return to page To the west of the mouth of the Termeh.

Note return to page Jasun.

Note return to page C. Vona.

Note return to page Ordu.

Note return to page Platana.

Note return to page B. xi. c. ii. § 12.

Note return to page Probably the same as the Macropogones and Macrocephali.

Note return to page Aggi-dagh.

Note return to page The mountains above Erzeroum.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the Seven Villages.

Note return to page Iildiz-dagh.

Note return to page Dwellers in towers.

Note return to page Il. ii. 856.

Note return to page Sarakoi.

Note return to page Il. ii. 863.

Note return to page Od. xviii. 5.

Note return to page Od. xxi. 6.

Note return to page In Kiepert's map it is without a name. Leake calls it Boklu. It falls into the sea to the west of Cyzicus.

Note return to page B. vii. c. iii. § 6. B. i. c. ii. § 23.

Note return to page Il. iii. 189.

Note return to page B. xiii. c. iv. § 5, it joins the Hyllus, called Phrygius in the time of Strabo. The Phrygius takes its rise in the mountains north of Thyatira, (Ak Hissar,) and falls into the Hermus (Gedis Tschai).

Note return to page Bos Dagh.

Note return to page Manisa.

Note return to page Bojuk Meinder.

Note return to page Il. xii. 20.

Note return to page B. vii. c. iii. § 6.

Note return to page Gumenek.

Note return to page Zileh.

Note return to page This district is at the foot of the mountains which separated the Roman from the Persian Armenia. Carana (now Erzurm, Erzerum, or Garen) was the capital of this district. It was afterwards called Theodosiopolis, which name was given to it in honour of the Emperor Theodosius the Younger by Anatolius his general in the East, A. D. 416. It was for a long time subject to the Byzantine emperors, who considered it the most important fortress of Armenia. About the middle of the 11th century it received the name of Arze-el-Rum, contracted into Arzrum or Erzrum. It owed its name to the circumstance, that when Arzek was taken by the Seljuk Turks, A. D. 1049, the inhabitants of that place, which from its long subjection to the Romans had received the epithet of Rúm, retired to Theodosiopolis, and gave it the name of their former abode Smith.

Note return to page On the S. W. of the ridge of Tauschan Dagh.

Note return to page Mersivan. The text is corrupt. Groskurd's emendation is followed in the translation.

Note return to page Ladik-Gol.

Note return to page Kawsa.

Note return to page Ijan (Tauschan) Kalessi.

Note return to page Tusanlu-su, a branch of the Ieschil Irmak.

Note return to page West of Koseh Dagh.

Note return to page Situated between the Kizil Irmak and the river Delidsche Irmak, a tributary of the former.

Note return to page Alkas-Dagh.

Note return to page Gok-Irmak, or Kostambul Tschai, flowing between the mountain ridges. Jeralagoz-Dagh and Sarikawak-Dagh.

Note return to page B. C. 88.

Note return to page Tasch-Kopri.

Note return to page Pliny, xxxiv. c. 18.

Note return to page Great-grandson of Deïotarus I.

Note return to page According to Alexander Polyhistor, the town was built by a goatherd, who had found one of his goats straying there, but this is probably a mere philological speculation, gangra signifying a goat in the Paphlagonian language. In ecclesiastical writers it is often mentioned as the metropolitan see of Paphlagonia. The orchards of this town were celebrated for their apples. Athen. iii.—Smith.

Note return to page Book iv. c. i. § 6. Athen. b. viii.

Note return to page Isnik Gol.

Note return to page Sakaria.

Note return to page B. vii. c. vi. § 2.

Note return to page G. of Ismid.

Note return to page Ismid or Iskimid.

Note return to page B. of Gemlik.

Note return to page Brusa.

Note return to page Mudania.

Note return to page Livy, xxxviii. 39.

Note return to page The kings of Pergamus.

Note return to page The Acquired.

Note return to page The ridge of Katerlu Dagh and Samanlu Dagh.

Note return to page In the text, Prusias. The translation follows the suggestion of Kramer.

Note return to page Il. ii. 862.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 792.

Note return to page Sarakoi.

Note return to page Il. ii. 824.

Note return to page Karabogha.

Note return to page Keschisch-Dagh.

Note return to page Claudiopolis, now Boli.

Note return to page Tilijos.

Note return to page Isnik. The Turkish name is a contraction of εἰς νικαιαν, as Ismir, Smyrna, is a contraction of εἰς σμύην, Istambol, Constantinople, of εἰς τὴν πόλιν, Stanco, Cos, of εἰς τὴν κῶ.

Note return to page Xenocrates, one of the most distinguished disciples of Plato, was of Chalcedon. Dionysius the dialectician is probably the same as Dionysius of Heracleia, who abandoned the Stoics to join the sect of Epicurus. Hipparchus, the first and greatest of Greek astronomers, (B. C. 160–145,) was of Nicæa. So also was Diophanes, quoted by Varro and Columella, as the abbreviator of the twenty books on Agriculture by Mago, in the Punic language. Suidas speaks of Theodosius, a distinguished mathematician, who, according to Vossius, may be here meant. A treatise of his on Spherics still exists, and was printed in Paris in 1558. Of Cleophanes of Myrleia little is known. Strabo mentions also a grammarian, Asclepiades of Myrleia, in b. iii. c. iv. § 19. To these great names may be added as of Bithynian origin, but subsequent to the time of Strabo, Dion Chrysostom, one of the most eminent among Greek rhetoricians and sophists; he was born at Nicomedia, and died about A. D. 117. Arrian, the author of India, and the Anabasis (the Asiatic expedition) of Alexander, was also born at Nicomedia towards the end of A. 1. 100.

Note return to page Probably a grove.

Note return to page Bala Hissar, to the south of Siwri-Hissar; between these two places is Mt. Dindymus, Gunescth-Dagh.

Note return to page On the west of the lake Simau.

Note return to page Suleimanli.

Note return to page The kings of Pergamus.

Note return to page Juliopolis.

Note return to page Tuz-Tscholli.

Note return to page Konia.

Note return to page Meineke's correction.

Note return to page Its position is uncertain, probably Divle, to the S. of the Lake Ak-Gol. See Smith, art. Derbe.

Note return to page Caraman.

Note return to page Tschol-Abad.

Note return to page Aphiom Kara Hissar.

Note return to page Sulpitius Quirinus. The Cyrenius governor of Syria in St. Luke. Tacitus (Ann. B. iii. c. 48) speaks of his expedition against the Ho- monadeis, and Josephus of his arrival in Syria, where he was sent with Coponius by Augustus.

Note return to page Eske-Adatia.

Note return to page Balkesi.

Note return to page To the north of the chain of Taurus which commenced at the pro- montory Trogilium opposite Samos.

Note return to page Tabas.

Note return to page Surk.

Note return to page Pliny, b. xv. c. 7, and b. xii. c. 4.

Note return to page Kopru-Su.

Note return to page Ak-Su.

Note return to page Bakyr-Tschai.

Note return to page The district around Bergama.

Note return to page Sipuli-Dagh.

Note return to page The district between Bergama and the sea.

Note return to page Protheüs, who had led the Magnetes to Troy, upon his return from that expedition, and in compliance with a vow which he had made to Apollo, selected every tenth man and sent them to the temple at Delphi. These Magnetes, for some reason, abandoned the temple and embarked for Crete; from thence they passed into Asia, accompanied by some Cretans, and founded Magnesia near the Mæander. B. xiv. c, i. § 11.

Note return to page Herod. i. 173; vii. 92.

Note return to page Il. vi. 184.

Note return to page Il. vi. 204.

Note return to page Il. vi. 199.

Note return to page Il. ii. 655, 677.

Note return to page Il. iii.

Note return to page Il. iii. 8.

Note return to page Keschisch Dagh.

Note return to page Kas-Dagh.

Note return to page Artaki

Note return to page Satal-dere?

Note return to page Mualitsch-Tschai.

Note return to page laskili.

Note return to page Mudania.

Note return to page Loubadi.

Note return to page Manijas.

Note return to page According to Pliny, b. v. c. 32, it was united to the mainland by Alexander.

Note return to page Marseilles.

Note return to page Simau-Su.

Note return to page Simau-Gol.

Note return to page Imrali, or Kalo-limno.

Note return to page Karabogher.

Note return to page Kiutahia.

Note return to page Eski-Schehr.

Note return to page Gedis.

Note return to page Hergan Kaleh.

Note return to page Ischekli.

Note return to page Afium-Karahissar.

Note return to page Dinear.

Note return to page Iorghan-Ladik.

Note return to page Geira.

Note return to page Destroyed by an earthquake in the time of Nero, afterwards Konos.

Note return to page Teseni.

Note return to page Ballyk.

Note return to page Sultan Dagh.

Note return to page Ak Schehr.

Note return to page Ialobatsch.

Note return to page Mender Tschai.

Note return to page Samsun.

Note return to page The lake above Celænæ bore the name of Aulocrene or Pipe Fountain, probably from the reeds which grew there. Pliny, b. v. c. 29.

Note return to page Urumluk.

Note return to page The place is identified by the hot springs about 12 miles from Denizli or Jenidscheh.

Note return to page Ala Schehr.

Note return to page The Black.

Note return to page The number of cities destroyed were twelve, and the catastrophe took place in the night. An inscription relating to this event is still preserved at Naples. Tacit. Ann. B. ii. c. 47. Sueton in V. Tiberii.

Note return to page Tiberius, the adopted son of Augustus.

Note return to page B. i. c. iii. § 4.

Note return to page Herophilus, a celebrated physician, and contemporary of Erasistratus. He was one of the first founders of the medical school in Alexandria, and whose fame afterwards surpassed that of all others. He lived in the 4th and 3rd centuries B. C.

Note return to page Zeuxis was the author of a commentary on Hippocrates: it is now lost; even in the time of Galen, about A. D. 150, it was rare. Alexander Philalethes, who succeeded Zeuxis, had as his pupil and probably successor Demosthenes Philalethes, who was the author of a treatise on the eyes, which was still in existence in the 14th century.

Note return to page The Niobe, a lost tragedy of Sophocles, is often quoted; this is probaliy here meant.

Note return to page Satal-dere.

Note return to page The Troad is called Biga by the Turks, from the name of a town which now commands that district. Biga is the ancient Sidene.

Note return to page Kodscha-Tschai. Oustvola. Gossellin.

Note return to page The ruins of Abydos are on the eastern side of the Hellespont, near a point called Nagara. Sestos, of which the ruins also exist, called Zemenic, are on the opposite coast.

Note return to page Baba Kalessi.

Note return to page Eski Stamboul, or Old Constantinople.

Note return to page Bakir-Tschai, or Germasti.

Note return to page Beiram-koi, or Asso, or Adschane.

Note return to page Edremid or Adramytti.

Note return to page Dikeli-koi.

Note return to page Tschandarlik.

Note return to page Mytilene.

Note return to page Lamurt-koi.

Note return to page Gedis-Tschai.

Note return to page Karadscha-Fokia.

Note return to page The return of the Heracleidæ having taken place, according to Thu- cydides and other writers, eighty years after the capture of Troy, some critics have imagined that the text of Strabo in this passage should be changed from ἑξήκοντα ἔτεσι, sixty years, to όγδοήκοντα ἔτεσι, eighty years. Thucydides, in the same chapter, and in the space of a few lines, speaks of the return of the Bœotians to their own country, as having taken place sixty years after the capture of Troy; and of the return of the Heracleidæ to the Peloponnesus, as having taken place eighty years after the same event; it is probable that Strabo, who followed Thucydides, substituted, through inattention, one number for another.

Note return to page Kamaræs, or Kemer. (Kamar, Arab. the Moon.)

Note return to page Near Mussatsch-Koi.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 283.

