Charlton T. Lewis; Charles Short [1879], A Latin Dictionary; Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) [word count] [latindico03].
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certuscertus, a, um orig. P. a. from cerno; hence, adj.,

I determined, resolved, fixed, settled, purposed: non dubius.

I (Acc. to cerno, II. D.) Certum est (mihi), it is determined, it is my (thy, his, etc.) decision, resolution, will, I am resolved, I mean, etc. (mostly ante-class.; most freq. in Plaut.); with inf.: quorum virtuti belli Fortuna pepercit, Eorundem me libertati parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 206 Vahl.): certum'st hominem eludere, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 109: tibi credere, id. Aul. 4, 9, 7; cf. id. Capt. 3, 1, 32; id. Curc. 2, 1, 1; id. Cas. 2, 4, 15; id. Cist. 3, 1, 16; id. Ep. 5, 1, 57; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 37; id. Most. 1, 3, 80; id. Men. 5, 6, 12; id. Mil. 2, 3, 32; id. Merc. 3, 1, 7; id. Ps. 1, 5, 138; id. Poen. 5, 5, 25; id. Pers. 2, 2, 39; id. Rud. 3, 3, 22; id. Stich. 5, 4, 2; id. Trin. 2, 1, 34; id. Truc. 2, 6, 68; Ter. And. 2, 1, 11; id. Eun. 1, 2, 108: certum est deliberatumque, quae ad causam pertinere arbitror, omnia dicere, Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 31: certum atque decretum est non dare signum, Liv. 2, 45, 13: certum est igni circumdare muros, Verg. A. 9, 153.—Certum'st mihi with inf., Plaut. As. 1, 3, 94; 3, 3, 23; id. Cas. 1, 1, 3; id. Mil. 3, 1, 154; id. Ps. 4, 8, 2; Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144; Liv. 35, 46, 13; Ov. M. 9, 53 al.—Without inf., esp. parenthet., with expression of purpose by a fut. tense: certum est, malam rem potius quaeram cum lucro, Plaut. Aul. 4, 6, 15: certum est, jam dicam patri, id. Bacch. 3, 1, 15: certum est, ibo ad medicum, id. Merc. 2, 4, 4: An. Certumn' est tibi? Ly. Certum, id. Poen. 2, 48; cf. id. Stich. 4, 2, 33.—With pron. or subst.: Ar. Certumne'st tibi istuc? He. Non moriri certius, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 74; so further with istuc, id. ib. 2, 1, 20; Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 30: mihi autem abjurare certius est quam dependere, Cic. Att. 1, 8, 3: ad eum senem oppugnare certum est consilium, Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 60: quae nunc sunt certa ei consilia, etc., Ter. And. 2, 3, 16: certa res hanc est objurgare, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 73; so id. Merc. 5, 2, 16; id. Mil. 2, 4, 45; Ter. And. 2, 2, 31; Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 16.—

   b (From the time of the Aug. poets.) Transf. to the person who is determined upon something, determined, resolved, bent.    (a)    With inf.: certa mori, Verg. A. 4, 564 (cf. id. ib. 4, 475: decrevitque mori): certi non cedere, Ov. M. 9, 43: certa sequi, Val. Fl. 5, 47.—   (b)    With gen. (cf. Ramsh. Gr. p. 323; Zumpt, Gr. § 437, n. 1; A. and S. § 213, R. 1): certus eundi, Verg. A. 4, 554; Ov. M. 11, 440: desciscendi, Tac. H. 4, 14: relinquendae vitae, id. A. 4, 34: necis, Sil. 6, 27: fugae, Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 12: destinationis, Tac. A. 12, 32: sceleris, id. ib. 12, 66: consilii, id. H. 2, 46.—   (g)    With an: nec sat certa an cederet armis, Sil. 9, 480.—

II An epithet of all those objects whose existence or reality is fixed, determined (hence in connection with definitus, Quint. 7, 10, 7; with praefinitus, Suet. Galb. 14), or in respect to which there can be no doubt (hence opp. dubius, Quint. 7, 6, 3; 5, 12, 3; 12, 3, 6 al.).

