Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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7.2. Embedded predications functioning as arguments

In this section I give examples of embedded predications with one-place, two-place and three-place predicates, successively. A useful comparison may be made with the tables on pp. 21 ff., where the examples of arguments with the various predicates are for the most part noun phrases. It should be kept in mind, however, that on p. 21 ff. the syntactic construction (in terms of syntactic functions) is indicated, whereas the tables below show the formal expression of the embedded predications without indicating the syntactic structure. A number of the forms in which embedded predications occur will be further discussed in crosssection 7.4. Furthermore, we will see that the semantic and syntactic structure are not always parallel ( crosssection 7.5.) and that for a number of the

-- 102 --

predicates treated here as one-place we might also consider a treatment as two-place predicates. There are predicates with more than one meaning and with different frames. An example is necesse est (`it is necessary'). Most predicates can govern more than one form of embedded predication, in a number of cases with a difference in meaning. I return to this in crosssection 7.4. As appears from the tables, it is not true that certain types of embedded predication are reserved for one-, two- or three-place predicates. Finally, the selection of predicates dealt with here is highly limited. I do not pretend that the tables represent all possible combinations of types of embedded predication. Moreover, diachronic changes are not dealt with in a systematic way. [added 12-08: The tables are followed by examples. They may give an impression of the distribution of the specific constructions in authors and text types.]

Table 7.1 So-called impersonalia
(Main) PredicateForm of embedded predication
Embedded predicate: finiteEmbedded predicate: non-finite
(ut) non(ut) nequod/quia nonaquinbdependent questionInf.AcINcIDPtcGerSup
necesse este+-----+----
– : not attested in the period 200 BC–AD 100
+ : attested in the period 200 BC–AD 100
* : see note with predicate
(ut) : ut may sometimes be omitted
Inf. : infinitive (prolative infinitive)
AcI : `real' Accusative + Infinitivef
NcI : Nominative + Infinitive
DPtc : dominant participle construction (see crosssection 7.4.7)
Ger : any gerund (ive) construction
Sup : (second) supine (in -u)
a For (rare) quoniam = quod/quia see Sz. 628.
b Quin occurs only with negative main predications. See also on facere in crosssection 7.2.2.
c See K.–St. II. 239 for isolated accidit (ut) ne, and the like. We find the AcI especially in cases of accidit with an evaluation of the nature of the coincidence (e.g. inique or permirum); see K.–St. II. 240; Sz. 579). One might consider the possibility of calling inique etc. obligatory.
d For late embedded predications with [added 12-08: quod and] ut see TLL s.v. 535.80 ff.
e In the case of necesse est the so-called `inferential' use and the so-called `deontic' use must be distinguished. Example (11a) is an instance of deontic use, example (11b) an instance of inferential use (see Bolkestein 1980a: passim). Furthermore, there is also a two-place necesse est (mihi + inf.; see p. 108 example (24); see Bolkestein 1980a: 104). Necesse est is here treated as one indivisible idiom; etymological explanations of the form necesse are of little use with regard to the productive use of the expression.
f See for the distinction between `real' AcI and prolative infinitive crosssection 7.4.2.

-- 103 --

7.2.1 One-place predicates

The predicates discussed here are on the one hand the so-called `impersonalia' (refert, `it is of importance') and, on the other, expressions consisting of est or another copula and the neuter form of an adjective (utile est, `it is useful') or a noun (mos est, `it is customary'). [3] With these predicates the embedded predications function as Subject. After each table I occasionally discuss briefly those predicates which cannot with certainty be classified as one-place.

Examples of `impersonalia' (table 7.1)


(8a) tantum abest ut scribi contra nos nolimus ut id etiam maxime optemus (`We object so little to criticism against us that we even hope for it', Cic. Tusc. 2.4)

(8b) prorsus nihil abest quin sim miserrimus (`I am absolutely miserable', Cic. Att. 11.15.3)


(9a) capitis nostri saepe potest accidere ut causae versentur in iure (`It can often happen that matters which concern our position as a citizen are brought to court', Cic. de Orat. 1.181)

(9b) hoc loco percommode accidit quod non adest is qui … (`At this point it is a fortunate coincidence that he who … is not present', Cic. Caec. 77)