Note return to page The passage in brackets Meineke suspects to be an interpolation, as Rhesus and Heptaporus cannot be placed in this part of Ida, nor do any of the streams mentioned by Homer in the same passage flow into the ægean Sea.

Note return to page Il. xii. 19.

Note return to page Il. ii. 824.

Note return to page The whole range of Ida now bears various names: the highest summit is called Kas-dagh. Gossellin says that the range is called Karadagh, but this name (black mountain) like Kara-su (Black river) and Kara-Koi (Black village) are so commonly applied that they amount to no distinction; in more modern maps this name does not appear. It may be here observed that the confusion of names of those parts in the Turkish empire which were formerly under the Greeks, arises from the use of names in both languages.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 292.

Note return to page The Gulf of Edremid or Jalea, the ancient Elea.

Note return to page The meridian, according to our author's system, passing through Constantinople, Rhodes, Alexandria, Syene, and Meröe.

Note return to page Il. ix. 328.

Note return to page Od. xviii. 518.

Note return to page Il. ix. 129.

Note return to page Il. xx. 92.

Note return to page Il. ii. 691.

Note return to page Il. ii. 690.

Note return to page Il. xix. 295.

Note return to page Il. i. 366.

Note return to page Il. vi. 395.

Note return to page Il. xxi. 86.

Note return to page Il. iii. 816.

Note return to page Il. ii. 819.

Note return to page Il. xx. 83.

Note return to page Il. ii. 824.

Note return to page Il. i. 835.

Note return to page Il. iv. 499.

Note return to page Bergas.

Note return to page Il. xv. 546.

Note return to page Il. ii. 831.

Note return to page So that Cilicia was divided into three principalities, as Strabo observes below, c. i. § 70. But perhaps this division was only invented for the purpose of completing the number of the nine principalities, for Strabo above, c. i. § 2, speaks in a manner to let us suppose that other authors reckoned eight only. However this may be, the following is the number of the dynasties or principalities established by our author. 1. That of Mynes; 2. that of Eetion, both in Cilicia; 3. that of Altes; 4. that of Hector; 5. that of æneas; 6. that of Pandarus; 7. that of Asius; 8. that of the son of Merops; 9. that of Eurypylus, also in Cilicia. Coraÿ.

Note return to page Granting to Priam the sovereignty of the districts just mentioned by Strabo, his dominion extended over a country about twenty maritime leagues in length and the same in breadth. It would be impossible to determine the exact limits of these different districts, but it is seen that The Trojans, properly so called, occupied the basin of the Scamander (Menderes-Tschai). The Cilicians, commanded by Eetion, occupied the territory which surrounds the present Gulf of Adramytti. The Cilicians of Mynes were to the south of the above. The Leleges extended along a part of the northern coast of the Gulf of Adramytti, from Cape Baba. The Dardanians were above the Trojans, and the chain of Ida. On the north, extending on both sides of the Hellespont, were the people of Arisbe, Sestos, and Abydos. The people of Adrasteia occupied the Propontis, as far as the Granicus. The Lycians, the country beyond, as far as the æsepus and Zeleia. Strabo mentioned a ninth (c. i. § 2) principality subject to Priam; he does not mention it by name, or rather it is wanting in the text. M. de Choiseul-Gouffier, (Voyage Pittoresque de la Gréce, vol. ii.,) with much probability, thinks that this principality was that of the island of Lesbos. Gossellin.

Note return to page Il. xxiv. 543.

Note return to page Il. ii. 824.

Note return to page M. Falconer prétend qu' au lieu de 80 stades il faut lire 180.—Nos cartes modernes confirment la conjecture de M. Falconer. Gossellin.

Note return to page Il. ii. 828.

Note return to page Karadere.

Note return to page For σκάθων in the text—read ὁ δ' ἐκ. . . . . εἰς σάρδωνα. Meineke, who however suspects the whole passage to be an interpolation.

Note return to page Peor Apis, or Baal Peor?

Note return to page Lapsaki or Lampsaki.

Note return to page The reading is very doubtful.

Note return to page Marmara, from the marble, μάρμαρον, found there.

Note return to page Gallipoli.

Note return to page Beiram-dere.

Note return to page Il. ii. 328.

Note return to page Il. v.612.

Note return to page The same person probably as Cephalion, author of a History of the Trojan War.

Note return to page Neoptolemus composed a glossary, or dictionary, divided into several books.

Note return to page Charon was the author of a History of the Persian War, and of the Annals of Lampsacus.

Note return to page Adeimantes was probably one of the courtiers of Demetrius Poliorcetes.

Note return to page Anaximenes was the author of a History of Early Times, and of a work entitled, The Death of Kings. The Rhetoric addressed to Alexander, now known as The Rhetoric of Aristotle, has been ascribed to him. For the above see Athænæus.

Note return to page Called Stagnum Agrippe in Tacit. Ann. b. xv. c. 37.

Note return to page Il. ii. 835.

Note return to page Il. iv. 522.

Note return to page Il. ii. 254.

Note return to page The Maritza in Roumelia.

Note return to page Il. xvi. 717.

Note return to page A bridge of boats which could be unfixed at pleasure for the passage of vessels.

Note return to page Meineke reads κατίστη, the strongest fortified, instead of ἀρίστη.

Note return to page Il. ii. 819.

Note return to page Il. xv. 425.

Note return to page The ancient Dardania in the interior; a second Dardania was afterwards built on the sea-coast.

Note return to page Il. xx. 215.

Note return to page Od. ix 109, 112.

Note return to page Il. xx. 216.

Note return to page Il. xi. 166.

Note return to page According to Arrian and Plutarch, it was before his victory.

Note return to page A native of Alexandreia-Troas and a grammarian; he was the author of Commentaries on various authors and of a History of the Trojan War.—Athœneus.

Note return to page According to Pliny, b. vii. 29, this casket contained the perfumes of Darius, unguentorum scrinium. According to Plutarch, (Life of Alexander,) the poem of Homer was the Iliad revised and corrected by Aristotle. From what Strabo here says of Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, we may probably understand a second revision made by them under inspection of Alexander.

Note return to page Called above, § 22, Cape Dardanium (Cape Barber). Pliny gives the name Dardanium to the town which Herodotus and Strabo call Dardanus, and places it at an equal distance from Rhœteium and Abydos. The modern name Dardanelles is derived from it.

Note return to page The name was given, it is said, in consequence of the imprecations of Hecuba on her captors. Others say that Hecuba was transformed into a bitch. The tomb occupied the site of the present castle in Europe called by the Turks Kilid-bahr.

Note return to page Pliny states that in his time there were no traces of the Rhodius, nor of the other rivers mentioned by Strabo in following Homer. According to others, the Rhodius is the torrent which passes by the castle of the Dardanelles in Asia, called by the Turks Sultan-kalessi, and therefore cannot unite with the æsepus.

Note return to page Ienischer.

Note return to page The Scamander no longer unites with the Simoïs, and for a considerable length of time has discharged itself into the Archipelago. The ancient mouth of these rivers preserve, however, the name Menderé, which is an evident alteration of Scamander, and the name Menderé has also become that of the ancient Simoïs. It is to be observed that Demetrius of Scepsis, whose opinions on what regards these rivers and the position of Troy are quoted by Strabo, constantly takes the Simoïs or Mender??é for the Scamander of Homer. The researches of M. de Choiseul-Gouf- fier on the Troad appear to me clearly to demonstrate that Demetrius of Scepsis is mistaken.—Gossellin.

Note return to page The temple or tomb of Protesilaus, one of the Greek princes who went to the siege of Troy, and the first who was killed on disembarking. Artayctes, one of the generals of Xerxes, pillaged the temple and profaned it by his debauchery. According to Herodotus, (b. ix. 115,) who narrates the circumstance, the temple and the tomb of Protesilaus must have been in Eleussa (Paleo-Castro) itself, or at least very near this city. Chandler thought he had discovered this tomb near the village which surrounds the castle of Europe.

Note return to page The port of the Achæans, the spot, that is, where the Greeks disembarked on the coast of the Troad, at the entrance of the Hellespont, appears to have been comprehended between the hillock called the Tomb of Achilles and the southern base of the heights, on which is situated another tomb, which goes by the name of the Tomb of Ajax. This space of about 1500 toises in length, now sand and lagunes, where the village Koum Kale and the fortress called the New Castle of Asia stand, and which spreads across the mouth of the Menderé, once formed a creek, the bottom of which, from examination on the spot, extended 1200 or 1500 for desolation implies a deficiency of inhabitants, but not a complete destruction of the place; but those persons destroyed it entirely, whom they think worthy of sacred rites, and worship as gods; unless, perhaps, they should plead that these persons engaged in a just, and Hercules in an unjust, war, on account of the horses of Laomedon. To this is opposed a fabulous tale, that it was not on account of the horses but of the reward for the delivery of Hesione from the sea-monster. toises from the present shore. It is from the bottom of this marshy creek the 12 stadia must be measured which Strabo reckons from the Port of the Achæans to New Ilium. These 12 stadia, estimated at 700 to a degree, (like the generality of other measures adopted by Strabo in this district,) are equal to 977 toises, and conduct in a straight line to the western point of the mountain Tchiblak, where there are remains of buildings which may be the vestiges of New Ilium. The other 30 stadia, which, according to Strabo, or rather according to Demetrius of Scepsis, was the distance from New Ilium to the town of the Ilienses, are equal to 2440 toises, and terminate at the most eastern edge of the table-land of Tchiblak, in a spot where ruins of a temple and other edifices are seen. Thus there is nothing to prevent our taking this place for the site of the town of the Ilienses, and this is the opinion of many modern travellers. But did this town occupy the same ground as the ancient Ilium, as Demetrius of Scepsis believed? Strabo thinks not, and we shall hereafter see the objections he has to offer against the opinion of Demetrius.—Gossellin.

Note return to page Consequently ancient Ilium, according to Strabo, was forty-two stadia from the coast. Scylax places it at twenty-five stadia; but probably the copyists of this latter writer have confounded the numerical Greek letters κε (25) with με (45).

Note return to page According to Homer, (Od. xxiv. 75,) Patrocles must have the same tomb with Achilles, as their ashes were united in the same urn; those of Antilochus were contained in a separate urn.

Note return to page Il. v. 641.

Note return to page This plain, according to Demetrius, was to the east of the present Menderé, and was enclosed by this river and the mountain Tchiblak.

Note return to page Il. xvi. 738.

Note return to page If the name Cebrene or Cebrenia were derived from Cebriones, it would have been, according to analogy, Cebrionia; but it would have been better to have supposed the name to have been derived from Cebren, the more so as this river was supposed to be the father of Œnone the wife of Alexander (Paris). Whatever may be the origin of the name, the city Cebrene was, according to Ephorus, a colony of Cyme in æolia.

Note return to page The position of the tomb of æsyetes is said to be near a village called by the Turks Udjek, who also give the name Udjek-tepe to the tomb itself. The tomb of Ilus, it is presumed, must be in the neighbourhood of the ancient bed of Scamander, and Batieia below the village Bounarbachi.

Note return to page This and the following paragraph more especially are at variance with the conjecture of those who place New Ilium at the village Tchiblak, situated beyond and to the north of the Simoïs.

Note return to page As there are no mountains on the left bank of the Menderé, at the distance at which Demetrius places the town of the Ilienses, the long ridge or height of which Strabo speaks can only be referred to the hill of Tchiblak. In that case the Simoïs of Demetrius must be the stream Tchiblak, which modern maps represent as very small, but which Major Rennell, on authority as yet uncertain, extends considerably, giving it the name Shimar, which according to him recalls that of Simoïs.—Gos- sellin.

