Pliny the Elder, Natural History (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Plin. Nat.].
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Note return to page Lemaire informs us, in his title-page, that the two first books of the Natural History are edited by M. Alexandre, in his edition.

Note return to page "Jucundissime;" it is not easy to find an epithet in our language which will correctly express the meaning of the original, affectionate and familiar, at the same time that it is sufficiently dignified and respectful.

Note return to page Lamb's trans.; Carm. i. 4. of the original.

Note return to page "Conterraneus;" we have no word in English which expresses the idea intended by the original, and which is, at the same time, a military term. There is indeed some reason to doubt, whether the word now inserted in the text was the one employed by the author: see the remarks of M. Alexandre, in Lem. i. 3; also an observation in Cigalino's dissertation on the native country of Pliny; Valpy, 8.

Note return to page "Permutatis prioribus sætabis;" Carm. xii. 14; xxv. 7; see the notes in Lamb's trans. pp. 135 & 149.

Note return to page These names in the original are Varaniolus and Fabullus, which are supposed to have been changed from Veranius and Fabius, as terms of familiarity and endearment; see Poinsinet, i. 24, and Lemaire, i. 4.

Note return to page The narrative of Suetonius may serve to illustrate the observation of Pliny: "Triumphavit (Titus) cum patre, censuramque gessit una. Eidem collega et in tribunicia potestate, et in septem consulatibus fuit. Receptaque ad se prope omnium officiorum cura, cum patris nomine et epistolas ipse dictaret, et edicta conscriberet, orationesque in Senatu recitaret etiam quæstoris vice, præfecturam quoque prætorii suscepit, nunquam ad id tempus, nisi ab Equite Romano, administratum." (viii. 5.)

Note return to page "Perfricui faciem." This appears to have been a proverbial expression among the Romans; Cicero, Tusc. Quæes. iii. 41, employs "os perfricuisti" and Martial, xi. 27. 7, "perfricuit frontem," in the same sense.

Note return to page Suetonius speaks of Domitian's taste for poetry, as a part of his habitual dissimulation, viii. 2; see also the notes of Poinsinet, i. 26, and of Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 351.

Note return to page "Non eras in hoc albo;" see the note of Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 8. A passage in Quintilian, xii. 4, may serve to illustrate this use of the term 'album'; "...quorum alii se ad album ac rubricas transtulerunt..."

Note return to page It appears that the passage in which Cicero makes this quotation from Lucilius, is not in the part of his treatise De Republica which was lately discovered by Angelus Maius; Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 9. Cicero refers to this remark of Lucilius in two of his other works, although with a variation in the expression and in the individuals specified; De Orat. ii. 6, and De Fin. i. 3.

Note return to page "Qui primus condidit styli nasum."

Note return to page "Sed hæc ego mihi nunc patrocinia ademi nuncupatione."

Note return to page "Pecunias deponerent." Ajasson, i. 11, remarks on these words, "Qui videri volebant ambitu alienissimi, pecuniam apud sanctum aliquem virum deponebant, qua scilicet multarentur, si unquam hujus criminis manifesti fierent."

Note return to page This expression is not found in any of the works of Cicero which are now extant, nor, indeed, is it certain that it was anything more than a remark made in conversation.

Note return to page "Provocatio," calling forth.

Note return to page Horace, Epist. ii. 1. 143; Ovid, Fast. iv. 746 and v. 121, and Tibullus, i. 1. 26 and ii. 5. 37, refer to the offerings of milk made by the country people to their rural deities.

Note return to page "...id est, artium et doctrinarum omnium circulus;" Alexandre in Lem. i. 14.

Note return to page These words are not found in any of the books of Livy now extant; we may conclude that they were introduced into the latter part of his work.

Note return to page "Quem nunc primum historiæ Plinianæ librum vocamus, hic non unmeratur, quod sit operis index." Hardouin in Lem. i. 16.

Note return to page Nothing is known of Domitius Piso, either as an author or an individual.

Note return to page The names of these authors will be found, arranged by Hardouin alphabetically, with a brief account of them and their works, in Lem. i. 157 et seq.; we have nearly the same list in Valpy, p. 4903.

Note return to page "Musinamur." We learn from Hardouin, Lem. i. 17, that there is some doubt as to the word employed by our author, whether it was mu- sinamur or muginamur; I should be disposed to adopt the former, as being, according to the remark of Turnebus, "verbum a Musis deductum."

Note return to page "A fine Aufidii Bassi;" as Alexandre remarks, "Finis autem Aufidii Bassi intelligendus est non mors ejus, sed tempus ad quod suas ipse perduxerat historias. Quodnam illud ignoramus." Lem. i. 18. For an account of Aufidius Bassus we are referred to the catalogue of Hardouin, but his name does not appear there. Quintilian (x. 1) informs us, that he wrote an account of the Germanic war.