   A Object.    1    Of things whose external qualities, number, etc., are invariable, established, settled, fixed, particular, specified, etc. (class.): Arboribus primum certis gravis umbra tributa, Lucr. 6, 783: fruges, bacae, Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 19: jam ad certas res conficiendas certos homines delectos ac descriptos habebat, id. Cat. 3, 7, 16: concilium in diem certam indicere, Caes. B. G. 1, 30 fin.; so with dies, a fixed term, Cato, R. R. 149, 1; Cic. Att. 6, 2, 9; Nep. Chabr. 3, 1; Liv. 1, 50, 1; Tac. G. 9 al.; cf.: certis diebus, Verg. G. 2, 329: quaerere ab judicibus cur in certa verba jurent, cur certo tempore conveniant, certo discedant, Cic. Inv. 2, 45, 132; cf. Suet. Aug. 41: certum praefinitumque tempus, id. Galb. 14; and: certum statumque vectigal, id. Calig. 40: pecunia (opp. arbitraria), v. arbitrarius: finis aerumnarum, Lucr. 1, 108; cf. id. 2, 512; 8, 1091; Hor. S. 1, 1, 106; id. Ep. 1, 2, 56: locus, Caes. B. G. 5, 1, 6: numerus, id. ib. 7, 75: signum, fixed, agreed upon, id. B. C. 1, 27: naves, fixed in number and quality, id. ib. 1, 56: pecuniae imperabantur, id. ib. 3, 32 fin.: conviva, i. e. a daily, constant guest, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 75 Schmid: ecquem tu illo certiorem nebulonem, Cic. Att. 15, 21, 2.—

   b But sometimes indef., like quidam, and our certain, of things, the certainty of whose existence is given, but whose nature is not more definitely designated, or comes not into consideration (cf. aliquis): Cephaloedi mensis est certus, quo mense sacerdotem maximum creari oporteat, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 128: habet certos sui studiosos, id. Brut. 16, 64: (hunc) certis rebus imperatis regnare jussit, id. Sest. 27, 58: certi homines ad eam rem periti, id. ib. 18, 41: res a certis hominibus corrupta, id. Fam. 1, 2, 3; 4, 9, 2; 16, 11, 2; id. Marcell. 6, 16; id. Deiot. 4, 11; Liv. 34, 61, 7.—Hence in Quint. several times in connection with quidam and aliquis: ad certas quasdam dicendi leges alligati, Quint. 8, prooem. § 2; so id. 8, prooem. § 12; 4, 2, 28; 5, 10, 2; 5, 10, 5; 9, 4, 8; 11, 2, 28: aliquos compositionis certos pedes, id. 10, 2, 13; so id. 7, prooem. § 4; and subst.: in his certos aliquos docebit, id. 2, 8, 13.—   2    Trop., of things whose internal moral qualities are established, fixed, can be relied upon, sure, unerring, to be depended upon, true, faithful,

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etc. (so most freq. in all periods and species of composition; syn.: firmus, confirmatus, exploratus, indubitatus, manifestus al.).

   a Of persons: amicus certus in re incertā cernitur, Enn. ap. Cic. Lael. 17, 64; cf.: tu ex amicis certis mi es certissimus, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 57: certi homines, quibus dem litteras, Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 1; cf. id. Cat. 3, 7, 16; Nep. Paus. 2, 4; id. Alcib. 10, 1; Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 53; id. Verr. 2, 2, 64, § 156: certus enim promisit Apollo, etc., Hor. C. 1, 7, 28: auctor (mortis), Quint. 6, 3, 68; cf. Suet. Tib. 5: adversus hostem nec spe nec animo certiorem, i. e. firmiorem, Liv. 10, 35, 17: apud latera certos collocaverat, Sall. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 576 (H. 1, 53 Dietsch); cf. Nep. Dion, 9, 2: per litora certos dimittam, Verg. A. 1, 576: certissimus auctor (Phoebus), id. G. 1, 432.—

   b Of things: satis animo certo et confirmato, Cic. Quint. 24, 77; cf. pectora, Verg. A. 9, 249, and certior indoles, Suet. Ner. 10: promissa, Cic. Fam. 6, 12, 1: parata dicendi copia et certa, Quint. 10, 6, 6; id. 6, prooem. § 9: jus, id. 12, 3, 6 et saep.: jactus (telorum), Tac. A. 14, 37; cf. in this sense certa hasta, Verg. A. 11, 767: sagitta, Hor. C. 1, 12, 23: fides segetis, id. ib. 3, 16, 30: spes, id. C. S. 74: trames, id. S. 2, 3, 49: lar, id. Ep. 1, 7, 58 al.: plana et certa, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 1: certa et clara, Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 1 Ruhnk.; so Liv. 22, 39, 22; cf. Hor. S. 2, 6, 27.—Subst., with gen.: certa maris, Tac. H. 4, 81.—

