Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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3.3. The semantic function of Adjuncts

In this section I give an enumeration of the semantic functions of Adjuncts. I leave out of account cases like (21)–(23), which in the literature are often treated as more or less equivalent to Adjuncts:

(21) mihi domino servus tu suscenses? (`You, a slave, criticize me, your master?', Pl. Ps. 472)

(22) hinc flens abiit (`He left here crying')

(23) tristis incedit (`He walked in grief')

These expressions will in this book be called `Praedicativa'. Like Adjuncts (and Disjuncts), they are omissible. They are, however, quite distinct from Adjuncts and Disjuncts in other respects. In fact, they cannot be regarded as satellites at all. Therefore, they will be discussed in chapter 8.

Adjuncts specify the state of affairs expressed by the nuclear predication. They do so in various ways. The first three types of Adjuncts listed below specify the event or situation referred to by the nuclear predication, more specifically the predicate; the other types of Adjunct mentioned below fit in the event or situation referred to by the nuclear predication in a wider perspective (accompanying circumstances, conditions, results, moment in time, purpose, etc.). [7] The list I give here is not exhaustive.

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(a)(i)Manner:eloquenter (`eloquently'), summa audacia (`with the greatest courage'), prospere (`with positive outcome')
(ii)Instrument:gladio aliquem necare (to kill someone `with a sword'), per litteras (`by means of a letter')
(iii)Degree:valde (`very, greatly'), multum (`much, greatly')
(b)(i)There is a relation of `co-involvement' between satellite and nuclear predication:
Beneficiary:ut maioribus natu adsurgatur (`that one gets up for older persons', Cic. Inv. 1. 48.)
Involved party:hic tibi rostra Cato advolat (`then, would you believe it, Cato ran to the stand', Cic. Att. 1.14.5 – so-called ethic dative)
Companion:degrediente eo magna prosequentium multitudine (`as he was leaving with a great throng of followers', Tac. A. 13. 14.1); cum magnis copiis adventare (`to arrive with many troops')
(ii)Location in'time:
Time Position:in illa tempestate (`in those times'); feriis Latinis (`during the Feriae Latinae')
Time Duration:diem unum supplicatio fuit (`for one day there was public thanksgiving')
Time within which:tribus mensibus villam suam aedificavit (`in three months he built his villa')
(iii)Location in space:
Place:terra marique (`on land and at sea'); in locis idoneis (`in suitable places')
Route along which:illo ascensu Haeduos mittit (`he sent the Haedui along that slope')
Place to which:in mensam manum porrigit (`he stretches out his hand to the table')
Place from which:Roma venire (`to come from Rome')
(iv)Circumstances, conditions, and the like:
Accompanying circumstances:degrediente eo (`as he was leaving' – so-called ablative absolute); qui potuisset assensu omnium dicere Ennius (`how could Ennius say with the assent of all?', Cic. N.D. 2.4.)
Cause:aetate in ex. (12)
Motive:ei vel aetate vel curae similitudine patres appellabantur (`these were called `fathers', either because of their age, or because their task resembled that of a father', Sal. Cat. 6.6)
Purpose:ut edas (`in order that you eat') in ex. (6); admonitum venimus te (`we come to remind you', Cic. de Orat. 3.17 – so-called supine)
Result:ut terra sitiat (`so that the land is dry') in ex. (13)

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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