Note return to page "Jam pridem peracta sancitur."

Note return to page This sentiment is not found in that portion of the treatise which has been lately published by Angelus Maius. Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 19.

Note return to page The following is probably the passage in the Offices to which Pliny refers: "Panæcius igitur, qui sine controversia de officiis accuratissime disputavit, quemque nos, correctione quadam exhibita, potissimum secuti sums..." (iii. 2.)

Note return to page "Cum præsertim sors fiat ex usura." The commentators and translators have differed respecting the interpretation of this passage; I have given what appears to me the obvious meaning of the words.

Note return to page "Lac gallinaceum;" "Proverbium de re singulari et admodum rara," according to Hardouin, who quotes a parallel passage from Petronius; Lemaire, i. 21.

Note return to page The titles in the original are given in Greek; I have inserted in the text the words which most nearly resemble them, and which have been employed by modern authors.

Note return to page "Lucubratio."

Note return to page The pun in the original cannot be preserved in the translation; the English reader may conceive the name Bibaculus to correspond to our surname Jolly.

Note return to page "Sesculvsses" and "Flextabula;" literally, Ulysses and a Half and Bend-table.

Note return to page βιβλιοθήκη.

Note return to page "Cymbalum mundi" and "publicæ famæ tympanum."

Note return to page "Pendenti titulo;" as Hardouin explains it, "qui nondum absolutum opus significaret, verum adhuc pendere, velut imperfectum." Lemaire, i. 26.

Note return to page "Homeromastigæ."

Note return to page "Dialectici." By this term our author probably meant to designate those critics who were disposed to dwell upon minute verbal distinctions; "dialecticarum captionum amantes," according to Hardouin; Lem. i. 28.

Note return to page "Quod argutiarum amantissimi, et quod æmulatio inter illos acerbissima." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 28.

Note return to page Pliny the younger, in one of his letters (iii. 5), where he enumerates all his uncle's publications, informs us, that he wrote "a piece of criticism in eight books, concerning ambiguity of expression." Melmoth's Pliny, i. 136.

Note return to page The ancients had very exaggerated notions respecting the period of the elephant's pregnancy; our author, in a subsequent part of his work (viii. 10), says, "Decem annis gestarevulgus existimat; Aristoteles biennio."

Note return to page His real name was Tyrtamus, but in consequence of the beauty of his style, he acquired the appellation by which he is generally known from the words θεῖος φράσις. Cicero on various occasions refers to him; Brutus, 121; Orator, 17, et alibi.

Note return to page "Suspendio jam quærere mortem oportere homines vitæque renunciare, cum tantum licentiæ, vel feminæ, vel imperiti homines sumant, ut in doctissimos scribant;" Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 29. We learn from Cicero, De Nat. Deor. i. 33, that the name of this female was Leontium; "...sed meretricula etiam Leontium contra Theophrastun scribere ausa sit."

Note return to page A. Gellius (vii. 4) refers to this work and gives an extract from it.

Note return to page The hostility which Cato bore to Scipio Africanus is mentioned by Livy, xxxviii. 54, and by Corn. Nepos, Cato, i.

Note return to page Lucius Munatius Plancus took a conspicuous part in the political intrigues of the times and was especially noted for his follies and extravagance.

Note return to page Asinius Pollio is a name which stands high in Roman literature; according to the remark of Alexandre, "Vir magnus fuit, prono tamen ad obtrectandum ingenio, quod arguunt ejus cum Cicerone simultates," Lemaire, i. 30. This hostile feeling towards Cicero is supposed to have proceeded from envy and mortification, because he was unable to attain the same eminence in the art of oratory with his illustrious rival. See Hardouin's Index Auctorum, in Lemaire, i. 168.

Note return to page "Vitiligatores."

Note return to page The table of contents, which occupies no less than 124 pages in Lemaire's edition, I have omitted, in consequence of its length; the object which the author proposed to effect by the table of contents will be gained more completely by an alphabetical index.

Note return to page "εποπτίων." For an account of Valerius Soranus see Hardouin's Index Auctorum, in Lemaire, i. 217.

Note return to page To the end of each book of the Natural History is appended, in the original, a copious list of references to the sources from which the author derived his information. These are very numerous; in the second book they amount to 45, in the third to 35, in the 4th to 53, in the fifth to 60, in the sixth to 54, and they are in the same proportion in the remaining books.

Note return to page "Spartum;" this plant was used to make bands for the vines and cables for ships.