(9c) videte igitur quam inique accidat quia res indigna sit ideo turpem existimationem sequi … (`See how unjustly a bad reputation is the result of defending an unworthy cause', Cic. Caec. 8)


(10a) quo id factum nomine appellari oporteat constat (`It is clear how this act should be defined', Cic. Inv. 1.12)

(10b) quae si omnia e Ti. Coruncanii scientia … acta esse constarent (`If it were established that all this had been done in accordance with the knowledge of Ti. C.', Cic. Dom. 139) [4]

(10c) constat … ad salutem civium … inventas esse leges (`It is certain that the laws have been invented for the benefit of the citizens', Cic. Leg. 2.11)

necesse est

(11a) adhibeas necesse est omnem rationem (`You must use all your intellectual faculties', Q. Cic. Pet. 15)

-- 104 --

(11b) necesse est igitur legem haberi in rebus optimis (`So the law must needs be considered a very good thing', Cic. Leg. 2.12)


(12a) ut valeant refert (`It is important that they are healthy', Cato Agr. 73) [5]

(12b) ipsi animi magni refert quali in corpore locati sint (`Particularly for the soul it is of great importance in what kind of body they have been located', Cic. Tusc. 1.80)

(12c) neque enim refert videre quid dicendum sit (`For it does not matter very much if one sees what is to be said, but …', Cic. Brut. 110)

(12d) parvi refert abs te ipso ius dici aequabiliter (`It matters little whether you yourself judge impartially', Cic. Q. fr. 1.1.20)

The syntactic function of the embedded predication in an instance like (10b) is not easy to determine. Here an argument of the embedded predication is Subject of the main predication (quae): in this case the grammars speak of the `personal construction'. The Predicate of the embedded predication has been recorded in the figure as a prolative infinitive. In a case such as this, however, one could also regard constare as two-place, with one argument in the syntactic function Subject and one in the syntactic function Complement. I return to this phenomenon in crosssection 7.5.1. on p. 135. In other cases the embedded predication as a whole functions as Subject, as has already been said above (p. 103). Table 7.2 Copula + adjective
(Main) PredicateForm of embedded predication
Embedded predicate: finiteEmbedded predicate: non-finite
(ut) nonquod nonne nonquindependent questionInf.AcINcIDPtcGerSup
Abbreviations as for table 7.1.
a For (late) quod, quia, quoniam and ut see TLL s.v. 2115.32 ff.
b With utilis and other adjectives we do find gerund (ive) constructions, e.g. with ad, but I regard these as satellites.

-- 105 --

Examples of copula + adjective (table 7.2) [6]


(13a) difficile est … ut ad haec … studia … animus tam cito possit accedere (`It is difficult for the mind to occupy itself so rapidly with this (less serious kind of) literature', [7] Sen. Dial. 11.8.3)

(13b) non fuisse ei grave nec difficile eam causam excipere (`That it had been neither hard nor difficult to accept an exception in this case', Cic. Inv. 2.130)

(13c) difficile est in Asia … ita versari nostrum imperatorem, ut … (`It is difficult for a Roman commander to behave in Asia in such a way that …', Cic. Man. 64)

(13d) ut in comparando difficile ad eligendum sit quid maxime velis (`So that it is comparatively difficult to choose what you want most', Cic. Rep. 1.55)

(13e) difficile est hoc genus exornationis inventu (`This kind of figure of speech is difficult to find', Rhet. Her. 4.39)


(14a) non potest esse dubium quin id sit summum … bonorum omnium (`There can be no doubt that this (viz. pleasure) is the highest good', Cic. Fin. 1.54)

(14b) primo nobis fuit dubium quid ageremus (`At first we were in doubt as to what to do', Cic. Ver. 4. 138) [8]

(14c) perisse me una haud dubiumst (`Doubtless I, too, am finished', Ter. Hec. 326)


(15a) quid tam inusitatum quam ut … eques Romanus ad bellum maximum … mitteretur (`What is as uncommon as to send a Roman knight into a most serious war', Cic. Man. 62)

(15b) esta ita inusitatum regem reum capitis esse ut … (`It is so uncommon for a king to stand trial for a capital offence, that …', Cic. Deiot. 1)


