Flavius Josephus, Life of Flavius Josephus (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Joseph. Vit.].

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 	<title>Life of Flavius Josephus (English)</title>
 	
 	<author>Flavius Josephus</author>
 	<editor role="translator">William Whiston, A.M.</editor>
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 	  <author>Flavius Josephus</author>
 	  <title>Life of Flavius Josephus</title>
 	  <title type = "full">The Works of Flavius Josephus</title>
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 	   <name>William Whiston, A.M.</name></respStmt>
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 	   <date>1895</date>
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 <text n="Vit.">
 

<body>
 
<milestone n="1" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="1" unit="section" />
<p>The family from which I am derived is not an ignoble one, but hath
 descended all along from the priests; and as nobility among several people
 is of a different origin, so with us to be of the sacerdotal dignity, is
 an indication of the splendor of a family. Now, I am not only sprung from
 a sacerdotal family in general, but from the first of the twenty-four <ref id="n1" target="ref1">
 courses; and as among us there is not only a considerable difference between
 one family of each course and another, I am of the chief family of that
 first course also; nay, further, by my mother I am of the royal blood;
 for the children of Asamoneus, from whom that family was derived, had both
 the office of the high priesthood, and the dignity of a king, for a long
 time together. I will accordingly set down my progenitors in order. My
 grandfather's father was named Simon, with the addition of Psellus: he
 lived at the same time with that son of Simon the high priest, who first
 of all the high priests was named Hyrcanus. This Simon Psellus had nine
 sons, one of whom was Matthias, called Ephlias: he married the daughter
 of Jonathan the high priest, which Jonathan was the first of the sons of
 Asamoneus, who was high priest, and was the brother of Simon the high priest
 also. This Matthias had a son called Matthias Curtus, and that in the first
 year of the government of Hyrcanus: his son's name was Joseph, born in
 the ninth year of the reign of <placeName key="tgn,1092813" authname="tgn,1092813">Alexandra</placeName>: his son Matthias was born in
 the tenth year of the reign of Archclaus; as was I born to Matthias in
 the first year of the reign of Caius Caesar. I have three sons: Hyrcanus,
 the eldest, was born in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, as was
 Justus born in the seventh, and Agrippa in the ninth. Thus have I set down
 the genealog of my family as I have found it described <ref id="n2" target="ref2">
 in the public records, and so bid adieu to those who calumniate me [as
 of a lower original].</p>
 
<milestone n="2" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="7" unit="section" />
<p>Now, my father Matthias was not only eminent on account of is nobility,
 but had a higher commendation on account of his righteousness, and was
 in great reputation in <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, the greatest city we have. I was myself
 brought up with my brother, whose name was Matthias, for he was my own
 brother, by both father and mother; and I made mighty proficiency in the
 improvements of my learning, and appeared to have both a great memory and
 understanding. Moreover, when I was a child, and about fourteen years of
 age, I was commended by all for the love I had to learning; on which account
 the high priests and principal men of the city came then frequently to
 me together, in order to know my opinion about the accurate understanding
 of points of the law. And when I was about sixteen years old, I had a mind
 to make trim of the several sects that were among us. These sects are three:
 - The first is that of the Pharisees, the second that Sadducees, and the
 third that of the Essens, as we have frequently told you; for I thought
 that by this means I might choose the best, if I were once acquainted with
 them all; so I contented myself with hard fare, and underwent great difficulties,
 and went through them all. Nor did I content myself with these trials only;
 but when I was informed that one, whose name was Banus, lived in the desert,
 and used no other clothing than grew upon trees, and had no other food
 than what grew of its own accord, and bathed himself in cold water frequently,
 both by night and by day, in order to preserve his chastity, I imitated
 him in those things, and continued with him three years. <ref id="n3" target="ref3">
 So when I had accomplished my desires, I returned back to the city, being
 now nineteen years old, and began to conduct myself according to the rules
 of the sect of the Pharisees, which is of kin to the sect of the Stoics,
 as the Greeks call them.</p>
 
<milestone n="3" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="13" unit="section" />
<p>But when I was in the twenty-sixth year of my age, it happened that
 I took a voyage to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName>, and this on the occasion which I shall now describe.
 At the time when <placeName key="tgn,2324437" authname="tgn,2324437">Felix</placeName> was procurator of <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName> there were certain priests
 of my acquaintance, and very excellent persons they were, whom on a small
 and trifling occasion he had put into bonds, and sent to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName> to plead
 their cause before Caesar. These I was desirous to procure deliverance
 for, and that especially because I was informed that they were not unmindful
 of piety towards God, even under their afflictions, but supported themselves
 with figs and nuts. <ref id="n4" target="ref4"><placeName key="tgn,7002626" authname="tgn,7002626"></placeName>
 Accordingly I came to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName>, though it were through a great number of hazards
 by sea; for as our ship was drowned in the <placeName key="tgn,7016532" authname="tgn,7016532">Adriatic Sea</placeName>, we that were in
 it, being about six hundred in number, <ref id="n5" target="ref5">
 swam for our lives all the night; when, upon the first appearance of the
 day, and upon our sight of a ship of <placeName key="tgn,7000639" authname="tgn,7000639">Cyrene</placeName>, I and some others, eighty
 in all, by God's providence, prevented the rest, and were taken up into
 the other ship. And when I had thus escaped, and was come to Dieearchia,
 which the Italians call <placeName key="perseus,Puteoli" authname="perseus,Puteoli">Puteoli</placeName>, I became acquainted with Aliturius, an
 actor of plays, and much beloved by Nero, but a Jew by birth; and through
 his interest became known to Poppea, Caesar's wife, and took care, as soon
 as possible, to entreat her to procure that the priests might be set at
 liberty. And when, besides this favor, I had obtained many presents from
 Poppea, I returned home again.</p>
 
<milestone n="4" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="17" unit="section" />
<p>And now I perceived innovations were already begun, and that there
 were a great many very much elevated in hopes of a revolt from the Romans.
 I therefore endeavored to put a stop to these tumultuous persons, and persuaded
 them to change their minds; and laid before their eyes against whom it
 was that they were going to fight, and told them that they were inferior
 to the Romans not only in martial skill, but also in good fortune; and
 desired them not rashly, and after the most foolish manner, to bring on
 the dangers of the most terrible mischiefs upon their country, upon their
 families, and upon themselves. And this I said with vehement exhortation,
 because I foresaw that the end of such a war would be most unfortunate
 to us. But I could not persuade them; for the madness of desperate men
 was quite too hard for me.</p>
 
<milestone n="5" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="20" unit="section" />
<p>I was then afraid, lest, by inculcating these things so often, I
 should incur their hatred and their suspicions, as if I were of our enemies'
 party, and should run into the danger of being seized by them, and slain;
 since they were already possessed of Antonia, which was the citadel; so
 I retired into the inner court of the temple. Yet did I go out of the temple
 again, after Manahem and the principal of the band of robbers were put
 to death, when I abode among the high priests and the chief of the Pharisees.
 But no small fear seized upon us when we saw the people in arms, while
 we ourselves knew not what we should do, and were not able to restrain
 the seditious. However, as the danger was directly upon us, we pretended
 that we were of the same opinion with them, but only advised them to be
 quiet for the present, and to let the enemy go away, still hoping that
 Gessius [Florus] would not be long ere he came, and that with great forces,
 and so put an end to these seditious proceedings.</p>
 
<milestone n="6" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="24" unit="section" />
<p>But, upon his coming and fighting, he was beaten, and a great many
 of those that were with him fell. And this disgrace which Gessius [with
 Cestius] received, became the calamity of our whole nation; for those that
 were fond of the war were so far elevated with this success, that they
 had hopes of finally conquering the Romans. Of which war another occasion
 was ministered; which was this: - Those that dwelt in the neighboring cities
 of <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName> seized upon such Jews as dwelt among them, with their wives and
 children, and slew them, when they had not the least occasion of complaint
 against them; for they did neither attempt any innovation or revolt from
 the Romans, nor had they given any marks of hatred or treacherous designs
 towards the Syrians. But what was done by the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7001403" authname="tgn,7001403">Scythopolis</placeName>
 was the most impious and most highly criminal of all; <ref id="n6" target="ref6">
 for when the Jews their enemies came upon them from without, they forced
 the Jews that were among them to bear arms against their own countrymen,
 which it is unlawful for us to do; <ref id="n7" target="ref7">
 and when, by their assistance, they had joined battle with those who attacked
 them, and had beaten them, after that victory they forgot the assurances
 they had given these their fellow citizens and confederates, and slew them
 all, being in number many ten thousands [13,000]. The like miseries were
 undergone by those Jews that were the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7002261" authname="tgn,7002261">Damascus</placeName>. But we have
 given a more accurate account of these things in the books of the Jewish
 war. I only mention them now, because I would demonstrate to my readers,
 that the Jews' war with the Romans was not voluntary, but that, for the
 main, they were forced by necessity to enter into it.</p>
 
<milestone n="7" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="28" unit="section" />
<p>So when Gessius had been beaten, as we have said already, the principal
 men of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, seeing that the robbers and innovators had arms in great
 plenty, and fearing lest they, while they were unprovided of arms, should
 be in subjection to their enemies, which also came to be the case afterward;
 and, being informed that all <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> had not yet revolted from the Romans,
 but that some part of it was still quiet; they sent me and two others of
 the priests, who were men of excellent characters, Joazar and Judas, in
 order to persuade the ill men there to lay down their arms, and to teach
 them this lesson, - That it were better to have those arms reserved for
 the most courageous men that the nation had [than to be kept there]; for
 that it had been resolved, That those our best men should always have their
 arms ready against futurity; but still so, that they should wait to see
 what the Romans would do.</p>
 
<milestone n="8" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="30" unit="section" />
<p>When I had therefore received these instructions, I came into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>,
 and found the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> in no small agony about their country,
 by reason that the Galileans had resolved to plunder it, on account of
 the friendship they had with the Romans, and because they had given their
 right hand, and made a league with Cestius Gallus, the president of <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName>.
 But I delivered them all out of the fear they were in, and persuaded the
 multitude to deal kindly with them, and permitted them to send to those
 that were their own hostages with Gessius to <placeName key="tgn,1079507" authname="tgn,1079507">Dora</placeName>, which is a city of <placeName key="tgn,6004687" authname="tgn,6004687">Phoenicia</placeName>,
 as often as they pleased; though I still found the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>
 ready to take arms, and that on the occasion following: -</p>
 
<milestone n="9" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="32" unit="section" />
<p>There were three factions in this city. The first was composed of
 men of worth and gravity; of these Julius Capellus was the head. Now he,
 as well as all his companions, Herod the son of Miarus, and Herod the son
 of Gamalus, and Compsus the son of Compsus; (for as to Compsus's brother
 Crispus, who had once been governor of the city under the great king [Agrippa]
 <ref id="n8" target="ref8"> he was
 beyond <placeName key="tgn,1125225" authname="tgn,1125225">Jordan</placeName> in his own possessions;) all these persons before named gave
 their advice, that the city should then continue in their allegiance to
 the Romans and to the king. But Pistus, who was guided by his son Justus,
 did not acquiesce in that resolution; otherwise he was himself naturally
 of a good and virtuous character. But the second faction was composed of
 the most ignoble persons, and was determined for war. But as for Justus,
 the son of Pistus, who was the head of the third faction, although he pretended
 to be doubtful about going to war, yet was he really desirous of innovation,
 as supposing that he should gain power to himself by the change of affairs.
 He therefore came into the midst of them, and endeavored to inform the
 multitude that "the city Tiberius had ever been a city of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>,
 and that in the days of Herod the tetrarch, who had built it, it had obtained
 the principal place, and that he had ordered that the city <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> should
 be subordinate to the city <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>; that they had not lost this preeminence
 even under Agrippa the father, but had retained it until <placeName key="tgn,2324437" authname="tgn,2324437">Felix</placeName> was procurator
 of <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName>. But he told them, that now they had been so unfortunate as to
 be made a present by Nero to Agrippa, junior; and that, upon <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>'s
 submission of itself to the Romans, that was become the capital city of
 <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and that the royal library and the archives were now removed from
 them." When he had spoken these things, and a great many more, against
 king Agrippa, in order to provoke the people to a revolt, he added that
 "this was the time for them to take arms, and join with the Galileans
 as their confederates (whom they might command, and who would now willingly
 assist them, out of the hatred they bare to the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>; because
 they preserved their fidelity to the Romans), and to gather a great number
 of forces, in order to punish them." And as he said this, he exhorted
 the multitude, [to go to war;] for his abilities lay in making harangues
 to the people, and in being too hard in his speeches for such as opposed
 him, though they advised what was more to their advantage, and this by
 his craftiness and his fallacies, for he was not unskilful in the learning
 of the Greeks; and in dependence on that skill it was, that he undertook
 to write a history of these affairs, as aiming, by this way of haranguing,
 to disguise the truth. But as to this man, and how ill were his character
 and conduct of life, and how he and his brother were, in great measure,
 the authors of our destruction, I shall give the reader an account in the
 progress of my narration. So when Justus had, by his persuasions, prevailed
 with the citizens of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> to take arms, nay, and had forced a great
 many so to do against their wills, he went out, and set the villages that
 belonged to Gadara and Hippos on fire; which villages were situated on
 the borders of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and of the region of <placeName key="tgn,7001403" authname="tgn,7001403">Scythopolis</placeName>.</p>
 
<milestone n="10" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="43" unit="section" />
<p>And this was the state <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> was now in. But as for <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>,
 its affairs were thus: - When John, the son of Levi, saw some of the citizens
 much elevated upon their revolt from the Romans, he labored to restrain
 them, and entreated them that they would keep their allegiance to them.
 But he could not gain his purpose, although he did his endeavors to the
 utmost; for the neighboring people of Gadara, Gabara, and Sogana, wth the
 Tyrians, got together a great army, and fell upon <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>, and took <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>
 by force, and set it on fire; and when they had entirely demolished it,
 they returned home. Upon which John was so enraged, that he armed all his
 men, and joined battle with the people forementioned; and rebuilt <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>
 after a manner better than before, and fortified it with walls for its
 future security.</p>
 
