Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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7.3.3 Clauses with or without a correlating adverb

In crosssection 6.5.1. (on p. 90) we briefly touched upon the difficulty of the description of the relation between a relative clause and a correlating pronoun such as is. The same difficulty arises in describing the relation between the ubi-clause in (45) and ibi in the main sentence.

(45) exsilium ibi esse putat, ubi virtuti non sit locus (`He thinks that exile is there, where there is no room for virtue', Cic. Mil. 101)

Just as in the case of relative clauses, there are clear instances in which the subordinate clause is Attribute ((71)) or independently functions as a satellite within the sentence ((72)):

(71) homines tenues … adeunt ad ea loca, quae numquam antea viderunt, ubi neque noti esse eis quo venerunt … possunt (`Poor people go to places which they have never seen before, where they cannot be known to those to whom they have come', Cic. Ver. 5.167)

(72) ut mulier … nihil putaret agi callide posse ubi non adesset Aebutius (`So that the woman thought that no clever deals were possible while A. was absent', Cic. Caec. 13)

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In (71) the ubi-clause can be seen as Attribute with ea loca in the main sentence, as also the preceding relative clause quae … viderunt is an Attribute with ea loca. In the subordinate clause ubi is a relative adverb [32] in the function Place Adjunct. Similarly, quae is Object in the relative clause in this example (see p. 82). In the subordinate clause in (72) ubi is also a relative adverb in the function Place Adjunct. The subordinate clause as a whole functions as a Place Adjunct within the main sentence. In a similar way, relative clauses may have an independent function within the sentence (see crosssection 6.5.1. on p. 90). The grammars tend to reconstruct independent subordinate clauses with a relative pronoun or adverb into clauses with an explicit antecedent. (72) would, for instance, be equated with (72a):

(72a) ut mulier nihil putaret agi callide posse ibi, ubi non adesset Aebutius

In a case like (72) the grammars speak of ubi `with implied antecedent'. Also, they usually equate the relation between the ubi-clause and the preceding ibi in (45) with the relation between the ubi-clause and ea loca in (71), which is modified by the subordinate clause. However, just as Attributes with is do not mean very much to us (is bonus (`the good he') does not exist), Attributes with ibi do not seem very plausible either.

The function of a number of subordinators within the subordinate clause is less easy to determine, e.g. si. Also, for si there are no clear correlating adverbs, as there are for example, for ubi.

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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