(16a) si verum est – quod nemo dubitat – ut populus Romanus omnes gentes virtute superarit (`If it is true – as is doubted by no one – that the Roman people have been superior to all nations in courage', Nep. Han. 1.1)

(16b) nec verum est … idcirco initam esse cum hominibus communitatem (`It is not true that for this reason relationships have formed among human beings', Cic. Off. 1.158)

-- 106 --


(17a) numquam igitur est utile peccare (`So it is never useful to sin', Cic. Off. 3.64)

(17b) Miloni etiam utile fuisse Clodium vivere (`That it was even in M.'s interest that C. was alive', Cic. Mil. 52)

Many predicates consisting of copula + adjective occur with a nominal constituent in the dative. I regard such constituents as satellites with the semantic function Beneficiary (e.g. with difficilis and utilis).

Apart from (13e), I have only given examples of so-called `impersonal' constructions of esse + adjective. I regard (13e) and similar examples as equivalent to the other instances, although here, too, we should formally speak of a so-called personal construction. Here, therefore, mutatis mutandis the same applies as was remarked on p. 104 with respect to constarent in example (10b). Looking only at the syntactic structure, one might also speak of two-place difficilis. (13e) is thus described in a different way from cupidus in (25a–b) and nescius in, for example:

(18) iratum te regi Deiotaro fuisse non erant nescii (`They knew very well that you had been angry with King D.', Cic. Deiot. 8)

Nescius is two-place; see further crosssection 7.5.2. Table 7.3 Copula + noun
(Main) predicateForm of embedded predication
Embedded predicate: finiteEmbedded predicate: non-finite
(ut) non(ut) nene nonquod/quia nonquindependent questionInf.AcINcIDPtcGerSup
Abbreviations as for table 7.1

Examples of copula + noun (table 7.3)


(19a) facinus est vincire civem Romanum (`It is a crime to put a Roman citizen in irons', Cic. Ver. 5.170)

-- 107 --

(19b) occisus dictator … pulcherrimum facinus videretur (`The murder of the dictator seemed a most beautiful crime', Tac. Ann. 1.8.6)


(20a) cum … mos esset Graecis … ut ei qui vicissent tropaeum … statuerent (`Since it was a habit among the Greeks that victors erected a monument', Cic. Inv. 2.69)

(20b) Magorum mos est non humare corpora suorum, nisi … (`It is a habit among the Magi not to bury their dead unless …', Cic. Tusc. 1.108)

(20c) qua (oratione) mos est Athenis laudari in contione eos qui sint in proeliis interfecti (`It is a custom in Athens to honour with this speech those who have been killed in battle', Cic. Orat. 151)

(20d) (fuit) mos vero liberos … obiciendi saevissimis earum (`They did in fact expose their children to the most frightful among them (viz. snakes)', Plin. Nat. 7.14)


(21a) sed iustitiae primum munus est, ut ne cui quis noceat (`The first duty of justice is to make sure that no one inflicts damage on someone else', Cic. Off. 1.20)

(21b) munus autem animi est ratione bene uti (`It is the duty of the soul to make good use of reason', Cic. Tusc. 3.15)


(22a) videtur tempus esse ut eamus ad forum (`It seems to be time to go to the forum', Pl. Mil. 72)

(22b) tempus esset iam de ordine argumentorum … aliquid dicere (`Then it would be time to say something about the order of the arguments', Cic. de Orat. 2.181)

(22c) tempus est … iam hince abire, me ut moriar, vos ut vitam agatis (`It is already time to leave, for me in order to die, for you in order to live your lives', Cic. Tusc. 1.99)

(22d) navigandi nobis … tempus esse (`That it is time for us to sail', Cic. Ac. 2.147)

(22e) si tempus est ullum iure hominis necandi (`If there is any one occasion for justifiable murder', Cic. Mil. 9) [9]


(23) alterum est vitium quod quidam nimis magnum studium … conferunt (`The second error is the fact that some devote too much attention to …', Cic. Off. 1.19) [10]

-- 108 --

A survey of the constructions of copula + noun may be found in K.–St. (II.272–3). Incidentally, here, too, we are confronted by the problem that it is difficult to distinguish between esse as a copula and existential esse. In table 7.3 it has not been attempted to make a distinction along these lines.