<milestone n="11" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="46" unit="section" />
<p>But Gamala persevered in its allegiance to the Romans, for the reason
 following: - Philip, the son of Jacimus, who was their governor under king
 Agrippa, had been unexpectedly preserved when the royal palace at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>
 had been besieged; but, as he fled away, had fallen into another danger,
 and that was, of being killed by Manahem, and the robbers that were with
 him; but certain Babylonians, who were of his kindred, and were then in
 <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, hindered the robbers from executing their design. So Philip
 staid there four days, and fled away on the fifth, having disguised himself
 with fictitious hair, that he might not be discovered; and when he was
 come to one of the villages to him belonging, but one that was situated
 at the borders of the citadel of Gamala, he sent to some of those that
 were under him, and commanded them to come to him. But God himself hindered
 that his intention, and this for his own advantage also; for had it not
 so happened, he had certainly perished. For a fever having seized upon
 him immediately, he wrote to Agrippa and <placeName key="tgn,2164238" authname="tgn,2164238">Bernice</placeName>, and gave them to one
 of his freed-men to carry them to Varus, who at this time was procurator
 of the kingdom, which the king and his sister had intrusted him withal,
 while they were gone to <placeName key="tgn,7002857" authname="tgn,7002857">Berytus</placeName> with an intention of meeting Gessius. When
 Varus had received these letters of Philip, and had learned that he was
 preserved, he was very uneasy at it, as supposing that he should appear
 useless to the king and his sister, now Philip was come. He therefore produced
 the carrier of the letters before the multitude, and accused him of forging
 the same; and said that he spake falsely when he related that Philip was
 at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, fighting among the Jews against the Romans. So he slew him.
 And when this freed-man of Philip did not return again, Philip was doubtful
 what should be the occasion of his stay, and sent a second messenger with
 letters, that he might, upon his return, inform him what had befallen the
 other that had been sent before, and why he tarried so long. Varus accused
 this messenger also, when he came, of telling a falsehood, and slew him.
 For he was puffed up by the Syrians that were at <placeName key="tgn,7001266" authname="tgn,7001266">Caesarea</placeName>, and had great
 expectations; for they said that Agrippa would be slain by the Romans for
 the crimes which the Jews had committed, and that he should himself take
 the government, as derived from their kings; for Varus was, by the confession
 of all, of the royal family, as being a descendant of Sohemus, who had
 enjoyed a tetrarchy about Libanus; for which reason it was that he was
 puffed up, and kept the letters to himself. He contrived, also, that the
 king should not meet with those writings, by guarding all the passes, lest
 any one should escape, and inform the king what had been done. He moreover
 slew many of the Jews, in order to gratify the Syrians of Cesarea. He had
 a mind also to join with the Trachonites in Batanea, and to take up arms
 and make an assault upon the Babylonian Jews that were at <placeName key="tgn,7002115" authname="tgn,7002115">Ecbatana</placeName>; for
 that was the name they went by. He therefore called to him twelve of the
 Jews of Cesarea, of the best character, and ordered them to go to <placeName key="tgn,7002115" authname="tgn,7002115">Ecbatana</placeName>,
 and inform their countrymen who dwelt there, That Varus hath heard that
 "you intend to march against the king; but, not believing that report,
 he hath sent us to persuade you to lay down your arms, and that this compliance
 will be a sign that he did well not to give credit to those that raised
 the report concerning you." He also enjoined them to send seventy
 of their principal men to make a defense for them as to the accusation
 laid against them. So when the twelve messengers came to their countrymen
 at <placeName key="tgn,7002115" authname="tgn,7002115">Ecbatana</placeName>, and found that they had no designs of innovation at all, they
 persuaded them to send the seventy men also; who, not at all suspecting
 what would come, sent them accordingly. So these seventy went down to <placeName key="tgn,7001363" authname="tgn,7001363">Caesarea</placeName>,
 together with the twelve ambassadors; where Varus met them with the king's
 forces, and slew them all, together with the [twelve] <ref id="n9" target="ref9">
 ambassadors, and made an expedition against the Jews of <placeName key="tgn,7002115" authname="tgn,7002115">Ecbatana</placeName>. But one
 there was of the seventy who escaped, and made haste to inform the Jews
 of their coming; upon which they took their arms, with their wives and
 children, and retired to the citadel at Gamala, leaving their own villages
 full of all sorts of good things, and having many ten thousands of cattle
 therein. When Philip was informed of these things, he also came to the
 citadel of Gamala; and when he was come, the multitude cried aloud, and
 desired him to resume the government, and to make an expedition against
 Varus, and the Syrians of Cesarea; for it was reported that they had slain
 the king. But Philip restrained their zeal, and put them in mind of the
 benefits the king had bestowed upon them; and told them how powerful the
 Romans were, and said it was not for their advantage to make war with them;
 and at length he prevailed with them. But now, when the king was acquainted
 with Varus's design, which was to cut off the Jews of <placeName key="tgn,7001363" authname="tgn,7001363">Caesarea</placeName>, being many
 ten thousands, with their wives and children, and all in one day, he called
 to him Equiculus Modius, and sent him to be Varus's successor, as we have
 elsewhere related. But still Philip kept possession of the citadel of Gamala,
 and of the country adjoining to it, which thereby continued in their allegiance
 to the Romans.</p>
 
<milestone n="12" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="62" unit="section" />
<p>Now, as soon as I was come into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and had learned this state
 of things by the information of such as told me of them, I wrote to the
 sanhedrim at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> about them, and required their direction what I
 should do. Their direction was, that I should continue there, and that,
 if my fellow legates were willing, I should join with them in the care
 of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>. But those my fellow legates, having gotten great riches from
 those tithes which as priests were their dues, and were given to them,
 determined to return to their own country. Yet when I desired them to stay
 so long, that we might first settle the public affairs, they complied with
 me. So I removed, together with them, from the city of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, and came
 to a certain village called Bethmaus, four furlongs distant from Tiberius;
 and thence I sent messengers to the senate of Tiberius, and desired that
 the principal men of the city would come to me: and when they were come,
 Justus himself being also with them, I told them that I was sent to them
 by the people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> as a legate, together with these other priests,
 in order to persuade them to demolish that house which Herod the tetrarch
 had built there, and which had the figures of living creatures in it, although
 our laws have forbidden us to make any such figures; and I desired that
 they would give us leave so to do immediately. But for a good while Capellus
 and the principal men belonging to the city would not give us leave, but
 were at length entirely overcome by us, and were induced to be of our opinion.
 So Jesus the son of Sapphias, one of those whom we have already mentioned
 as the leader of a seditious tumult of mariners and poor people, prevented
 us, and took with him certain Galileans, and set the entire palace on fire,
 and thought he should get a great deal of money thereby, because he saw
 some of the roofs gilt with gold. They also plundered a great deal of the
 furniture, which was done without our approbation; for after we had discoursed
 with Capellus and the principal men of the city, we departed from Bethmaus,
 and went into the Upper Galilee. But Jesus and his party slew all the Greeks
 that were inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and as many others as were their enemies
 before the war began.</p>
 
<milestone n="13" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="68" unit="section" />
<p>When I understood this state of things, I was greatly provoked,
 and went down to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and took all the care I could of the royal furniture,
 to recover all that could be recovered from such as had plundered it. They
 consisted of candlesticks made of Corinthian brass, and of royal tables,
 and of a great quantity of uncoined silver; and I resolved to preserve
 whatsoever came to my hand for the king. So I sent for ten of the principal
 men of the senate, and for Capellus the son of Antyllus, and committed
 the furniture to them, with this charge, That they should part with it
 to nobody else but to myself. From thence I and my fellow legates went
 to Gichala, to John, as desirous to know his intentions, and soon saw that
 he was for innovations, and had a mind to the principality; for he desired
 me to give him authority to carry off that corn which belonged to Caesar,
 and lay in the villages of Upper Galilee; and he pretended that he would
 expend what it came to in building the walls of his own city. But when
 I perceived what he endeavored at, and what he had in his mind, I said
 I would not permit him so to do; for that I thought either to keep it for
 the Romans or for myself, now I was intrusted with the public affairs there
 by the people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>. But, when he was not able to prevail with me,
 he betook himself to my fellow legates; for they had no sagacity in providing
 for futurity, and were very ready to take bribes. So he corrupted them
 with money to decree, That all that corn which was within his province
 should be delivered to him; while I, who was but one, was outvoted by two,
 and held my tongue. Then did John introduce another cunning contrivance
 of his; for he said that those Jews who inhabited Cesarea Philippi, and
 were shut up by the order of the king's deputy there, had sent to him to
 desire him, that, since they had no oil that was pure for their use, he
 would provide a sufficient quantity of such oil for them, lest they should
 be forced to make use of oil that came from the Greeks, and thereby transgress
 their own laws. Now this was said by John, not out of his regard to religion,
 but out of his most flagrant desire of gain; for he knew that two sextaries
 were sold with them of <placeName key="tgn,7001363" authname="tgn,7001363">Caesarea</placeName> for one drachma, but that at <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName> fourscore
 sextaxies were sold for four sextaries. So he gave order that all the oil
 which was there should be carried away, as having my permission for so
 doing; which yet I did not grant him voluntarily, but only out of fear
 of the multitude, since, if I had forbidden him, I should have been stoned
 by them. When I had therefore permitted this to be done by John, he gained
 vast sums of money by this his knavery.</p>
 
<milestone n="14" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="77" unit="section" />
<p>But when I had dismissed my fellow legates, and sent them back to
 <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, I took care to have arms provided, and the cities fortified.
 And when I had sent for the most hardy among the robbers, I saw that it
 was not in my power to take their arms from them; but I persuaded the multitude
 to allow them money as pay, and told them it was better for them to give
 them a little willingly, rather than to [be forced to] overlook them when
 they plundered their goods from them. And when I had obliged them to take
 an oath not to come into that country, unless they were invited to come,
 or else when they had not their pay given them, I dismissed them, and charged
 them neither to make an expedition against the Romans, nor against those
 their neighbors that lay round about them; for my first care was to keep
 <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> in peace. So I was willing to have the principal of the Galileans,
 in all seventy, as hostages for their fidelity, but still under the notion
 of friendship. Accordingly, I made them my friends and companions as I
 journeyed, and set them to judge causes; and with their approbation it
 was that I gave my sentences, while I endeavored not to mistake what justice
 required, and to keep my hands clear of all bribery in those determinations.</p>
 
<milestone n="15" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="80" unit="section" />
<p>I was now about the thirtieth year of my age; in which time of life
 it is a hard thing for any one to escape the calumnies of the envious,
 although he restrain himself from fulfilling any unlawful desires, especially
 where a person is in great authority. Yet did I preserve every woman free
 from injuries; and as to what presents were offered me, I despised them,
 as not standing in need of them. Nor indeed would I take those tithes,
 which were due to me as a priest, from those that brought them. Yet do
 I confess, that I took part of the spoils of those Syrians which inhabited
 the cities that adjoined to us, when I had conquered them, and that I sent
 them to my kindred at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>; although, when I twice took <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>
 by force, and <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> four times, and Gadara once, and when I had subdued
 and taken John, who often laid treacherous snares for me, I did not punish
 [with death] either him or any of the people forenamed, as the progress
 of this discourse will show. And on this account, I suppose, it was that
 God, <ref id="n10" target="ref10">
 who is never unacquainted with those that do as they ought to do, delivered
 me still out of the hands of these my enemies, and afterwards preserved
 me when I fell into those many dangers which I shall relate hereafter.</p>
 
<milestone n="16" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="84" unit="section" />
<p>Now the multitude of the Galileans had that great kindness for me,
 and fidelity to me, that when their cities were taken by force, and their
 wives and children carried into slavery, they did not so deeply lament
 for their own calamities, as they were solicitous for my preservation.
 But when John saw this, he envied me, and wrote to me, desiring that I
 would give him leave to come down, and make use of the hot-baths of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>
 for the recovery of the health of his body. Accordingly, I did not hinder
 him, as having no suspicion of any wicked designs of his; and I wrote to
 those to whom I had committed the administration of the affairs of Tiberius
 by name, that they should provide a lodging for John, and for such as should
 come with him, and should procure him what necessaries soever he should
 stand in need of. Now at this time my abode was in a village of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>,
 which is named Cans.</p>
 
<milestone n="17" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="87" unit="section" />
<p>But when John was come to the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, he persuaded the
 men to revolt from their fidelity to me, and to adhere to him; and many
 of them gladly received that invitation of his, as ever fond of innovations,
 and by nature disposed to changes, and delighting in seditions; but they
 were chiefly Justus and his father Pistus, that were earnest for their
 revolt from me, and their adherence to John. But I came upon them, and
 prevented them; for a messenger had come to me from Silas, whom I had made
 governor of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, as I have said already, and had told me of the inclinations
 of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and advised me to make haste thither; for that,
 if I made any delay, the city would come under another's jurisdiction.
 Upon the receipt of this letter of Silas, I took two hundred men along
 with me, and traveled all night, having sent before a messenger to let
 the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> know that I was coming to them. When I came near
 to the city, which was early in the morning, the multitude came out to
 meet me; and John came with them, and saluted me, but in a most disturbed
 manner, as being afraid that my coming was to call him to an account for
 what I was now sensible he was doing. So he, in great haste, went to his
 lodging. But when I was in the open place of the city, having dismissed
 the guards I had about me, excepting one, and ten armed men that were with
 him, I attempted to make a speech to the multitude of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>:
 and, standing on a certain elevated place, I entreated them not to be so
 hasty in their revolt; for that such a change in their behavior would be
 to their reproach, and that they would then justly be suspected by those
 that should be their governors hereafter, as if they were not likely to
 be faithful to them neither.</p>
 
<milestone n="18" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="94" unit="section" />
<p>But before I had spoken all I designed, I heard one of my own domestics
 bidding me come down, for that it was not a proper time to take care of
 retaining the good-will of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, but to provide for my
 own safety, and escape my enemies there; for John had chosen the most trusty
 of those armed men that were about him out of those thousand that he had
 with him, and had given them orders when he sent them, to kill me, having
 learned that I was alone, excepting some of my domestics. So those that
 were sent came as they were ordered, and they had executed what they came
 about, had I not leaped down from the elevation I stood on, and with one
 of my guards, whose name was James, been carried [out of the crowd] upon
 the back of one Herod of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and guided by him down to the lake,
 where I seized a ship, and got into it, and escaped my enemies unexpectedly,
 and came to Tarichese.</p>
 
<milestone n="19" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="97" unit="section" />
<p>Now, as soon as the inhabitants of that city understood the perfidiousness
 of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, they were greatly provoked at them. So they
 snatched up their arms, and desired me to be their leader against them;
 for they said they would avenge their commander's cause upon them. They
 also carried the report of what had been done to me to all the Galileans,
 and eagerly endeavored to irritate them against the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 and desired that vast numbers of them would get together, and come to them,
 that they might act in concert with their commander, what should be determined
 as fit to be done. Accordingly, the Galileans came to me in great numbers,
 from all parts, with their weapons, and besought me to assault <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 to take it by force, and to demolish it, till it lay even with the ground,
 and then to make slaves of its inhabitants, with their wives and children.
 Those that were Josephus's friends also, and had escaped out of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 gave him the same advice. But I did not comply with them, thinking it a
 terrible thing to begin a civil war among them; for I thought that this
 contention ought not to proceed further than words; nay, I told them that
 it was not for their own advantage to do what they would have me to do,
 while the Romans expected no other than that we should destroy one another
 by our mutual seditions. And by saying this, I put a stop to the anger
 of the Galileans.</p>
 
