Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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Romance Linguistics Editorial Statement

Routledge publish the Romance Linguistics series under the editorship of Martin Harris (University of Essex) and Nigel Vincent (University of Manchester).

Romance Philogy and General Linguistics have followed sometimes converging sometimes diverging paths over the last century and a half. With the present series we wish to recognise and promote the mutual interaction of the two disciplines. The focus is deliberately wide, seeking to encompass not only work in the phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexis of the Romance languages, but also studies in the history of Romance linguistics and linguistic thought in the Romance cultural area. Some of the volumes will be devoted to particular aspects of individual languages, some will be comparative in nature; some will adopt a synchronic and some a diachronic slant; some will concentrate on linguistic structures, and some will investigate the sociocultural dimensions of language and language use in the Romance-speaking territories. Yet all will endorse the view that a General Linguistics that ignores the always rich and often unique data of Romance is as impoverished as a Romance Philogy that turns its back on the insights of linguistics theory.

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Romance Linguistics

Series Editors: Martin Harris, University of Essex and Nigel Vincent, University of Manchester

Structures and Transformations
Christopher J. Pountain

Weakening Processes in the History of Spanish Consonants
Raymond Harris-Northall

Spanish Word Formation
M.F. Lang

Tense and Text
Dulcie Engel

Variation and Change in French
John N. Green and Wendy Ayres-Bennett

Tense and Narrativity
Suzanne Fleischman

Latin Syntax and Semantics
Harm Pinkster

Discourse-Pragmatic Approaches to the Verb
Suzanne Fleischman and Linda R. Waugh

Also available:

The Romance Languages
Martin Harris and Nigel Vincent

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Latin Syntax and Semantics

Harm Pinkster
translated by Hotze Mulder


London and New York

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First published 1990
by Routledge
11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
a division of Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc.
29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

© 1990 Harm Pinkster, English translation © Hotze Mulder

Typeset in 10/12 pt Times, Monophoto
Disk conversion by Megaron, Cardiff
Printed in England by T.J. Press (Padstow) Ltd, Cornwall

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Pinkster, Harm

Latin Syntax and Semantics.

1. Latin Language. Grammar

I. Title II. Latijnse syntaxis en semantiek. English

ISBN 0–415–04682–3

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data

Pinkster, Harm,

[Latijnse syntaxis en semantiek. English]

Latin syntax and semantics/Harm Pinkster.
p. cm.-(Croom Helm romance linguistics series)

Translation of: Latijnse syntaxis en semantiek.

