Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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3.2. Arguments and Adjuncts with the same semantic function

Expressions indicating a `direction' can occur within the structure of the sentence in two ways: with some predicates they are obligatory (and therefore arguments), with others they are not (and therefore satellites). Examples are (15) and (16), respectively:

(15) quo me miser conferam (`Where can I go in my misery', Gracchus in Cic. de Orat. 3.214)

(16) quo ambulas tu? (`Where are you going', Pl. Am. 341)

Similarly, locative expressions form part of the nucleus of the predicate versari (`to live, stay'), while with many other nuclear predications they may occur as Adjuncts. This phenomenon – the fact that constituents with the same semantic function are syntactically different – also occurs within classes of (practically) synonymous predicates. With the predicate aestimare (`to estimate') a Value expression seems to be more easily omissible than with

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three-place predicates such as habere, putare and ducere in the sense of `to estimate, value'. In the previous chapter we have seen that Manner constituents, too, may occur in the nuclear predication. An example is (17):

(17) est oratoris proprium apte, ornate, distincte dicere (cf. p. 8)

With the predicate habitare (`to live, dwell') an argument with the semantic function Place is normal, but is often absent if a Manner constituent is present: [5a]

(18) habitare laxe et magnifice voluit (`He wanted to live freely and magnificently', Cic. Dom. 115)

Sometimes arguments are distinguished with the semantic function `Separativus' (with privare `to deprive', etc.) and arguments with the semantic function `Instrumentalis' (with uti `to use', frui `to enjoy', fungi `to fulfil', potiri `to acquire', vesci `to eat', niti `to lean on' and with verbs meaning `to provide with' and `to be provided with', such as complere, abundare). [6] The function Cause can be fulfilled by an argument which is Subject in the sentence or by an Adjunct:

(19) magnitudo periculi summo timore hominem afficit (`The magnitude of the danger instils the greatest fear in man', Cic. Quinct. 6)

(20) odore praeterire nemo pistrinum potest (ex. (11))

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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