<milestone n="20" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="101" unit="section" />
<p>But now John was afraid for himself, since his treachery had proved
 unsuccessful. So he took the armed men that were about him, and removed
 from <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> to <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>, and wrote to me to apologize for himself concerning
 What had been done, as if it had been done without his approbation, and
 desired me to have no suspicion of him to his disadvantage. He also added
 oaths and certain horrible curses upon himself, and supposed he should
 be thereby believed in the points he wrote about to me.</p>
 
<milestone n="21" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="102" unit="section" />
<p>But now another great number of the Galileans came together again
 with their weapons, as knowing the man, how wicked and how sadly perjured
 he was, and desired me to lead them against him and promised me that they
 would utterly destroy both him and <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>. Hereupon I professed that I was obliged
 to them for their readiness to serve me, and that I would more than requite
 their good-will to me. However, I entreated them to restrain themselves,
 and begged of them to give me leave to do what I intended, which was to
 put an end to these troubles without bloodshed; and when I had prevailed
 with the multitude of the Galileans to let me do so, I came to <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>.</p>
 
<milestone n="22" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="104" unit="section" />
<p>But the inhabitants of this city having determined to continue in
 their allegiance to the Romans, were afraid of my coming to them, and tried,
 by putting me upon another action, to divert me, that they might be freed
 from the terror they were in. Accordingly, they sent to Jesus, the captain
 of those robbers who were in the confines of <placeName key="tgn,7001354" authname="tgn,7001354">Ptolemais</placeName>, and promised to
 give him a great deal of money, if he would come with those forces he had
 with him, which were in number eight hundred, and fight with us. Accordingly,
 he complied with what they desired, upon the promises they had made him,
 and was desirous to fall upon us when we were unprepared for him, and knew
 nothing of his coming beforehand. So he sent to me, and desired that I
 would give him leave to come and salute me. When I had given him that leave,
 which I did without the least knowledge of his treacherous intentions beforehand,
 he took his band of robbers, and made haste to come to me. Yet did not
 this his knavery succeed well at last; for as he was already nearly approaching,
 one of those with him deserted him, and came to me, and told me what he
 had undertaken to do. When I was informed of this, I went into the market-place,
 and pretended to know nothing of his treacherous purpose. I took with me
 many Galileans that were armed, as also some of those of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>; and,
 when I had given orders that all the roads should be carefully guarded,
 I charged the keepers of the gates to give admittance to none but Jesus,
 when he came, with the principal of his men, and to exclude the rest; and
 in case they aimed to force themselves in, to use stripes [in order to
 repel them]. Accordingly, those that had received such a charge did as
 they were bidden, and Jesus came in with a few others; and when I had ordered
 him to throw down his arms immediately, and told him, that if he refused
 so to do, he was a dead man, he seeing armed men standing all round about
 him, was terrified, and complied; and as for those of his followers that
 were excluded, when they were informed that he was seized, they ran away.
 I then called Jesus to me by himself, and told him, that" I was not
 a stranger to that treacherous design he had against me, nor was I ignorant
 by whom he was sent for; that, however, I would forgive him what he had
 done already, if he would repent of it, and be faithful to me hereafter."
 And thus, upon his promise to do all that I desired, I let him go, and
 gave him leave to get those whom he had formerly had with him together
 again. But I threatened the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, that, if they would
 not leave off their ungrateful treatment of me, I would punish them sufficiently.</p>
 
<milestone n="23" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="112" unit="section" />
<p>At this time it was that two great men, who were under the jurisdiction
 of the king [Agrippa] came to me out of the region of Trachonius, bringing
 their horses and their arms, and carrying with them their money also; and
 when the Jews would force them to be circumcised, if they would stay among
 them, I would not permit them to have any force put upon them, <ref id="n11" target="ref11">
 but said to them, "Every one ought to worship God according to his
 own inclinations, and not to be constrained by force; and that these men,
 who had fled to us for protection, ought not to be so treated as to repent
 of their coming hither." And when I had pacified the multitude, I
 provided for the men that were come to us whatsoever it was they wanted,
 according to their usual way of living, and that in great plenty also.</p>
 
<milestone n="24" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="114" unit="section" />
<p>Now king Agrippa sent an army to make themselves masters of the
 citadel of Gamala, and over it Equieulus Modius; but the forces that were
 sent were not allow to encompass the citadel quite round, but lay before
 it in the open places, and besieged it. But when Ebutius the decurion,
 who was intrusted with the government of the great plain, heard that I
 was at Simonias, a village situated in the confines of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and was
 distant from him sixty furlongs, he took a hundred horsemen that were with
 him by night, and a certain number of footmen, about two hundred, and brought
 the inhabitants of the city Gibea along with him as auxiliaries, and marched
 in the night, and came to the village where I abode. Upon this I pitched
 my camp over against him, which had a great number of forces in it: but
 Ebutius tried to draw us down into the plain, as greatly depending upon
 his horsemen; but we would not come down; for when I was satisfied of the
 advantage that his horse would have if we came down into the plain, while
 we were all footmen, I resolved to join battle with the enemy where I was.
 Now Ebutius and his party made a courageous opposition for some time; but
 when he saw that his horse were useless to him in that place, he retired
 back to the city Gibea, having lost three of his men in the fight. So I
 followed him directy with two thousand armed men; and when I was at the
 city Besara, that lay in the confines of <placeName key="tgn,7001354" authname="tgn,7001354">Ptolemais</placeName>, but twenty furlongs
 from Gibea, where Ebutius abode, I placed my armed men on the outside of
 the village, and gave orders that they should guard the passes with great
 care, that the enemy might not disturb us until we should have carried
 off the corn, a great quantity of which lay there: it belonged to <placeName key="tgn,2164238" authname="tgn,2164238">Bernice</placeName>
 the queen, and had been gathered together out of the neighboring villages
 into Besara; so I loaded my camels and asses, a great number of which I
 had brought along with me, and sent the corn into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>. When I had done
 this, I offered Ebutius battle; but when he would not accept of the offer,
 for he was terrified at our readiness and courage, I altered my route,
 and marched towards Neopolitanus, because I had heard that the country
 about <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> was laid waste by him. This Neopolitanus was captain of
 a troop of horse, and had the custody of <placeName key="tgn,7001403" authname="tgn,7001403">Scythopolis</placeName> intrusted to his care
 by the enemy; and when I had hindered him from doing any further mischief
 to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, I set myself to make provision for the affairs of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>.</p>
 
<milestone n="25" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="122" unit="section" />
<p>But when John, the son of Levi, who, as we before told you, abode
 at <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>, was informed how all things had succeeded to my mind, and
 that I was much in favor with those that were under me, as also that the
 enemy were greatly afraid of me, he was not pleased with it, as thinking
 my prosperity tended to his ruin. So he took up a bitter envy and enmity
 against me; and hoping, that if he could inflame those that were under
 me to hate me,. he should put an end to the prosperity I was in, he tried
 to persuade the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> and of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, (and for those
 of Gabara he supposed they would be also of the same mind with the others,)
 which were the greatest cities of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, to revolt from their subjection
 to me, and to be of his party; and told them that he would command them
 better than I did. As for the people of Sepphoris, who belonged to neither
 of us, because they had chosen to be in subjection to the Romans, they
 did not comply with his proposal; and for those of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, they did not
 indeed so far comply as to make a revolt from under me, but they agreed
 to be his friends, while the inhabitants of Gabara did go over to John;
 and it was Simon that persuaded them so to do, one who was both the principal
 man in the city, and a particular friend and companion of John. It is true,
 these did not openly own the making a revolt, because they were in great
 fear of the Galileans, and had frequent experience of the good-will they
 bore to me; yet did they privately watch for a proper opportunity to lay
 snares for me; and indeed I thereby came into the greatest danger, on the
 occasion following.</p>
 
<milestone n="26" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="126" unit="section" />
<p>There were some bold young men of the village of Dabaritta, who
 observed that the wife of Ptolemy, the king's procurator, was to make a
 progress over the great plain with a mighty attendance, and with some horsemen
 that followed as a guard to them, and this out of a country that was subject
 to the king and queen, into the jurisdiction of the Romans; and fell upon
 them on a sudden, and obliged the wife of Ptolemy to fly away, and plundered
 all the carriages. They also came to me to Tarichese, with four mules'
 loading of garments, and other furniture; and the weight of the silver
 they brought was not small, and there were five hundred pieces of gold
 also. Now I had a mind to preserve these spoils for Ptolemy, who was my
 countryman; and it is prohibited <ref id="n12" target="ref12">
 by our laws even to spoil our enemies; so I said to those that brought
 these spoils, that they ought to be kept, in order to rebuild the walls
 of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> with them when they came to be sold. But the young men took
 it very ill that they did not receive a part of those spoils for themselves,
 as they expected to have done; so they went among the villages in the neighborhood
 of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and told the people that I was going to betray their country
 to the Romans, and that I used deceitful language to them, when I said,
 that what had been thus gotten by rapine should be kept for the rebuilding
 of the walls of the city of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>; although I had resolved to restore
 these spoils again to their former owner. And indeed they were herein not
 mistaken as to my intentions; for when I had gotten clear of them, I sent
 for two of the principal men, Dassion, and Janneus the son of Levi, persons
 that were among the chief friends of the king, and commanded them to take
 the furniture that had been plundered, and to send it to him; and I threatened
 that I would order them to be put to death by way of punishment, if they
 discovered this my command to any other person.</p>
 
<milestone n="27" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="132" unit="section" />
<p>Now, when all <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> was filled with this rumor, that their country
 was about to be betrayed by me to the Romans, and when all men were exasperated
 against me, and ready to bring me to punishment, the inhabitants of Tarichee
 did also themselves suppose that what the young men said was true, and
 persuaded my guards and armed men to leave me when I was asleep, and to
 come presently to the hippodrome, in order there to take counsel against
 me their commander. And when they had prevailed with them, and they were
 gotten together, they found there a great company assembled already, who
 all joined in one clamor, to bring the man who was so wicked to them as
 to betray them, to his due punishment; and it was Jesus, the son of Sapphias,
 who principally set them on. He was ruler in <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, a wicked man, and
 naturally disposed to make disturbances in matters of consequence; a seditious
 person he was indeed, and an innovator beyond every body else. He then
 took the laws of Moses into his hands, and came into the midst of the people,
 and said," O my fellow citizens! if you are not disposed to hate Josephus
 on your own account, have regard, however, to these laws of your country,
 which your commander-in-chief is going to betray; hate him therefore on
 both these accounts, and bring the man who hath acted thus insolently,
 to his deserved punishment."</p>
 
<milestone n="28" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="136" unit="section" />
<p>When he had said this, and the multitude had openly applauded him
 for what he had said, he took some of the armed men, and made haste away
 to the house in which I lodged, as if he would kill me immediately, while
 I was wholly insensible of all till this disturbance happened; and by reason
 of the pains I had been taking, was fallen fast asleep. But Simon, who
 was intrusted with the care of my body, and was the only person that stayed
 with me, and saw the violent incursion the citizens made upon me, awaked
 me, and told me of the danger I was in, and desired me to let him kill
 me, that I might die bravely and like a general, before my enemies came
 in, and forced me [to kill myself], or killed me themselves. Thus did he
 discourse to me; but I committed the care of my life to God, and made haste
 to go out to the multitude. Accordingly, I put on a black garment, and
 hung my sword at my neck, and went by such a different way to the hippodrome,
 wherein I thought none of my adversaries would meet me; so I appeared among
 them on the sudden, and fell down flat on the earth, and bedewed the ground
 with my tears: then I seemed to them all an object of compassion. And when
 I perceived the change that was made in the multitude, I tried to divide
 their opinions before the armed men should return from my house; so I granted
 them that I had been as wicked as they supposed me to be; but still I entreated
 them to let me first inform them for what use I had kept that money which
 arose from the plunder, and, that they might then kill me if they pleased:
 and upon the multitude's ordering me to speak, the armed men came upon
 me, and when they saw me, they ran to kill me; but when the multitude bade
 them hold their hands, they complied, and expected that as soon as I should
 own to them that I kept the money for the king, it would be looked on as
 a confession of my treason, and they should then be allowed to kill me.</p>
 
<milestone n="29" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="141" unit="section" />
<p>When, therefore, silence was made by the whole multitude, I spake
 thus to them: "O my countrymen! I refuse not to die, if justice so
 require. However, I am desirous to tell you the truth of this matter before
 I die; for as I know that this city of yours [Tarichee] was a city of great
 hospitality, and filled with abundance of such men as have left their own
 countries, and are come hither to be partakers of your fortune, whatever
 it be, I had a mind to build walls about it, out of this money, for which
 you are so angry with me, while yet it was to be expended in building your
 own walls." Upon my saying this, the people of Taricheae and the strangers
 cried out, that" they gave me thanks, and desired me to be of good
 courage," although the Galileans and the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> continued
 in their wrath against me, insomuch that there arose a tumult among them,
 while some threatened to kill me, and some bade me not to regard them;
 but when I promised them that I would build them walls at <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and
 at other cities that wanted them, they gave credit to what I promised,
 and returned every one to his own home. So I escaped the forementioned
 danger, beyond all my hopes, and returned to my own house, accompanied
 with my friends, and twenty armed men also.</p>
 
<milestone n="30" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="145" unit="section" />
<p>However, these robbers and other authors of this tumult, who were
 afraid, on their own account, lest I should punish them for what they had
 done, took six hundred armed men, and came to the house where I abode,
 in order to set it on fire. When this their insult was told me, I thought
 it indecent for me to run away, and I resolved to expose myself to danger,
 and to act with some boldness; so I gave order to shut the doors, and went
 up into an upper room, and desired that they would send in some of their
 men to receive the money [from the spoils] for I told them they would then
 have no occasion to be angry with me; and when they had sent in one of
 the boldest of them all, I had him whipped severely, and I commanded that
 one of his hands should be cut off, and hung about his neck; and in this
 case was he put out to those that sent him. At which procedure of mine
 they were greatly affrighted, and in no small consternation, and were afraid
 that they should themselves be served in like manner, if they staid there;
 for they supposed that I had in the house more armed men than they had
 themselves; so they ran away immediately, while I, by the use of this stratagem,
 escaped this their second treacherous design against me.</p>
 