Note return to page Kramer proposes the insertion of ὤν before τῶν εἰρηἐνων ἀγκώνων ἐπ' εὺθείας, by which we are to understand that the extremities of the arms and of the ridge are in the same straight line. Groskurd reads μεταξὺ before τ. ε. α., changes the construction of the sentence, and reads the letter ψ instead of ε. His translation is as follows: Both-mentioned plains are separated from each other by a long neck of land between the above-mentioned arms, which takes its commencement from the present Ilium and unites with it, extending itself in a straight line as far as Cebrenia, and forms with the arms on each side the letter ψ. The topography of the plain of Troy and its neighbourhood is not yet sufficiently known to be able to distinguish all the details given by Demetrius. It appears only that he took the Tchiblak for the Simoïs, and placed the plain of Troy to the right of the present Menderé, which he called the Scamander. This opinion, lately renewed by Major Rennell, presents great and even insurmountable difficulties when we endeavour to explain on this basis the principal circumstances of the Iliad. It must be remembered that in the time of Demetrius the remembrance of the position of ancient Troy was entirely lost, and that this author constantly reasoned on the hypothesis, much contested in his time, that the town of the Ilienses corresponded with that of ancient Ilium. Observations on the Topography of the plain of Troy by James Rennell.—Gossellin.

Note return to page Il. xx. 51.

Note return to page Il. x. 430.

Note return to page Tumbrek.

Note return to page Erineos, a wild fig-tree. Homer, it is to be observed, speaks of a single wild fig-tree, whereas Strabo describes a spot planted with them. This place, or a place near the ancient Ilium, is called by the Turks, according to M. Choiseul-Gouffier, Indgirdagh—i. e. the mountain of fig- trees, although none were to be found there whether cultivated or wild.

Note return to page Il. vi. 433.

Note return to page Il. ix. 352.

Note return to page 1628 toises. The alluvial deposit has now extended the mouth of the Menderé 3400 toises from the ruins where the measurement indicated the position of New Ilium.—Gossellin.

Note return to page The passage is corrupt, and the translation is rather a paraphrase, assisted by the conjectures of Kramer.

Note return to page Od. xiv. 469.

Note return to page Od. xiv. 496.

Note return to page Il. xx. 209.

Note return to page Il. xviii. 254.

Note return to page Hestiæa was distinguished for her commentary on Homer somewhat in the same manner as Madame Dacier in modern times.

Note return to page Il. ii. 792.

Note return to page M. Lechevalier, who extends Ilium and its citadel Pergamus to the highest summit of the mountain Bounar-bachi, acknowledges that the nature of the ground would prevent the course of Hector and Achilles taking place round this position, in consequence of the rivers and the precipices which surround it on the S. E. To meet the objection which these facts would give rise to, M. Lechevalier interprets the expressions of Homer in a manner never thought of by the ancient grammarians, although they contorted the text in every possible manner, to bend it to their peculiar opinions. Would it not be more easy to believe that at the time of the siege of Troy this city was no longer on the summit of the mountain, nor so near its ancient acropolis as it was at first; and that the inhabitants moved under the reign of Ilus, as Plato says, and as Homer leads us to conclude, to the entrance of the plain and to the lower rising grounds of Ida? The level ground on the top mountain which rises above Bounar-bachi, and on which it has been attempted to trace the contour of the walls of ancient Ilium and of its citadel, is more than 3200 toises in circumference. But it is difficult to conceive how, at so distant a period and among a people half savage, a space of ground so large and without water could be entirely occupied by a town, whose power scarcely extended beyond 25 leagues. On the other hand, as the exterior circuit of this mountain is more than 5500 toises, it is not to be conceived how Homer, so exact in his description of places, should have represented Achilles and Hector, already fatigued by a long-continued battle, as making an uninterrupted course of about seven leagues round this mountain, before commencing in single combat. It appears to me therefore that the Troy of Homer must have covered a much less space of ground than is generally supposed, and according to all appearances this space was bounded by a hillock, on which is now the village of Bounar-bachi. This hillock is about 700 or 800 toises in circumference; it is isolated from the rest of the mountain; and warriors in pursuing one another could easily make the circuit. This would not prevent Pergamus from being the citadel of Ilium, but it was separated from it by an esplanade, which served as a means of communication between the town and the fortress.—Gossellin.

Note return to page This paragraph, according to Kramer is probably an interpolation.

Note return to page Herod. viii. c. 85.

Note return to page Thucyd., b. iii. c. 50, does not use the word Troad, but says all the towns possessed by the Mitylenæans.

Note return to page Poets and mythologists subsequent to Homer supposed Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, to have been violated by Ajax, the Locrian; that as a punishment for his crime this hero perished by shipwreck on his return from Troy, and that three years afterwards Locris was visited by a famine, which occasioned great destruction to the inhabitants. The oracle consulted on the occasion of this calamity advised the Locrians to send annually to Minerva of Ilium two young women chosen by lot. They obeyed and continued to send them for 1000 years, until the time of the sacred war.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 363.

Note return to page Il. vi. 92 and 273.

Note return to page Il. ix. 455.

Note return to page Il. vi. 305.

Note return to page The corrupt passage replaced by asterisks is εθ' ἱκετεὐοντες τεθένας, which is unintelligible.

Note return to page The following is a translation of the passage, as found in the speech of Lycurgus, still preserved to us: Who has not heard of Troy, the greatest City of those times, and sovereign of all Asia, that when once destroyed by The Greeks it remained for ever uninhabited

Note return to page Modern maps place the Cotylus, and consequently the sources of the river which Demetrius calls Scamander, at more than 30,000 toises, or nearly eleven leagues, to the S. E. of the entrance of the Hellespont, when the source of the Scamander should be near Troy; and Troy itself, according to the measurement adopted by Demetrius, ought not to be more than 3400 toises, or a league and a quarter, from the sea. There is therefore a manifest contradiction, and it appears, as I have already remarked, that the river called Scamander by Demetrius, is not the river so called by Homer, but the Simoïs of the poet.—Gossellin. Modern travellers accuse Demetrius with having confounded the Scamander with the Simoïs. The Simoïs they say rises in Cotylus, (Kasdagh,) as also the Granicus, (Oustrola,) and the æsepus, (Satal-dere,) but the sources of the Scamander are below, and to the W. of Ida, near the village called by the Turks Bounar-bachi, which signifies the head of the source. If it is an error, Demetrius is not alone responsible for it, as Hellenicus (Schol in Iliad xxi. 242) also says that the Scamander had its source in Mount Ida itself. Both probably rested on the authority of Homer, who places the source of the Scamander in Ida. They did not, however, observe that Homer employs the expression ἀπ' ιδαίων ὀρέων in a more extensive sense.—Du Theil.

Note return to page Il xxii. 147.

Note return to page We owe to the researches of M. de Choiseul Gouffier, published without his knowledge in 1793, an acquaintance with these two springs, which present nearly the same phenomena as described by Homer. These springs have since been seen by many travellers; they are situated at the foot of a small hill on which is Bounar-bachi, and about 6500 toises in a straight line from the mouth of the Menderé. The stream which flows from them never fails, and after having run for some time parallel to the Menderé, it turns suddenly to throw itself into the Archipelago, near the middle of the interval which separates the ruins of Alexandria- Troas from the cape Koum-kale, but still leaving traces of a bed through which it formerly flowed to join the Menderé. We are now convinced that this little river is the Scamander of Homer, that the present Menderé is the Simoïs of that poet, and that the ancient Ilium, which was near the sources of the Scamander, must have been situated on the heights of Bounar-bachi. In the time of Homer these two rivers united together and discharged themselves into the sea by the same mouth: but the course of the Scamander has been changed for a long time, since, according to Pliny, (v. c. 33,)a part of its waters spread themselves over a marsh, and the remainder flowed unto the ægæan Sea, between Alexandria-Troas and Sigeum. This ancient author therefore gave to the little river (which he called Palæscamander, the old Scamander) exactly the same course which the stream Bounar-bachi still follows. This change of direction in the course of the river appears to me to have been anterior to the time of Demetrius of Scepsis, for this alone can explain his error. For, no longer finding a stream which runs on the left of the present Menderé, and which might represent the Scamander, he thought proper to transfer this latter name to the Simoïs, and to look for the site of the Ilium of Homer, as also of the plain which was the scene of the combats described by the poet, on the right of this river. Thence he is persuaded that the town of the Ilienses occupied the same site as the ancient Ilium, and that the stream of the Tschiblak was the Simoïs. I must remark that the Menderé is a torrent, the waters of which fail during a great part of the year, whilst the stream of the Bounar-bachi always continues to flow. This advantage is probably the reason why it preserved the name of Scamander to the sea, although it ran into the bed of the Simoïs and was far inferior to this torrent in the length of its course. Hence it may be perceived how the name of Scamander, now changed into that of Menderé, has remained attached to this ancient mouth, how ultimately it was given to the whole course of the Simoïs, and how Demetrius of Scepsis was led into error by the change in the course of the true Scamander, and by the transfer of its name to the Simois.—Voyage Pittorcsque de la Grèce par M. de Choiseul Gouffier. Le Voyage dans la Troad, par M. Lechevalier. The Topography of Troy, W. Gell.—Gossellin.

Note return to page Il. xii. 20.

Note return to page B. xii. c. iii. § 21.

Note return to page Below Strabo calls this same place ænea, and in b. xii. c. iii. § 23, Enea-Come. Pliny calls it Nea; it is said to be the same place called by the Turks Ene.

Note return to page αγύια, in the neuter gender, with the accent on the antipenultima, means silver mines. But αγυία with the accent on the penultima, becomes the name of a town.

Note return to page Il. ii. 856.

Note return to page What other places? I do not think that Strabo or Demetrius have mentioned any other place bearing the name of Palæscepsis.—Du Theil.

Note return to page Il. i. 38.

Note return to page There are no islands to the south of Tenedos,—that is, between Tenedos and Cape Lectum (Baba). The state of the text might induce us to suppose that, instead of Lectum, Strabo wrote Sigeum. Then the Calydne islands would answer to the Mauro islands or to the isles des Lapins.—Gossellin.

Note return to page Called also Lyrnessa and Phœnice. The first of these names is the sane as that of one of the 12 towns on the continent sacked by Achilles. The name Phœnice was given to it probably by a Phoenician colony. Leucolphrys, (white brows,) from the colour of the coast.

Note return to page From σμίνθος a rat, in the æolic dialect. The worship of Apollo Smintheus was not confined to the town of Chrysa alone; it was common to all the continent of the Troad and to the adjacent islands; it extended along the whole coast to the island of Rhodes, as Strabo afterwards informs us. He has already told us that there was a temple of Apollo Smintheus in the island of Tenedos. Coins of this island exist, bearing the effigy of the god with a rat under the chin. The town of Hamaxitus, on the continent, had also its temple of Apollo Smintheus, where was not only to be seen the picture of a rat near the tripod of the god, but also tame rats, maintained at the public expense.

Note return to page Sect. 63.

Note return to page In the island of Rhodes more especially many Sminthia must have existed, as Andreas, a native of Lindus, one of the three cities of the island, made these temples the subject of a treatise entitled On the Sminthia of Rhodes.

Note return to page The Turks call the place Fousla, the salt-pans.

Note return to page Il. x. 429.

Note return to page Il. xxi. 86.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 443.

Note return to page Il. vi. 34.

Note return to page At the foot of the mountain on which is now the village Ine.

Note return to page Palamedium? Pliny, b. v. c. 30.

Note return to page Karatepe-bourlou, or Cape San Nicolo.

Note return to page Antandro.

Note return to page Diskeli-koi.

Note return to page Tschandarlyk.

Note return to page Ialea.

