Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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12.2.5 Connectors and other particles

By connectors I understand words such as autem (`however'), ergo

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(`therefore'), et (`and furthermore', introducing an independent sentence). In the Latin grammars these words are called `coordinating conjunctions'. In part, these words are formally identical and semantically similar to the so-called coordinators (e.g. et (`and'), sed (`but'), aut (`or')). Coordinators link constituents within independent sentences that fulfil the same semantic or syntactic function in the sentence, e.g. acies and sensus in (41):

(41) eiusque radiis acies vestra sensusque vincitur (`Its rays blind your eyes and your senses', Cic. Rep. 6.19)

For coordination see also p. 30 above and p. 257 below. [21] Unlike coordinators, connectors link independent sentences. Some connectors are semantically similar to the anaphoric adverbs. Ergo, for instance, may to some extent be compared semantically with ideo (`therefore, for that reason'). There is, however, a clear syntactic difference between this group of connectors and anaphoric adverbs. I mention two differences. [22] In principle, anaphoric adverbs may occur as a sentence by themselves (i.e. they have sentence valency, see p. 32); moreover, they occur in correlative patterns (e.g. ideo … quia (`for that reason …, because'), i.e. in pairs with subordinators. Connectors are not used in this manner: we do not find *ergo … quia or *quia … ergo. [23] There are, however, words that occur both as adverb and as connector. An example is vero, the function of which cannot always be determined unequivocally in actual texts.

Connectors can be divided into a number of semantic classes. Of each I give some examples, and for further details I refer to the grammars and TLL: [24]

(a) additive connectors: et, atque, -que (`and'), [25] neque (`and … not'); et … et (`both … and'); etiam (`also'); praeterea (`moreover'), item (`likewise');

(b) adversative connectors: sed, at (`but'), autem (`however');

(c) disjunctive connectors: aut, vel (`or');

(d) causal connectors: nam, enim (`for'); [26]

(e) consecutive connectors: itaque, igitur, ergo (`therefore'); [27]

(f) continuative connectors: deinde, tum (`then').

Some of these connectors may occur together in the same sentence (e.g. deinde autem (`then, however')), others are incompatible due to their meaning (e.g. *igitur autem). [28] Apart from semantic differences, there are also syntactic differences between the individual connectors. Some cannot, for instance, occur in relative clauses that follow the main sentence. We do not find, for example, *qui igitur or *qui ergo. Others do occur in such constructions.

Note, in this connection, that other particles are also able to make explicit the cohesion of a text, either backward-looking or forward-looking. Quidem (`at least') [29] and sane (`certainly') are examples of particles that may create a certain expectation on the reader's part. Often such particles are followed by

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an adversative connector such as sed or another type of expression to show that a contrast is involved, e.g. (42):

(42) nam quod me hortaris ad memoriam factorum … meorum, facis amice tu quidem mihique gratissimum; sed mihi videris aliud tu honestum … iudicare (`For as to the fact that you remind me of my activities, this is very friendly and pleasant for me. You do not, however, seem to consider the same things honourable', Cic. Att. 8.2.2)

The interrogative particles num and nonne contain an indication as to the expected answer (negative and postitive, respectively). The interrogative particle an, on the other hand, indicates that the speaker does not (necessarily) agree with an utterance or the implication of an utterance of a preceding speaker, e.g. example (43): 29a

(43) credam istuc si esse te hilarum videro :: an tu esse me tristem putas? (`I will believe this if I see you happy :: so you think that I am sad?', Pl. As. 837)

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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