<milestone n="31" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="149" unit="section" />
<p>But there were still some that irritated the multitude against me,
 and said that those great men that belonged to the king ought not to be
 suffered to live, if they would not change their religion to the religion
 of those to whom they fled for safety: they spake reproachfully of them
 also, and said that they were wizards, and such as called in the Romans
 upon them. So the multitude was soon deluded by such plausible pretenses
 as were agreeable to their own inclinations, and were prevailed on by them.
 But when I was informed of this, I instructed the multitude again, that
 those who fled to them for refuge ought not to be persecuted: I also laughed
 at the allegation about witchcraft, <ref id="n13" target="ref13">
 and told them that the Romans would not maintain so many ten thousand soldiers,
 if they could overcome their enemies by wizards. Upon my saying this, the
 people assented for a while; but they returned again afterwards, as irritated
 by some ill people against the great men; nay, they once made an assault
 upon the house in which they dwelt at Tarichess, in order to kill them;
 which, when I was informed of, I was afraid lest so horrid a crime should
 take effect, and nobody else would make that city their refuge any more.
 I therefore came myself, and some others with me, to the house where these
 great men lived, and locked the doors, and had a trench drawn from their
 house leading to the lake, and sent for a ship, and embarked therein with
 them, and sailed to the confines of Hippos: I also paid them the value
 of their horses; nor in such a flight could I have their horses brought
 to them. I then dismissed them, and begged of them earnestly that they
 would courageously bear I this distress which befell them. I was also myself
 I greatly displeased that I was compelled to expose those that had fled
 to me to go again into an enemy's country; yet did I think it more eligible
 that they should perish among the Romans, if it should so happen, than
 in the country that was under my jurisdiction. However, they escaped at
 length, and king Agrippa forgave them their offenses. And this was the
 conclusion of what concerned these men.</p>
 
<milestone n="32" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="155" unit="section" />
<p>But as for the inhabitants of the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, they wrote to
 the king, and desired him to send them forces sufficient to be a guard
 to their country; for that they were desirous to come over to him: this
 was what they wrote to him. But when I came to them, they desired me to
 build their walls, as I had promised them to do; for they had heard that
 the walls of Tarichess were already built. I agreed to their proposal accordingly;
 and when I had made preparation for the entire building, I gave order to
 the architects to go to work; but on the third day, when I was gone to
 Tarichess, which was thirty furlongs distant from <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, it so fell
 out, that some Roman horsemen were discovered on their march, not far from
 the city, which made it to be supposed that the forces were come from the
 king; upon which they shouted, and lifted up their voices in commendations
 of the king, and in reproaches against me. Hereupon one came running to
 me, and told me what their dispositions were, and that they had resolved
 to revolt from me: upon hearing which news I was very much alarmed; for
 I had already sent away my armed men from Tarichess, to their own homes,
 because the next day was our sabbath; for I would not have the people of
 Tarichess disturbed [on that day] by a multitude of soldiers; and indeed,
 whenever I sojourned at that city, I never took any particular care for
 a guard about my own body, because I had had frequent instances of the
 fidelity its inhabitants bore to me. I had now about me no more than seven
 armed men, besides some friends, and was doubtful what to do; for to send
 to recall my own forces I did not think proper, because the present day
 was almost over; and had those forces been with me, I could not take up
 arms on the next day, because our laws forbade us so to do, even though
 our necessity should be very great; and if I should permit the people of
 Tarichess, and the strangers with them, to guard the city, I saw that they
 would not be sufficient for that purpose, and I perceived that I should
 be obliged to delay my assistance a great while; for I thought with myself
 that the forces that came from the king would prevent me, and that I should
 be driven out of the city. I considered, therefore, how to get clear of
 these forces by a stratagem; so I immediately placed those my friends of
 Tarichee, on whom I could best confide, at the gates, to watch those very
 carefully who went out at those gates: I also called to me the heads of
 families, and bade every one of them to seize upon a ship <ref id="n14" target="ref14"><placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250"></placeName>
 to go on board it, and to take a master with them, and follow him to the
 city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. I also myself went on board one of those ships, with
 my friends, and the seven armed men already mentioned, and sailed for <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>.</p>
 
<milestone n="33" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="165" unit="section" />
<p>But now, when the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> perceived that there were no
 forces come from the king, and yet saw the whole lake full of ships, they
 were in fear what would become of their city, and were greatly terrified,
 as supposing that the ships were full of men on board; so they then changed
 their minds, and threw down their weapons, and met me with their wives
 and children, and made acclamations to me with great commendations; for
 they imagined that I did not know their former inclinations [to have been
 against me]; so they persuaded me to spare the city. But when I was come
 near enough, I gave order to the masters of the ships to cast anchor a
 good way off the land, that the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> might not perceive that
 the ships had no men on board; but I went nearer to the people in one of
 the ships, and rebuked them for their folly, ,and that they were so fickle
 as, without any just occasion in the world, to revolt from their fidelity
 to me. However, assured them that I would entirely forgive them for the
 time to come, if they would send ten of the ringleaders of the multitude
 to me; and when they complied readily with this proposal, and sent me the
 men forementioned, I put them on board a ship, and sent them away to Tarichese;
 and ordered them to be kept in prison.</p>
 
<milestone n="34" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="169" unit="section" />
<p>And by this stratagem it was that I gradually got all the senate
 of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> into my power, and sent them to the city forementioned, with
 many of the principal men among the populace, and those not fewer in number
 than the other. But when the multitude saw into what great miseries they
 had brought themselves, they desired me to punish the author of this sedition:
 his name was Clitus, a young man, bold and rash in his undertakings. Now,
 since I thought it not agreeable to piety to put one of my own people to
 death, and yet found it necessary to punish him, I ordered Levi, one of
 my own guards, to go to him, and cut off one of Clitus's hands; but as
 he that was ordered to do this, was afraid to go out of the ship alone,
 among 'so great a multitude, I was not willing that the timorousness of
 the soldier should appear to the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. So I called to Clitus
 himself and said to him," Since thou deservest to lose both thine
 hands for thy ingratitude to me, be thou thine own executioner, lest, if
 thou refusest so to be, thou undergo a worse punishment." And when
 he earnestly begged of me to spare him one of his hands, it was with difficulty
 that I granted it. So, in order to prevent the loss of both his hands,
 he willingly took his sword, and cut off his own left hand; and this put
 an end to the sedition.</p>
 
<milestone n="35" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="174" unit="section" />
<p>Now the men of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, after I was gone to Taricheae, perceived
 what stratagem I had used against them, and they admired how I had put
 an end to their foolish sedition, without shedding of blood. But now, when
 I had sent for some of those multitudes of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> out of
 prison, among whom were Justus and his father Pistus, I made them to sup
 with me; and during our supper time I said to them, that I knew the power
 of the Romans was superior to all others, but did not say so [publicly]
 because of the robbers. So I advised them to do as I did, and to wait for
 a proper opportunity, and not to be uneasy at my being their commander;
 for that they could not expect to have another who would use the like moderation
 that I had done. I also put Justus in mind how the Galileans had cut off
 his brother's hands before ever I came to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, upon an accusation
 laid against him, as if he had been a rogue, and had forged some letters;
 as also how the people of Gamala, in a sedition they raised against the
 Babylonians, after the departure of Philip, slew Chares, who was a kinsman
 of Philip, and withal how they had wisely punished Jesus, his brother Justuses
 sister's husband [with death]. When I had said this to them during supper
 time, I in the morning ordered Justus, and all the rest that were in prison,
 to be loosed out of it, and sent away.</p>
 
<milestone n="36" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="179" unit="section" />
<p>But before this, it happened that Philip, the son of Jacimus, went
 out of the citadel of Gamala upon the following occasion: When Philip had
 been informed that Varus was put out of his government by king Agrippa,
 and that Equieulus Modius, a man that was of old his friend and companion,
 was come to succeed him, he wrote to him, and related what turns of fortune
 he had had, and desired him to forward the letters he sent to the king
 and queen. Now, when Modius had received these letters, he was exceedingly
 glad, and sent the letters to the king and queen, who were then about <placeName key="tgn,7002857" authname="tgn,7002857">Berytus</placeName>.
 But when king Agrippa knew that the story about Philip was false, (for
 it had been given out, that the Jews had begun a war with the Romans, and
 that this Philip had been their commander in that war,) he sent some horsemen
 to conduct Philip to him; and when he was come, he saluted him very obligingly,
 and showed him to the Roman commanders, and told them that this was the
 man of whom the report had gone about as if he had revolted from the Romans.
 He also bid him to take some horsemen with him, and to go quickly to the
 citadel of Gamala, and to bring out thence all his domestics, and to restore
 the Babylonians to Batanea again. He also gave it him in charge to take
 all possible care that none of his subjects should be guilty of making
 any innovation. Accordingly, upon these directions from the king, he made
 haste to do what he was commanded.</p>
 
<milestone n="37" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="185" unit="section" />
<p>Now there was one Joseph, the son of a female physician, who excited
 a great many young men to join with him. He also insolently addressed himself
 to the principal persons at Gamala, and persuaded them to revolt from the
 king; and take up arms, and gave them hopes that they should, by his means,
 recover their liberty. And some they forced into the service, and those
 that would not acquiesce in what they had resolved on, they slew. They
 also slew Chares, and with him Jesus, one of his kinsmen, and a brother
 of Justus of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, as we have already said. Those of Gamala also wrote
 to me, desiring me to send them an armed force, and workmen to raise up
 the walls of their city; nor did I reject either of their requests. The
 region of Gaulanitis did also revolt from the king, as far as the village
 Solyma. I also built a wall about <placeName key="tgn,6005333" authname="tgn,6005333">Seleucia</placeName> and Soganni, which are villages
 naturally of ver great strength. Moreover, I, in like manner, walled several
 villages of Upper Galilee, though they were very rocky of themselves. Their
 names are Jamnia, and Meroth, and Achabare. I also fortified, in the Lower
 Galilee, the cities Tarichee, <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, and the villages, the
 cave of <placeName key="tgn,7002589" authname="tgn,7002589">Arbela</placeName>, Bersobe, Selamin, Jotapata, Capharecho, and Sigo, and Japha,
 and <placeName key="tgn,1106681" authname="tgn,1106681">Mount Tabor</placeName>. <ref id="n15" target="ref15"><placeName key="tgn,1106681" authname="tgn,1106681"></placeName>
 I also laid up a great quantity of corn in these places, and arms withal,
 that might be for their security afterward.</p>
 
<milestone n="38" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="189" unit="section" />
<p>But the hatred that John, the son of Levi, bore to me, grew now
 more violent, while he could not bear my prosperity with patience. So he
 proposed to himself, by all means possible, to make away with me; and built
 the walls of <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>, which was the place of his nativity. He then sent
 his brother Simon, and Jonathan, the son of Sisenna, and about a hundred
 armed men, to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, to Simon, the son of Gamaliel, <ref id="n16" target="ref16"><placeName key="tgn,7013947" authname="tgn,7013947"></placeName><date value="449" authname="449"></date>
 in order to persuade him to induce the commonalty of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> to take
 from me the government over the Galileans, and to give their suffrages
 for conferring that authority upon him. This Simon was of the city of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>,
 and of a very noble family of the sect of the Pharisees, which are supposed
 to excel others in the accurate knowledge of the laws of their country.
 He was a man of great wisdom and reason, and capable of restoring public
 affairs by his prudence, when they were in an ill posture. He was also
 an old friend and companion of John; but at that time he had a difference
 with me. When therefore he had received such an exhortation, he persuaded
 the high priests, Ananus, and Jesus the son of Gamala, and some others
 of the same seditious faction, to cut me down, now I was growing so great,
 and not to overlook me while I was aggrandizing myself to the height of
 glory; and he said that it would be for the advantage of the Galileans,
 if I were deprived of my government there. Ananus also, and his friends,
 desired them to make no delay about the matter, lest I should get the knowledge
 of what was doing too soon, and should come and make an assault upon the
 city with a great army. This was the counsel of Simon; but Artanus the
 high priest demonstrated to them that this was not an easy thing to be
 done, because many of the high priests and of the rulers of the people
 bore witness that I had acted like an excellent general, and that it was
 the work of ill men to accuse one against whom they had nothing to say.</p>
 
<milestone n="39" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="195" unit="section" />
<p>When Simon heard Ananus say this, he desired that the messengers
 would conceal the thing, and not let it come among many; for that he would
 take care to have Josephus removed out of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> very quickly. So he called
 for John's brother, [Simon,] and charged him that they should send presents
 to Ananus and his friends; for, as he said, they might probably by that
 means persuade them to change their minds. And indeed Simon did at length
 thus compass what he aimed at; for Artanus, and those with him, being corrupted
 by bribes, agreed to expel me out of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, without making the rest of
 the citizens acquainted with what they were doing. Accordingly, they resolved
 to send men of distinction as to their families, and of distinction as
 to their learning also. Two of these were of the populace, Jonathan <ref id="n17" target="ref17">
 and Ananias, by sect Pharisees; while the third, Jozar, was of the stock
 of the priests, and a Pharisee also; and Simon, the last of them, was of
 the youngest of the high priests. These had it given them in charge, that,
 when they were come to the multitude of the Galileans, they should ask
 them, what was the reason of their love to me? and if they said that it
 was because I was born at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, that they should reply, that they
 four were all born at the same place; and if they should say, it was because
 I was well versed in their law, they should reply, that neither were they
 unacquainted with the practices of their country; but if, besides these,
 they should say, they loved me because I was a priest, they should reply,
 that two of these were priests also.</p>
 
<milestone n="40" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="199" unit="section" />
<p>Now, when they had given Jonathan and his companions these instructions,
 they gave them forty thousand [drachmae] out of the public money: but when
 they heard that there was a certain Galilean that then sojourned at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>,
 whose name was Jesus, who had about him a band of six hundred armed men,
 they sent for him, and gave him three months pay, and gave him orders to
 follow Jonathan and his companions, and be obedient to them. They also
 gave money to three hundred men that were citizens of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, to maintain
 them all, and ordered them also to follow the ambassadors; and when they
 had complied, and were gotten ready for the march, Jonathan and his companions
 went out with them, having along with them John's brother and a hundred
 armed men. The charge that was given them by those that sent them was this:
 That if I would voluntarily lay down my arms, they should send me alive
 to the city of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>; but that, in case I opposed them, they should
 kill me, and fear nothing; for that it was their command for them so to
 do. They also wrote to John to make all ready for fighting me, and gave
 orders to the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, and Gabara, and Tiberins, to send
 auxiliaries to John.</p>
 
<milestone n="41" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="204" unit="section" />
<p>Now, as my father wrote me an account of this, (for Jesus the son
 of Gamala, who was present in that council, a friend and companion of mine,
 told him of it,) I was very much troubled, as discovering thereby that
 my fellow citizens proved so ungrateful to me, as, out of envy, to give
 order that I should be slain: my father earnestly pressed me also in his
 letter to come to him, for that he longed to see his son before he died.
 I informed my friends of these things, and that in three days' time I should
 leave the country, and go home. Upon hearing this, they were all very sorry,
 and desired me, with tears in their eyes, not to leave them to be destroyed;
 for so they thought they should be, if I were deprived of the command over
 them: but as I did not grant their request, but was taking care of my own
 safety, the Galileans, out of their dread of the consequence of my departure,
 that they should then be at the mercy of the robbers, sent messengers over
 all <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> to inform them of my resolution to leave them. Whereupon, as
 soon as they heard it, they got together in great numbers, from all parts,
 with their wives and children; and this they did, as it appeared to me,
 not more out of their affection to me, than out of their fear on their
 own account; for while I staid with them, they supposed that they should
 suffer no harm. So they all came into the great plain, wherein I lived,
 the name of which was Asochis.</p>
 