Note return to page From σκέπτομαι, (sceptomai,) I see to a distance, from which the compound πεισκέπτομαι, (perisceptomai,) I see to a distance around. Strabo perceived the absurdity of such an etymology. Others derived the name of this place from σκήτομαι, I pretend, whence σκῆψις, (skepsis,) a pretext, because it was on this part of the chain of Ida that Rhea, on the birth of Jupiter, substituted for him a stone clothed as an infant, and presented it to be devoured by Saturn in place of her child. This etymology is conformable to analogy, although founded on a ridi- culous fable.

Note return to page B. xiii. c. i. § 6.

Note return to page Il. xx. 188.

Note return to page Il. xiii. 460.

Note return to page See note4, vol. i. p. 76.

Note return to page Some assert that Capys, the father of Anchises, was the founder of Capua or Capya in Italy. The town in Arcadia was afterwards called Caphya or Caphyæ.

Note return to page Segesta.

Note return to page Trapani.

Note return to page Cape Boë.

Note return to page Il. xx. 306.

Note return to page This statement is not in contradiction with those (A then. b. i. c. 3) who assert that Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens, and Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, were the first who formed libraries. The libraries of these two princes, who lived six centuries before our time, were probably confined to half a dozen poets, and it may be supposed that the care Pisistratus took to collect the poems of Homer did not extend to poets posterior to his time. But in the time of Aristotle there existed many poems, a great number of oratorical discourses, historical works, and various treatises of philosophy.

Note return to page Apellicon proclaimed himself a philosopher of the school of Aristotle. From what Athenæus, b. v., says of him, he appears to have used his great wealth for the purposes of ostentation rather than of employing it for the benefit of others. He was sent by Aristion, (or Athenion, as Athenæus calls him,) tyrant of Athens, to Delos, at the head of ten thousand soldiers, to remove the treasures of the temple. He was defeated by the Romans, and having lost his whole army, escaped with difficulty.

Note return to page This name was given to books intended to be seen and read by every one, but which did not contain the fundamental dogmas which Aristotle only communicated to those of his own school. The books which contained these doctrines were called, by way of distinction, esoteric. Such at least is the opinion of those who admit of the existence of a secret doctrine, and a public doctrine, in the philosophy of Aristotle. This passage of Strabo however seems to favour those who maintained a different opinion, namely, that this celebrated distinction of exoteric and esoteric doctrines, which is peculiar to the works of Aristotle, is not founded on any essential difference of doctrine, but rather on a difference of method, so that the word esoteric was applied to works where the opinions of the philosopher were set forth in a manner to be understood by all intelligent readers, whether of his own school or strangers; and esoteric to those works where his opinions were thoroughly discussed, and in a scientific manner, and which, not being intelligible to every one, required to be explained by the master himself.

Note return to page Tyrannion was a native of Amisus, whose lectures he attended (b. xii. c. iii. § 16). He is often quoted among the commentators of Homer. It was he also who gave copies of the works of Aristotle to Andronicus of Rhodes, for whom he made a catalogue of them.

Note return to page Metrodorus was not only a fellow-countryman of Demetrius, who was one of the richest and most distinguished citizens of Scepsis, but also his contemporary and protegé. A small treatise of Metrodorus is cited, entitled πεὶ ἀλειπτικῆς, which may mean on anointing with oil, or on oil used in the public exercises. It seems however very probable that the treatise on the Troad, (τωϊκὰ,) which Athenæus attributes to another Metrodorus of Chios, was the work of this Metrodorus of Scepsis. The place of his birth, which was in the Troad, might have suggested, as it did to his patron, the idea of treating a subject liable to discussion, and to endeavour to throw light upon it by the words of Homer. Add to this that Strabo quotes also Metrodorus on the subject of the Amazons, whose history appears so closely connected with the Trojan war that all who have touched on the one, have also treated of the other. Pliny quotes also a Metrodorus on the subject of the serpents of the river Rhyndacus, near the Troad. It is also a question whether Metrodorus was one of those who occupied themselves with mnemonics, or the art of increasing and strengthening the memory. According to Plutarch, Metrodorus was the victim of Mithridates. Tigranes, who had placed the philosopher in his power, more from inadvertence than intentionally, so much regretted his death that he celebrated magnificent obsequies to his memory.

Note return to page Gargara is the same town called above by Strabo Gargaris, unless he meant by the latter name the territory of Gargara, a distinction we find made below between Pedasa and Pedasis. The author of the Etymolo. gicum Magnum calls the place Gargarus, and informs us that the inhabitants abandoned it on account of the cold, it being situated on Mount Ida; that they founded a new town in the plain, and that the town abandoned afterwards received the name of Old Gargara. The town called Lamponia by Strabo is called Lamponium by Hellanicus and Herodotus.

Note return to page By the kings, we must probably understand the kings of Bithynra rather than the kings of Persia, as understood by Rambach (De Mileto ejusque colonize); for if we suppose that colonists are here meant who came to Gargara from Miletus after the destruction of this latter town by the Persians, how could Demetrius of Scepsis say of the Gargareans that, Eolians as they were, or instead of æolians they became semibarbarians? He ought at least to have said, that they became Ionians, for Miletus, a Greek city of Ionia, at the time of its destruction by the Persians, was far from being barbarous. But Miletopolis, although from its name and position in the territory of Cyzicus was probably, like Cyzicus, a colony of Miletus, yet might have been peopled with barbarians at the time Gargara received colonists. Mualitsh is the modern name of Miletopolis.

Note return to page Il. x. 428.

Note return to page Budrun, the birth-place of Herodotus.

Note return to page Herod. i. 175; viii. 104.

Note return to page Paitschin?

Note return to page Eski-Hissar.

Note return to page C. vii. § 49.

Note return to page Il. i. 366.

Note return to page Il. ii. 691.

Note return to page Il. ii. 295.

Note return to page Il. i. 439.

Note return to page Il. i. 37.

Note return to page Dikeh-koi.

Note return to page For νησὶς Meineke reads γῆτις, a certain earth. Pliny, b. ii. c. 95 speaks of islands which are always floating; something of the kind occurs in volcanic lakes.

Note return to page Ak-su or Bakir.

Note return to page It is difficult to clear up this passage ἣν αιγα τινὲς ὀνομάζουσιν ὁμωνύμως τῷ ξώω δεῖ μακῶς τὴν δευτὲραν συλλαβὴν ἐκφεειν αιγαν ὡς ακταν καὶ απχαν. There is no doubt that the first of these words in capitals, to be homonymous with goat, should be αγα, as is read in the old editions, and in many manuscripts, and not αἰγᾶ, αἰγὰ, or αἰγὰν, as in others. αγα is the accusative of αϊξ (æx,) a goat, which name Artemidorus actually gives to this promontory. But as our language has no termination of cases, the passage requires some explanation. If the Greeks desired to express in the nominative case the position of the promontory with respect to the island of Lesbos, they would say, according to Artemidorus, The cape æx (αϊξ) is in front of Lesbos; according to Strabo, The cape æga (αἰγᾶ) is in front of Lesbos. The first, æx, signifies a goat, as Artemidorus intended; the second, æga, in the Doric dialect (for æge, αἰγῆ) means a goat's skin. If they desired to employ the word in the accusative, they said, according to Artemidorus, We have doubled Cape æga (αῖγα); according to Strabo, We have doubled Cape ægan (αῖγα). The matter is clear thus far, but what follows, δεῖ δὲ μακως * * * ὡς ἀκτᾶν καὶ ἀρχᾶν is difficult to explain. The two last words are Doric genitive plurals, the first for ἀκτῶν shores, the second for ἀρχῶν, beginnings; and yet one would expect to find examples of accusatives in the singular number, as ἀκτὰν and ἀζὰν; the difference of accent is here of no importance, for the last syllables of these accusatives are long, as Strabo wishes to make the last syllable long of ægan (αἰγᾶν). If he had required examples agreeing with this last word in quantity, accent, and case, he might have cited sycan, (συκᾶν, a fig-tree,) or some other word of this form. It might be supposed that ακτᾶν was here taken in the acceptation [ἀκτέην, ἀκτῆν, and, in the Doric dialect, ἀκτᾶν]; but there still remains ἀχᾶν, unless we change the word to ἀρχτᾶν a bear's skin.—Coraÿ.

Note return to page Od. xi. 521.

Note return to page Eurypylus, son of Telephus, being invited by Priam to come to his assistance, answered that he could not do so without the permission of his mother, Astyoche. Priam by rich presents obtained from her this permission. There are other explanations equally uncertain. Bryant asserts that the Cetæi were pirates, and exacted young women as tribute from the people whom they attacked.

Note return to page Sigri.

Note return to page Molyvo.

Note return to page Cape Sta. Maria.

Note return to page Adshane.

Note return to page This is the number given in Agathermus, and there is no difference in manuscripts in this part of the text. Falconer thinks we ought to read χιλίων ἑκατὸν καὶ δέκα (1100), for χιλίων ἑκατὰν to make the sum-total given agree with the sum-total of the particular distances. I am more inclined to deduct 10 stadia from the 210, which is the distance given between Sigrium and Methymne.—Coraÿ.

Note return to page Arginusi Islands; according to others, Musconisia.

Note return to page The entrance to the Gulf of Caloni.

Note return to page Pira.

Note return to page Diophanes was the friend of Tiberius Gracchus, and was the victim of his friendship. Potamo was professor of rhetoric at Rome, and was the author of the Perfect Orator, the Life of Alexander the Great, the Praise of Cæsar, the Praise of Brutus, and the Annals of Samos. Pliny mentions a sculptor of the name of Lesbocles, whose name seems to indicate his origin from Lesbos. Athenæus also names a sculptor from Mitylele called Lesbothemis. Strabo is probably the only person who makes mention of Crinagoras. Theophanes is known as an historian, and especially as the friend of Pompey, whom however he advised to retire to Egypt. The philosopher Lesbonarx, lather of Potamo, was a native of Mitylene.

Note return to page Eresso.

Note return to page To the N. E. of Sigri.

Note return to page In which are comprehended the Arginusi mentioned above.

Note return to page According to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, Hecatonnesoi means the hundred islands, the word being composed not of Hecatus but of Hecaton, ἑκατὸν, a hundred, and νῆσοι, islands.

Note return to page The name appears to be wanting.

Note return to page Derived from πορδὴ and πἐδω.

Note return to page Il. ii. 692; xix. 296.

Note return to page II. x. 428.

Note return to page Il. xiv. 443.

Note return to page Il. xxi. 86.

Note return to page Il. xxi. 87.

Note return to page Il. xxi. 84.

Note return to page Il. ii. 840.

Note return to page Il. xvii. 301.

Note return to page Kramer adopts Coraÿ's correction of ἑλόντας for ἐλθόντας, although he at the same time remarks, that we have no other information of Larisa being then taken.

Note return to page Kara-su, or Kutschuk-Meinder.

Note return to page Sarabat.

Note return to page Salambria.

Note return to page In spite of the improbability of these anecdotes, there must have been something real in the dulness of the Cymæans; for Cymæan was employed by the Greeks as a word synonymous with stupid. Cæsar, among the Romans, (Plutarch, Cæsar,) adopted this name in the same sense. This stupidity gave occasion to a proverb, ὄνος εἰς κυμαίους, an ass among the Cymæans, which was founded on the following story. The first time an ass appeared among the Cymæans, the inhabitants, who were unacquainted with the beast, deserted the town with such precipitation that it might be said they were escaping from an earthquake.

Note return to page Il. ii. 814.

Note return to page Bergamo.

Note return to page Sart.

Note return to page A building raised in commemoration of a victory. It was destroyed by Philip of Macedon, Polyb. xvi. 1. It appears, however, that he restored it to its ancient splendour, as forty-five years afterwards it was devastated a second time by Prusias, king of Bithynia, which Strabo notices hereafter.

