Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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5.3.4 The internal structure of prepositional phrases

Prepositional phrases (PP) consist of a preposition and as a rule a noun phrase. [57] With regard to each other they fulfil the functions Relator and Prepositional Complement, respectively (see figure 5.1). [58]

Figure 5.1

In terms of their internal structure prepositional phrases differ from noun phrases, e.g. in that preposition and `preposition Complement' are mutually dependent. On the one hand, in an example like (66) de cannot be omitted without causing the sentence to become ungrammatical.

(66) de vehiculo … dicebat

This rule does not hold for verbs like liberare, where an argument slot may be filled either by a noun phrase or by a prepositional phrase (see p. 67). On the other hand, as a rule a preposition cannot independently replace an entire prepositional phrase, a phenomenon which we will see with regard to so-called substantivised adjectives (p. 88). A prepositional Complement can only be omitted in cases such as (85):

(85) et in corpore et extra esse quaedam bona (`Some bodily and external things are good', Cic. Fin. 2.68) (see K.–St. I. 579)

Extra does not only occur as a preposition, but also as an adverb. Its normal use, however, is as exemplified in (86):

(86) in urbe et extra eam (`Within the city and outside it')

When two prepositional phrases governing different cases are coordinated, both prepositions require an explicit Complement. [59]

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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