   B Subject., of that which is established by evidence, etc., placed beyond doubt, certain, sure, true, proved, established (class.; esp. freq. in neutr.): cum ad has suspitiones certissimae res accederent, Caes. B. G. 1, 19; 5, 29: incerta pro certis malebant, Sall. C. 17, 6; cf.: incerta pro certis mutare, id. J. 83, 1: postremo certior res, Liv. 29, 6, 12: certiora esse dicunt quam, etc., Cic. N. D. 3, 5, 13; id. Att. 3, 11, 2; Liv. 10, 35, 12: So. Satin hoc certum'st? Ge. Certum: hisce oculis egomet vidi, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 31: jam satis certumst virginem vitiatam esse? id. Enn. 4, 4, 36: cum certius tibi sit me esse Romae quam mihi te Athenis, Cic. Att. 1, 9, 1: id parum certum est, Liv. 5, 35, 3: cum de altero intellectu certum est, de altero dubium, Quint. 7, 6, 3; cf. id. 7, 3, 4: non certum traditur, with interrog.-clause, Liv. 2, 8, 8: nec quicquam certi respondes mihi? Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 84: neque tanto spatio certi quid esset explorari poterat, Caes. B. G. 7, 45: certum inveniri non potest ne ... an, id. B. C. 1, 25: si quicquam humanorum certi est, Liv. 5, 33, 1: Ph. Civemne? Th. Arbitror: Certum non scimus, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 31; cf. id. Phorm. 1, 2, 98; Cic. Att. 12, 23, 2.—So, certum scire, to know for a certainty, Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 12; id. Hec. 3, 1, 44; Cic. Fam. 9, 23 init.: certum habere, to reckon certain, id. Att. 1, 13, 1; Liv. 36, 28, 4; 5, 3, 2; Quint. 2, 3, 9; Col. 2, 22, 5 al.: certum respondeo, Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 92: cognoscere, Auct. B. Alex. 53: comperire, Auct. B. Hisp. 22.—So also pro certo habere, Cic. Att. 10, 6, 3; Matius ap. Cic. Att. 9, 15, A med.; Sall. C. 52, 17; Suet. Dom. 23: negare, Cic. Att. 5, 21, 5: polliceri, id. Agr. 2, 37, 102: dicere aliquid, id. Brut. 3, 10: ponere, Liv. 23, 6, 8: scire, id. 25, 10, 1: affirmare, id. 27, 1, 13; 3, 23, 7; cf. id. 1, 3, 2 Drak.: creditur, Sall. C. 15, 2: coeperit esse, Quint. 5, 12, 2: certius cognoscere ex aliquo de aliquā re, Caes. B. G. 5, 52, 5.—Strengthened by comp.: quin nihil invenies magis hoc certo certius, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 111; cf.: et hoc certo certius est et saepissime constitutum, Dig. 42, 8, 10, § 14: certo certius, Ambros. in Ephes. 5; Paul. Vit. St. Ambros. 25; App. M. 9, p. 237, 27.—In Plaut. certum or certius facere alicui, to give certainty to one concerning any thing, make him certain, Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 17; 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 2, 2, 4.—    2    Transf. to the person who is made certain in reference to a thing, certain, sure: certi sumus periisse omnia, Cic. Att. 2, 19, 5: num quid nunc es certior? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 191: posteritatis, i. e. of posthumous fame, Plin. Ep. 9, 3, 1: sententiae, Quint. 4, 3, 8: judicii, Sen. Ep. 45, 9: certus de suā geniturā, Suet. Vesp. 25: damnationis, id. Tib. 61: exitii, Tac. A. 1, 27: spei, id. H. 4, 3: matrimonii, id. A. 12, 3: certi sumus, etc., Gell. 18, 10, 5.—In class. prose mostly in the phrase certiorem facere aliquem (de aliquā re, alicujus rei, with a foll, acc. and inf., with a rel.-clause or absol.), to inform, apprise one of a thing: me certiorem face, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 69: ut nos facias certiores, Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 32: uti se (sc. Caesarem) de his rebus certiorem faciant, Caes. B. G. 2, 2: qui certiorem me sui consilii fecit, Cic. Att. 9, 2, a, 2: Caesarem certiorem faciunt, sese non facile ab oppidis vim hostium prohibere, Caes. B. G. 1, 11: faciam te certiorem quid egerim, Cic. Att. 3, 11, 1.— With subj. only: milites certiores facit, paulisper intermitterent proelium, Caes. B. G. 3, 5 fin.Pass.: quod crebro certior per me fias de omnibus rebus, Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 1; so Caes. B. G. 1, 7; Sall. J. 104, 1: Caesar certior factus est, tres jam copiarum partes Helvetios id flumen transduxisse, Caes. B. G. 1, 12; so id. ib. 1, 21; 1, 41; 2, 1; Sall. J. 82, 2; Nep. Att. 12, 3: factus certior, quae res gererentur, Caes. B. C. 1, 15: non consulibus certioribus factis, Liv. 45, 21, 4.—Also in posit., though rarely: fac me certum quid tibi est, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 16; 4, 6, 35; Verg. A. 3, 179: lacrimae suorum Tam subitae matrem certam fecere ruinae, Ov. M. 6, 268.— Hence, adv. in two forms.

