Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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8.1.2 Adjectives

As Praedicativum we find adjectives of various semantic classes. On p. 85 ff. we have seen that an exhaustive description on the basis of semantic characteristics of the so-called open class of adjectives is lacking. Moreover, it turns out that particularly in poetry (from Virgil onwards) all kinds of distinctions are not relevant with regard to the possibility for a certain adjective to occur as Praedicativum. The division given here is, therefore, highly tentative. [6] The following groups may be distinguished (see also K.–St. I.234 ff.):

(a) Quantifying adjectives: unus (`sole, only'), omnis (`all', `every'), singuli (`separate'), universus (`total'), totus (`whole'), uterque (`both'), creber (`numerous'), solus (`alone'), pauci (`few'), plerique (`most'). [7]

(7) Milo unus urgebat (`Milo alone stood in his way', Cic. Mil. 88)

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(8) ut … scire omnes possemus nihil habuisse quod diceret (`So that all of us could see that he did not know what to say', Cic. Ver. 1.71)

(9) binae singulis quae datae nobis ancillae (`The two slave girls we had each been given', Pl. Poen. 222)

(10) quas (insidias) ille plerasque evitavit (`Which he managed to escape for the most part', Nep. Dat. 9.1)

(b) Ordinals etc.: primus (`first'), posterior (`later'), princeps (`first'), etc.

(11) (Hannibal) princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus … excedebat (`H. was the first to begin a fight, the last to stop', Liv. 21.4.8)

(c) Adjectives which indicate a physical or mental condition that is in principle non-permanent: laetus (`glad'; cf. (1)), aeger (`ill'), caecus (`blinded', `with one's eyes closed'), cruentus (`bloody'), ebrius (`drunk'). This is the largest group of lexemes occurring as Praedicativum.

(12) se recipiebat … cruentus sanguine civium Romanorum (`He returned … covered with the blood of Roman citizens', Cic. Phil. 4.4)

(13) beluarum modo caecos in foveam missos (`That they had blindly been thrown into a pit like wild beasts', Liv. 9.5.7)

(d) Besides the semantically rather homogeneous and very large class of adjectives mentioned in (c), we also find adjectives that express a value judgment (e.g. carus (`dear'), bellus (`beautiful')), place/direction (diversus (`in different directions')), time (assiduus (`incessant')), etc.

(14) carus omnibus expectatusque venies (`When you come you will see that you are loved and expected by all', Cic. Fam. 16.7)

(15) fac bellus revertare (`Make sure you return safely', Cic. Fam. 16.18.1)

(16) diversi pugnabant (`They were fighting on opposite sides', Caes. Civ. 1.58.4)

(17) qui Romae erant assidui (`Who were continually in Rome', Cic. S. Rosc. 81)

Several uncoordinated Praedicativa may occur in one sentence, if the lexemes fulfilling these functions belong to different classes. [8] This resembles the phenomenon called `Nesting' discussed in crosssection 6.4. Conceivable is, e.g.:

(18) Hannibal puer unus laetus primus in proelium ibat (`As a boy, H. alone was glad to be the first to go into battle')

Some classes of adjectives do not occur as Praedicativum, e.g. denominal adjectives which indicate origin (Romanus) and material adjectives (unless they are used metaphorically). [9] These adjectives express permanent properties.

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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