<milestone n="42" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="208" unit="section" />
<p>But wonderful it was what a dream I saw that very night; for when
 I had betaken myself to my bed, as grieved and disturbed at the news that
 had been written to me, it seemed to me, that a certain person stood by
 me, <ref id="n18" target="ref18">
 and said, "O Josephus! leave off to afflict thy soul, and put away
 all fear; for what now grieves thee will render thee very considerable,
 and in all respects most happy; for thou shalt get over not only these
 difficulties, but many others, with great success. However, be not cast
 down, but remember that thou art to fight with the Romans." When I
 had seen this dream, I got up with an intention of going down to the plain.
 Now, when the whole multitude of the Galileans, among whom were the women
 and children, saw me, they threw themselves down upon their faces, and,
 with tears in their eyes, besought me not to leave them exposed to their
 enemies, nor to go away and permit their country to be injured by them.
 But when I did not comply, with their entreaties, they compelled me to
 take an oath, that I would stay with them: they also cast abundance of
 reproaches upon the people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, that they would not let their
 country enjoy peace.</p>
 
<milestone n="43" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="212" unit="section" />
<p>When I heard this, and saw what sorrow the people were in, I was
 moved with compassion to them, and thought it became me to undergo the
 most manifest hazards for the sake of so great a multitude; so I let them
 know I would stay with them. And when I had given order that five thousand
 off them should come to me armed, and with provisions for their maintenance,
 I sent the rest away to their own homes; and when those five thousand were
 come, I took them, together with three thousand of the soldiers that were
 with me before, and eighty horsemen, and marched to thevillage of Chabolo,
 situated in the confines of Ptolimias, and there kept my forces together,
 pretending to get ready to fight with Placidus, who was come with two cohorts
 of footmen, and one troop of horsemen, and was sent thither by Cestius
 Gallus to burn those villages of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> that were near <placeName key="tgn,7001354" authname="tgn,7001354">Ptolemais</placeName>. Upon
 whose casting up a bank before the city <placeName key="tgn,7001354" authname="tgn,7001354">Ptolemais</placeName>, I also pitched my camp
 at about the distance of sixty furlongs from that village. And now we frequently
 brought out our forces as if we would fight, but proceeded no further than
 skirmishes at a distance; for when Placidus perceived that I was earnest
 to come to a battle, he was afraid, and avoided it. Yet did he not remove
 from the neighborhood of <placeName key="tgn,7001354" authname="tgn,7001354">Ptolemais</placeName>.</p>
 
<milestone n="44" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="216" unit="section" />
<p>About this time it was that Jonathan and his fellow legates came.
 They were sent, as we have said already, by Simon, and Ananus the high
 priest. And Jonathan contrived how he might catch me by treachery; for
 he durst not make any attempt upon me openly. So he wrote me the following
 epistle: "Jonathan and those that are with him, and are sent by the
 people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, to Josephus, send greeting. We are sent by the principal
 men of Jerusalem, who have heard that John of <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName> hath laid many snares
 for thee, to rebuke him, and to exhort him to be subject to thee hereafter.
 We are also desirous to consult with thee about our common concerns, and
 what is fit to be done. We therefore desire thee to come to us quickly,
 and to bring only a few men with thee; for this village will not contain
 a great number of soldiers." Thus it was that they wrote, as expecting
 one of these two things; either that I should come without armed men, and
 then they should have me wholly in their power; or, if I came with a great
 number, they should judge me to be a public enemy. Now it was a horseman
 who brought the letter, a man at other times bold, and one that had served
 in the army under the king. It was the second hour of the night that he
 came, when I was feasting with my friends, and the principal of the Galileans.
 This man, upon my servant's telling me that a certain horseman of the Jewish
 nation was come, was called in at my command, but did not so much as salute
 me at all, but held out a letter, and said, "This letter is sent thee
 by those that are come from <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>; do thou write an answer to it quickly;
 for I am obliged to return to them very soon. Now my guests could not but
 wonder at the boldness of the soldier. But I desired him to sit down and
 sup with us; but when he refused so to do, I held the letter in my hands
 as I received it, and fell a talking with my guests about other matters.
 But a few hours afterwards, I got up, and when I had dismissed the rest
 to go to their beds, I bid only four of my intimate friends to stay, and
 ordered my servant to get some wine ready. I also opened the letter so,
 that nobody could perceive it; and understanding thereby presently the
 purportĀ· of the writing, I sealed it up again, and appeared as if
 I had not yet read it, but only held it in my hands. I ordered twenty drachmae
 should be given the soldier for the charges of his journey; and when he
 took the money, and said that he thanked me for it, I perceived that he
 loved money, and that he was to be caught chiefly by that means; and I
 said to him," If thou wilt but drink with us, thou shalt have a drachma
 for every glass thou drinkest." So he gladly embraced this proposal,
 and drank a great deal of wine, in order to get the more money, and was
 so drunk, that at last he could not keep the secrets he was intrusted with,
 but discovered them without my putting questions to him, viz. That a treacherous
 design was contrived against me, and that I was doomed to die by those
 that sent him. When I heard this, I wrote back this answer: "Josephus
 to Jonathan, and those that are with him, sendeth greeting. Upon the information
 that you are come in health into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, I rejoice, and this especially
 because I can now resign the care of public affairs here into your hands,
 and return into my native country, which is what I have desired to do a
 great while; and I confess I ought not only to come to you as far as Xaloth,
 but farther, and this without your commands. But I desire you to excuse
 me, because I cannot do it now, since I watch the motions of Placidus,
 who hath a mind to go up into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>; and this I do here at Chabolo. Do
 you therefore, on the receipt of this epistle, come hither to me. Fare
 you well."</p>
 
<milestone n="45" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="228" unit="section" />
<p>When I had written thus, and given the letter to be carried by the
 soldier, I sent along with him thirty of the Galileans of the best characters,
 and gave them instructions to salute those ambassadors, but to say nothing
 else to them. I also gave orders to as many of those armed men, whom I
 esteemed most faithful to me, to go along with the others, every one with
 him whom he was to guard, lest some conversation might pass between those
 whom I sent and those who were with Jonathan. So those men went [to Jonathan].
 But when Jonathan and his partners had failed in this their first attempt,
 they sent me another letter, the contents whereof were as follows: "Jonathan,
 and those with him, to Josephus, send greeting. We require thee to come
 to us to the village Gabaroth, on the third day, without any armed men,
 that we may hear what thou hast to lay to the charge of John [of <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>]."
 When they had written this letter, they saluted the Galileans whom I sent,
 and came to Japha, which was the largest village of all <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and encompassed
 with very strong walls, and had a great number of inhabitants in it. There
 the multitude of men, with their wives and children, met them, and exclaimed
 loudly against them; and desired them to be gone, and not to envy them
 the advantage of an excellent commander. With these clamors Jonathan and
 his partners were greatly provoked, although they durst not show their
 anger openly; so they made them no answer, but went to other villages.
 But still the same clamors met them from all the people, who said, "Nobody
 should persuade them to have any other commander besides Josephus."
 So Jonathan and his partners went away from them without success, and came
 to <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, the greatest city of all <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>. Now the men of that city,
 who inclined to the Romans in their sentiments, met them indeed, but neither
 praised nor reproached me and when they were gone down from <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> to
 Asochis, the people of that place made a clamor against them, as those
 of Japha had done; whereupon they were able to contain themselves no longer,
 but ordered the armed men that were with them to beat those that made the
 clamor with their clubs. And when they came to Gabara, John met them with
 three thousand armed men; but, as I understood by their letter that they
 had resolved to fight against me, I arose from Chabolo, with three thousand
 armed men also; but left in my camp one of my fastest friends, and came
 to Jotapata, as desirous to be near them, the distance being no more than
 forty furlongs. Whence I wrote thus to them: "If you are very desirous
 that I should come to you, you know there are two hundred and forty cities
 and villages in <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>; I will come to any of them which you please, excepting
 Gaburn and <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>; the one of which is John's native city, and the other
 in confederacy and friendship with him."</p>
 
<milestone n="46" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="236" unit="section" />
<p>When Jonathan and his partners had received this letter, they wrote
 me no more answers, but called a council of their friends together; and
 taking John into their consultation, they took counsel together by what
 means they might attack me. John's opinion was, that they should write
 to all the cities and villages that were in <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>; for that there must
 be certainly one or two persons in every one of them that were at variance
 with me, and that they should be invited to come to oppose me as an enemy.
 He would also have them send this resolution of theirs to the city of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>,
 that its citizens, upon the knowledge of my being adjudged to be an enemy
 by the Galileans, might themselves I also confirm that determination. He
 said also, that when this was done, even those Galileans who were well
 affected to me, would desert me out of fear. When John had given them this
 counsel, what he had said was very agreeable to the rest of them. I was
 also made acquainted with these affairs about the third hour of the night,
 by the means of one Saccheus, who had belonged to them, but now deserted
 them and came over to me, and told me what they were about; so I perceived
 that no time was to be lost. Accordingly, I gave command to Jacob, an armed
 man of my guard, whom I esteemed faithful to me, to take two hundred men,
 and to guard the passages that led from Gahara to <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and to seize
 upon the passengers, and send them to me, especially such as were caught
 with letters about them: I also sent Jeremias himself, one of my friends,
 with six hundred armed men, to the borders of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, in order to watch
 the roads that led from this country to the city <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and gave him
 charge to lay hold of such as traveled with letters about them, to keep
 the men in bonds upon the place, but to send me the letters.</p>
 
<milestone n="47" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="242" unit="section" />
<p>When I had laid these commands upon them, I gave them orders, and
 bid them take their arms and bring three days' provision with them, and
 be with me the next day. I also parted those that were about me into four
 parts, and ordained those of them that were most faithful to me to be a
 guard to my body. I also set over them centurions, and commanded them to
 take care that not a soldier which they did not know should mingle himself
 among them. Now, on the fifth day following, when I was at Gabaroth, I
 found the entire plain that was before the village full of armed men, who
 were come out of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> to assist me: many others of the multitude, also,
 out of the village, ran along with me. But as soon as I had taken my place,
 and began to speak to them, they all made an acclamation, and called me
 the benefactor and savior of the country. And when I had made them my acknowledgments,
 and thanked them [for their affection to me], I also advised them to fight
 with nobody, <ref id="n19" target="ref19">
 nor to spoil the country; but to pitch their tents in the plain, and be
 content with their sustenance they had brought with them; for I told them
 that I had a mind to compose these troubles without shedding any blood.
 Now it came to pass, that on the very same day those who were sent by John
 with letters, fell among the guards whom I had appointed to watch the roads;
 so the men were themselves kept upon the place, as my orders were, but
 I got the letters, which were full of reproaches and lies; and I intended
 to fall upon these men, without saying a word of these matters to any body.</p>
 
<milestone n="48" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="246" unit="section" />
<p>Now, as soon as Jonathan and his companions heard of my coming,
 they took all their own friends, and John with them, and retired to the
 house of Jesus, which indeed was a large castle, and no way unlike a citadel;
 so they privately laid a band of armed men therein, and shut all the other
 doors but one, which they kept open, and they expected that I should come
 out of the road to them, to salute them. And indeed they had given orders
 to the armed men, that when I came they should let nobody besides me come
 in, but should exclude others; as supposing that, by this means, they should
 easily get me under their power: but they were deceived in their expectation;
 for I perceived what snares they had laid for me. Now, as soon as I was
 got off my journey, I took up my lodgings over against them, and pretended
 to be asleep; so Jonathan and his party, thinking that I was really asleep
 and at rest, made haste to go down into the plain, to persuade the people
 that I was an ill governor. But the matter proved otherwise; for, upon
 their appearance, there was a cry made by the Galileans immediately, declaring
 their good opinion of me as their governor; and they made a clamor against
 Jonathan and his partners for coming to them when they had suffered no
 harm, and as though they would overturn their happy settlement; and desired
 them by all means to go back again, for that they would never be persuaded
 to have any other to rule over them but myself. When I heard of this, I
 did not fear to go down into the midst of them; I went, therefore, myself
 down presently to hear what Jonathan and his companions said. As soon as
 I appeared, there was immediately an acclamation made to me by the whole
 multitude, and a cry in my commendation by them, who confessed their thanks
 was owing to me for my good government of them.</p>
 
<milestone n="49" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="252" unit="section" />
<p>When Jonathan and his companions heard this, they were in fear of
 their own lives, and in danger lest they should be assaulted by the Galileans
 on nay account; so they contrived how they might run away. But as they
 were not able to get off, for I desired them to stay, they looked down
 with concern at my words to them. I ordered, therefore, the multitude to
 restrain entirely their acclamations, and placed the most faithful of my
 armed men upon the avenues, to be a guard to us, lest John should unexpected
 fall upon us; and I encouraged the Galileans to take their weapons, lest
 they should be disturbed at their enemies, if any sudden insult should
 be made upon them. And then, in the first place, I put Jonathan and his
 partners in mind of their [former] letter, and after what manner they had
 written to me, and declared they were sent by the common consent to the
 people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, to make up the differences I had with John, and how
 they had desired me to come to them; and as I spake thus, I publicly showed
 that letter they had written, till they could not at all deny what they
 had done, the letter itself convicting them. I then said, "O Jonathan!
 and you that are sent with him as his colleagues, if I were to be judged
 as to my behavior, compared with that of John's, and had brought no more
 than two or three witnesses, <ref id="n20" target="ref20">
 good men and true, it is plain you had been forced, upon the examination
 of their characters beforehand, to discharge the accusations: that therefore
 you may be informed that I have acted well in the affairs of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, I
 think three witnesses too few to be brought by a man that hath done as
 he ought to do; so I gave you all these for witnesses. Inquire of them
 <ref id="n21" target="ref21"> how
 I have lived, and whether I have not behaved myself with all decency, and
 after a virtuous manner, among them. And I further conjure you, O Galileans!
 to hide no part of the truth, but to speak before these men as before judges,
 whether I have in any thing acted otherwise than well."</p>
 
<milestone n="50" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="259" unit="section" />
<p>While I was thus speaking, the united voices of all the people joined
 together, and called me their benefactor and savior, and attested to my
 former behavior, and exhorted me to continue so to do hereafter; and they
 all said, upon their oaths, that their wives had been preserved free from
 injuries, and that no one had ever been aggrieved by me. After this, I
 read to the Galileans two of those epistles which had been sent by Jonathan
 and his colleagues, and which those whom I had appointed to guard the road
 had taken, and sent to me. These were full of reproaches, and of lies,
 as if I had acted more like a tyrant than a governor against them, with
 many other things besides therein contained, which were no better indeed
 than impudent falsities. I also informed the multitude how I came by these
 letters, and that those who carried them delivered them up voluntarily;
 for I was not willing that my enemies should know any thing of the guards
 I had set, lest they should be afraid, and leave off writing hereafter.</p>
 