7.2.2 Two-place (main) predicates

In this section we deal with the same constructions as in the preceding one. I give one example of the so-called impersonal constructions (necesse est, propositum est + dative + infinitive) and of the adjectives. Adjectives which also have an impersonal construction have already been discussed in crosssection 7.2.1. (e.g. difficile). [11] Table 7.4
(Main) predicateForm of embedded predication
Embedded predicate: finiteEmbedded predicate: non-finite
(ut) non(ut) nene nonquod/quia nonquinotherdependent questionInf.AcINcIAcPaDPtcGerSup
necesse estb+------+------
Abbreviations as for table 7.1
a AcP: accusative + present participle.
b See table 7.1, note e.
c I am referring to the construction audire aliquem cum as in ex. (26a).
d TLL s.v. 349.42 ff. mentions late instances of AcI (Lucifer, Chiron); in Augustine in psalm 36, serm. 2.1 the AcI is dependent on optat.
e non metuo quin: see K.-St. II.256, A.4. AcI constructions only late.
f Instances with quin i.a. Cic. Rep. 1.50 quin serviant … fieri non potest (`It is impossible that they will not be slaves') (TLL s.v. 106.77 ff.). For quo and quominus TLL s.v. 106.58 ff.; see also TLL s.v. 107.15 ff.
g In Plin. Ep. 9.33.2 the AcI is governed by statui (contra TLL, s.v. deliberare 440.65 ff.).

Examples of constructions with two-place (main) predicates (table 7.4)


(24a) pro hoc mihi patronus sim necesse est (`For him I must be a `patronus", Pl. Poen. 1244)

-- 109 --

(24b) non est omnibus stantibus necesse dicere (`It is not necessary that all should stand up to speak', Cic. Marc. 33)


(25a) mortem … timens cupidusque moriri (`Fearing death and longing to die', Ov. Met. 14.215)

(25b) tu qui valde spectandi cupidus esses (`You who were very much eager to see them', Cic. de Orat. 1.162)


(26a) saepe enim soleo audire Roscium, cum … dicat … (`Often I hear R., when he says …', Cic. de Orat. 1.129)

(26b) nemo fere vestrum est quin quemadmodum captae sint a M. Marcello Syracusae saepe audierit (`Hardly anyone among you has not often heard how Syracuse was captured by M.', Cic. Ver. 4.115)

(26c) M. vero Scaurus, quem non longe ruri apud se esse audio (`M.S., who, as I am told, is not far from here at his country estate', Cic. de Orat. 1.214)

(26d) bellum … ante audierunt geri quam parari (`They heard that the war was being waged before they heard that it was being prepared', Cic. Lig. 3)

(26e) Bibulus nondum audiebatur esse in Syria (`There was no word so far of B. being in Syria', Cic. Att. 5.18.1)

(26f) idque Socratem … audio dicentem … (`I hear Socrates say that …', [12] Cic. Fin. 2.90)


(27a) Helvetii … si perrumpere possent conati … telis repulsi hoc conatu destiterunt (`The Helvetians tried to force a break-through; pushed back by spears they desisted from their attempt', Caes. Gal. 1.8.4)

(27b) quod sibi probare non possit, id persuadere alteri conetur (`He is trying to persuade the other of something he cannot prove himself', Cic. Q. Rosc. 4)


(28a) tibi cum omnia mea commendatissima esse cupio tum nihil magis, quam ne tempus nobis provinciae prorogetur (`I wish all my affairs to have your attention, and above all that my term as provincial administrator is not extended', Cic. Fam. 2.8.3)

(28b) tu vellem ego vel cuperem adesses (`I would want, or rather, wish you to be here', Cic. Att. 2.18.4)

-- 110 --

(28c) qua exposita scire cupio quae causa sit cur Zeno … (`After this exposition I wish to know what the reason was why Zeno …', Cic. Fin. 4.19) [13]

(28d) liberos suos … beatos esse cupiat (`He wishes his children to be happy', Cic. Inv. 1.48) [14]

(28e) ego me cupio non mendacem putari (`I do not wish to be regarded as a liar', Cic. Leg. 1.4)