Note return to page The circumstances are differently narrated by Plutarch On brotherly love, and by Livy, xlii. c. 15 and 16.

Note return to page Diegylis, king of the Cæni, a Thracian people, was the father-in-law of Prusias.

Note return to page Aristonicus, brother of Attalus, and a natural son of Eumenes, for some time contended with the Romans for the possession of this inheritance; but finally he was vanquished and made prisoner by the consul Perperna, carried to Rome, and there died in prison. B. xiv. c. i. § 38.

Note return to page ἐξέδα. The exhedra was that part of the building added to the portico, and, according to Vitruvius, when spacious it consisted of three parts, and was provided with seats. It probably here means a place for sitting and resting, protected by a covering supported by columns, so as to afford a view all round.

Note return to page Pliny also places Macedonians, surnamed Cadueni, near Tmolus. B, v. c. 29.

Note return to page Bouz-dagh.

Note return to page Il. ii. 865.

Note return to page Some pretended miracle relating probably to the baskets carried by the virgins on their heads at festivals.

Note return to page Il. ii. 864.

Note return to page B. ix.

Note return to page Il. vii. 221.

Note return to page Il. ii. 783.

Note return to page Pliny does not approve of the word Pithecussæ being derived from πίθηκος, a monkey; but from πίθος, a cask. This latter derivation is not natural, whilst the former is at least conformable to analogy. Hesychius confirms the Tyrrhenian meaning of the word Arimi, calling αριμος, πίθηκος. The expression in Homer, εἰν αίμοις, among the Arini, (which in Roman letters would be ein Arimis, and which is translated into Latin by in Arimis,) signifies in the Pithecussæ Islands, according to the opinion of those who placed Typhoëus in Italy. But it is remarkable that from the two words ein Arimis of Homer the name Inarimis has been invented; and quoted as Homer's by Pliny (iii. 6): ænasia ipsa, a statione navium æneæ, Homero Inarime dicta, Græcis Pithecussa, non a simiarum multitudine, ut aliqui existimavere sed a figlinis doliorum. It is not Homer, however, that he ought to have quoted, but Virgil, who was the first to coin one word out of the two Greek words. Inarime Jovis imperiis imposta Typhoëo. æn. ix. 716. The modern name is Ischia.

Note return to page Pyth. i. 31.

Note return to page Ke'ikdni.

Note return to page Herod. i. 93.

Note return to page Tapoi.

Note return to page Il. ii. 461.

Note return to page Catania.

Note return to page The range of mountains on the south of the Caÿster, bearing various names.

Note return to page Celænæ was the citadel of Apameia Cibotus, Afium-Kara hissar.

Note return to page Cape Sta. Maria

Note return to page Coraÿ proposes to read for καῶν, καρούων,and translates, between Carura and Nysa.

Note return to page Sultan-hissar.

Note return to page Eski-hissar.

Note return to page Pambuk-kalessi.

Note return to page They were the priests of Cybele, and so called from a river of Phrygia.

Note return to page Madder-root.

Note return to page Geira.

Note return to page Jenedscheh.

Note return to page Chorsum.

Note return to page Dekoī.

Note return to page Il. vi. 184.

Note return to page Il. vi. 203.

Note return to page Ebedschek-Dirmil.

Note return to page Giaur-Kalessi.

Note return to page Urludscha.

Note return to page That is, the maritime parts of Asia Minor, from Cape Coloni opposite Mitilini to Bajas, the ancient Issus. The coast of Ionia comprehended between Cape Coloni and the Mæander (Bojuk Mender Tschai) forms part of the modern pachalics, Saruchan and Soghla; Caria and Lycia are contained in the pachalic, Mentesche; Pamphylia and Lycia in those of Teke and Itsch-ili. Mount Taurus had its beginning at the promontory Trogilium, now Cape Samsoun, or Santa Maria opposite Samos.

Note return to page Jenikoi.

Note return to page Cape Arbora.

Note return to page Karadscha-Fokia.

Note return to page Gedis-Tschai.

Note return to page Derekoi.

Note return to page Lebedigli, Lebeditzhissar.

Note return to page A portion of this poem by Mimnermus is quoted in Athenæus, b. xi. 39, p. 748 of the translation, Bohn's Class. Library.

Note return to page Pliny, v. 29, says the distance is 20 stadia.

Note return to page The Branchidæ were descendants of Branchus, who himself was descended from Macæreus, who killed Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. According to Herodotus, the temple was burnt by order of Darius, Herod. v. 36; vi. 19.

Note return to page Pliny, v. 29, says that the distance is 180 stadia.

Note return to page According to Pausanias, vii. 2, a friend of Sarpedon, named Miletus, conducted the colony from Crete, founded Miletus, and gave his name to it. Before his arrival the place bore the name of Anactoria, and more anciently Lelegis.

Note return to page More than 80, according to Pliny, v. 29.

Note return to page To be well.

Note return to page Hence the English weal, the mark of a stripe.

Note return to page Od. xxiv. 402.

Note return to page Coraÿ, who is followed by Groskurd, supposes the words and Cadmus to be here omitted. Kramer considers this correction to be very doubtful; see b. i. c. ii. § 6.

Note return to page Chandler says that the Tragææ were sand-banks or shallows.

Note return to page Bafi.

Note return to page Il. ii. 868.

Note return to page ἐν ὕψει, according to Groskurd's emendation, in place of ἐν ὄψσι.

Note return to page Derekoi.

Note return to page Two other towns, Percote and Palæscepsis, were also given to Themistocles, the first to supply him with dress, the second with bed-room furniture.—Plutarch, Life of Themistocles.

Note return to page Aineh-Basar.

Note return to page Samsun.

Note return to page Samsun Dagh.

Note return to page Cape Santa Maria.

Note return to page The Furni islands.

Note return to page Stapodia.

Note return to page According to Pliny, it is 716 stadia.

Note return to page In b. x. ch. ii. §17, Strabo informs us that Samos was first called Melamphylus, then Anthemis, and afterwards Parthenia. These names appear in this passage in a reversed but, as appears from Pliny, b. v. 31, in their true chronological order.

Note return to page Either an error of our author, or he speaks of its wine in comparison with that of other islands.

Note return to page After the death of Pericles.

Note return to page Among distinguished natives of Samos, Strabo has omitted to mention Melissus the philosopher, who commanded the fleet of the island, and was contemporary with Pericles.—Plutarch, Life of Pericles.

Note return to page Before called Drepanum.

Note return to page Ischanli.

Note return to page Scala Nova.

Note return to page Pliny and Mela give a different origin and name to this town: by them it is called Phygela from φυλὴ, flight or desertion of the sailors, who, wearied with the voyage, abandoned Agamemnon.

Note return to page Chersiphron was of Gnossus in Crete. The ground being marshy on which the temple was to be built, he prepared a foundation for it of pounded charcoal, at the suggestion of Theodorus, a celebrated statuary of Samos.

Note return to page The temple is said to have been burnt the night Alexander the Great was born.—Cicero, de Nat. Deo. ii. 27.

Note return to page Plutarch says that the artist offered Alexander to make a statue of Mount Athos, which should hold in the left hand a city, capable of containing 10,000 inhabitants, and pouring from the right hand a river falling into the sea.

Note return to page For the word κήνη, a fountain, which occurs in the text before Penelope, and is here unintelligible, Kramer proposes to read κηίνη. The translation of the passage, thus corrected, would be, a figure in wax of Penelope. Kramer does not adopt the reading, on the ground that no figures in wax are mentioned by ancient authors.

Note return to page ὀνήιστος

Note return to page Coraÿ is of opinion that the name of Artemidorus of Ephesus has been omitted by the copyist in this passage, before the name of Alexander. Kramer thinks that if the name had existed in the original manuscript, it would have been accompanied, according to the practice of Strabo, with some notice of the writings of Artemidorus. The omission of the name is remarkable, as Artemidorus is one of the geographers most frequently quoted by Strabo. He flourished about 100 B. c. His geography in eleven books is lost. An abridgement of this work was made by Marcianus, of which some portions still exist, relating to the Black Sea and its southern shore.

Note return to page It must have been in existence in the time of Strabo.—Tacit. Ann. ii. 54

Note return to page Another explanation is given to the proverb, from the circumstance of Colophon having a casting vote in the deliberations of the twelve cities forming the Panionium.

Note return to page Lebedigli Lebeditz hissar.

Note return to page During the season when these actors, dancers, and singers were not on circuit at festivals.

Note return to page Budrun.

Note return to page Ouvriokasli.

Note return to page Ypsilo Nisi.

Note return to page Called by Livy, xxvii. 27, Portus Geræsticus.

Note return to page Which forms the Gulf of Smyrna.

Note return to page The district called Chalcitis by Pausanias, xii. 5, 12.

Note return to page Ritri.

Note return to page Sighadschik.

Note return to page Koraka, or Kurko.

Note return to page Called in Thucyd. viii. 34, Arginum.

Note return to page Karaburun-Dagh.

Note return to page Karaburun, which has the same meaning.

Note return to page Groskurd is of opinion that of the same name is omitted after city.

Note return to page Cape Mastico.

Note return to page Porto Mastico.

Note return to page This name is doubtful. Coraÿ suggests Elæus; Groskurd, Lainus, which Kramer does not approve of, although this part of the coast is now called Lithi. It seems to be near a place called Port Aluntha.

Note return to page Cape Nicolo.

Note return to page Psyra.

Note return to page Ilias.

Note return to page Ion was a contemporary of Sophocles. Theopompus was the disciple of Socrates, and the author of an epitome of the history of Herodotus, of a history of Greece, of a history of Philip, father of Alexander the Great, and of other works. He was of the aristocratic or Macedonian party. Theocritus, his contemporary, was a poet, orator, and historian ; he was of the democratic party. To these, among illustrious natives of Chios, may be added Œnopides the astronomer and mathematician, who was the discoverer of the obliquity of the ecliptic and the cycle of 59 years, for bringing the lunar and solar years into accordance; Nessus the philosopher; his disciple Metrodorus (about B. C. 330) the sceptic, and master of Hippocrates; Scymnus the geographer, and author of a description of the earth.

Note return to page The Homeridæ may have been at first descendants of Homer; but in later times those persons went by the name Homeridæ, or Homeristæ, who travelled from town to town for the purpose of reciting the poems of Homer. They did not confine themselves to that poet alone, but recited the poetry of Hesiod, Archilochus, Mimnermus, and others; and finally passages from prose writers.—Athenæus, b. xiv. c. 13.

Note return to page Of the 283 vessels sent by the eight cities of Ionia in the war with Darius, one hundred came from Chios.

Note return to page Kelisman.

Note return to page Still to be found in collections of coins.

Note return to page Leokaes?

Note return to page B. xiii. c. iv. §2.

Note return to page Ak-Hissar.

Note return to page Karadscha-Fokia.

Note return to page Marseilles, b. iv. ch. i. §4.

Note return to page B. xiii. ch. i. 2.

Note return to page Jenidscheh.

Note return to page Western Africa.

Note return to page Gumusch-dagh.

Note return to page According to Suidas, Daphnidas ridiculed oracles, and inquired of the oracle of Apollo, Shall I find my horse? when he had none. The oracle answered that he would find it. He was afterwards, by the command of Attalus, king of Pergamum, taken and thrown from a precipice called the Horse.

Note return to page The incursions of the Treres, with Cimmerians, into Asia and Europe followed after the Trojan war. The text is here corrupt. The translation follows the amendments proposed partly by Coraÿ, and partly by Kramer, τὸ δ ἑξῆς εφεσίου.