Note return to page "Mundus." In translating from one language into another, it is proper, as a general principle, always to render the same word in the original by the same word in the translation. But to this rule there are two exceptions; where the languages do not possess words which precisely correspond, and where the original author does not always use the same word in the same sense. Both these circumstances, I apprehend, apply to the case in question. The term Mundus is used by Pliny, sometimes to mean the earth and its immediate appendages, the visible solar system; and at other times the universe; while I think we may venture to assert, that in some instances it is used in rather a vague manner, without any distinct reference to either one or other of the above designations. I have, in almost all cases, translated it by the term world, as approaching nearest to the sense of the original. The word mundus is frequently employed by Lucretius, especially in his fifth book, and seems to be almost always used in the more extended sense of universe. There are, indeed, a few passages where either meaning would be equally appropriate, and in one line it would appear to be equivalent to firmament or heavens; "et mundi speciem violare serenam," iv. 138. Cicero, in his treatise De Natura Deorum, generally uses the term mundus in the sense of universe, as in ii. 22, 37, 58 and 154; while in one passage, ii. 132, it would appear to be employed in the more limited sense of the earth. It occasionally occurs in the Fasti of Ovid, but it is not easy to ascertain its precise import; as in the line "Post chaos, ut primum data sunt tria corpora mundo," v. 41, where from the connexion it may be taken either in the more confined or in the more general sense. Manilius employs the word very frequently, and his commentators remark, that he uses it in two distinct senses, the visible firmament and the universe; and I am induced to think that he attaches still more meaning to the term. It occurs three times in the first eleven lines of his poem. In the third line, "deducere mundo aggredior," mundus may be considered as equivalent to the celestial regions as opposed to the earth. In the ninth line, "concessumque patri mundo," we may consider it as signifying the celestial regions generally; and in the eleventh, "Jamque favet mundus," the whole of the earth, or rather its inhabitants. We meet with it again in the sixty-eighth line, "lumina mundi," where it seems more properly to signify the visible firmament; again in the 139th, "Et mundi struxere globum," it seems to refer especially to the earth, synonymous with the general sense of the English term world; while in the 153rd line, "per inania mundi," it must be supposed to mean the universe. Hyginus, in his Poeticon Astronomicon, lib. i. p. 55, defines the term as follows: "Mundus appellatur is qui constat in sole et luna et terra et omnibus stellis;" and again, p. 57, "Terra mundi media regione collocata." We may observe the different designations of the term mundus in Seneca; among other passages I may refer to his Nat. Quæst. vii. 27 & iii. 30; to his treatise De Consol. § 18 and De Benef. iv. 23, where I conceive the precise meanings are, respectively, the universe, the terrestrial globe, the firmament, and the heavenly bodies. The Greek term κόσμος, which corresponds to the Latin word mundus, was likewise employed to signify, either the visible firmament or the universe. In illustration of this, it will be sufficient to refer to the treatise of Aristotle περὶ κόσμου, cap. 2. p. 601. See also Stephens's Thesaurus, in loco. In Apuleius's treatise De Mundo, which is a free translation of Aristotle's περὶ κόσμου, the term may be considered as synonymous with universe. It is used in the same sense in various parts of Apuleius's writings: see Metam. ii. 23; De Deo Socratis, 665, 667; De Dogmate Platonis, 574, 575, et alibi.

Note return to page Cicero, in his Timæus, uses the same phraseology; "Omne igitur cœlum, sive mundus, sive quovis alio vocabulo gaudet, hoc a nobis nuncupatum est," § 2. Pomponius Mela's work commences with a similar expression; "Omne igitur hoc, quidquid est, cui mundi cœlique nomen indideris, unum id est." They were probably taken from a passage in Plato's Timæus, "Universum igitur hoc, Cœlum, sive Mundum, sive quo alio vocabulo gaudet, cognominemus," according to the translation of Ficinus; Platonis Op. ix. p. 302. The word cœlum, which is employed in the original, in its ordinary acceptation, signifies the heavens, the visible firmament; as in Ovid, Met. i. 5, "quod tegit omnia, cœlum." It is, in most cases, employed in this sense by Lucretius and by Manilius, as in i. 2. of the former and in i. 14. of the latter. Occasionally, however, it is employed by both of these writers in the more general sense of celestial regions, in opposition to the earth, as by Lucretius, i. 65, and by Manilius, i. 352. In the line quoted by Cicero from Pacuvius, it would seem to mean the place in which the planets are situated; De Nat. Deor. ii. 91. The Greek word οὐρανὸς may be regarded as exactly corresponding to the Latin word cœlum, and employed with the same modifications; see Aristotle, De Mundo and De Cœlo, and Ptolemy, Mag. Const. lib. i. passim; see also Stephens's Thesaurus, in loco. Aratus generally uses it to designate the visible firmament, as in 1. 10, while in 1. 32 it means the heavenly regions. Gesner defines cœlum, "Mundus exclusa terra," and mundus, "Cœlum et quidquid cceli ambitu continetur." In the passage from Plato, referred to above, the words which are translated by Ficinus cœlum and mundus, are in the original οὐρανὸς and κόσμος; Ficinus, however, in various parts of the Timæus, translates οὐρανβὸς by the word mundus: see t. ix. p. 306, 311, et alibi.