(29a) tu malim … actum ne agas (`I would prefer you not to act upon matters that have been closed', Cic. Att. 9.18.3)

(29b) malo non roges (`I had rather you did not ask questions', Cic. Tusc. 1.17) (contrastive non)

(29c) virtutum in alia alius mavult excellere (`Everyone wants to excel in another virtue', Cic. Off. 1.115)

(29d) sed fortasse maluit … omnium … esse princeps (`But perhaps he wanted to be the best of all', Cic. Brut. 151)

(29e) Afer aut Sardus …, si ita se isti malunt nominari (`African or Sardinian, if that is what they prefer to be called', Cic. Scaur. 15)


(30a) illud gaudeo, quod … aequalitas vestra et … abest ab obtrectatione <et> invidia … (`I am glad that your equality does not cause disparaging behaviour or jealousy', Cic. Brut. 156)

(30b) et quom te gravidam et quom te pulchre plenam aspicio, gaudeo (`And when I see you pregnant and beautifully full, I rejoice', Pl. Am. 681)

(30c) abs quivis homine … beneficium accipere gaudeas (`You can look forward to receiving favours from anyone, no matter who', [15] Ter. Ad. 254)

(30d) venire tu me gaudes (`You are happy about my arrival', Pl. Bac. 185)

(30e) cum … valde absoluto Scaevola gauderet (`When he was very pleased with the acquittal of S.', Cic. de Orat. 2.281)


(31a) atque etiam id ipsum, quod tu scribis, metuebam, ne a me distrahi non posses (`And I was afraid of the very thing you mentioned, viz. that you could not tear yourself away from me', Cic. 1.3.4)

(31b) ego ... non tam veteranos metuendos nobis arbitror quam quid ... cuncta Italia ... sentiat (`I think that we should not fear so much the veterans as what the whole of Italy feels', Cic. Phil. 11.39) [added 12-08]

(31c) ego nec tumultum nec mori per vim metuam tenente Caesare terras (`I will fear neither unrest nor violent death as long as Caesar governs the world', Hor. C. 3.14.14–16)

-- 111 --

(31d) an metuit (anima) conclusa manere in corpore putri et … (`Or is the soul afraid to be left behind, in a rotting body and …', Lucr. 3.773)


(32a) nam quod rogas curem ut scias quid Pompeius agat (`For as to the fact that you ask me to let you know how P. is', Cic. Att. 7.12.1)

(32b) is curavit quod argumentum ex Dionysio ipse sumpsisset ex eo ceteri sumerent (`He made sure that the argument which he had taken from D. was taken from him by the others', Cic. Ac. 2.71)

(32c) ea nolui scribere quae nec … nec docti legere curarent (`I did not want to write those things … which learned men do not find worth reading', Cic. Ac. 1.4)

(32d) nec vera virtus … curat reponi deterioribus (`True courge does not wish to return into people who are less good', Hor. C. 3.5.29–30)

(32e) ut natura et procreari vellet et diligi procreatos non curaret (`That nature both wanted procreation and did not make sure that those who are born receive love', Cic. Fin. 3.62)

(32f) … eum hominem occidendum curavit (`He had this man killed', Cic. S. Rosc. 103) [16]


(33a) splendor vester facit ut peccare sine summo rei publicae detrimento … non possitis (`Your splendid record makes it impossible for you to err without doing serious harm to the state', Cic. Ver. 1.22)

(33b) fecisti ut ne cui innocenti maeror tuus calamitatem … adferret (`You have ensured that your grief did not cause a disaster for an innocent person', Cic. Clu. 168)

(33c) bene facis … quod me adiuvas (`You do well to help me', Cic. Fin. 3.16)

(33d) visum est faciendum … vos certiores facere (`It seems necessary to inform you', Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4.12.1) [17]

(33e) (actio) tales … oratores videri facit, quales ipsi se videri volunt (`The delivery causes the orators to make the impression they want to make', Cic. Brut. 142) [18]


(34a) brevior iam in scribendo incipio fieri (`I am already beginning to write more concisely', Cic. Att. 5.6.2)

(34b) nunc quoniam de re publica consuli coepti sumus (`Now that we are again asked for political advice', Cic. Div. 2.7)

