Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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6.8. Apposition

In (102) Albae and in municipio fidelissimo are said to be `in apposition' or to be `appositives'. Similarly M. Antonius Q. Cassius and tribuni plebis in (103) are `appositives'.

(102) cum … legio … Albae constiterit, in municipio fidelissimo … (`When the legion had pitched camp at Alba, a very loyal municipium', Cic. Phil. 3.39)

(103) intercedit M. Antonius Q. Cassius tribuni plebis (`The tribunes M.A. and Q.C. intervened', Caes. Civ. 1.2.7)

From a semantic point of view, in municipio fidelissimo predicates something of Alba (Alba is a municipium fidelissimum). Albae and in municipio fidelissimo, and likewise M. Antonius Q. Cassius and tribuni plebis, form a referential unit; the relation between two appositives resembles that between a Head and an Attribute in a noun phrase (see p. 73). [49] Syntactically, the apposition relation differs from the Head–Attribute relation in that omission of the constituent referred to by the Apposition as a rule leaves a grammatical sentence:

(102') cum legio constiterit in municipio fidelissimo

(103') intercedunt tribuni plebis

Usually, the two appositive units each have the same referential and semantic function in the sentence. In Latin a number of distinctions which do play a part in English and other languages are not expressed (at least, there is no evidence to show that they are).

(i) In English, word order provides an indication as to which of the appositive units defines which, as in (104):

(104a) Elizabeth, Queen of England

(104b) The Queen of England, Elizabeth

In (104a) the proper name is defined by the function (the particular is generalized); in (104b) it is the other way round. In (104a) the Apposition is non-restrictive; in (104b), however, the Apposition is restrictive.

Latin instances such as (105) are similar:

(105a) Garumna flumen (`The river G.', Caes. Gal. 1.1.2)

(105b) flumine Rhodano (`From the river R.', Caes. Gal. 1.1.5) 49a

-- 97 --

Consider also the Latin example (106), in comparison with the distinctions exemplified in the English instances (107a) and (107b).

(106) senis nostri, Dave, fratrem maiorem Chremem nostin? (`Do you, Davus, know the older brother of our boss, Chremes?', Ter. Ph. 63–4)

(107a) Charles, my brother, lives in Stoke-on-Trent

(107b) My brother Charles lives in Stoke-on-Trent

We do not, however, know whether in Latin word order was also used to indicate the difference between `naming' and `generalizing/specifying'.

(ii) Example (107a) is an instance of non-restrictive apposition (see also p. 80 on relative clauses); (107b) is an example of restrictive apposition. In Latin, restrictive appositive units can as a rule only be placed immediately after the word they modify:

(108) hunc secutus Marcius Rufus quaestor navibus XII (`The quaestor Marcius Rufus followed him with twelve ships', Caes. Civ. 2.23.5)

Quaestor could not very well be separated from Marcius Rufus. [50] As would also be possible in English, in an instance like (107) the non-restrictive Apposition could be introduced by dico (`I mean' – naturally with the accusative).

Constituents which occur in apposition are generally nouns. Sometimes we also find a gerund(ive) construction and rarely an infinitive (for examples see K.–St. I.244; 665). As a rule, apposition occurs with nominal constituents. Chapters on apposition in the grammars mostly also treat instances of so-called `Satzapposition', even though this is another matter. An example is (109) (for more examples see K.–St. I.247–8):

(109) … admoneor, ut aliquid etiam de humatione et de sepultura dicendum existimem; rem non difficilem … (`I am reminded of the fact that I should also speak about inhumation and funeral, something which is not too difficult …', Cic. Tusc. 1.102)

Here, rem non difficilem is predicated of the complex de humatione … dicendum.

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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