   A certō, with certainty, certainly, surely, of a truth, in fact, really, object. and subject. (cf. supra, II. A. and B.); only in the comic poets, and sometimes (most. freq. in his epistt.) in Cic., while the adverbial form certe belongs to all periods and all species of composition. The difference between them is, perhaps, merely historical; but
v. infra, certe, B. I. 2. init.    1    Object.: perii certo, haud arbitrario, Plaut. Poen. 3, 5, 42; cf. id. Merc. 2, 3, 106: mihi certo nomen Sosia'st, id. Am. 1, 1, 176; id. Men. 2, 2, 39; Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 12: nihil ita exspectare quasi certo futurum, Cic. Tusc. 5, 28, 81 (cf. the passage cited under certo, I. 1., from id. Div. 2, 7, 18).—

   b In affirm. answers: Me. Liberum ego te jussi abire? Mes. Certo, yes, certainly, Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 9; so id. ib. 5, 9, 50; 2, 3, 38; id. Poen. 5, 5, 21; Ter. Eun. 5, 1, 9.—   2    Subject.

   a In gen. (very rare): certo enim ego vocem hic loquentis modo mi audire visus sum, Plaut. Aul. 4, 5, 4: ego rus abituram me esse certo decrevi, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 10: Th. Quid aīs? Py. Atqui certo comperi, id. Eun. 5, 1, 9.—

   b Esp. in the formula of asseveration, certo scio, I certainly know, I am fully persuaded, beyond all doubt (class.): certo edepol scio, me vidisse, etc., Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2; id. Truc. 1, 1, 49; Ter. And. 5, 4, 26; id. Ad. 4, 5, 14; id. Eun. 1, 2, 119; id. Heaut. 1, 1, 19: quod te moleste ferre certo scio, Cic. Att. 1, 12, 3; 2, 23, 2; id. Fam. 4, 13, 6; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 21; id. Phil. 3, 6, 17; id. Sen. 1, 1; 1, 2; Sall. J. 9, 2; id. C. 51, 16: veniunt in mentem mihi permulta: vobis plura, certo scio, Cic. Caecin. 19, 55 (cf. under certe, I. 2.).—

   B certē (class.; cf. supra, certo init.).

I Affirming strongly, with certainty, certainly, undoubtedly, assuredly, surely, really.    1    Object.: certe edepol, tu me alienabis, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 243: ego quidem ab hoc certe exorabo, id. Bacch. 5, 2, 58: certe hercle, id. As. 2, 1, 15; cf. Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 8; Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 71; Ter. And. 2, 2, 10: quom is certe Renuntiarit, id. Heaut. 4, 4, 4: certe captus est! id. And. 1, 1, 55: certe ut videamur cernere eum, Lucr. 4, 760: si enim scit, certe illud eveniet: sin certe eveniet, nulla fortuna est, Cic. Div. 2, 7, 18; cf. id. N. D. 1, 2, 5: fuit certe id aequum et certe exspectatum est, etc., id. Planc. 16, 38: ea certe vera sunt, id. Mil. 35, 96: M. Catoni certe licuit, etc., id. Rep. 1, 1, 1: jam illa perfugia certe minime sunt audienda, id. ib. 1, 5, 9: cum se certe decessurum videret, id. Verr. 2, 3, 44, § 104; Cat. 62, 8: certe hinc Romanos olim fore ductores pollicitus, Verg. A. 1, 234: o dea certe, a goddess surely, id. ib. 1, 328: postremo expellet certe vivacior heres, Hor. S. 2, 2, 132: placuit tibi, Delphice, certe, Dum, etc., Ov. M. 2, 543 al.Comp.: speculatores mittere, qui certius explorata referant, Liv. 3, 40, 13; 35, 48, 3: si reperire vocas amittere certius, Ov. M. 5, 519; App. M. 2, p. 118, 1.—Sup., Tert. Pall. 4.—

