Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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3.4. Semantic function and lexical meaning

In crosssection 3.1. we have seen that Adjuncts can be added to a nuclear predication provided that the nuclear predication has no semantic characteristics which prevent this. Besides such external restrictions there are also internal

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restrictions. Adjuncts with the semantic function `Time Position' can almost exclusively be formed with those nouns which through their meaning signify `moment in time' (see, however, feriis Latinis in crosssection 3.3.). Furthermore, prepositions which exclusively or frequently indicate a `location in time' are often used to mark specifications of Positions in time. In the case of subordinate clauses functioning as Adjuncts with the semantic function Time Position this function often appears from the subordinating temporal conjunction. What has been said here about the semantic function Time Position also holds, for example, the semantic function Place. This means that the satellite constituents involved in one way or the other convey the idea of Time Position themselves. I return to the connection between lexical meaning and semantic function in crosssection 5.2.4(f).

However, although the meaning of noun, preposition and subordinating conjunction often provides an indication for the semantic function of an Adjunct, there is nevertheless no one-to-one relationship between the lexical meaning of the constituent and the semantic function it fulfils. For this reason it is useful to distinguish semantic functions. The relevance of making such distinctions may be illustrated by the following phenomena:

(i) First of all, Latin, like English, has a number of question words which indicate different semantic functions, e.g. quo modo (`how'), cur (`why'), ubi (`quando'), quando (`when'). [8]

(ii) Support for distinguishing a number of semantic functions for Adjuncts is also provided by the fact that when several constituents with the same syntactic function (in this case Adjunct) occur in one sentence, they need not or cannot be coordinated. Thus Position in time Adjuncts and Manner Adjuncts may occur in the same sentence without being coordinated. An example is (24):

(24) confiteretur nunc libenter (`He would now confess with all his heart')

Coordination is, however, necessary between constituents with the same semantic function (and often also the same syntactic function). Coordination is impossible between constituents with different semantic functions. [9] This is why we find both (24) and (25), but not (26) and (27):

(25) confiteretur … si fecisset, et magno animo et libenter … (`If he had done it, he would confess magnanimously and with all his heart', Cic. Mil. 80)

(26) *confiteretur et nunc et libenter

(27) *confiteretur magno animo libenter [10]

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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