Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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11.2.2 The non-finite verb forms (especially participles) [27]

In crosssection 11.1.2 above it has already been remarked that participles and infinitives do not themselves locate a state of affairs in present, past or future time, but only express contemporaneousness (present infinitive and participle), anteriority (perfect infinitive and participle) or posteriority (future infinitive and participle) with regard to a moment that is already known from context or situation (see also table 11.1 on p. 219). Participles

Of each of the participles I give a `normal' example (the `a'-examples), and a number of more exceptional instances. Explanations are given after the examples.

(i) Present participle

(63a) cogitanti mihi saepenumero et memoria vetera repetenti perbeati fuisse, Quinte frater, illi videri solent … (`Often, brother Quintus, when I am thinking and recall old times, those people seem to have been very happy …', Cic. de Orat. 1.1)

(63b) … senatus auctoritatem … quam primum adveniens prodidisti (`The authority of the senate that you have betrayed immediately after your return', Cic. Dom. 4)

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(63c) Sostratus … pauca in praesens et solita respondens petito secreto futura aperit (`For the time being Sostratus said little, and then only what was to be expected, but after asking for a private conversation he revealed what was going to happen', Tac. Hist. 2.4.2)

(63d) legati ab Ardea veniunt … auxilium … urbi implorantes (`Ambassadors came from Ardea to ask aid for their city', Liv. 4.9.1)

With terminative, especially momentaneous states of affairs, some linguists tend to interpret the present participle as anterior (example (63b)). From Virgil and Livy onwards some authors use the present participle also in other types of state of affairs, when strictly speaking the state of affairs is anterior ((63c)) or even when it has a Purpose nuance ((63d)). For examples see K.–St. I. 756–7; Sz. 386–7. [28]

(ii) Perfect participle

(64a) tum autem illo profecto Sulla procurante eius rem et gerente plurimis et pulcherrimis P. Sitti praediis venditis aes alienum eiusdem est dissolutum (`Then, however, after Sittius' departure, while Sulla was representing and protecting his interests, Sittius' debt was paid by the sale of most, and the most beautiful, of his estates', Cic. Sul. 56)

(64b) qui nulla arte adhibita, de rebus ante oculos positis vulgari sermone disputant (`Who discuss without any method and in everyday language things that are obvious', Cic. Ac. 1.5)

(64c) fatebor enim, Cato, me quoque in adulescentia diffisum ingenio meo quaesisse adiumenta doctrinae (`For I am prepared to confess, Cato, that I, too, have looked for support in philosophy in my youth, out of lack of confidence in my own abilities', Cic. Mur. 63)

The perfect participle is very often used when there is no real anteriority with regard to the main predication ((64b)). This phenomenon occurs in particular with terminative verbs. [29] We have seen that also the perfect indicative of terminative verbs also often indicates the result of the action (example (51) on p. 232). Besides, of a large number of deponent and semi-deponent verbs, many of which express a mental state or activity (so-called `Experiencer verbs'), [30] the participle always occurs in a predication that is contemporaneous with the main predication, e.g. arbitratus, ratus (`thinking'), veritus (`fearing'), diffisus (see (64c)). For examples see K.–St. I.758–60; Sz. 391–2.

(iii) Future participle

(65a) si quidem etiam vos duo tales ad quintum miliarium quo nunc ipsum unde se recipienti, quid agenti, quid acturo? (`If even the two of you, men of such great status, meet him at a distance of five miles outside the city,

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while he is retreating where to, from where, doing what, planning to do what?', Cic. Att. 8.9.2)

(65b) P. Servilius … adest de te sententiam laturus (`P.S. is here to pass judgment on you', Cic. Ver. 1.56)

(65c) egreditur castris Romanus vallum invasurus ni copia pugnae fieret (`The Romans left the camp, planning to storm the rampart if there was no opportunity for a regular battle', Liv. 3.60.8)

Normal instances referring to an imminent event, as in (65a), are rare in Classical Latin, as are instances such as (65b), which rather concern intention (Purpose), see p. 226. Examples of the use of the future participle in hypothetical constructions ((65c)) are found from Livy onwards. For examples see K.–St. I. 760–2; Sz. 390. Infinitives

In older Latin, and later again in the Augustan period and in Livy, we find the perfect infinitive in situations where the present infinitive would be the normal form to use, initially in prohibitions with auxiliaries like velle (`to want'), nolle (`to be unwilling'), later, from the Augustan poets onwards, also with other verbs, e.g. posse (`to be able to'), curare (`to care'), decet (`it is fitting'), licet (`it is allowed'), etc. Examples are (66)–(67):

(66) nei quis eorum Bacanal habuise velet (`None of them may hold a Bacchus feast', S.C. Bacch. 4)

(67) tum certare odiis, tum res rapuisse licebit (`Then one may fight with hatred and plunder one another's possessions', Verg. A. 10. 14)

Some scholars establish a connection between the use of the perfect infinitive in older Latin in prohibitions and the use of the perfect subjunctive in expressions such as ne feceris (cf. p. 233). In (67) rapuisse is on a par with the preceding present infinitive certare. The increase of this phenomenon in poetry from Catullus onwards is often attributed to Greek influence. [31] Metrical factors certainly play a role. Attempts to explain the attested instances as `ended' (e.g. K.–St. I. 133) or as anterior are not very convincing, though this idiomatic use may well result from an original `anterior' use. There are so few instances that are not consciously literary, that they are useless as a (partial) basis for an aspectual theory. [32] For examples see K.–St. I.133–5; Sz. 351–2. [33]

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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