Rev. translation of the German ed.: Lateinische Syntax und

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-415-04682-3

1. Latin language-Syntax. 2s. Latins language-Semantics.
I. Title. II. Series.
PA2285.P5613 1990
475-dc20 89s-49636

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1.1.The structure of the sentence1
1.2.Semantic, syntactic and pragmatic functions3
Bibliographical information4
2Nuclear predication6
2.1.How to make a distinction between arguments and satellites;
the co-existence of more predicate frames with one predicate
2.1.2Tests for establishing the valency of a predicate10
2.2.The syntactic functions of arguments12
2.3.The semantic functions of arguments15
2.4.A classification of nuclear predications16
2.5.Examples of nuclear predications19
Bibliographical information24
3Periphery 1: Adjuncts25
3.1.Restrictions on the addibility of Adjuncts25
3.2.Arguments and Adjuncts with the same semantic function27
3.3.The semantic function of Adjuncts28
3.4.Semantic function and lexical meaning29
Bibliographical information31
4Periphery 2: Disjuncts (sentence adverbials) and Theme constituents32
4.1.1So-called modal adverbs32
4.1.2Attitudinal Disjuncts33
4.1.3So-called Style Disjuncts34
4.1.4Pseudo-Purpose satellites34
4.1.6Pseudo-Cause satellites36
4.1.7Limitation of validity36
4.2.Theme constituents37
Bibliographical information38
5.1.Cases, prepositions and subordinators39
5.2.1Distribution of the cases; main characteristics of the
5.2.2The use of cases in the nuclear predication43
5.2.3The use of cases in the periphery47
5.2.4Problems with regard to the postulated case system on
the sentence level
5.2.5The use of cases on the noun and adjective phrase level58
5.2.6The relation between case system and sentence structure60
5.3.1Distribution of prepositions65
5.3.2The relation between cases and prepositions66
5.3.3Idiomatic use of prepositions68
5.3.4The internal structure of prepositional phrases70
5.5.Agreement (within noun phrases)71
Bibliographical information72
6The (internal) structure of noun phrases73
6.1.Head constituents75
6.2.Categories of constituents in the function Attribute75
6.2.1NPs as Attributes75
6.2.2Prepositional phrases as Attributes76
6.2.3Adverbs as Attributes77
6.2.4Embedded predications on the noun phrase level78
6.3.Obligatory and non-obligatory Attributes; complex Attributes83
6.3.1Polyvalent nouns83
6.3.2Non-omissibility of Attributes in certain types of context83
6.3.3Complex Attributes83
6.4.Hierarchical structure of NPs (nesting)84
6.5.Absence of a Head constituent and so-called substantive use88
6.5.1`Independent' (Headless) relative clauses90
6.6.The semantic structure of noun phrases; formal characteristics90
6.7.Definite/indefinite noun phrases93
Bibliographical information97
7Complex sentences (embedded predications on the sentence level)99
7.1.1Working definition of the notion `complex sentence'99
7.1.2The modality of the embedded predication (semantic
differences between types of embedded predication)
7.2Embedded predications functioning as arguments101
7.2.1One-place predicates103
7.2.2Two-place (main) predicates108
7.2.3Three-place predicates112
7.3.Embedded predications functioning as satellites115
7.3.1Satellites in the function Adjunct116
7.3.2Embedded predications as satellites in the function
7.3.3Clauses with or without a correlating adverb121
7.4Discussion of some individual constructions122
7.4.1Criteria to distinguish between arguments and satellites122
7.4.2AcI and accusative + prolative infinitive126
7.4.3Predicates allowing both AcI and accusative + prolative infinitive128
7.4.4Interchangeability of infinitive construction and
7.4.5Nominativus cum Infinitivo (NcI)130
7.4.6Accusativus cum Participio (praesentis)131
7.4.7Dominant participle construction132
7.4.8Survey of the restrictions and criteria relevant to
complex sentences
7.5.Personal and impersonal constructions135
7.5.2Copula + adjective + supine136
7.5.4Debere and posse137
7.6.Historical approach to the phenomenon of complex sentences
and of certain types of complex sentence
7.6.1Hypotaxis in general139
7.6.2Specific complex sentences139
Bibliographical information141
8.1.The categories of lexemes which may occur as Praedicativum143
8.1.6Preposition phrases146
8.1.7Noun phrases in ablative or genitive (so-called ablative
and genitive of description)
8.2.The distribution of Praedicativa147
8.3.The Praedicativum as `embedded predication'148
8.3.1Possible paraphras. e with esse + Subject Complement,
casu quo finite verb forms
8.3.2Negation of the Praedicativum152
8.3.3The temporal reference of the Praedicativum152
8.3.4The internal structure of Praedicativa153
8.4.Praedicativum and other satellites154
8.4.1Adjectives `instead of' adverbs154
8.4.2Participles and adverbial clauses157
8.5.Structural ambiguity158
8.5.1Praedicativum and Attribute158
8.5.2Praedicativum and Apposition159
8.5.3Praedicativum and Subject Complement159
8.5.4Praedicativum and Object Complement160
8.5.5Praedicativum and Dominant participle160
8.6.The Praedicativum as bearer of Focus161
Bibliographical information162
9Word order163
9.1.Definition of the notion `word order'163
9.2.Factors influencing the word order164
9.2.1Syntactic and pragmatic factors165
9.2.2The influence of the lexical category and the internal
structure of constituents
9.2.3The influence of sentence type and the distinction main
sentence/subordinate clause
9.3Order of constituents on the sentence level168
9.3.1Survey of the standard approach168
9.3.2Discussion of the standard approach169 of sentence-connecting constituents
and pronouns
169 position for a `true' sentence constituent171 final position of the sentence178 relative order of constituents179 sentences183 remarks184
9.4.The order of constituents on the noun phrase level184
9.5.Stylistic factors186
9.6.Typological and diachronic factors187
Bibliographical information188
10Sentence type, illocutionary force and mood189
10.1.Sentence type, illocutionary force, mood: definitions189
10.2.Sentence type and illocutionary force191
10.2.1Sentence types; criteria191 sentences193 sentences195 sentences197 sentences201
10.2.2Illocutionary force202 for the distinction of sentence types
and illocutionary force
202 between sentence type and illocutionary force205
10.3.The relation between the various uses of the moods206
10.3.1Distinction and relation between the uses of the moods207
10.3.2The moods in independent sentences and in subordinate
Bibliographical information213
11The Latin tense system214
11.1.1States of affairs and `Aktionsart'214
11.1.4A terminological digression223
11.2.The individual verb forms223
11.2.1The finite verb forms223 Present223 Future225 Future perfect226 Imperfect227 Perfect229 Pluperfect232 Subjunctive233 Imperative234
11.2.2The non-finite verb forms (especially participles)234 Participles234 Infinitives236
11.3.The role of the indicative of the various tenses in narrative texts236
11.3.1Imperfect and perfect as background and foreground
11.3.2Historic present239
11.3.4Historic infinitive241
11.4.The use of the tenses by individual authors241
Bibliographical information242
12Beyond the sentence243
12.1.Text and textual cohesion243
12.2.Cohesion appearing from the presence or absence of specific
12.2.1Lexical cohesion246
12.2.2Anaphora and substitution249
12.2.3Cataphoric cohesion251
12.2.5Connectors and other particles252
12.3.Other types of cohesion254
12.3.2Word order254
12.3.3Continuity of perspective255
12.4.Cohesion between sentences and within sentences (connectors,
coordinators and subordinators)
Bibliographical information258