Note return to page The following passage from Cicero may serve to illustrate the doctrine of Pliny: "Novem tibi orbibus, vel potius globis, connexa sunt omnia: quorum unus est ccelestis, extimus, qui reliquos omnes complectitur, summus ipse Deus, arcens et continens cœlum;" Som. Scip. § 4. I may remark, however, that the term here employed by our author is not Deus but Numen.

Note return to page We have an interesting account of the opinions of Aristotle on this subject, in a note in M. Ajasson's translation, ii. 234 et seq., which, as well as the greater part of the notes attached to the second book of the Natural History, were written by himself in conjunction with M. Marcus.

Note return to page The philosophers of antiquity were divided in their opinions respecting the great question, whether the active properties of material bodies, which produce the phenomena of nature, are inherent in them, and necessarily attached to them, or whether they are bestowed upon them by some superior power or being. The Academics and Peripatetics generally adopted the latter opinion, the Stoics the former: Pliny adopts the doctrine of the Stoics; see Enfield's Hist. of Phil. i. 229, 283, 331.

Note return to page I may remark, that the astronomy of our author is, for the most part, derived from Aristotle; the few points in which they differ will be stated in the appropriate places.

Note return to page This doctrine was maintained by Plato in his Timæus, p. 310, and adopted by Aristotle, De Cœlo, lib. ii. cap. 14, and by Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii 47. The spherical form of the world, οὐρανὸς, and its circular motion are insisted upon by Ptolemy, in the commencement of his astronomical treatise μεγάλη σύνταξις, Magna Constructio, frequently referred to by its Arabic title Almagestum, cap. 2. He is supposed to have made his observations at Alexandria, between the years 125 and 140 A.D. His great astronomical work was translated into Arabic in the year 827; the original Greek text was first printed in 1538 by Grynæus, with a commentary by Theon. George of Trebisond published a Latin version of it in 1541, and a second was published by Camerarius in 1551, along with Ptolemy's other works. John Muller, usually called Regiomontanus, and Purback published an abridgement of the Almagest in 1541. For an account of Ptolemy I may refer to the article in the Biog. Univ. xxxv. 263 et seq., by Delambre, also to Hutton's Math. Diet., in loco, and to the high character of him by Whewell, Hist. of the Inductive Sciences, p. 214.

Note return to page See Ptolemy, ubi supra.

Note return to page This opinion, which was maintained by Pythagoras, is noticed and derided by Aristotle, De Cœlo, lib. ii. cap. 9. p. 462–3. A brief account of Pythagoras's doctrine on this subject is contained in Enfield's Philosophy, i. 386.

Note return to page Pliny probably here refers to the opinion which Cicero puts into the mouth of one of the interlocutors in his treatise De Nat. Deor. ii. 47, "Quid enim pulchrius ea figura, quæ sola omnes alias figuras complexa continet, quæque nihil asperitatis habere, nihil offensionis potest, nihil incisum angulis, nihil anfractibus, nihil eminens, nihil lacunosum?"

Note return to page The letter δ, in the constellation of the triangle; it is named δελτωτὸν by Aratus, 1. 235; also by Manilius, i. 360. We may remark, that, except in this one case, the constellations have no visible resemblance to the objects of which they bear the name.

Note return to page "Locum hunc Plinii de Galaxia, sive Lactea via, interpretantur omnes docti." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 227. It may be remarked, that the word vertex is here used in the sense of the astronomical term zenith, not to signify the pole.

Note return to page De Ling. Lat. lib. iv. p. 7, 8. See also the remarks on the derivation of the word in Gesner, Thes., in loco.

Note return to page "Signifer." The English term is taken from the Greek word ζωδιακὸς, derived from ζῶον; see Aristotle, De Mundo, cap. 2. p. 602. The word Zodiacus does not occur in Pliny, nor is it employed by Ptolemy; he names it λοξὁς κύκλος, obliquus circulus; Magn. Const. i. 7, 13, et alibi. It is used by Cicero, but professedly as a Greek term; Divin. ii. 89, and Arati Phænom. 1. 317. It occurs in Hyginus, p. 57 et alibi, and in A. Gellius, 13. 9. Neither signifer taken substantively, nor zodiacus occur in Lucretius or in Manilius.

Note return to page The account of the elements, of their nature, difference, and, more especially, the necessity of their being four, are fully discussed by Aristotle in various parts of his works, more particularly in his treatise De Cœlo, lib. iii. cap. 3, 4 and 5, lib. iv. cap. 5, and De Gener. et Cor. lib. ii. cap. 2, 3, 4 and 5. For a judicious summary of the opinions of Aristotle on this subject, I may refer to Stanley's History of Philosophy; Aristotle, doctrines of, p. 2. 1. 7, and to Enfield, i. 764 et seq. For the Epicurean doctrine, see Lucretius, i. 764 et seq.

