Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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8.1. The categories of lexemes which may occur as Praedicativum

Of three categories of lexemes it is generally assumed that they can occur as Praedicativum: adjectives, nouns and participles, though this does not hold true for all individual members of these categories. Besides these, however, we also find certain pronouns (ipse, idem, alius), preposition phrases and nouns in the ablative. Each of these categories is treated below. [4]

8.1.1 Nouns

As Praedicativum we find primarily those nouns which express age or social position (puerum in (4), and consul in (2) and privatus in (5), respectively). Instances such as (6) are difficult to distinguish from those mentioned above. While in examples (2) and (4) properties/functions of a non-permanent nature are mentioned, (6) involves permanent properties. In this case, the property is relevant only at this particular moment. Incidentally, it is difficult to indicate the difference with Appositions (see for this crosssection 8.5.; cf. aquilifer in example (19)). [5]

(5) magno usui rei publicae Ser. Sulpicius et privatus et in magistratibus fuerit (`S.S. was of great use to the state, both as a private person and while holding public offices', Cic. Phil. 9.15)

(6) mihin domino servus tu suscenses? (`You, a slave, are angry with me, your master?', Pl. Ps. 472)

8.1.2 Adjectives

As Praedicativum we find adjectives of various semantic classes. On p. 85 ff. we have seen that an exhaustive description on the basis of semantic characteristics of the so-called open class of adjectives is lacking. Moreover, it turns out that particularly in poetry (from Virgil onwards) all kinds of distinctions are not relevant with regard to the possibility for a certain adjective to occur as Praedicativum. The division given here is, therefore, highly tentative. [6] The following groups may be distinguished (see also K.–St. I.234 ff.):

(a) Quantifying adjectives: unus (`sole, only'), omnis (`all', `every'), singuli (`separate'), universus (`total'), totus (`whole'), uterque (`both'), creber (`numerous'), solus (`alone'), pauci (`few'), plerique (`most'). [7]

(7) Milo unus urgebat (`Milo alone stood in his way', Cic. Mil. 88)

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(8) ut … scire omnes possemus nihil habuisse quod diceret (`So that all of us could see that he did not know what to say', Cic. Ver. 1.71)

(9) binae singulis quae datae nobis ancillae (`The two slave girls we had each been given', Pl. Poen. 222)

(10) quas (insidias) ille plerasque evitavit (`Which he managed to escape for the most part', Nep. Dat. 9.1)

(b) Ordinals etc.: primus (`first'), posterior (`later'), princeps (`first'), etc.

(11) (Hannibal) princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus … excedebat (`H. was the first to begin a fight, the last to stop', Liv. 21.4.8)

(c) Adjectives which indicate a physical or mental condition that is in principle non-permanent: laetus (`glad'; cf. (1)), aeger (`ill'), caecus (`blinded', `with one's eyes closed'), cruentus (`bloody'), ebrius (`drunk'). This is the largest group of lexemes occurring as Praedicativum.

(12) se recipiebat … cruentus sanguine civium Romanorum (`He returned … covered with the blood of Roman citizens', Cic. Phil. 4.4)

(13) beluarum modo caecos in foveam missos (`That they had blindly been thrown into a pit like wild beasts', Liv. 9.5.7)

(d) Besides the semantically rather homogeneous and very large class of adjectives mentioned in (c), we also find adjectives that express a value judgment (e.g. carus (`dear'), bellus (`beautiful')), place/direction (diversus (`in different directions')), time (assiduus (`incessant')), etc.

(14) carus omnibus expectatusque venies (`When you come you will see that you are loved and expected by all', Cic. Fam. 16.7)

(15) fac bellus revertare (`Make sure you return safely', Cic. Fam. 16.18.1)

(16) diversi pugnabant (`They were fighting on opposite sides', Caes. Civ. 1.58.4)

(17) qui Romae erant assidui (`Who were continually in Rome', Cic. S. Rosc. 81)

Several uncoordinated Praedicativa may occur in one sentence, if the lexemes fulfilling these functions belong to different classes. [8] This resembles the phenomenon called `Nesting' discussed in crosssection 6.4. Conceivable is, e.g.:

(18) Hannibal puer unus laetus primus in proelium ibat (`As a boy, H. alone was glad to be the first to go into battle')

Some classes of adjectives do not occur as Praedicativum, e.g. denominal adjectives which indicate origin (Romanus) and material adjectives (unless they are used metaphorically). [9] These adjectives express permanent properties.

