Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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8.5.1 Praedicativum and Attribute

(94) Galli laeti in castra pergunt (`The Gauls gladly enter the camp')

(95) laeti in castra pergunt (`They gladly enter the camp')

(96a) Galli qui laeti in castra pergunt (`The Gauls who gladly enter the camp')

(96b) qui laeti in castra pergunt? (`Who gladly enter the camp?')

(96c) ei laeti in castra pergunt (`They gladly enter the camp')

Example (94) is ambiguous. It may mean (a) that the Gauls entered the camp and while doing so they were glad, or (b) that the glad Gauls (e.g. in contrast to `the unhappy Gauls') entered the camp. In other words: either there are two constituents (interpretation (a)) or there is one constituent consisting of a Head and an Attribute (interpretation (b)). In (95) only one interpretation is possible, viz. (a): there is no Head with which laeti could function as Attribute. [48] In (96), too, only one interpretation is possible: Attributes with pronouns do not occur. Consequently, in instances such as (94), in which a noun and an adjective (or a participle) occur and the adjective can occur both as Attribute and as Praedicativum (see p. 149), [49] it must be determined on the

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basis of the context whether we are dealing with one or two constituents (viz. with an Attribute or a Praedicativum). Especially in poetry, where so-called epitheta ornantia abound, this often gives rise to problems of interpretation.

The distinction `one or two constituents' can be made with the aid of the following tests: [50]

(a) pronominalisation

(b) relativisation

(c) question-test

With the aid of these tests an instance like (94) can in fact be shown to be ambiguous:

(94) Galli laeti in castra pergunt

(a) :: ei in castra pergunt (one constituent)
:: ei laeti in castra pergunt (two constituents)

(b) :: Galli laeti, qui in castra pergunt (one constituent)
:: Galli, qui laeti in castra pergunt (two constituents)

(c) Qui in castra pergunt?
:: Galli laeti (one constituent)
:: Galli, ?atque id laeti (`and gladly at that': two constituents)

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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