Note return to page These innovations or corruptions were not confined to the composition of pieces intended for the theatre, but extended also to the manner of their representation, to music, dancing, and the costume of the actors. It was an absolute plague, which corrupted taste, and finally destroyed the Greek theatre. We are not informed of the detail of these innovations, but from what we are able to judge by comparing Strabo with what is found in Athenæus, (b. xiv. §14, p. 990, of Bohn's Classical Library,) Simodia was designated by the name of Hilarodia, (joyous song,) and obtained the name Simodia from one Simus, or Simon, who excelled in the art. The Lysiodi and Magodi, or Lysodia and Magodia, were the same thing, according to some writers. Under these systems decency appears to have been laid aside.

Note return to page Od. ix. 3.

Note return to page Aidin-Gusel-Hissar.

Note return to page The chain of mountains between the Caÿster and the Mæander, the different eminences of which bear the names of Samsun-dagh, Gumusch-dagh, Dsehuma-dagh, &c.

Note return to page Sultan-Hissar.

Note return to page The Tralli Thracians appear to have acted as mercenary soldiers, according to Hesychius.

Note return to page Groskurd supplies the word πρόσκεινται.

Note return to page Meineke's conjecture is followed, λίπα ἀληλιμμένοι, for ἀπαληλιμμένοι.

Note return to page Groskurd's emendation of this corrupt passage is adopted, ὑπεβᾶσιτὴν μεσωγίδα ἐπὶ τὰ πὸς τὸν νότον μέη τμώλου τοῦ ὄρους.

Note return to page Il. ii. 461.

Note return to page Arpas-Kalessi.

Note return to page Mastauro.

Note return to page 1 Groskurd reads τοιούτων, for τοσσούτων in the text. Coraÿ proposes νοσούντων.

Note return to page Adopting Kramer's correction of καίας for παραλίας.

Note return to page Cape Arbora.

Note return to page Schelidan Adassi islands, opposite Cape Chelidonia.

Note return to page Near Gudschek, at the bottom of the Gulf of Glaucus, now Makri.

Note return to page The Phoenix (Phinti?) rises above the Gulf of Saradeh.

Note return to page Alessa, or, according to others, Barbanicolo.

Note return to page Dalian.

Note return to page Doloman-Ischai.

Note return to page Kramer suggests the words ὑπομέλανας καὶ, for the corrupt reading, ἐπιμελῶς.

Note return to page Il. vi. 146.

Note return to page The Caunians were aborigines of Caria, although they affected to come from Crete.—Herod. i. 72.

Note return to page Castro Marmora. The gulf on which it stands is still called Porto Fisko.

Note return to page Chares flourished at the beginning of the third century B. C. The accounts of the height of the Colossus of Rhodes differ slightly, but all agree in making it 105 English feet. It was twelve years in erecting, (B. C. 292 —280,) and it cost 300 talents. There is no authority for the statement that its legs extended over the mouth of the harbour. It was overthrown 56 years after its erection. The fragments of the Colossus remained on the ground 923 years, until they were sold by Moawiyeh, the general of the Caliph Othman IV., to a Jew of Emessa, who carried them away on 900 camels, A. D. 672. Hence Scaliger calculated the weight of the bronze at 700,000 pounds.—Smith's Diet. of Biog. and Mythology.

Note return to page Protogenes occupied seven years in painting the Jalysus, which was afterwards transferred to the Temple of Peace at Rome. The Satyr was represented playing on a flute, and was entitled, The Satyr Reposing.— Plutarch, Demetr.; Pliny, xxxv. 10.

Note return to page ὀψωνιασμοῦ, Kramer's proposed correction, is adopted for ὀψωνιαζόμενοι.

Note return to page Marseilles and Artaki.

Note return to page Bodrun.

Note return to page Il. ii. 662.

Note return to page Il. ii. 656.

Note return to page Il. ii. 678.

Note return to page Formerly, says Pliny, it was called Ophiussa, Asteria, æthræa, Trinacria, Corymbia, Pœeessa, Atabyria, from a king of that name; then Macaria and Oloëssa. B. v. 31. To these names may be added Lindus and Pelagia. Meineke, however, suspects the name Stadia in this passage to be a corruption for Asteria.

Note return to page That is, Children of the Sun. They were seven in number, Cercaphus, Actis, Macareus, Tenages, Triopes, Phaethon, and Ochimus, born of the Sun and of a nymph, or, according to others, of a heroine named Rhodus.

Note return to page Il. ii. 656.

Note return to page Hippodamus of Miletus.

Note return to page Naples.

Note return to page Majorca.

Note return to page Negropont.

Note return to page Called light-armed probably from the use of the sling, common among the Rhodians, as it was also among the Cretans. The use of the sling tends to prove the Rhodian origin of the inhabitants of the Balearic islands. The Athenian expedition to Sicily (Thucyd. vi. 43) was accompanied by 700 slingers from Rhodes.

Note return to page Strabo here omits to mention the Rhodian origin of Agrigentum and Gela in Sicily.

Note return to page Il. ii. 668.

Note return to page Ol. vii. 61.

Note return to page Lindo.

Note return to page According to Strabo, Alexandria and Rhodes were upon the same meridian.

Note return to page Camiro.

Note return to page Lanathi?

Note return to page Abatro.

Note return to page B. x. c. v. §14.

Note return to page The original, which is a play upon words, cannot be rendered in English.

Note return to page Called before, Eleussa, c. ii. §2.

Note return to page The Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page Capo Volpe, or Alepo Kavo, meaning the same thing.

Note return to page Isle of Symi.

Note return to page Crio.

Note return to page Indschirli, or Nisari.

Note return to page Keramo.

Note return to page The word ἔγον, a work, suggests that there is some omission in the text. Coraÿ supposes that the name of the architect or architects is wanting. Groskurd would supply the words σκόπα καὶ ἄλλων τεχνιτῶν, the work of Scopas and other artificers. See Pliny, N. H. xxxvi., and Vitruvius Præf. b. vii.

Note return to page Coronata.

Note return to page Mela says, of Argives. B. i. c. xvi. § 19.

Note return to page Petera, or Petra Termera.

Note return to page Ca e Kephala

Note return to page Pascha-Liman.

Note return to page Assem-Kalessi.

Note return to page Cape Arbore.

Note return to page Mylassa, or Marmora.

Note return to page Eski-hissar.

Note return to page Arab-hissar

Note return to page This is a parody on a passage in Aristophanes. Lysis. v. 1038.

Note return to page Of the golden rays (around the head).

Note return to page Cicero. Brut., c. 91.

Note return to page Il. ii. 867, in which the reading is νάστης, but μέσθλης in Il. ii. 864.

Note return to page Od. i. 344.

Note return to page Il. xv. 80.

Note return to page Il. v. 222.

Note return to page βατταιζειν, ταυλιζειν, ψελλίζειν.

Note return to page κελαύζειν, κλαγγὴ, ψόφος, βοὴ, κότος.

Note return to page Chelidoniæ, in this passage, is probably an error. Groskurd adopts the name Philomelium.

Note return to page Ilgun.

Note return to page At the base of Sultan-dagh.

Note return to page Ak-Schehr.

Note return to page Sultan Chan.

Note return to page Ak-Sera.

Note return to page Kaiserieh.

Note return to page Called Herpa, b. xii. ch. ii. § 6, pages 281, 283.

Note return to page μετὰ τὴν ποδίων πεαίαν, or, After the Peræa of Rhodes. Peræa was the name of the coast of Caria opposite to Rhodes, which for several centuries formed a dependency of that opulent republic. In the time of Scylax, the Rhodians possessed only the peninsula immediately in face of their island. As a reward for their assistance in the Antiochian war, the Romans gave them a part of Lycia, and all Caria as far as the Mæander. By having adopted a less prudent policy in the second Macedonic war, they lost it all, including Caunus, the chief town of Peræa. It was not long, however, before it was restored to them, together with the small islands near Rhodes; and from this time Peræa retained the limits which Strabo has described, namely, Dedala on the east and Mount Loryma on the west, both included Vespasian finally reduced Rhodes itself into the provincial form, and joined it to Caria.—Leake.

Note return to page Samsun.

Note return to page Eski Adalia, Old Attaleia; but the Greeks gave the name παλαιὰ ατταλεια, Old Astaleia, to Perge.—Leake.

Note return to page Gunik.

Note return to page Patera.

Note return to page Minara.

Note return to page Duvar.

Note return to page Gillies, in his translation of Aristotle, makes use of this example of the Lycians to prove that representative government was not unknown to the ancients. The deputies sent from the twenty-three cities formed a parliament. The taxes and public charges imposed on the several towns were in proportion to the number of representatives sent from each city. —Gillies, vol. ii. p. 64, &c.

Note return to page Makri.

Note return to page Site unknown.

Note return to page Efta Kavi, the Seven Capes.

Note return to page Od. xix. 518.

Note return to page Kodscha.

Note return to page The passage in the original, in which all manuscripts agree, and which is the subject of much doubt, is— ὧν καὶ μεγίστη νῆσος καὶ παὶ πόλις ὁμώνυμος, ἡ κισθήνη. Groskurd would read καὶ before ἡ, and translates,—Among others is Megiste an island, and a city of the same name, and Cisthene. Later writers, says Leake, make no mention of Cisthene; and Ptolemy, Pliny, Stephanus, agree in showing that Megiste and Dolichiste were the two principal islands on the coast of Lycia: the former word Megiste, greatest, well describing the island Kasteloryzo or Castel Rosso, as the latter word (longest) does that of Kakava. Nor is Scylax less precise in pointing out Kasteloryzo as Megiste, which name is found in an inscription copied by M. Cockerell from a rock at Castel Rosso. It would seem, therefore, that this island was anciently known by both names, (Megiste and Cisthene,) but in later times perhaps chiefly by that of Megiste.

Note return to page Cape Chelidonia.

Note return to page Aboukir, nearly under the same meridian.

Note return to page Tschariklar.

Note return to page Garabusa.

Note return to page Tschiraly. Deliktasch.—Leake.

Note return to page Ianartasch.

Note return to page Tirikowa.

Note return to page Solyma-dagh.

Note return to page Gulik-Chan?

Note return to page Il. vi. 184.

Note return to page Duden-su.

Note return to page Adalia.

Note return to page Ernatia.

Note return to page Ak-su.

Note return to page Murtana.

Note return to page Tekeh.

Note return to page Kopru-su.

Note return to page Balkesu.

Note return to page Kislidscha-koi.

Note return to page Menavgat-su.

Note return to page Alara.

Note return to page Alaja, or Castel Ubaldo.

Note return to page Herod. vii. 91. According to this passage, therefore, the name Pamphylians is derived from πᾶν, all, and φῦλον, nation.

Note return to page Alaja.

Note return to page Syedra probably shared with Coracesium (Alaja), a fertile plain which here borders on the coast. But Syedra is Tzschucke's emendation of Arsinoë in the text.

Note return to page Not mentioned by any other author.

Note return to page Selindi.

Note return to page Charadran.

Note return to page Kara-Gedik.

Note return to page Inamur.

Note return to page Cape Kormakiti.

Note return to page Mesetlii.

Note return to page Softa-Kalessi.

Note return to page Mandane?

Note return to page Kilandria, or Gulnar.

Note return to page According to Pliny, Cilicia anciently commenced at the river Melas, which Strabo has just said belongs to Pamphylia. Ptolemy fixes upon Coracesium as the first place in Cilicia, which, according to Mela, was separated from Pamphylia by Cape Anemurium, which was near Nagidus.

Note return to page Nahr-el-Asy.

Note return to page B. xvi. c. ii. § 33.

Note return to page Selefke.

Note return to page Cape Lissan.

Note return to page Gok-su.

Note return to page Cape Cavaliere.

Note return to page Eurip. Hec. 1

Note return to page Its distance (40 stadia) from the Calycadnus, if correct, will place it about Pershendi, at the north-eastern angle of the sandy plain of the Calycadnus.