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8.1.3 Participles

Participles in the function Praedicativum are in the grammars classified under the heading predicative (or `adverbial') participle (participium coniunctum). They are generally said to fulfil a function similar to that of adverbial subordinate clauses (see K.–St. I.771 ff.; Sz. 384 ff.). See crosssection 8.4.

(19) Lucius Petrosidius aquilifer … pro castris fortissime pugnans occiditur (`L.P., the standard-bearer, was killed in front of the camp while he was fighting most courageously', Caes. Gal. 5.37.5)

(20) Persae etiam (mortuos) cera circumlitos condunt (`The Persians even bury their dead covered with wax', Cic. Tusc. 1.108)

(21) hanc adepti victoriam in perpetuum se fore victores confidebant (`Having obtained this victory, they thought they would be victorious for ever', Caes. Gal. 5.39.4)

(22) P. Servilius … adest de te sententiam laturus (`P.S. is here to pass judgment on you', Cic. Ver. 1.56)

Cf. also example (3). Unlike, as we have seen, nouns and adjectives, participles in the function Praedicativum can also express anteriority ((20), (21)) [10] and posteriority ((22)) to the state of affairs of the main predication (see below p. 150).

8.1.4 Gerundives

In active sentences we find the gerundive in the function Praedicativum with the Object (`Object Praedicativum'). Examples are (23) and (24):

(23) populus Romanus consuli potius Crasso quam privato Africano bellum gerendum dedit (`The Roman people preferred the consul C. to the private person A. as their leader in the war', Cic. Phil. 11.18)

(24) domos nostras et patriam ipsam vel diripiendam vel inflammandam reliquimus (`We have left our homes and our very fatherland to be destroyed or set on fire', Cic. Fam. 16.12.1)

For further examples see K.–St. II.731 f.

8.1.5 Pronouns

I limit myself to one example of ipse in the function Praedicativum. In most cases, the pronoun agrees with the Subject of the sentence, e.g. (25):

(25) de te tu videris, ego de me ipse profitebor (`You take care of your own matters, I myself will make a statement about mine', Cic. Phil. 2.118)

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8.1.6 Preposition phrases

Preposition phrases are also found in the function Praedicativum:

(26) te … stetisse in comitio cum telo (`That you were standing on the comitium with a weapon', Cic. Catil. 1.15)

(27) stare tristis, turbido vultu, subductis cum superciliis senes (`The old men stood there, worried and frowning', Turp. com. 169) [11]

(28) nemo tam sine oculis, tam sine mente vivit (`Nobody is so blind, so unthinking', Cic. de Orat. 1.249)

(29) plerique ut fusi sine mente ac sine ullo sensu iacerent (`Most of them would be lying about the place fuddled and unconscious', Cic. Ver. 5.28) [12]

The nouns in the preposition phrases generally refer to objects (weapons, clothes), parts of the body of the entity referred to by the Praedicativum, and its mental state during the period during which the state of affairs of the main predication obtains.

8.1.7 Noun phrases in ablative or genitive (so-called ablative and genitive of

In example (27) we have already seen a noun phrase in the ablative (turbido vultu) functioning as Praedicativum. Other examples are:

(30) eos infenso animo atque inimico venisse (`That they had come with angry and hostile intentions', Cic. Ver. 2.149) [13]

(31) pura mente atque integra Milonem, nullo scelere imbutum … Romam revertisse (`That M. returned to Rome with a mind stainless and untarnished, with no taint of crime', Cic. Mil. 61)

(32) te prodire involuto capite, soleatum (`That you appeared with a hood on your head and slippers on your feet', Cic. Pis. 13)

(33) eodem (vultu) semper se vidisse exeuntem illum domo et revertentem (`That she (Xanthippe) had always seen him (Socrates) leave and come back home with the same expression on his face', Cic. Tusc. 3.31)

Occasionally we also find noun phrases in the genitive:

(34) cum annorum octoginta … in Aegyptum iisset (`When at the age of 80 he had gone to Egypt', Nep. Ag. 8.2)

(35) redis mutatae frontis (`You return with a different expression on your face', Hor. S. 2.8.84)

The grammars treat these instances under the headings ablative and genitive

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of description (for examples see K.–St. I.456–7; Sz. 70; 119). The nouns within the noun phrase in the ablative or genitive generally refer to mental and physical properties. [14]

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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