<milestone n="51" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="262" unit="section" />
<p>When the multitude heard these things, they were greatly provoked
 at Jonathan, and his colleagues that were with him, and were going to attack
 them, and kill them; and this they had certainly done, unless I had restrained
 the anger of the Galileans, and said, that" I forgave Jonathan and
 his colleagues what was past, if they would repent, and go to their own
 country, and tell those who sent them the truth, as to my conduct."
 When I had said this, I let them go, although I knew they would do nothing
 of what they had promised. But the multitude were very much enraged against
 them, and entreated me to give them leave to punish them for their insolence;
 yet did I try all methods to persuade them to spare the men; for I knew
 that every instance of sedition was pernicious to the public welfare. But
 the multitude was too angry with them to be dissuaded, and all of them
 went immediately to the house in which Jonathan and his colleagues abode.
 However, when I perceived that their rage could not be restrained, I got
 on horseback, and ordered the multitude to follow me to the village Sogane,
 which was twenty furlongs off Gabara; and by using this stratagem, I so
 managed myself, as not to appear to begin a civil war ,amongst them.</p>
 
<milestone n="52" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="266" unit="section" />
<p>But when I was come near Sogane, I caused the multitude to make
 a halt, and exhorted them not to be so easily provoked to anger, and to
 the inflicting such punishments as could not be afterwards recalled: I
 also gave order, that a hundred men, who were already in years, and were
 principal men among them, should get themselves ready to go to the city
 of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and should .make a complaint before the people of such as
 raised seditions in the country. And I said to them, that" in case
 they be moved with what you say, you shall desire the community to write
 to me, and to enjoin me to continue in <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and to order Jonathan and
 his colleagues to depart out of it." When I had suggested these instructions
 to them, and while they were getting themselves ready as fast as they could,
 I sent them on this errand the third day after they had been assembled:
 I also sent five hundred armed men with them [as a guard]. I then wrote
 to my friends in <placeName key="tgn,7016998" authname="tgn,7016998">Samaria</placeName>, to take care that they might safely pass through
 the country: for <placeName key="tgn,7016998" authname="tgn,7016998">Samaria</placeName> was already under the Romans, and it was absolutely
 necessary for those that go quickly [to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>] to pass through that
 country; for in that road you may, in three days' time, go from <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>
 to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>. I also went myself, and conducted the old men as far as the
 bounds of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and set guards in the roads, that it might not be easily
 known by any one that these men were gone. And when I had thus done, I
 went and abode at Japha.</p>
 
<milestone n="53" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="271" unit="section" />
<p>Now Jonathan and his colleagues, having failed of accomplishing
 what they would have done against me, sent John back to <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>, but went
 themselves to the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, expecting it would submit itself to
 them; and this was founded on a letter which Jesus, their then governor,
 had written them, promising that, if they came, the multitude would receive
 them, and choose to be under their government; so they went their ways
 with this expectation. But Silas, who, as I said, had been left curator
 of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> by me, informed me of this, and desired me to make haste thither.
 Accordingly, I complied with his advice immediately, and came thither;
 but found myself in danger of my life, from the following occasion: Jonathan
 and his colleagues had been at <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and had persuaded a great many
 of such as had a quarrel with me to desert me; but when they heard of my
 coming, they were in fear for themselves, and came to me; and when they
 had saluted me, they said, that I was a happy man in having behaved myself
 so well in the government of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>; and they congratulated me upon the
 honors that were paid me: for they said that my glory was a credit to them,
 since they had been my teachers and fellow citizens; and they said further,
 that it was but just that they should prefer my friendship to them rather
 than John's, and that they would have immediately gone home, but that they
 staid that they might deliver up John into my power; and when they said
 this they took their oaths of it, and those such as are most tremendous
 amongst us, and such as I did not think fit to disbelieve. However, they
 desired me to lodge some where else, because the next day was the sabbath,
 and that it was not fit the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> should be disturbed [on that
 day].</p>
 
<milestone n="54" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="276" unit="section" />
<p>So I suspected nothing, and went away to Tarichese; yet did I withal
 leave some to make inquiry in the city how matters went, and whether any
 thing was said about me: I also set many persons all the way that led from
 Tarichese to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, that they might communicate from one to another,
 if they learned any news from those that were left in the city. On the
 next day, therefore, they all came into the Proseucha; <ref id="n22" target="ref22"><placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529"></placeName>
 it was a large edifice, and capable of receiving a great number of people;
 thither Jonathan went in, and though he durst not openly speak of a revolt,
 yet did he say that their city stood in need of a better governor than
 it then had. But Jesus, who was the ruler, made no scruple to speak out,
 and said openly," O fellow citizens! it is better for you to be in
 subjection to four than to one; and those such as are of high birth, and
 not without reputation for their wisdom;" and pointed to Jonathan
 and his colleagues. Upon his saying this, Justus came in and commended
 him for what he had said, and persuaded some of the people to be of his
 mind also. But the multitude were not pleased with what was said, and had
 certainly gone into a tumult, unless the sixth hour, which was now come,
 had dissolved the assembly, at which hour our laws require us to go to
 dinner on sabbath days; so Jonathan and his colleagues put off their council
 till the next day, and went off without success. When I was informed of
 these affairs, I determined to go to the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> in the morning.
 Accordingly, on the next day, about the first hour of the day, I came from
 Tarichee, and found the multitude already assembled in the Proseucha; but
 on what account they were gotten together, those that were assembled did
 not know. But when Jonathan and his colleagues saw me there unexpectedly,
 they were in disorder; after which they raised a report of their own contrivance,
 that Roman horsemen were seen at a place called Union, in the borders of
 <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, thirty furlongs distant from the city. Upon which report, Jonathan
 and his colleagues cunningly exhorted me not to neglect this matter, nor
 to suffer the land to be spoiled by the enemy. And this they said with
 a design to remove me out of the city, under the pretense of the want of
 extraordinary assistance, while they might dispose the city to be my enemy.</p>
 
<milestone n="55" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="283" unit="section" />
<p>As for myself, although I knew of their design, yet did I comply
 with what they proposed, lest the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> should have occasion
 to suppose that I was not careful of their security. I therefore went out;
 but, when I was at the place, I found not the least footsteps of any enemy,
 so I returned as fast as ever I could, and found the whole council assembled,
 and the body of the people gotten together, and Jonathan and his colleagues
 bringing vehement accusations against me, as one who had no concern to
 ease them of the burdens of war, and as one that lived luxuriously. And
 as they were discoursing thus, they produced four letters, as written to
 them from some people that lived at the borders of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, imploring that
 they would come to their assistance, for that there was an army of Romans,
 both horsemen and footmen, who would come and lay waste the country on
 the third day; they desired them also to make haste, and not to overlook
 them. When the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> heard this, they thought they spake truth,
 and made a clamor against me, and said I ought not to sit still, but to
 go away to the assistance of their countrymen. Hereupon I said (for I understood
 the meaning of Jonathan and his colleagues) that I was ready to comply
 with what they proposed, and without delay to march to the war which they
 spake of, yet did I advise them, at the same time, that since these letters
 declared that the Romans would make their assault in four several places,
 they should part their forces into five bodies, and make Jonathan and his
 colleagues generals of each body of them, because it was fit for brave
 men, not only to give counsel, but to take the place of leaders, and assist
 their countrymen when such a necessity pressed them; for, said I, it is
 not possible for me to lead more than one party. This advice of mine greatly
 pleased the multitude; so they compelled them to go forth to the war. But
 their designs were put into very much disorder, because they had not done
 what they had designed to do, on account of my stratagem, which was opposite
 to their undertakings.</p>
 
<milestone n="56" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="290" unit="section" />
<p>Now there was one whose name was Ananias (a wicked man he was, and
 very mischievous); he proposed that a general religious fast <ref id="n23" target="ref23"><placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529"></placeName>
 should be appointed the next day for all the people, and gave order that
 at the same hour they should come to the same place, without any weapons,
 to make it manifest before God, that while they obtained his assistance,
 they thought all these weapons useless. This he said, not out of piety,
 but that they might catch me and my friends unarmed. Now, I was hereupon
 forced to comply, lest I should appear to despise a proposal that tended
 to piety. As soon, therefore, as we were gone home, Jonathan and his colleagues
 wrote to John to come to them in the morning, and desiring him to come
 with as many soldiers as he possibly could, for that they should then be
 able easily to get me into their hands, and to do all they desired to do.
 When John had received this letter, he resolved to comply with it. As for
 myself, on the next day, I ordered two of the guards of my body, whom I
 esteemed the most courageous and most faithful, to hide daggers under their
 garments, and to go along with me, that we might defend ourselves, if any
 attack should be made upon us by our enemies. I also myself took my breastplate,
 and girded on my sword, so that it might be, as far as it was possible,
 concealed, and came into the Proseucha.</p>
 
<milestone n="57" unit="Whiston section" />
<milestone n="294" unit="section" />
<p>Now Jesus, who was the ruler, commanded that they should exclude
 all that came with me, for he kept the door himself, and suffered none
 but his friends to go in. And while we were engaged in the duties of the
 day, and had betaken ourselves to our prayers, Jesus got up, and inquired
 of me what was become of the vessels that were taken out of the king's
 palace, when it was burnt down [and] of that uncoined silver; and in whose
 possession they now were? This he said, in order to drive away time till
 John should come. I said that Capellus, and the ten principal men of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 had them all; and I told him that they might ask them whether I told a
 lie or not. And when they said they had them, he asked me, What is become
 of those twenty pieces of gold which thou didst receive upon the sale of
 a certain weight of uncoined money? I replied, that I had given them to
 those ambassadors of theirs, as a maintenance for them, when they were
 sent by them to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>. So Jonathan and his colleagues said that I had
 not done well to pay the ambassadors out of the public money. And when
 the multitude were very angry at them for this, for they perceived the
 wickednes of the men, I understood that a tumult was going to arise; and
 being desirous to provoke the people to a greater rage against the men,
 I said, "But if I have not done well in paying our ambassadors out
 of the public stock, leave off your anger at me, for I will repay the twenty
 pieces of gold myself."</p>
 
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<p>When I had said this, Jonathan and his colleagues held their peace;
 but the people were still more irritated against them, upon their openly
 showing their unjust ill-will to me. When Jesus saw this change in file
 people, he ordered them to depart, but desired the senate to stay; for
 that they could not examine things of such a nature in a tumult: and as
 the people were crying out that they would not leave me alone, there came
 one and told Jesus and his friends privately, that John and his armed men
 were at hand: whereupon Jonathan and his colleagues, being able to contain
 themselves no longer, (and perhaps the providence of God hereby procuring
 my deliverance, for had not this been so, I had certainly been destroyed
 by John,) said, "O you people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>! leave off this inquiry
 about the twenty pieces of gold; for Josephus hath not deserved to die
 for them; but he hath deserved it by his desire of tyrannizing, and by
 cheating the multitude of the Galileans with his speeches, in order to
 gain the dominion over them." When he had said this, they presently
 laid hands upon me, and endeavored to kill me: but as soon as those that
 were with me saw what they did, they drew their swords, and threatened
 to smite them, if they offered any violence to me. The people also took
 up stones, and were about to throw them at Jonathan; and so they snatched
 me from the violence of my enemies.</p>
 
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<milestone n="304" unit="section" />
<p>But as I was gone out a little way, I was just upon meeting John,
 who was marching with his armed men. So I was afraid of him, and turned
 aside, and escaped by a narrow passage to the lake, and seized on a ship,
 and embarked in it, and sailed over to Tarichese. So, beyond my expectation,
 I escaped this danger. Whereupon I presently sent for the chief of the
 Galileans, and told them after what manner, against all faith given, I
 had been very near to destruction from Jonathan and his colleagues, and
 the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. Upon which the multitude of the Galileans were
 very. angry, and encouraged me to delay no longer to make war upon them,
 but to permit them to go against John, and utterly to destroy him, as well
 as Jonathan and his colleagues. However, I restrained them, though they
 were in such a rage, and desired them to tarry a while, till we should
 be informed what orders those ambassadors, that were sent by them to the
 city of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, should bring thence; for I told them that it was best
 for them to act according to their determination; whereupon they were prevailed
 on. At which time, also, John, when the snares he had laid did not take
 effect, returned back to <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>.</p>
 
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<p>Now, in a few days, those ambassadors whom he had sent, came back
 again and informed us, that the people were greatly provoked at Ananus,
 and Simon the son of Gamaliel, and their friends; that, without any public
 determination, they had sent to <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and had done their endeavors that
 I might be turned out of the government. The ambassadors said further,
 that the people were ready to burn their houses. They also brought letters,
 whereby the chief men of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, at the earnest petition of the people,
 confirmed me in the government of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and enjoined Jonathan and his
 colleagues to return home quickly. When I had gotten these letters, I came
 to the village <placeName key="tgn,7002589" authname="tgn,7002589">Arbela</placeName>, where I procured an assembly of the Galileans to
 meet, and bid the ambassadors declare to them the anger of the people of
 <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> at what had been done by Jonathan and his colleagues, and how
 much they hated their wicked doings, and how they had confirmed me in the
 government of their country, as also what related to the order they had
 in writing for Jonathan and his colleagues to return home. So I immediately
 sent them the letter, and bid him that carried it to inquire, as well as
 he could, how they intended to act [on this occasion.]</p>
 
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<p>Now, when they had received that letter, and were thereby greatly
 disturbed, they sent for John, and for the senators of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and for
 the principal men of the Gabarens, and proposed to hold a council, and
 desired them to consider what was to be done by them. However, the governors
 of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> were greatly disposed to keep the government to themselves;
 for they said it was not fit to desert their city, now it was committed
 to their trust, and that otherwise I should not delay to fall upon them;
 for they pretended falsely that so I had threatened to do. Now John was
 not only of their opinion, but advised them, that two of them should go
 to accuse me before the multitude [at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>], that I do not manage
 the affairs of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> as I ought to do; and that they would easily persuade
 the people, because of their dignity, and because the whole multitude are
 very mutable. When, therefore, it appeared that John had suggested the
 wisest advice to them, they resolved that two of them, Jonathan and Ananias,
 should go to the people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and the other two [Simon and Joazar]
 should be left behind to tarry at Tiberins. They also took along with them
 a hundred soldiers for their guard.</p>
 
