Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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8.4.2 Participles and adverbial clauses

The so-called predicative (or `adverbial') participle is currently said to fulfil a function in the sentence that can also be fulfilled by subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions, so-called adverbial clauses (K.–St. I.771; Sz. 384). This is correct. But participles differ from such clauses, in that the `adverbial relation' is not expressed explicitly but appears from the meaning of the verbal lexeme and/or from the context. Under certain circumstances, participles may be interpreted in the following ways (besides temporally): causally ((87)–(88)), conditionally ((89)–(90)), concessively ((91)–(92)) and as expressing Purpose ((93)).

(87) C. Servilius Ahala Spurium Maelium regnum appetentem … interemit (`C.S.A. killed Sp. M., because he was striving after absolute power', Cic. Sen. 56)

(88) quare istam quoque aggredere, tractatam praesertim et ab aliis et a te ipso saepe (`So discuss this too, especially since it has been dealt with both by others and often by you yourself', Cic. Fin. 4.1)

(89) idem traducti a disputando ad dicendum inopes reperiantur (`The same people are found to be insufficiently eloquent if instead of engaging in a discussion they have to make a speech', Cic. Brut. 118)

(90) epistulae offendunt non loco redditae (`Letters are offensive if they are sent at an inappropriate moment', Cic. Fam. 11.16.1)

(91) (risus interdum) ita repente erumpat ut eum cupientes tenere nequeamus (`Sometimes laughter bursts forth so suddenly that we cannot suppress it, even if we want to', Cic. de Orat. 2.235)

(92) et quae iam diu gesta et a memoria nostra remota tamen faciant fidem vere tradita esse (`And even though they occurred a long time ago and long before our times, yet these events make the impression of having been handed down to us truthfully', Cic. Inv. 1.39)

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(93) quam perverse fugiens Hegesias … saltat incidens particulas (`Unsuccessfully attempting to avoid this, H. writes sentences that are too short', Cic. Orat. 226) [47]

In some cases, the exact interpretation of these participles is clear on account of other words in the context, e.g. praesertim in (88) and tamen in (92). See also Sz. (385) for `st├╝tzenden und eingliedernden Partizipialkonjunktionen'. Sometimes the meaning of the verbal lexeme plays a role: the causal interpretation is largely found with verbs meaning `to fear', `to think', etc., the so-called `Purpose' interpretation largely with verbs meaning `to strive', `to avoid'.

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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