Note return to page Although the word planeta, as taken from the Greek πλανήτης, is inserted in the title of this chapter, it does not occur in any part of the text. It is not found either in Lucretius, Manilius, or Seneca, nor, I believe, was it used by any of their contemporaries, except Hyginus, p. 76. The planets were generally styled stellæ erraticæ, errantes, or vagæ, sidera palantia, as in Lucretius, ii. 1030, or simply the five stars, as in Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 51, and in Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vii. 24. Pliny, by including the sun and moon, makes the number seven. Aratus calls them πέντ' ἄστερες, l. 454.

Note return to page "Aër." "Circumfusa undique est (terra) hac animabili spirabilique natura, cui nomen est aër; Græcum illud quidem, sed perceptum jam tamen usu a nobis;" Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 91.

Note return to page "universi cardine." "Revolutionis, ut aiunt, centro. Idem Plinius, hoc ipso libro, cap. 64, terram cœli cardinem esse dicit; "Alexandre, in Lem. i. 228. On this subject I may refer to Ptolemy, Magn. Const. lib. i. cap. 3, 4, 6. See also Apuleius, near the commencement of his treatise De Mundo.

Note return to page "Sidera." The word sidus is used, in most cases, for one of the heavenly bodies generally, sometimes for what we term a constellation, a particular assemblage of them, and sometimes specially for an individual star. Manilius employs the word in all these senses, as will appear by the three following passages respectively; the first taken from the opening of his poem, "Carmine divinas artes, et conscia fati Sidera...." The second, "Hæc igitur texunt æquali sidera tractu Ignibus in varias cœlum laqueantia formas." i. 275, 276. The third "....pectus, fulgenti sidere clarius;"i. 356. In the Fasti of Ovid, we have examples of the two latter of these significations:— "Ex Ariadnæo sidere nosse potes;" v. 346. "Et canis (Icarium dicunt) quo sidere noto Tosta sitit tellus;" iv. 939, 940. Lucretius appears always to employ the term in the general sense. J. Obsequens applies the word sidus to a meteor; "sidus ingens cœlo demissum," cap. 16. In a subsequent part of this book, chap. 18 et seq., our author more particularly restricts the term sidus to the planets.

Note return to page Cicero remarks concerning them; "quæ (stellæ) falso vocantur errantes; "De Nat. Deor. ii. 51.

Note return to page "....vices cierum alternat et noctium, quum sidera præsens occultat, illustrat absens;" Hard. in Lem. i. 230.

Note return to page "ceteris sideribus." According to Hardouin, ubi supra, "nimium stellis errantibus." There is, however, nothing in the expression of our author which sanctions this limitation.

Note return to page See Iliad, iii. 277, and Od. xii. 323.

Note return to page It is remarked by Enfield, Hist. of Phil. ii. 131, that "with respect to philosophical opinions, Pliny did not rigidly adhere to any sect.... He reprobates the Epicurean tenet of an infinity of worlds; favours the Pythagorean notion of the harmony of the spheres; speaks of the universe as God, after the manner of the Stoics, and sometimes seems to pass over into the field of the Sceptics. For the most part, however, he leans to the doctrine of Epicurus."

Note return to page "Si alius est Deus quam sol," Alexandre in Lem. i. 230. Or rather, if there be any God distinct from the world; for the latter part of the sentence can scarcely apply to the sun. Poinsinet and Ajasson, however, adopt the same opinion with M. Alexandre; they translate the passage, "s'il en est autre que le soleil," i. 17 and ii. 11.

Note return to page "totus animæ, totus animi;" "Anima est qua vivinus, animus quo sapimus." Hard. in Lem. i. 230, 231. The distinction between these two words is accurately pointed out by Lucretius, iii. 137 et seq.

Note return to page "fecerunt (Athenienses) Contumeliæ fanum et Impudentiæ." Cicero, De Leg. ii. 28. See also Bossuet, Discours sur l'Histoire univ. i. 250.

Note return to page The account which Cicero gives us of the opinions of Democritus scarcely agrees with the statement in the text; see De Nat. Deor. i. 120.

Note return to page "In varios divisit Deos numen unicum, quod Plinio cœlum est aut mundus; ejusque singulas partes, aut, ut philosophi aiunt, attributa, separatim coluit; "Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 231.

Note return to page "Febrem autem ad minus nocendum, templis celebrant, quorum adhue unum in Palafio...." Val. Max. ii. 6; see also Ælian, Var. Hist. xii. 11. It is not easy to ascertain the precise meaning of the terms Fanum, Ædes, and Templum, which are employed in this place by Pliny and Val. Maximus. Gesner defines Fanum "area templi et solium, templum vero ædificium;" but this distinction, as he informs us, is not always accurately observed; there appears to be still less distinction between Ædes and Templum; see his Thesaurus in loco, also Bailey's Facciolati in loco.