-- 112 --


(35a) deliberant quid agant (`They are deliberating as to what to do', Rhet. Her. 3.5.8)

(35b) cum deliberassent nobiscum bellum gerere (`While they had considered waging war against us', Rhet. Her. 4.13)

(35c) non de absolvendo Apronio deliberarent (`They would not have considered the release of A.', Cic. Ver. 3.31)

A number of nouns (such as dies (`day'), comitia (`elections'), locus (`place', `opportunity')) may be construed with esse and a gerund(ive) construction in the dative:

(36) dies is erat legitimus comitiis habendis (`According to law, this was the day for holding the elections', Cic. Ver. 2.129, cf. K.–St. I.748–9)

The same nouns can also be used with transitive verbs, again with a gerund(ive) construction in the dative:

(37) quibus (imaginibus) non … imitandis … tibi locum ullum reliquisti (`You have left yourself no room for imitating these', Cic. de Orat. 2.226)

Such expressions have been left out of account here, as well as opus est + dative.

7.2.3 Three-place predicates Table 7.5
(Main) predicateForm of embedded predication
Embedded predicate: finiteEmbedded predicate: non-finite
(ut) non(ut) nene nonquod/quia nonquinotherdependent questionInf.AcINcIAcPDPtcGerSup
Abbreviations as for table 7.4.
a See Petersmann (1977: 215-6) about alternative constructions for the AcI; TLL s.v. dicere 985.78 ff. See also crosssection 7.4.4 (p. 129) on differences in meaning between the various constructions with dicere.
b From Tertullian onwards.
c See note 11.
d See note 11.
e Reflexive (sibi persuasum est) has been left out of account. The Oxford Latin Dictionary mentions one instance with quod:

- persuaserunt Publio Maevio quod hereditas ad eum pertineret (`They convinced P.M. that the inheritance pertained to him', Scaev. Dig. 13.5.31).

f For late quod see TLL s.v. 766. 16 ff.

-- 113 --

Examples of constructions with three-place predicates (table 7.5)


(38a) dicebam, pater, tibi, ne matri consuleres male (`I told you, father, to take good care of mother', Pl. As. 938)

(38b) dices (eis) … paulum proferant auctionem (`Tell them to put off the auction for some time', Cic. Att. 13.12.4)

(38c) dixi quia mustella comedit (`I said that a weasel had eaten them', Petr. 46.4)

(38d) non … solum Torquatus dixit, quid sentiret, sed etiam cur (`T. did not only say what he thought, but also why', Cic. Fin. 2.3)

(38e) (Augustus patribus) sedentibus valere dicebat (`A. said farewell to the senators while they remained seated', Suet. Aug. 53.3)

(38f) quas (minas) hodie adulescens Diabolus ipsi daturus dixit (`Which the young D. has said he will give her today', Pl. As. 634)

(38g) omnes in iis sedibus quae erant sub platano consedisse dicebat (`He said that all had sat down in the chairs under the plane-tree', Cic. de Orat. 1.29)

(38h) dici mihi memini … L. Crassum … se … contulisse (`I recall that L. C. was said to have gone to …', Cic. de Orat. 1.24)

(38i) si dici possit ex hostibus equus esse captus (`If a horse can be said to have been captured from the enemy', Cic. Inv. 1.85)


(39a) eum (lenonem) ego docebo …, ut sibi esse datum argentum dicat (`I will make clear to him that he must say that the money was given to him', Pl. Epid. 364–5)

(39b) vos docebit, qualis sit L. Flaccus? (`Will he tell you what kind of man L. F. is?', Cic. Flac. 8)

(39c) neque … conamur docere eum dicere, qui loqui nesciat (`We do not try to teach someone who cannot talk how to speak', Cic. de Orat. 3.38)

(39d) docuerunt … me periti homines … transferri nomen … non potuisse (`Experts have told me that guilt cannot be transferred', Cic. Fam. 5.20.3)

(39e) ut … minime … pecuniae cupidus fuisse doceatur (`That it is argued, that he had by no means desired money', Cic. Inv. 2.36)


(40a) impedior … dolore … ne … plura dicam (`I am prevented by sorrow from saying any more', Cic. Sul. 92)