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<p>However, the governors of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> took care to have their city
 secured with walls, and commanded their inhabitants to take their arms.
 They also sent for a great many soldiers from John, to assist them against
 me, if there should be occasion for them. Now John was at <placeName key="tgn,7001406" authname="tgn,7001406">Gischala</placeName>. Jonathan,
 therefore, and those that were with him, when they were departed from <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 and as soon as they were come to Dabaritta, a village that lay in the utmost
 parts of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, in the great plain, they, about midnight, fell among
 the guards I had set, who both commanded them to lay aside their weapons,
 and kept them in bonds upon the place, as I had charged them to do. This
 news was written to me by Levi, who had the command of that guard committed
 to him by me. Hereupon I said nothing of it for two days; and, pretending
 to know nothing about it, I sent a message to the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and
 advised them to lay their arms aside, and to dismiss their men, that they
 might go home. But, supposing that Jonathan, and those that were with him,
 were already arrived at <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, they made reproachful answers to me;
 yet was I not terrified thereby, but contrived another stratagem against
 them, for I did not think it agreeable with piety to kindle the fire of
 war against the citizens. As I was desirous to draw those men away from
 <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, I chose out ten thousand of the best of my armed men, and divided
 them into three bodies, and ordered them to go privately, and lie still
 as an ambush, in the villages. I also led a thousand into another village,
 which lay indeed in the mountains, as did the others, but only four furlongs
 distant from <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>; and gave orders, that when they saw my signal, they
 should come down immediately, while I myself lay with my soldiers in the
 sight of every body. Hereupon the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, at the sight of me,
 came running out of the city perpetually, and abused me greatly. Nay, their
 madness was come to that height, that they made a decent bier for me, and,
 standing about it, they mourned over me in the way of jest and sport; and
 I could not but be myself in a pleasant humor upon the sight of this madness
 of theirs.</p>
 
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<p>And now being desirous to catch Simon by a wile, and Joazar with
 him, I sent a message to them, and desired them to come a little way out
 of the city, and many of their friends to guard them; for I said I would
 come down to them, and make a league with them, and divide the government
 of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> with them. Accordingly, Simon was deluded on account of his
 imprudence, and out of the hopes of gain, and did not delay to come; but
 Joazar, suspecting snares were laid for him, staid behind. So when Simon
 was come out, and his friends with him, for his guard, I met him, and saluted
 him with great civility, and professed that I was obliged to him for his
 coming up to me; but a little while afterward I walked along with him as
 though I would say something to him by myself; and when I had drawn him
 a good way from his friends, I took him about the middle, and gave him
 to my friends that were with me, to carry him into a village; and, commanding
 my armed men to come down, I with them made an assault upon <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. Now,
 as the fight grew hot on both sides, and the soldiers belonging to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>
 were in a fair way to conquer me, (for my armed men were already fled away,)
 I saw the posture of my affairs; and encouraging those that were with me,
 I pursued those of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, even when they were already conquerors, into
 the city. I also sent another band of soldiers into the city by the lake,
 and gave them orders to set on fire the first house they could seize upon.
 When this was done, the people of Tiberinas thought that their city was
 taken by force, and so threw down their arms for fear, and implored, they,
 their wives, and children, that I would spare their city. So I was over-persuaded
 by their entreaties, and restrained the soldiers from the vehemency with
 which they pursued them; while I myself, upon the coming on of the evening,
 returned back with my soldiers, and went to refresh myself. I also invited
 Simon to sup with me, and comforted him on occasion of what had happened;
 and I promised that I would send him safe and secure to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and
 withal would give him provisions for his journey thither.</p>
 
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<p>But on the next day, I brought ten thousand armed men with me, and
 came to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. I then sent for the principal men of the multitude into
 the public place, and enjoined them to tell me who were the authors of
 the revolt; and when they told me who the men were, I sent them bound to
 the city Jotapata. But as to Jonathan and Ananias, I freed them from their
 bonds, and gave them provisions for their journey, together with Simon
 and Joazar, and five hundred armed men who should guard them; and so I
 sent them to <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>. The people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> also came to me again, and
 desired that I would forgive them for what they had done; and they said
 they would amend what they had done amiss with regard to me, by their fidelity
 for the time to come; and they besought me to preserve what spoils remained
 upon the plunder of the city, for those that had lost them. Accordingly,
 I enjoined those that had got them, to bring them all before us; and when
 they did not comply for a great while, and I saw one of the soldiers that
 were about me with a garment on that was more splendid than ordinary, I
 asked him whence he had it; and when he replied that he had it out of the
 plunder of the city, I had him punished with stripes; and I threatened
 all the rest to inflict a severer punishment upon them, unless they produced
 before us whatsoever they had plundered; and when a great many spoils were
 brought together, I restored to every one of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> what they claimed
 to be their own.</p>
 
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<p>And now I am come to this part of my narration, I have a mind to
 say a few things to Justus, who hath himself written a history concerning
 these affairs, as also to others who profess to write history, but have
 little regard to truth, and are not afraid, either out of ill-will or good-will
 to some persons, to relate falsehoods. These men do like those who compose
 forged deeds and conveyances; and because they are not brought to the like
 punishment with them, they have no regard to truth. When, therefore, Justus
 undertook to write about these facts, and about the Jewish war, that he
 might appear to have been an industrious man, he falsified in what he related
 about me, and could not speak truth even about his own country; whence
 it is that, being belied by him, I am under a necessity to make my defense;
 and so I shall say what I have concealed till now. And let no one wonder
 that I have not told the world these things a great while ago. For although
 it be necessary for an historian to write the truth, yet is such a one
 not bound severely to animadvert on the wickedness of certain men; not
 out of any favor to them, but out of an author's own moderation. How then
 comes it to pass, O Justus! thou most sagacious of writers, (that I may
 address myself to him as if he were here present,) for so thou boastest
 of thyself, that I and the Galileans have been the authors of that sedition
 which thy country engaged in, both against the Romans and against the king
 [Agrippa, junior] For before ever I was appointed governor of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName> by
 the community of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, both thou and all the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> had
 not only taken up arms, but had made war with <placeName key="tgn,6001692" authname="tgn,6001692">Decapolis</placeName> of <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName>. Accordingly,
 thou hadst ordered their villages to be burnt, and a domestic servant of
 thine fell in the battle. Nor is it I only who say this; but so it is written
 in the Commentaries of Vespasian, the emperor; as also how the inhabitants
 of <placeName key="tgn,6001692" authname="tgn,6001692">Decapolis</placeName> came clamoring to Vespasian at <placeName key="tgn,7000640" authname="tgn,7000640">Ptolemais</placeName>, and desired that
 thou, who wast the author [of that war], mightest be brought to punishment.
 And thou hadst certainly been punished at the command of Vespasian, had
 not king Agrippa, who had power given him to have thee put to death, at
 the earnest entreaty of his sister <placeName key="tgn,2164238" authname="tgn,2164238">Bernice</placeName>, changed the punishment from
 death into a long imprisonment. Thy political administration of affairs
 afterward doth also clearly discover both thy other behavior in life, and
 that thou wast the occasion of thy country's revolt from the Romans; plain
 signs of which I shall produce presently. I have also a mind to say a few
 things to the rest of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> on thy account, and to demonstrate
 to those that light upon this history, that you bare no good-will, neither
 to the Romans, nor to the king. To be sure, the greatest cities of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>,
 O Justus! were <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, and thy country <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. But <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, situated
 in the very midst of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, and having many villages about it, and able
 with ease to have been bold and troublesome to the Romans, if they had
 so pleased, yet did it resolve to continue faithful to those their masters,
 and at the same time excluded me out of their city, and prohibited all
 their citizens from joining with the Jews in the war; and, that they might
 be out of danger from me, they, by a wile, got leave of me to fortify their
 city with walls: they also, of their own accord, admitted of a garrison
 of Roman legions, sent them by Cestlus Gallus, who was then president of
 <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName>, and so had me in contempt, though I was then very powerful, and
 all were greatly afraid of me; and at the same time that the greatest of
 our cities, <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, was besieged, and that temple of ours, which belonged
 to us all, was in danger of falling under the enemy's power, they sent
 no assistance thither, as not willing to have it thought they would bear
 arms against the Romans. But as for thy country, O Justus: situated upon
 the lake of Gennesareth, and distance from Hippos thirty furlongs, from
 Gadara sixty, and from <placeName key="tgn,7001403" authname="tgn,7001403">Scythopolis</placeName>, which was under the king's jurisdiction,
 a hundred and twenty; when there was no Jewish city near, it might easily
 have preserved its fidelity [to the Romans,] if it had so pleased them
 to do, for the city and its people had plenty of weapons. But, as thou
 sayest, I was then the author [of their revolts]. And pray, O Justus! who
 was that author afterwards? For thou knowest that I was in the power of
 the Romans before <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> was besieged, and before the same time Jotapata
 was taker by force, as well as many other fortresses, and a great many
 of the Galileans fell in the war. It was therefore then a proper time,
 when you were certainly freed from any fear on my account, to throw away
 your weapons, and to demonstrate to the king and to the Romans, that it
 was not of choice, but as forced by necessity, that you fell into the war
 against them; but you staid till Vespasian came himself as far as your
 walls, with his whole army; and then you did indeed lay aside your weapons
 out of fear, and your city had for certain been taken by force, unless
 Vespasian had complied with the king's supplication for you, and had excused
 your madness. It was not I, therefore, who was the author of this, but
 your own inclinations to war. Do not you remember how often I got you under
 my power, and yet put none of you to death? Nay, you once fell into a tumult
 one against another, and slew one hundred and eighty-five of your citizens,
 not on account of your good-will to the king and to the Romans, but on
 account of your own wickedness, and this while I was besieged by the Romans
 in Jotapata. Nay, indeed, were there not reckoned up two thousand of the
 people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> during the siege of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, some of whom were slain,
 and the rest caught and carried captives? But thou wilt pretend that thou
 didst not engage in the war, since thou didst flee to the king. Yes, indeed,
 thou didst flee to him; but I say it was out of fear of me. Thou sayest,
 indeed, that it is I who am a wicked man. But then, for what reason was
 it that king Agrippa, who procured thee thy life when thou wast condemned
 to die by Vespian, and who bestowed so much riches upon thee, did twice
 afterward put thee in bonds, and as often obliged thee to run away from
 thy country, and, when he had once ordered thee to be put to death, he
 granted thee a pardon at the earnest desire of <placeName key="tgn,2164238" authname="tgn,2164238">Bernice</placeName>? And when (after
 so many of thy wicked pranks) he made thee his secretary, he caught thee
 falsifying his epistles, and drove thee away from his sight. But I shall
 not inquire accurately into these matters of scandal against thee. Yet
 cannot I but wonder at thy impudence, when thou hast the assurance to say,
 that thou hast better related these affairs [of the war] than have all
 the others that have written about them, whilst thou didst not know what
 was done in <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>; for thou wast then at <placeName key="tgn,7002857" authname="tgn,7002857">Berytus</placeName> with the king; nor didst
 thou know how much the Romans suffered at the siege of Jotapata, or what
 miseries they brought upon us; nor couldst thou learn by inquiry what I
 did during that siege myself; for all those that might afford such information
 were quite destroyed in that siege. But perhaps thou wilt say, thou hast
 written of what was done against the people of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> exactly. But how
 should that be? for neither wast thou concerned in that war, nor hast thou
 read the commentaries of Caesar; of which we have evident proof, because
 thou hast contradicted those commentaries of Caesar in thy history. But
 if thou art so hardy as to affirm, that thou hast written that history
 better than all the rest, why didst thou not publish thy history while
 the emperors Vespasian and Titus, the generals in that war, as well as
 king Agrippa and his family, who were men very well skilled in the learning
 of the Greeks, were all alive? for thou hast had it written these twenty
 years, and then mightest thou have had the testimony of thy accuracy. But
 now when these men are no longer with us, and thou thinkest thou canst
 not be contradicted, thou venturest to publish it. But then I was not in
 like manner afraid of my own writing, but I offered my books to the emperors
 themselves, when the facts were almost under men's eyes; for I was conscious
 to myself, that I had observed the truth of the facts; and as I expected
 to have their attestation to them, so I was not deceived in such expectation.
 Moreover, I immediately presented my history to many other persons, some
 of whom were concerned in the war, as was king Agrippa and some of his
 kindred. Now the emperor Titus was so desirous that the knowledge of these
 affairs should be taken from these books alone, that he subscribed his
 own hand to them, and ordered that they should be published; and for king
 Agrippa, he wrote me sixty-two letters, and attested to the truth of what
 I had therein delivered; two of which letters I have here subjoined, and
 thou mayst thereby know their contents: - "King Agrippa to Josephus,
 however, when thou comest to me, I will inform thee of a great many things
 which thou dost not know." So when this history was perfected, Agrippa,
 neither by way of flattery, which was not agreeable to him, nor by way
 of irony, as thou wilt say, (for he was entirely a stranger to such an
 evil disposition of mind,) but he wrote this by way of attestation to what
 was true, as all that read histories may do. And so much shall be said
 concerning Justus <ref id="n24" target="ref24"><placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529"></placeName><placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529"></placeName><placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529"></placeName><placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250"></placeName><placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371"></placeName>
 which I am obliged to add by way of digression.</p>
 
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<p>Now, when I had settled the affairs of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and had assembled
 my friends as a sanhedrim, I consulted what I should do as to John. Whereupon
 it appeared to be the opinion of all the Galileans, that I should arm them
 all, and march against John, and punish him as the author of all the disorders
 that had happened. Yet was not I pleased with their determination; as purposing
 to compose these troubles without bloodshed. Upon this I exhorted them
 to use the utmost care to learn the names of all that were under John;
 which when they had done, and I thereby was apprized who the men were,
 I published an edict, wherein I offered security and my right hand to such
 of John's party as had a mind to repent; and I allowed twenty days' time
 to such as would take this most advantageous course for themselves. I also
 threatened, that unless they threw down their arms, I would burn their
 houses, and expose their goods to public sale. When the men heard of this,
 they were in no small disorder, and deserted John; and to the number of
 four thousand threw down their arms, and came to me. So that no others
 staid with John but his own citizens, and about fifteen hundred strangers
 that came from the metropolis of <placeName key="tgn,7002862" authname="tgn,7002862">Tyre</placeName>; and when John saw that he had been
 outwitted by my stratagem, he continued afterward in his own country, and
 was in great fear of me.</p>
 
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<p>But about this time it was that the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> grew insolent,
 and took up arms, out of a confidence they had in the strength of their
 walls, and because they saw me engaged in other affairs also. So they sent
 to Cestius Gallus, who was president of <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName>, and desired that he would
 either come quickly to them, and take their city under his protection,
 or send them a garrison. Accordingly, Gallus promised them to come, but
 did not send word when he would come: and when I had learned so much, I
 took the soldiers that were with me, and made an assault upon the people
 of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, and took the city by force. The Galileans took this opportunity,
 as thinking they had now a proper time for showing their hatred to them,
 since they bore ill-will to that city also. They then exerted themselves,
 as if they would destroy them all utterly, with those that sojourned there
 also. So they ran upon them, and set their houses on fire, as finding them
 without inhabitants; for the men, out of fear, ran together to the citadel.
 So the Galileans carried off every thing, and omitted no kind of desolation
 which they could bring upon their countrymen. When I saw this, I was exceedingly
 troubled at it, and commanded them to leave off, and put them in mind that
 it was not agreeable to piety to do such things to their countrymen: but
 since they neither would hearken to what I exhorted, nor to what I commanded
 them to do, (for the hatred they bore to the people there was too hard
 for my exhortations to them,) I bade those my friends, who were most faithful
 to me, and were about me, to give on reports, as if the Romans were falling
 upon the other part of the city with a great army; and this I did, that,
 by such a report being spread abroad, I might restrain the violence of
 the Galileans, and preserve the city of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>. And at length this stratagem
 had its effect; for, upon hearing this report, they were in fear for themselves,
 and so they left off plundering and ran away; and this more especially,
 because they saw me, their general, do the same also; for, that I might
 cause this report to be believed, I pretended to be in fear as well as
 they. Thus were the inhabitants of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> unexpectedly preserved by
 this contrivance of mine.</p>
 
