Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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12.2.2 Anaphora and substitution

Anaphora (and the related notion `deixis') has already been mentioned on p. 94. Examples of anaphora are (21)–(23):

(21) ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur. is sibi legationem ad civitates suscepit (`Orgetorix is chosen to deal with these matters. He undertakes to visit the neighbouring nations as an ambassador', Caes. Gal. 1.3.3)

(22) venit magnis itineribus in Nerviorum fines. ibi ex captivis cognoscit quae apud Ciceronem gerantur (`With long marches he went to the area of the Nervii. There he was told by prisoners what was going on in Cicero's camp', Caes. Gal. 5.48.2)

(23) eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quem … miserat ad Venetos, Unellos … quae sunt maritimae civitates … certior factus est omnes eas civitates in dicionem … esse redactas (`At the same time he was told by P.C., whom he had sent to the Veneti, the Venelli, …, nations close to the sea, that all those nations had been subjugated', Caes. Gal. 2.34)

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In (21) is is an independent anaphoric pronoun, comparable with the English third-person personal pronoun; ibi in (22) is an anaphoric adverb; eas in (23) is an attributive anaphoric pronoun. 11a

We speak of anaphora in the strict sense of the word if a nominal constituent in the preceding sentence or context is referred back to without lexical repetition. In (22) is refers to Orgetorix, and both indicate the same person. In (23) ibi refers to Nerviorum fines. Anaphora is, thus, a means to indicate the `referential identity' of entities. Anaphoric reference and lexical repetition differ in that lexical constituents have a meaning of their own, while anaphoric words merely refer to another constituent in the context. `is' and `ibi' mean something only if we know who or what is referred to by is and ibi. In (15), however, we have seen that in the case of nouns with a `generic' meaning such as homo the difference is not very great. Anaphora in a broader sense may also include the use of idem (`the same'), talis (`such'), alter (`the other'), ceteri (`the remaining … '), which do not confirm the identity of the referent, but add a comparative element. [12]

Connecting relatives are often used with the same function as anaphoric pronouns (see p. 81). Anaphoric connection, especially relative connection, is used by different authors in different frequencies, more frequently, for instance, in Livy than in Seneca. [13] In English the distinction definite/indefinite also often serves as a means to create textual cohesion (see pp. 93 ff.).

The anaphoric pronouns mentioned above are used not only to indicate the referential identity of entities, but also to refer back to larger stretches of a sentence or even of a text, comparable to the instances of lexical repetition in (16)–(17) above. In such cases I speak of `substitution'. [14] See examples (24)–(26):

(24) postero die castra ex eo loco movent. idem facit Caesar (`On the following day they break camp from there. The same is done by Caesar', Caes. Gal. 1.15.1)

(25) illi ita negant vulgo ut mihi se debere dicant. ita quiddam spero nobis profici (`They generally refuse him their support, saying that they owe support to me. So I hope that I will benefit by it', Cic. Att. 1.1.1)

(26) Acutilianam controversiam transegeris (hoc me etiam Peducaeus ut ad te scriberem admonuit) (`You will take care of the matter involving Acutilius (Peducaeus has also asked me to write this to you)', Cic. Att. 1.4.1)

In (25) it is difficult to determine what the second ita refers to exactly. Ita is somewhat like the consecutive connectors like ergo that are discussed in crosssection 12.2.5. on p. 253. [15] An example of substitution by a verb is (27):

(27) amat a lenone hic :: facere sapienter puto (`He likes an occasional whore :: He does well, I think', Pl. Poen. 1092)

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See for cases of this kind p. 12 and facit in example (24) above. In a similar way, fieri (`to happen') can be used as a substitute for certain states of affairs.

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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