Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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6.2.3 Adverbs as Attributes


(12) neque ictu comminus neque coniectione telorum … magnas copias pulsas esse (`That large armies have been chased neither by close combat nor by spears thrown from afar', Cic. Caec. 43)

(13) intuemini enim horum deinceps annorum vel secundas res vel adversas (`For look at the prosperity or adversity of these past years', Liv. 5.51.5)

(14) fugam magis retro quam proelium aut hostem spectante milite (`While the soldiers were thinking more of retreat than of battle and enemies', Liv. 8.19.7)

(15) neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum (`For we are not ignorant of past trouble', Verg. A. 1.198)

For examples see K.–St. I.218–20. [8] The examples given in the grammars of attributively used adverbs in reality represent three separate uses of adverbs:

(i) The attributive use of adverbs in the strict sense of the term. Examples (12)–(15) are clear instances of this use. In (12) ictu comminus is on a par with coniectione telorum, as in (14) fugam retro with proelium and hostem. In (13) we see an adverb framed by another Attribute and the Head constituent (see crosssection 6.2.2 about example (1)).

(ii) A second group of uses is formed by cases such as example (16), which among others K.–St. take as an instance of an attributively used adverb.

(16) non tu nunc hominum mores vides? (`Don't you see how the morals of people of today are?&rsquo, Pl. Pers. 385)

There is, however, no decisive reason to take nunc as forming part of an NP with hominum as Head. Formal characteristics, such as the framing in (13), are absent. Nunc could also be interpreted as a Time Position Adjunct on the sentence level (`Don't you see now how the morals of the people are?&rsquo), even though this does not make much sense in this context. [9] Also ante in (15) is sometimes interpreted as an Adjunct (`For a long time we have not been ignorant of trouble&rsquo, see Austin (1971) ad locum).

(iii) A third group is formed by instances such as (17).

(17) matrem in Biturigibus homini illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo collocasse (`That he had married off his mother among the B. to a man who was very distinguished and powerful there', Cases. Gal. 1.18.6)

Illic modifies nobilissimo and is therefore an optional extension of the Attribute and not itself an Attribute with the Head noun homini (see further crosssection 6.3.).

The attributive use of adverbs becomes more common in Augustan poetry due to Greek influence. In Greek the phenomenon is more productive. In this

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language ambiguities such as those described above were to some degree avoided owing to the existence of the article ("οἱ νυ̃ν ἀνθρωποι").

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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