   b In an answer of affirmation: estne ipsus an non est! Is est, Certe is est, is est profecto, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 65; so Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53; Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 9; id. Clu. 54, 149; id. Phil. 1, 15, 37; id. Ac. 2, 35, 113; and in confirmation of a preceding fact: venerat, ut opinor, haec res in judicium. Certe, certainly, surely, Cic. Rosc. Com. 14, 42; id. Fam. 4, 2, 5; id. Or. 42, 144; cf. id. Off. 3, 29, 105; id. Fin. 2, 27, 91.—   2    Subject., mostly in the phrase certe scio, I know to a certainty, I am sure (acc. to Klotz ad Cic. Sen. 1, 2, certe scio = certum est me scire, I am fully convinced: certo scio = certum est quod scio, my knowledge is accurate, etc.): certe edepol scio, si aliud quicquam est quod credam aut certo sciam, etc., Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 115: edepol certo scio, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 20: scelestiorem me hac anu certe scio Vidisse numquam, id. Aul. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. Arch. 12, 32: ex litteris certe scire potuistis, id. Font. 4, 8; id. Phil. 12, 12, 29: quod iste certe statuerat ac deliberaverat non adesse, id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 1.—

   b In affirm. answers: Ar. Ain' vero? Le. Certe, inquam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 132: Ch. Ain'tu? So. Certe, sic erit, Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 12.—

   c In a subjective supposition or presumption that a thing is so, certainly, surely, assuredly, doubtless, of course; Gr. ἴσως: ah nugas agis, Certe habes, Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 25; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 58: si me tanti facis, quanti certe facis, Cic. Fam. 11, 16, 3; 7, 8, 1; cf. Verg. A. 1, 234; Ov. M. 2, 423; Prop. 2, 7, 1. —   (b)    In interrog., Cic. Leg. 1, 1, 3; Suet. Aug. 33.—

II Affirming with restriction, yet surely, yet indeed, at least, notwithstanding (very freq. in prose and poetry, esp. after the class. per.).

   A Alone: si non ipsā re tibi istuc dolet, Simulare certe est hominis, Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 16: cingitur, certe expedit se, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 152: ut homines mortem vel optare incipiant, vel certe timere desistant, Cic. Tusc. 1, 49, 117: haec... sint falsa sane, invidiosa certe non sunt, id. Ac. 2, 32, 105: qui... ut non referat pedem, sistet certe, id. Phil. 12, 4, 8: res fortasse verae, certe graves, id. Fin. 4, 3, 7; cf. Liv. 9, 11, 13: consulatum unum certe plebis Romanae esse, id. 22, 34, 11: quos quoniam caeli nondum dignamur honore, Quas dedimus certe terras habitare sinamus, Ov. M. 1, 195 et saep.: quo quid sit beatius, mihi certe in mentem venire non potest, Cic. Tusc. 5, 28, 81; so, ego certe, Quint. 8, 3, 65; 9, 4, 57: certe ego, Sall. J. 31, 5; Ov. H. 19, 81; id. M. 13, 840; id. Tr. 4, 5, 13: mihi certe, Quint. 10, 3, 23: ipse certe, id. 8, 6, 30; Curt. 7, 4, 19; 7, 6, 22.—

   B With other particles.    1    With tamen: illud certe tamen, quod jam amplexi sumus, Cic. de Or. 3, 6, 22; id. Sen. 23, 84.—   2    With at: quod (consilium) si non fuerit prudens, at certe ab optima fide proficiscetur, Balb. et opp. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, A, 1; Ov. F. 3, 351; cf. at II. 3.—    3    With sed: non integrā re, sed certe minus infractā, quam, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 10, 8; cf. Cic. Leg. 1, 21, 56 dub. B. and K. —   4    With quidem: ubi sit animus, certe quidem in te est, Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 70: quoniam volumus quidem certe senes fieri, id. Sen. 2, 6; id. Quint. 15, 50: certe quidem vos estis Romani, etc., Liv. 45, 22, 5. (But quidem does not belong with certe in such passages as the foll.: hic quidem certe memorat, etc., Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 261 al.; v. quidem; cf. also aut and vel.)
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Charlton T. Lewis; Charles Short [1879], A Latin Dictionary; Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) [word count] [latindico03].
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