Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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8.3.3 The temporal reference of the Praedicativum

In the paraphrases of examples (2) and (3) at the beginning of crosssection 8.3.1. (p. 148) I have included the words `at that time' in order to indicate that Praedicativa involve embedded predications which have the same temporal reference as the state of affairs referred to by the main predicate and its arguments: Cicero was consul at the moment when he discovered the conspiracy. [29] Participles in the function Praedicativum involve an action or state which is anterior, simultaneous or posterior with regard to the moment in time referred to by the main predication. [30] As a rule, Praedicativa – leaving aside pronouns and quantifying adjectives – express a temporary, non-permanent property, state or action; cf. the English example:

(64) He left the bottle empty in the refrigerator

From (64) it is clear that earlier the bottle had been full. [31] The adjectives in Cicero, too, as a rule indicate a temporary property. Also lexemes that indicate a permanent property, however, can occur as Praedicativum. In such cases we

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interpret the property as relevant only for the duration of the state of affairs of the main predication; e.g. (65):

(65) (Cerberus) toto … ingens extenditur antro (`C. stretches his bulk all over the den', Verg. A. 6.423)

One may assume that Cerberus is always ingens, but here Virgil may want to call attention to the very impression created by his size with regard to the den. See also:

(66) Tiberinus … multa flavus harena in mare prorumpit (`The Tiber, yellow with plenteous sand, leaps forth into the sea', Verg. A. 7.30–2)

(67) Romam vos expugnaturos, si quis duceret, fortes lingua iactabatis (`You maintained, courageous with your tongues, that you were going to conquer Rome, if someone were to lead you', Liv. 23.45.9)

It is not clear whether the Tiber is always flavus or only when it flows into the sea. In (67) fortes lingua may mean that the Addressees always brag.

There are some exceptions to the description given in the preceding paragraph. Praedicativa containing adjectives belonging to the group described on p. 150 (matutinus and the like) do not have the same temporal reference as the main predication. Furthermore, there is the so-called `proleptic' use of participles and adjectives as exemplified in (68) and (69) (for further examples see K.–St. I.239–40):

(68) incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes aut age diversos (`Fill the sails with wind and sink the ships or scatter them', Verg. A. 1.69–70)

(69) tum sterilis exurere Sirius agros (`Then the fields were made infertile by the scorching heat of Sirius', Verg. A. 3.141)

In instances of this type the temporal reference of the Praedicativum is posterior to that of the main predication. [32]

This phenomenon is productive in English with verbs that imply a change of the Object and with `contact' verbs, e.g. he painted the door green and he rubbed his hands dry. In Latin this phenomenon is productive with agere. [33] See, apart from (68), also (70):

(70) agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum (`The penalties he has inflicted on Roman citizens drive him mad', Cic. Ver. 1.7)

A comparable instance is (71):

(71) ipsum pronum sterne solo (`Hurl him prone to earth', Verg. A. 11.484–5)

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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