Note return to page "Orbona est Orbitalis dea." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 231.

Note return to page "Appositos sibi statim ab ortu custodes credebant, quos viri Genios, Junones fœminæ vocabant." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 232. See Tibullus, 4. 6. 1, and Seneca, Epist. 110, sub init.

Note return to page We may suppose that our author here refers to the popular mythology of the Egyptians; the "fœtidi cibi" are mentioned by Juvenal; "Porrum et cæpe nefas violare et frangere morsu," xv. 9; and Pliny, in a subsequent part of his work, xix. 32, remarks, "Allium ceepeque inter Deos in jurejurando habet Ægyptus."

Note return to page See Cicero, De Nat. Deor. i. 42 et alibi, for an illustration of these remarks of Pliny.

Note return to page This sentiment is elegantly expressed by Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 62, and by Horace, Od. iii. 3. 9 et seq. It does not appear, however, that any of the Romans, except Romulus, were deified, previous to the adulatory period of the Empire.

Note return to page "Planetarum nempe, qui omnes nomina mutuantur a diis." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 234.

Note return to page This remark may be illustrated by the following passage from Cicero, in the first book of his treatise De Nat. Deor. Speaking of the doctrine of Zeno, he says, "neque enim Jovem, neque Junonem, neque Vestam, neque quemquam, qui ita appelletur, in deorum habet numero: sed rebus manimis, atque mutis, per quandam significationem, hæc docet tributa nomina." "Idemque (Chrysippus) disputat, æthera esse eum, quem homines Jovem appellant: quique aër per maria manaret, eum esse Nep- tunum: terramque eam esse, quæ Ceres diceretur: similique ratione persequitur vocabula reliquorum deorum."

Note return to page The following remarks of Lucretius and of Cicero may serve to illustrate the opinion here expressed by our author:— "Omnis enim per se Divum natura necesse est Immortal ævo summa cum pace fruatur, Semota ab nostris rebus, sejunctaque longe; "Lucretius, i. 57–69. "Quod æternum beatumque sit, id nec habere ipsum negotii quidquam, nec exhibere alteri; itaque neque ira neque gratia teneri, quod, quæ talia essent, imbecilla essent omnia." Cicero, De Nat. Deor. i. 45.

Note return to page The author here alludes to the figures of the Egyptian deities that were engraven on rings.

Note return to page His specific office was to execute vengeance on the impious.

Note return to page "sola utramque paginam facit." The words utraque pagina generally refer to the two sides of the same sheet, but, in this passage, they probably mean the contiguous portions of the same surface.

Note return to page "astroque suo eventu assignat;" the word astrum appears to be synonymous with sidus, generally signifying a single star, and, occasionally, a constellation; as in Manilius, i. 541, 2. "....quantis bis sena ferantur Finibus astra...." It is also used by synecdoche for the heavens, as is the case with the English word stars. See Gesner's Thesaurus.

Note return to page "Quæ si suscipiamus, pedis offensio nobis...et sternutamenta erunt observanda." Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 84.

Note return to page "Divus Augustus." The epithet divus may be regarded as merely a term of court etiquette, because all the Emperors after death were deified ex officio.

Note return to page We learn the exact nature of this ominous accident from Suetonius; "....si mane sibi calceus perperam, et sinister pro dextro induceretur;" Augustus, Cap. 92. From this passage it would appear, that the Roman sandals were made, as we term it, right and left.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the opinions here stated respecting the Deity are taken partly from the tenets of the Epicureans, combined with the Stoical doctrine of Fate. The examples which are adduced to prove the power of fate over the Deity are, for the most part, rather verbal than essential.

Note return to page "affixa mundo." The peculiar use of the word mundus in this passage is worthy of remark, in connexion with note1, ch. 1. page 13.

Note return to page We have many references in Pliny to the influence of the stars upon the earth and its inhabitants, constituting what was formerly regarded as so important a science, judicial astrology. Ptolemy has drawn up a regular code of it in his "Centum dicta," or "Centiloquiums." We have a highly interesting account of the supposed science, its origin, progress, and general principles, in Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences, p. 293 et seq. I may also refer to the same work for a sketch of the history of astronomy among the Greeks and the other nations of antiquity.

Note return to page There are certain metaphorical expressions, which have originated from this opinion, adopted by the moderns; "his star is set;" "the star of his fortune," &c.

Note return to page Ovid, when he compares Phaëton to a falling star, remarks, concerning this meteor,— "Etsi non cecidit, potuit ceeidisse videri." Metam. ii. 322.

Note return to page Manilius supposes that comets are produced and rendered luminous by an operation very similar to the one described in the text; i. 815 et seq. Seneca, in the commencement of his Nat. Quæst., and in other parts of the same treatise, refers to this subject. His remarks may be worth perusing by those who are curious to learn the hypotheses of the ancients on subjects of natural science. We may remark, that Seneca's opinions are, on many points, more correct than our author's.