Note return to page Anamur.

Note return to page Ianartasch; but, according to Leake, it still preserves its name.

Note return to page A sandy plain now connects Elæussa with the coast.—Leake.

Note return to page Lamas-su, of which Lamuzo-soui is an Italian corruption.

Note return to page Lamas.

Note return to page Tschirlay, or Porto Venetico.

Note return to page Mesetlii.

Note return to page Cape Zafra.

Note return to page What better inscription, said Aristotle, could you have for the tomb, not of a king, but of an ox? Cicero, Tusc. Quæs. iii. 35.

Note return to page Mesarlyk-tschai.

Note return to page Strabo means to say, that the coast, from the part opposite Rhodes, runs E. in a straight line to Tarsus, and then inclines to the S. E.; that afterwards it inclines to the S., to Gaza, and continues in a westerly direction to the Straits of Gibraltar.

Note return to page The translation follows the reading proposed by Groskurd, παχυνευοῦσι καὶ ῥοϊζομένοις καὶ ποδαγιζομένοις, who quotes Vitruv. viii. 3, and Pliny xxxi. 8.

Note return to page Kramer does not approve of the corrections proposed in this passage by Groskurd. The translation follows the proposed emendation of Falconer, which Kramer considers the least objectionable.

Note return to page Augustus.

Note return to page Groskurd, with some probability, supposes the name of Achilles to be here omitted.

Note return to page Il. iii. 235.

Note return to page Dschehan-tschai.

Note return to page Chun.

Note return to page Ajas.

Note return to page Demir-Kapu.

Note return to page The ridge extending N. E., the parts of which bear various names, Missis, Durdan-dagh, &c.

Note return to page Deli-tschai.

Note return to page Arsus.

Note return to page Iskenderun.

Note return to page Its name under the Byzantine empire was corrupted to Mampsysta, or Mamista; of which names the modern Mensis appears to be a further corruption.—Leake.

Note return to page The passage is defended by the fortress of Merkes.

Note return to page Suveidijeh.

Note return to page Nahr-el-Asy.

Note return to page Groskurd is desirous of reading Tarsus for Issus. See above, c. v. § 11. But Strabo is here considering the two opinions held respecting the isthmus.

Note return to page Scymnus of Chios counts fifteen nations who occupied this peninsula, namely, three Greek and twelve barbarian. The latter were Cilicians, Lycians, Carians, Maryandini, Paphlagonians, Pamphylians, Chalybes, Cappadocians, Pisidians, Lydians, Mysians, and Phrygians. In this list the Bithynians, Trojans, and Milyæ are not mentioned; but in it are found the Cappadocians and Lydians—two nations whom, according to Strabo, Ephorus has not mentioned. This discrepancy is the more remarkable as Scymnus must have taken the list from Ephorus himself.

Note return to page Od. xi. 122.

Note return to page Apollodorus, like Scymnus, had probably found the Lydians mentioned in the list of Ephorus, as also the Cappadocians.

Note return to page Kramer says that he is unable to decide how this corrupt passage should be restored. The translation follows the conjectures of Coraÿ.

Note return to page Il. ii. 862.

Note return to page Il. iii. 187.

Note return to page Isnik.

Note return to page Euphorion acquired celebrity as a voluminous writer. Vossius, i. 16, gives a catalogue of his works. According to Suidas, he was born in Chalcis, in Negropont, at the time Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was defeated by the Romans. He acquired a considerable fortune by his writings and by his connexion with persons of eminent rank. He was invited to the court of Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, who intrusted him with the care of his library. According to Sallust, (Life of Tiberius,) he was one of the poets whom Tiberius took as his model in writing Greek verse. Fecit et Græca poemata, imitatus Euphorionem, et Rhianum et Parthenium.

Note return to page The Clides, off Cape Andrea.

Note return to page Cape Arnauti.

Note return to page Dschehan-Tschai.

Note return to page Kormakiti.

Note return to page Lapito.

Note return to page Near Artemisi.

Note return to page To the north of Tamagousta.

Note return to page Carpas.

Note return to page Lissan el Cape, in Cilicia.

Note return to page Near the present Larnaka.

Note return to page Limasol.

Note return to page Cape Gata

Note return to page Cape Greg

Note return to page Piscopia.

Note return to page Capo Bianco.

Note return to page Bisur.

Note return to page Point Zephyro.

Note return to page Jeroskipo.

Note return to page Solea.

Note return to page The Indian Ocean.

Note return to page Behul or Jelum.

Note return to page Beas.

Note return to page The island Cos, or Stanco, one of the earlier names of which was Meropis.

Note return to page ἢ κατ' ἄλλους for καὶ ἄλλου.—Groskurd.

Note return to page See ch. i. § 73.

Note return to page Mekran.

Note return to page It is evident that the name Pillars misled Megasthenes or the writers from whom he borrowed the facts; for it is impossible to suppose that Tearcho, who reigned in Arabia, or that Nabuchodonosor, who reigned at Babylon, ever conducted an army across the desert and through the whole breadth of Africa to the Straits of Gibraltar, to which place nothing invited them, and the existence of which, as well as that of the neighbouring countries, must have been unknown. The Egyptians, Arabians, and Babylonians directed their invasions towards the north, to Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Iberia, and Colchis. This was the line of march followed by Sesostris. Ptolemy indicates the existence of Pillars, which he calls the Pillars of Alexander, above Albania and Iberia, at the commencement of the Asiatic Sarmatia. But as it is known that Alexander never penetrated into these regions, it is clear that the title of Alexander was added by the Greeks to the names of mountains, which separated a country partly civilized from that entirely occupied by hordes of savages. Everything therefore seems to show, that these Pillars near Iberia in Asia, and not the Pillars of Hercules in Europe, formed the boundary of the expeditions of Sesostris, Tearcho, and Nabuchodonosor.—Gossellin.

Note return to page As the Oxydraci are here meant, Groskurd adopts this name in the text. They were settled in Sagur and Outch, of the province of Lahore.

Note return to page Many cities and mountains bore the name of Nysa; but it is impossible to confound the mountain Nysa, spoken of by Sophocles, with the Nysa of India, which became known to the Greeks by the expedition only of Alexander, more than a century after the death of the poet.

Note return to page Probably interpolated

Note return to page Il. vi. 132. Nysa in India was unknown to Homer, who here refers to Mount Nysa in Thrase.

Note return to page Eurip. Bacchæ, v. 13.—Wodehull.

Note return to page Strabo takes for the source of the Indus the place where it passes through the mountains to enter the Punjab. The site of Aornos seems to correspond with Renas.—Gossellin.

Note return to page The Sibæ, according to Quintus Curtius, who gives them the name of Sobii, occupied the confluent of the Hydaspes and the Acesines. This people appear to have been driven towards the east by one of those revolutions so frequent in all Asia. At least, to the north of Delhi, and in the neighbourhood of Hardouar, a district is found bearing the name of Siba.

Note return to page That is, the Macedonians transferred the name of the Caucasus, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian, to the mountains of India. The origin of their mistake arose from the Indians giving, as at present, the name of Kho, which signifies white, to the great chain of mountains covered with snow, from whence the Indus, and the greater part of the rivers which feed it, descend.

Note return to page This people occupied the Paropamisus, where the mountains now separate Candahar from Gaour.

Note return to page Book ii. c. i. 2.

Note return to page Under the name of Ariana, the ancients comprehended almost all the countries situated between the Indus and the meridian of the Caspian Gates. This large space was afterwards divided by them according to the position of the different nations which occupied it.—Gossellin. There can be no doubt the modern Iran represents the ancient Ariana. See Smith, art. Ariana, and b. ii. c. v. § 32, vol. i. p. 196, note 3.

Note return to page Eratosthenes and Strabo believed that the eastern parts of Asia terminated at the mouth of the Ganges, and that, consequently, this river discharged itself into the Eastern Ocean at the place where terminated the long chain of Taurus.

Note return to page According to Major Rennell, Emodus and Imaus are only variations of the same name, derived from the Sanscrit word Himmaleh, which signifies covered with snow.

Note return to page In some MSS. the following diagram is to be found. The River Indus.

Note return to page The extremity of India, of which Eratosthenes speaks, is Cape Comorin, which he placed farther to the east than the mouth of the Ganges.

Note return to page Patelputer or Pataliputra near Patna, see b. ii. ch. i. § 9.

Note return to page The reading is σχοινίοις, which Coraÿ changes to σχοίνοις, Schœni: see Herod. i. 66. The Schœnus was 40 stadia. B. xii. ch. ii. § 12.

Note return to page Athenæus (b. xi. ch. 103, page 800, Bohn's Classical Library) speaks of Amyntas as the author of a work on the Stations of Asia. The Stathmus, or distance from station to station, was not strictly a measure of distance, and depended on the nature of the country and the capability of the beasts of burthen.

Note return to page The reading Coliaci in place of Coniaci has been proposed by various critics, and Kramer, without altering the text, considers it the true form of the name. The Coliaci occupied the extreme southern part of India. Cape Comorin is not precisely the promontory Colis, or Coliacum, which seems to answer to Panban, opposite the island Ramanan Kor.

Note return to page The Indian Caucasus.

Note return to page Book ii. ch. i. § 3.

Note return to page λίνον, probably the λίνον τὸ ἀπὸ δενδέων, or cotton, of Arrian.

Note return to page βόσμοον. § 18.

Note return to page Ceylon.

Note return to page The voyage from the Ganges to Ceylon, in the time of Eratosthenes, occupied seven days, whence he concluded that Ceylon was seven days' sail from the continent.

Note return to page Groskurd reads 5000 stadia. B. ii. c. i. § 14.

Note return to page εἰδοποιήσουσι. Coraÿ.

Note return to page The text is, as Coraÿ observes, obscure, if not corrupt. The proposed emendations of Coraÿ and Kramer are followed.

Note return to page Herod. ii. 5.

Note return to page At the beginning of autumn.

Note return to page At the beginning of winter.

Note return to page Taxila seems to have been situated at some distance to the east of Attock.

Note return to page At the delta formed by the Indus.

Note return to page Towards the end of summer.

Note return to page The Chenab.

Note return to page The district between Moultan and the mountains.

Note return to page Herod. ii. 86. Velleraque ut folüs depectant tenuia Seres? Virg. Geor. ii. 121.

Note return to page Cloth of silk.

Note return to page The sugar-cane.

Note return to page C. i. § 33.

Note return to page The Banyan tree.

Note return to page Probably the Caroubba (Lotus Zizyphus), but it does not produce the effect here mentioned.

Note return to page The Ravee.

Note return to page Arist. Hist. An vii. 4, who speaks however of five only.

Note return to page πεπλησμένως. Coraÿ.

Note return to page Od. ii. 157.

Note return to page That is to say, he crossed the Paropamisus, or Mount Ghergistan, from the western frontier of Cabul, by the pass of Bamian, to enter the district of Balk.

Note return to page The Attock.

Note return to page The river of Cabul.

Note return to page The Gandaræ were a widely extended people of Indian or Arianian origin, who occupied a district extending more or less from the upper part of the Punjab to the neighbourhood of Candahar, and variously called Gandaris and Gandaritis. See Prof. Wilson's Ariana Antiqua.

Note return to page Aspasii. Coraÿ.

Note return to page Peucela, in Arrian iv. 22. Rennell supposes it to be Puckholi, or Pehkely.

Note return to page Abisarus was king of the mountainous part of India, and, according to the conjecture of Vincent, which is not without some probability, his territory extended to Cashmir.