-- 114 --

(40b) … ne quid impediare quin ad hanc utilitatem pariter nobiscum progredi possis (`In order that you are not hindered in acquiring this skill together with me', Rhet. Her. 3.1)

(40c) cur, quo setius omnia scribant, impediuntur modestia? (`Why does modesty keep them from writing down everything?', Rhet. Her. 4.4)

(40d) me … impedit pudor ab homine … haec … exquirere (`Embarrassment keeps me from asking someone this', Cic. de Orat. 1.163)

(40e) quas … ad capiendam fugam … infirmitas impediret (`Whom weakness prevented from fleeing', Caes. Gal. 7.26.3)


(41a) ei palam imperat ut omne argentum … conquirendum curaret et ad se adferendum (`He openly orders him to have all the silver brought together and brought to himself', Cic. Ver. 4.50)

(41b) imperat (Labieno) … eruptione pugnet (`He orders L. to make a sortie', Caes. Gal. 7.86.2)

(41c) non imperabat (obstetrix) coram, quid opus facto esset puerperae (`She did not herself give orders as to what was to be done for the mother', Ter. An. 490)

(41d) imperavi egomet mihi omnia adsentari (`I have ordered myself to agree to everything', Ter. Eu. 252–3)

(41e) Cleomenes … vela fieri, praecidi ancoras imperavit (`C. gave the order to raise the sails and to cut the anchors', Cic. Ver. 5.88) [19]

(41f) in has lautumias … deduci imperantur (`People are ordered to be brought to these quarries', Cic. Ver. 5.68) [20]


(42a) Telebois iubet (Amphitruo) sententiam ut dicant suam (`A. orders the T. to tell him their opinion', Pl. Am. 205)

(42b) curriculo iube in urbem veniat (`Order him to come to town with great haste', Pl. Mos. 930)

(42c) te lex Terentia … frumentum emere … iussit (`The lex Terentia ordered you to buy corn', Cic. Ver. 3.173)

(42d) (P. Scipio) iubet omnia conquiri (`P.S. ordered a general search to be made', Cic. Ver. 4.73)

(42e) cum alterius populi maiestas conservari iubetur (`When it is ordered to preserve the greatness of a nation', Cic. Balb. 36)

-- 115 --


(43a) patri persuasi, ut aes alienum filii dissolveret (`I persuaded the father to annul his son's debt&rsquo, Cic. Phil. 2.46)

(43b) huic Sp. Albinus … persuadet … regnum Numidiae ab senatu petat (`Sp. A. persuaded him to ask the senate for control over Numidia', Sal. Jug. 35.2)

(43c) quibus persuasum est foedissimum hostem iustissimo bello persequi (`Who are planning to pursue a most horrible enemy in a completely justifiable war', Cic. Phil. 13.35) [21]

(43d) hos homines tu persuadebis ad honorem … tuum pecunias maximas … contulisse (`You are trying to make us believe that these men have brought together enormous amounts of money in your honour', Cic. Ver. 2.157)


(44a) illud me praeclare admones …, ne nimis indulgenter et ut cum gravitate potius loquar (`You rightly admonish me to do this, viz. not to speak too leniently, but rather with some dignity', Cic. Att. 9.9.2)

(44b) maxime autem admonendus, quantus sit furor amoris (`But above all he must be warned of how great the madness of love is', Cic. Tusc. 4.75)

(44c) nonne te … Q. illa Claudia aemulam domesticae laudis … esse admonebat? (`Did not even the notorious Q. C. incite you to be her rival for "household praise" ', Cic. Cael. 34)

(44d) tantum te admonebo … praesentibus te his daturum (salutem) (`I merely remind you of the fact that you will bring salvation to all present here', Cic. Lig. 38)

(44e) admonitus sum ab illo … illis de rebus dici posse (`It has been pointed out to me by him that these things can be discussed', Cic. Q. fr. 3.5.1)

(44f) nostrique detrimento admonentur diligentius … stationes disponere (`Our soldiers were incited by the disaster to post sentries with more care', Hirt. Gal. 8.12.7)

In a number of the instances cited here no third argument is presupposed ((38c–d); (41e); (42d)). For the sake of convenience I have presented all examples of each verb here (see also n. 11).

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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