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<p>Nay, indeed, <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> had like to have been plundered by the Galileans
 also upon the following occasion: - The chief men of the senate wrote to
 the king, and desired that he would come to them, and take possession of
 their city. The king promised to come, and wrote a letter in answer to
 theirs, and gave it to one of his bed-chamber, whose name was Crispus,
 and who was by birth a Jew, to carry it to <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>. When the Galileans
 knew that this man carried such a letter, they caught him, and brought
 him to me; but as soon as the whole multitude heard of it, they were enraged,
 and betook themselves to their arms. So a great many of them together from
 all quarters the next day, and came to the city Asochis, where I then lodged,
 and made heavy clamors, and called the city of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> a traitor to them,
 and a friend to the king; and desired leave of me to go down and utterly
 destroy it; for they bore the like ill-will to the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 as they did to those of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>.</p>
 
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<p>When I heard this, I was in doubt what to do, and hesitated by what
 means I might deliver <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> from the rage of the Galileans; for I could
 not deny that those of Tiborias had written to the king, and invited him
 to come to them; for his letters to them, in answer thereto, would fully
 prove the truth of that. So I sat a long time musing with myself, and then
 said to them, "I know well enough that the people of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> have
 offended; nor shall I forbid you to plunder the city. However, such things
 ought to be done with discretion; for they of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> have not been the
 only betrayers of our liberty, but many of the most eminent patriots of
 the Galileans, as they pretended to be, have done the same. Tarry therefore
 till I shall thoroughly find out those authors of our danger, and then
 you shall have them all at once under your power, with all such as you
 shall yourselves bring in also." Upon my saying this, I pacifie the
 multitude, and they left off their anger, and went their ways; and I gave
 orders that he who brought the king's letters should be put into bonds;
 but in a few days I pretended that I was obliged, by a necessary affair
 of my own, to out of the kingdom. I then called Crispus privately, and
 ordered him to make the soldier that kept him drunk, and to run away to
 the king. So when <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> was in danger of being utterly destroyed a second
 time, it escaped the danger by my skillful management, and the care that
 I had for its preservation.</p>
 
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<p>About this time it was that Justus, the son of Pistus, without my
 knowledge, ran away to the king; the occasion of which I will here relate.
 Upon the beginning of the war between the Jews and Romans, the people of
 <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName> resolved to submit to the king, and not to revolt from the Romans;
 while Justus tried to persuade them to betake themselves to their arms,
 as being himself desirous of innovations, and having hopes of obtaining
 the government of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>, as well as of his own country [<placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>] also.
 Yet did he not obtain what he hoped for, because the Galileans bore ill-will
 to those of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>, and this on account of their anger at what miseries
 they had suffered from them before the war; thence it was that they would
 not endure that Justus should be their governor. I myself also, who had
 been intrusted by the community of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> with the government of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>,
 did frequently come to that degree of rage at Justus, that I had almost
 resolved to kill him, as not able to bear his mischievous disposition.
 He was therefore much afraid of me, lest at length my passion should come
 to extremity; so he went to the king, as supposing that he would dwell
 better and more safely with him.</p>
 
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<p>Now, when the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> had, in so surprising a manner,
 escaped their first danger, they sent to Cestius Gallus, and desired him
 to come to them immediately, and take possession of their city, or else
 to send forces sufficient to repress all their enemies' incursions upon
 them; and at the last they did prevail with Gallus to send them a considerable
 army, both of horse and foot, which came in the night time, and which they
 admitted into the city. But when the country round about it was harassed
 by the Roman army, I took those soldiers that were about me, and came to
 Garisme, where I cast up a bank, a good way off the city <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>; and
 when I was at twenty furlongs distance, I came upon it by night, and made
 an assault upon its walls with my forces; and when I had ordered a considerable
 number of my soldiers to scale them with ladders, I became master of the
 greatest part of the city. But soon after, our unacquaintedness with the
 places forced us to retire, after we had killed twelve of the Roman footmen,
 and two horsemen, and a few of the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName>, with the loss of
 only a single man of our own. And when it afterwards came to a battle in
 the plain against the horsemen, and we had undergone the dangers of it
 courageously for a long time, we were beaten; for upon the Romans encompassing
 me about, my soldiers were afraid, and fell back. There fell in that battle
 one of those that had been intrusted to guard my body; his name was Justus,
 who at this time had the same post with the king. At the same time also
 there came forces, both horsemen and footmen, from the king, and Sylla
 their commander, who was the captain of his guard: this Sylla pitched his
 camp at five furlongs' distance from Julias, and set a guard upon the roads,
 both that which led to <placeName key="tgn,1027005" authname="tgn,1027005">Cana</placeName>, and that which led to the fortress Gamala,
 that he might hinder their inhabitants from getting provisions out of <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>.</p>
 
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<p>As soon as I had gotten intelligence of this, I sent two thousand
 armed men, and a captain over them, whose name was Jeremiah, who raised
 a bank a furlong off Julias, near to the river <placeName key="tgn,1125225" authname="tgn,1125225">Jordan</placeName>, and did no more
 than skirmish with the enemy; till I took three thousand soldiers myself,
 and came to them. But on the next day, when I had laid an ambush in a certain
 valley, not far from the banks, I provoked those that belonged to the king
 to come to a battle, and gave orders to my own soldiers to turn their backs
 upon them, until they should have drawn the enemy away from their camp,
 and brought them out into the field, which was done accordingly; for Sylla,
 supposing that our party did really run away, was ready to pursue them,
 when our soldiers that lay in ambush took them on their backs, and put
 them all into great disorder. I also immediately made a sudden turn with
 my own forces, and met those of the king's party, and put them to flight.
 And I had performed great things that day, if a certain fate had not been
 my hinderance; for the horse on which I rode, and upon whose back I fought,
 fell into a quagmire, and threw me on the ground, and I was bruised on
 my wrist, and carried into a village named Cepharnome, or <placeName key="tgn,7001364" authname="tgn,7001364">Capernaum</placeName>. When
 my soldiers heard of this, they were afraid I had been worse hurt than
 I was; and so they did not go on with their pursuit any further, but returned
 in very great concern for me. I therefore sent for the physicians, and
 while I was under their hands, I continued feverish that day; and as the
 physicians directed, I was that night removed to Taricheee.</p>
 
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<p>When Sylla and his party were informed what happened to me, they
 took courage again; and understanding that the watch was negligently kept
 in our camp, they by night placed a body of horsemen in ambush beyond <placeName key="tgn,1125225" authname="tgn,1125225">Jordan</placeName>,
 and when it was day they provoked us to fight; and as we did not refuse
 it, but came into the plain, their horsemen appeared out of that ambush
 in which they had lain, and put our men into disorder, and made them run
 away; so they slew six men of our side. Yet did they not go off with the
 victory at last; for when they heard that some armed men were sailed from
 Taricheae to Juli, they were afraid, and retired.</p>
 
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<p>It was not now long before Vespasian came to <placeName key="tgn,7002862" authname="tgn,7002862">Tyre</placeName>, and king Agrippa
 with him; but the Tyrians began to speak reproachfully of the king, and
 called him an enemy to the Romans. For they said that Philip, the general
 of his army, had betrayed the royal palace and the Roman forces that were
 in <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and that it was done by his command. When Vespasian heard
 of this report, he rebuked the Tyrians for abusing a man who was both a
 king and a friend to the Romans; but he exhorted the king to send Philip
 to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName>, to answer for what he had done before Nero. But when Philip was
 sent thither, he did not come into the sight of Nero, for he found him
 very near death, on account of the troubles that then happened, and a civil
 war; and so he returned to the king. But when Vespasian was come to <placeName key="tgn,7000640" authname="tgn,7000640">Ptolemais</placeName>,
 the chief men of <placeName key="tgn,6001692" authname="tgn,6001692">Decapolis</placeName> of <placeName key="tgn,1000140" authname="tgn,1000140">Syria</placeName> made a clamor against Justus of <placeName key="tgn,7017529" authname="tgn,7017529">Tiberias</placeName>,
 because he had set their villages on fire: so Vespasian delivered him to
 the king, to he put to death by those under the king's jurisdiction; yet
 did the king only put him into bonds, and concealed what he had done from
 Vespasian, as I have before related. But the people of <placeName key="tgn,7016809" authname="tgn,7016809">Sepphoris</placeName> met Vespasian,
 and saluted him, and had forces sent him, with Placidus their commander:
 he also went up with them, as I also followed them, till Vespasian came
 into <placeName key="tgn,7000250" authname="tgn,7000250">Galilee</placeName>. As to which coming of his, and after what manner it was ordered,
 and how he fought his first battle with me near the village Taricheae,
 and how from thence they went to Jotapata, and how I was taken alive, and
 bound, and how I was afterward loosed, with all that was done by me in
 the Jewish war, and during the siege of <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, I have accurately related
 them in the books concerning the War of the Jews. However, it will, I think,
 he fit for me to add now an account of those actions of my life which I
 have not related in that book of the Jewish war.</p>
 
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<p>For when the siege of Jotapata was over, and I was among the Romans,
 I was kept with much Care, by means of the great respect that Vespasian
 showed me. Moreover, at his command, I married a virgin, who was from among
 the captives of that country <ref id="n25" target="ref25">
 yet did she not live with me long, but was divorced, upon my being freed
 from my bonds, and my going to <placeName key="perseus,Alexandria" authname="perseus,Alexandria">Alexandria</placeName>. However, I married another wife
 at <placeName key="perseus,Alexandria" authname="perseus,Alexandria">Alexandria</placeName>, and was thence sent, together with Titus, to the siege of
 <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName>, and was frequently in danger of being put to death; while both
 the Jews were very desirous to get me under their power, in order to haw
 me punished. And the Romans also, whenever they were beaten, supposed that
 it was occasioned by my treachery, and made continual clamors to the emperors,
 and desired that they would bring me to punishment, as a traitor to them:
 but Titus Caesar was well acquainted with the uncertain fortune of war,
 and returned no answer to the soldiers' vehement solicitations against
 me. Moreover, when the city <placeName key="tgn,7001371" authname="tgn,7001371">Jerusalem</placeName> was taken by force, Titus Caesar
 persuaded me frequently to take whatsoever I would of the ruins of my country;
 and did that he gave me leave so to do. But when my country was destroyed,
 I thought nothing else to be of any value, which I could take and keep
 as a comfort under my calamities; so I made this request to Titus, that
 my family might have their liberty: I had also the holy books <ref id="n26" target="ref26">
 by Titus's concession. Nor was it long after that I asked of him the life
 of my brother, and of fifty friends with him, and was not denied. When
 I also went once to the temple, by the permission of Titus, where there
 were a great multitude of captive women and children, I got all those that
 I remembered as among my own friends and acquaintances to be set free,
 being in number about one hundred and ninety; and so I delivered them without
 their paying any price of redemption, and restored them to their former
 fortune. And when I was sent by Titus Caesar with Cerealins, and a thousand
 horsemen, to a certain village called Thecoa, in order to know whether
 it were a place fit for a camp, as I came back, I saw many captives crucified,
 and remembered three of them as my former acquaintance. I was very sorry
 at this in my mind, and went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him
 of them; so he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have
 the greatest care taken of them, in order to their recovery; yet two of
 them died under the physician's hands, while the third recovered.</p>
 
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<p>But when Titus had composed the troubles in <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName>, and conjectured
 that the lands which I had in <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName> would bring me no profit, because a
 garrison to guard the country was afterward to pitch there, he gave me
 another country in the plain. And when he was going away to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName>, he made
 choice of me to sail along with him, and paid me great respect: and when
 we were come to <placeName key="perseus,Rome" authname="perseus,Rome">Rome</placeName>, I had great care taken of me by Vespasian; for he
 gave me an apartment in his own house, which he lived in before he came
 to the empire. He also honored me with the privilege of a Roman citizen,
 and gave me an annual pension; and continued to respect me to the end of
 his life, without any abatement of his kindness to me; which very thing
 made me envied, and brought me into danger; for a certain Jew, whose name
 was Jonathan, who had raised a tumult in <placeName key="tgn,7000639" authname="tgn,7000639">Cyrene</placeName>, and had persuaded two
 thousand men of that country to join with him, was the occasion of their
 ruin. But when he was bound by the governor of that country, and sent to
 the emperor, he told him that I had sent him both weapons and money. However,
 he could not conceal his being a liar from Vespasian, who condemned him
 to die; according to which sentence he was put to death. Nay, after that,
 when those that envied my good fortune did frequently bring accusations
 against me, by God's providence I escaped them all. I also received from
 Vespasian no small quantity of land, as a free gift, in <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName>; about which
 time I divorced my wife also, as not pleased with her behavior, though
 not till she had been the mother of three children, two of whom are dead,
 and one whom I named Hyrcanus, is alive. After this I married a wife who
 had lived at <placeName key="tgn,7012056" authname="tgn,7012056">Crete</placeName>, but a Jewess by birth: a woman she was of eminent parents,
 and such as were the most illustrious in all the country, and whose character
 was beyond that of most other women, as her future life did demonstrate.
 By her I had two sons; the elder's name was Justus, and the next Simonides,
 who was also named Agrippa. And these were the circumstances of my domestic
 affairs. However, the kindness of the emperor to me continued still the
 same; for when Vespasian was dead, Titus, who succeeded him in the government,
 kept up the same respect for me which I had from his father; and when I
 had frequent accusations laid against me, he would not believe them. And
 Domitian, who succeeded, still augmented his respects to me; for he punished
 those Jews that were my accusers, and gave command that a servant of mine,
 who was a eunuch, and my accuser, should be punished. He also made that
 country I had in <placeName key="tgn,7001407" authname="tgn,7001407">Judea</placeName> tax free, which is a mark of the greatest honor
 to him who hath it; nay, Domitia, the wife of Caesar, continued to do me
 kindnesses. And this is the account of the actions of my whole life; and
 let others judge of my character by them as they please. But to thee, O
 Epaphroditus, <ref id="n27" target="ref27">
 thou most excellent of men! do I dedicate all this treatise of our Antiquities;
 and so, for the present, I here conclude the whole.</p>
 </body>

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