Note return to page India is bordered to the north, from Ariana to the Eastern Sea, by the extremities of Taurus, to which the aboriginal inhabitants give the different names of Paropamisus, Emodon, Imaon, and others, while the Macedonians call them Caucasus. The Emodi mountains were the Western Himalaya. See Smith, art. Emodi Montes.

Note return to page The name of the modern city Lahore, anciently Lo-pore, recalls that of Porus. It is situated on the Hyarotis or Hydraotes (Ravee), which does not contradict our author; for, as Vincent observes, the modern Lahore represents the capital of the second Porus, whom Strabo will mention immediately; and the Lahore situate between the Hydaspes (the Behut or Jelum) and the Acesines (the Chenab), the exact position of which is unknown, was that of the first Porus. Probably these two districts, in which the two cities were situated, formed a single district only, one part of which was occupied and governed by Porus the uncle, and the other by Porus the nephew. It is probable, also, that these two princes took their name from the country itself, Lahore, as the prince of Taxila was called Taxiles, and the prince of Palibothra, Palibothrus.

Note return to page Strabo's Bucephalia was on the Hydaspes, between Beherat and Turkpoor, not far from Rotas. Groskurd. The exact site is not ascertained, but the probabilities seem to be in favour of Jelum, at which place is the ordinary passage of the river, or of Jellapoor, about 16 miles lower down. Smith.

Note return to page Ox-headed.

Note return to page Cercopitheces.

Note return to page Hence the Cathay of the Chinese and Modern Europe.

Note return to page So also Arrian, who takes the number from Megasthenes. Pliny says that nineteen rivers unite with the Indus.

Note return to page Probably an interpolation.

Note return to page The island Cos.

Note return to page B. xv. c. i. § 7.

Note return to page The Malli occupied a part of Moultan.

Note return to page The Sambus of Arrian. Porticanus is the Oxycanus of Arrian. Both Porticanus and Musicanus were chiefs of the cicar of Sehwan. Vincent's Voyage of Nearchus, p. 133.

Note return to page This number is too large. There is probably an error in the text. Groskurd reads 20; but Kramer refers to Arrian's expedition of Alexander, v. 20, and suggests that we may here read 100 (ρ) instead of 200 (ς).

Note return to page The Seres are here meant, whose country and capital still preserve the name of Serhend. It was the Serica India of the middle ages, and to this country Justinian sent to procure silkworms' eggs, for the purpose of introducing them into Europe. Strabo was not acquainted with the Seres of Scythia, whose territory is now called Serinagar, from whence the ancients procured the wool and fine fabrics which are now obtained from Cashmir; nor was he acquainted with the Seres who inhabited the peninsula of India, and whose territory and capital have retained the name of Sera. Pliny is the only ancient author who seems to have spoken of these latter Seres. Gossellin. The passage in brackets is supposed by Groskurd to be an interpolation. Meineke would retain it, by reading καὶ τοι for καὶ γα.

Note return to page The passage is corrupt, and for κήτη, whales or cetaceous animals, Groskurd proposes λέγει. The whole would therefore thus be translated, and speaks of what he saw on it, of its magnitude, &c.

Note return to page The exaggeration of Megasthenes is nothing in comparison of ælian, who gives to the Ganges a breadth of 400 stadia. Modern observations attribute to the Ganges a breadth of about three quarters of a geographical mile, or 30 stadia.

Note return to page About 120 feet.

Note return to page Hiranjavahu.

Note return to page B. ii. c. i. § 9.

Note return to page B. xvi. c. i. § 28.

Note return to page Herodotus iii. 102. The marmot?

Note return to page The passage is corrupt. Groskurd proposes to add the word ὥς before καὶ καμήλους, as camels. Coraÿ changes the last word to ἀχαλίνους, which is adopted in the translation. See below, § 53.

Note return to page θίσσα.

Note return to page κεστεύς.

Note return to page καίδες.

Note return to page In the text, μέχι ὄους, to a mountain. Coraÿ changes the last word to the name of a people, οὔων, but Strabo does not appear to have been acquainted with them; Groskurd, to ὀρῶν. The translation adopts this correction, with the addition of the article, which, as Kramer observes, is wanting if we fallow Groskurd.

Note return to page Groskurd proposes τειχῶν, walls, in place of, τιμῶν, prices.

Note return to page κώδων, a bell, or gong, or trumpet?

Note return to page The orguia was equal to four cubits, or six feet one inch.

Note return to page Men who slept on their ears. See b. i. c. ii. § 35.

Note return to page The Brahmins.

Note return to page Sarmanes, Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 305.

Note return to page Meineke's conjecture, ἐσθητοὺσφλοιῷ δενδείῳ.

Note return to page According to Diodorus Siculus, xix. 33, an exception was made for women with child, or with a family; but otherwise, if she did not comply with this custom, she was compelled to remain a widow during the rest of her life, and to take no part in sacrifices or other rites, as being an impious person.

Note return to page By Arrian and Plutarch he is called Dandamis.

Note return to page By φιμοῖς, probably here is meant a circular segment, or band of iron, furnished with slightly raised points in the inside; it passes over the bone of the nose, and is fastened below by a cord which is continued as a bridle. Such a contrivance is still in use for mules and asses in the East.

Note return to page Coraÿ reads πόθος instead of κόος in the text. The translation would then be, who required nothing; but ἐκείνου here refers to Alexander.

Note return to page On the day of his birth, Herod. ix. 109.

Note return to page Of Armenia.

Note return to page About 6 feet.

Note return to page The text is corrupt. Tzschucke's emendation is adopted, viz. βόνασοι. Groskurd translates the word by hump-backed oxen, or zebus.

Note return to page ælian de Nat. Anima. xvii. 21.

Note return to page Bird of paradise?

Note return to page Not far from the present Anopschir on the Ganges, south-east from Delhi. Groskurd.

Note return to page Patalputer, b. ii. c. i. § 9.

Note return to page Probably the Iomanes.

Note return to page A subordinate town in the pachalic of Aleppo, and its modern name is still Antakieh. It was anciently distinguished as Antioch by the Orontes, because it was situated on the left bank of that river, where its course turns abruptly to the west, after running northwards between the ranges of Lebanon and Antilebanon, and also Antioch by Daphne, because of the celebrated grove of Daphne which was consecrated to Apollo, in the immediate neighbourhood.

Note return to page In Dion Cassius, liv. ix. he is called Zarmanus, a variation probably of Garmanus, see above, § 60. Chegas, or Sheik, seems to be the Tartar title Chan or Khan, which may be detected also in the names Musi-canus, Porti-canus, Oxy-canus, Assa-canus. Vincent, Voyage of Nearchus, p. 129. Groskurd writes Zarmanos Chanes.

Note return to page Bargosa is probably a corruption of Barygaza mentioned in Arrian's Periplus of the Red Sea. It was a large mart on the north of the river Nerbudda, now Baroatsch or Barutsch. Groskurd.

Note return to page Beyond, as Strabo has just been speaking of India, with reference to which Ariana is to the west of the Indus.

Note return to page To the south of the great chain bearing that name, extending from west to east of Asia.

Note return to page The exact place corresponding with the Caspiæ Pylæ is probably a spot between Hark-a-Koh and Siah-Koh, about 6 parasangs from Rey, the name of the entrance of which is called Dereh. Smith, art. Caspiæ Pylæ.

Note return to page An extensive province of Asia along the northern side of the Persian Gulf, extending from Carpella (either C. Bombareek or C. Isack) on the E. to the river Bagradas (Nabend) on the W. According to Marcian the distance between these points was 4250 stadia. It appears to have comprehended the coast-line of the modern Laristan, Kirman, and Moghostan. It was bounded on the N. by Parthia and Ariana; on the E. by Drangiana and Gedrosia; on the S. by the Persian Gulf, and on the W. by Persis. Smith, art. Carmania.

Note return to page The Purali.

Note return to page Mekran.

Note return to page By the achronical rising of the Pleiades is meant the rising of this constellation, or its first becoming visible, after sun-set. Vincent (Voyage of Nearchus) fixes on the 23rd October, 327 B. C., as the date of the departure of Alexander from Nicæa; August, 326 B. C., as the date of his arrival at Pattala; and the 2nd of October, 326 B. C., as the date of the departure of the fleet from the Indus.

Note return to page The pith in the young head-shoot of the palm-tree.

Note return to page Called Pura by Arrian.

Note return to page The Oritæ are no doubt here meant.

Note return to page By the line drawn from the Caspian Gates to Carmania.

Note return to page See above, c. i. § 12.

Note return to page Herat.

Note return to page Candahar.

Note return to page See b. xi. c. viii. § 9.

Note return to page The text is corrupt: ἐκ μέρους is probably taken from some other part of the text and here inserted.

Note return to page The same as Zarangæ; they probably dwelt on the lake Zarah, which undoubtedly retains its Zend name. Wilson's Ariana.

Note return to page Corresponding nearly with the present Hamadan.

Note return to page None is said to be found there at the present day.

Note return to page They were called Ariaspi; Cyrus, son of Cambyses, gave them the name Euergetæ, benefactors, in consideration of the services which they had rendered in his expedition against the Scythians.

Note return to page At the beginning of winter.

Note return to page The text is corrupt; the words between brackets are supplied by Kramer's conjecture. See b. xi. c. xi. § 2.

Note return to page Theophrastus, iv. 5. The Pistatia-nut tree.

Note return to page Bamian, see b. xi. c. xi. § 2.

Note return to page In the text 19,000. Kramer's proposed reading is adopted of separating the amount.

Note return to page Ariana in the text. Groskurd proposes to read Carmania; Kramer, Bactriana.

Note return to page About 140 feet. Arrian says twenty-five orguiæ, or about 150 feet.

Note return to page Groskurd proposes to supply after Sea words which he thinks are here omitted; upon insufficient grounds, however, according to Kramer.

Note return to page The Arosis of Arrian, now the Tab.

Note return to page This passage is very corrupt, and many words, according to Kramer, appear to be omitted. See b. ii. c i. § 26. We read with Groskurd Media for Caspian Gates in the text: and insert 9000 stadia, here from b. ii. c. i. § 26, and, following the same authority, 3000 for 2000 stadia in the text below.

Note return to page Persæ, v. 17 and 118.

Note return to page Pasa or Fesa.

Note return to page Taug or Taüog, on the river Grâ.

Note return to page The Uxii occupied the district of Asciac.

Note return to page There seems little doubt that the Karun represents the ancient Eulæus (on which some authors state Susa to have been situated), and the Kerkhah the old Choaspes. See Smith, art. Choaspes.

Note return to page Groskurd adds 1000 stadia to this amount.

Note return to page Quin. Curtius, v. 10. Diod. Sic. xvii. 67.

Note return to page Ab-Zal.

Note return to page Hollow Persis.

Note return to page Bendamir.

Note return to page The capital of Parætacene is Ispahan.

Note return to page Probably the Ab-Kuren.

Note return to page Pasa or Fesa.

Note return to page Orxines, Quint. Cur. x. c. 1.

Note return to page For sacrifice to Cyrus. Arrian, vi. c. 29.

Note return to page Arrian adds, Son of Cambyses.

Note return to page Groskurd reads, ἅλλεσθαι, hops or jumps up.

Note return to page Founded probably by the Macedonians.

Note return to page The Elymæi reached to the Persian Gulf. Ptolem. vi. 1. They appear to have left vestiges of their name in that of a gulf, and a port called Delem.

Note return to page The account of the Persians is taken from Herodotus, i. 131, &c.

Note return to page According to Herodotus, the priest who sacrificed was crowded.

Note return to page Roused the sacred fire, as the law bids, Touching the god with consecrated wand. Athenœus xii. 40, p. 850. Bohn's Classical Library.

Note return to page i. e. who kindle fire.

Note return to page i. e. places where fire s kindled.

Note return to page B. xi. c. viii. § 4.

Note return t