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Latin Syntax and Semantics appeared in its original Dutch version in 1984. A German translation was published early in 1988. This version is an update of the German edition, from which it differs considerably. The chapters on the Praedicativum and on word order in particular have been changed considerably. However, the concept is still the same as in 1984.

It has never been my intention to write a comprehensive Latin grammar from the point of view of contemporary linguistics. This book is intended as an introduction for advanced students in the university into topics of Latin syntax and semantics which can be studied or have been studied more fruitfully due to contemporary insights in linguistic theory and linguistic analysis. This explains why some topics receive extensive discussion and others little or no discussion at all. For a student's introduction the book has a host of footnotes. They contain information about details and discussion with fellow linguists. The book as a whole may therefore have some value for colleagues, both classical philologists and students of other languages and linguistic theory.

The linguistic framework used in this book is that of Functional Grammar as developed by Simon Dik. I have tried to avoid esoteric discussions that would be interesting for functional grammarians only and to explain each notion where it is introduced. My terminology is furthermore as much as possible taken from the monumental grammar of English of Quirk et al. (1985). Sometimes I have consulted Woodcock's grammar and occasionally also Roby's (1882) old time classic. The British or American reader may find my references to the grammars of K├╝hner & Stegmann (1912) and Hofmann & Szantyr (1965) (K–St. and Sz. respectively: see note at beginning of Bibliography) annoying. In my opinion, they are still the best reference works in our field.

Basically, this book is a description of Latin during the period from roughly Plautus' time until c. AD 100. Wherever I could take examples from Cicero I have done so. References to authors and their works are abbreviated in accordance with the Oxford Latin Dictionary. Well-known commentaries on Latin texts are as a rule not cited in the bibliography.

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For this edition I have profited from remarks on earlier versions by I. Anthonissen, Dr G. Bossong, Dr P. Flury, Dr F. Heberlein, M. Kater, Dr S. Luraghi and Dr J. Wisse. Dr Pfister sent me a long list of critical and stimulating remarks for which I am extremely grateful. Machtelt Bolkestein as so often has suggested many improvements upon earlier versions. Philip Baldi has kindly read through the English text, making many useful comments. While translating the text Hotze Mulder also commented on the content. Finally, Sabine Rummens, Inge Genee and Nancy Laan offered technical and editorial assistance. I thank all these friends and colleagues for their generous help.

Amsterdam 15 July 1989

Harm Pinkster
Klassiek Seminarium
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Oude Turfmarkt 129
1012 GC Amsterdam
The Netherlands

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Pinkster, Harm (1942-) [1990], Latin Syntax and Semantics [info], xii, 320 p.: ill.; 24 cm. [word count] [Pinkster].
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