Note return to page The author probably refers to that part of his work in which he treats on agriculture, particularly to the 17th and 18th books.

Note return to page The æra of the Olympiads commenced in the year 776 before Christ; each olympiad consists of 4 years; the 58th olympiad will therefore include the interval 548 to 544 B.C. The 21st vol. of the "Universal History" consists entirely of a "chronological table," and we have a useful table of the same kind in Brewster's Encycl., article "Chronology."

Note return to page "rerum fores aperuisse....traditur." An account of the astronomy of Anaximander is contained in Brewster's Encycl., article "Astronomy," p. 587, and in the article "Anaximander" in the supplement to the same work by Scott of Aberdeen. I may remark, that these two accounts do not quite agree in their estimate of his merits; the latter author considers his opinions more correct. We have also an account of Anaximander in Stanley, pt. 2. p. 1 et seq., and in Enfield, i. 154 et seq.

Note return to page In the translation of Ajasson, ii. 261–7, we have some valuable observations by Marcus, respecting the origin and progress of astronomy among the Greeks, and the share which the individuals mentioned in the text respectively had in its advancement; also some interesting remarks on the history of Atlas. Diodorus Siculus says, that "he was the first that discovered the knowledge of the sphere; whence arose the common opinion, that he carried the world upon his shoulders." Booth's trans. p. 115.

Note return to page "nune relicto mundi ipsius corpore, reliqua inter cœlum terrasque tractentur." I have already had occasion to remark upon the various modes in which the author uses the word mundius; by cœlum, in this passage, he means the body or region beyond the planets, which is conceived to contain the fixed stars. Sphœra, in the preceding sentence, may be supposed to mean the celestial globe.

Note return to page "ac trigesimo anno ad brevissima sedis suæ principia regredi;" I confess myself unable to offer any literal explanation of this passage; nor do the remarks of the commentators appear to me satisfactory; see Hardouin and Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 241, 2. It is translated by Ajasson "en trente ans il reviens à l'espace minime d'où il est parti." The period of the sidereal revolutions of the planets, as stated by Mrs. Somerville, in her "Mechanism of the Heavens," and by Sir J. Herschel, in his "Treatise on Astronomy," are respectively as follows:— days.days. Mercury87ċ970587ċ9692580 Venus224ċ7224ċ7007869 Earth365ċ2564365ċ2563612 Mars686ċ99686ċ9796458 Jupiter4332ċ654332ċ5848212 Saturn10759ċ410759ċ2198174 Somerville, p. 358.Herschel, p. 416.

Note return to page "'mundo;' hoc est, cælo inerrantium stellarum." Hardouin, in Lemaire, ii. 242.

Note return to page Our author supposes, that the spectator has his face directed towards the south, as is the case with the modern observers. We are, however, informed by Hardouin, that this was not the uniform practice among the ancients; see the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 242, and of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 269.

Note return to page The constant revolution refers to the apparent daily motion; the opposite direction to their annual course through the zodiac. Ptolemy gives an account of this double motion in his Magna Constructio, i. 7.

Note return to page For the exact period, according to Somerville and Herschel, see note3, p. 27.

Note return to page Aristotle informs us, that Mars was also called Hercules or Pyrosis; De Mundo, cap. ii. p. 602. See also Apuleius, De Mundo, § 710. Hyginus is said by Hardouin to give the name of Hercules to the planet Mars, but this appears to be an inaccuracy; he describes the planet under its ordinary appellation; lib. ii. p. 62; and ii. 78, 9.

Note return to page Cicero, speaking of the period of Mars, says, "Quatuor et viginti mensibus, sex, ut opinor, diebus minus;" De Nat. Deor. For the exact period, see note3, p. 27.

Note return to page "Sed ut observatio umbrarum ejus redeat ad notas." According to the interpretation ot Hardouin, "Ad easdem lineas in solari horologio." Lemaire, ii. 243.

Note return to page This is an example of the mode of computation which we meet with among the ancients, where, in speaking of the period of a revolution, both the time preceding and that following the interval are included.

Note return to page The division of the planets into superior and inferior was not known to Aristotle, De Mundo, cap. ii. p. 602, to Plato, Timæus, p. 318, 319, or the older Greek astronomers. It was first made by the Egyptians, and was transferred from them to the Romans. It is one of the points in which our author differs from Aristotle. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 242 et seq. Marcus notices the various points which prove the deficiency of Pliny's knowledge of astronomy; he particularizes the four following :—his ignorance of the true situation of the constellations; his erroneous opinion respecting the cause of the seasons; his account of the phases of the moon, and of the position of the cardinal points. He appears not to have been aware, that certain astronomical phænomena undergo a regular progression, but supposed that they remained, at the time when he wrote, in the same state as in the age of Hipparchus or the original observers. Columella, when treating on these subjects, describes the phænomena according to the ancient calculation, but he informs us, that he adopts it, because it was the one in popular use, and better known by the farmers (De Re Rust. ix. 14), while Pliny appears not to have been aware of the inaccuracy.

Note return to page "Modo solem antegrediens, modo subsequens." Hardouin in Lemaire, ii. 243.

Note return to page It was not known to the earlier writers that Lucifer and Vesper were the same star, differently situated with respect to the Sun. Playfair remarks, that Venus is the only planet mentioned in the sacred writings, and in the most ancient poets, such as Hesiod and Homer; Outlines, ii. 156.

Note return to page There has been much discussion among the commentators respecting the correctness of the figures in the text; according to the sera of the olympiads, the date referred to will be between the years 750 and 754 B.C.; the foundation of Rome is commonly referred to the year 753 B.C. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 278, 9.

Note return to page Aristotle informs us, that it was called either Phosphorus, Juno, or Venus; De Mundo, cap. 2. t. i. p. 602. See also Hyginus, Poet. Astr. lib. iii. p. 76, 7; and Apuleius, De Mundo, § 710.

Note return to page It will be scarcely necessary to refer the reader to the well-known commencement of Lucretius's poem for the illustration of this passage; it is remarkable that Pliny does not refer to this writer.

Note return to page The periodical revolution of Venus is 224ċ7 days, see note3, p. 27. Its greatest elongation is 47°1′; Somerville, § 641. p. 391.

Note return to page According to Aristotle, this planet had the three appellations of Stilbon, Mercury, and Apollo; De Mundo, cap. 2. p. 602; see also Apuleius, De Mundo, § 710. Cicero inverts the order of the planets; he places Mercury next to Mars, and says of Venus, that it is "infima quinque errantium, terræque proxima;" De Nat. Deor. ii. 53. Aristotle places the stars in the same order, ubi supra, and he is followed in this by Apuleius, ubi supra; this appears to have been the case with the Stoics generally; see Enfield's Phil. i. 339.

Note return to page For the periodical revolution of Mercury see note3, p. 27. Its greatest elongation, according to Playfair, p. 160, is 28 °. Mrs. Somerville, p. 386, states it to be 28°8′. Ptolemy supposed it to be 26ċ5 degrees; Almagest, ix. 7. We learn from Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 246, that there is considerable variation in the MSS. with respect to the greatest elongation of Mercury.

Note return to page Sosigenes was an Egyptian mathematician and astronomer, who is said to have assisted Cæsar in the formation of his Kalendar, as our author informs us in a subsequent part of his work, xviii. 25; see also Aikin, Gen. Biog., in loco; Enfield's Phil. ii. 96; Whewell, p. 210; and Hardouin's "Index Auctorum," in Lemaire, i. 213.

Note return to page Concerning the "magnus annus" Cicero remarks, "efficitur cum solis et lunæ et quinque errantium ad eandem inter se comparationem, confectis omnibus spatiis, est facta conversio." De Nat. Deor. ii. 51. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 281–3.

Note return to page For the various appellations which the moon has received in the ancient and modern languages, and their relation to each other, the reader is referred to the learned remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 283–5.

Note return to page Marcus conceives that the epithet maculosa does not refer to what are called the spots on the moon, but to the circumstance of the edge of the disc being not illuminated when it is near the full; Ajasson, ii. 286. But, from the way in which the word is employed at the end of the chapter, and from the explanation which is given of the cause of the "maculæ," I think it ought to be referred to the spotted appearance of the face of the moon.

Note return to page "Quum laborare non creditur." It was a vulgar notion among the ancients, that when the moon is eclipsed, she is suffering from the influence of magicians and enchanters, who are endeavouring to draw her down to the earth, in order to aid them in their superstitious ceremonies. It was conceived that she might be relieved from her sufferings by loud noises of various kinds which should drown the songs of the magicians. Allusion is frequently made to this custom by the ancient poets, as Virgil, Æn. i. 742, Manilius, i. 227, and Juvenal, vi. 444; and the language has been transferred to the moderns, as in Beattie's Minstrel, ii. 47, "To ease of fancied pangs the labouring moon."

Note return to page We have some interesting remarks by Marcus respecting Endymion, and also on the share which Solon and Thales had in correcting the lunar observations; Ajasson, ii. 288–290.

Note return to page "Lucem nobis aperuere in hac luce."

Note return to page "Cardo."

Note return to page Astronomers describe two different revolutions or periods of the moon; the synodical and the sidereal. The synodical marks the time in which the moon passes from one conjunction with the sun to the next conjunction, or other similar position with respect to the sun. The sidereal period is the time in which the moon returns to the same position with respect to the stars, or in which it makes a complete revolution round the earth. These numbers are, for the synodical period, 29d 12h 44m 287s, and for the sidereal, 27d 7h 43m 11ċ5s; Herschel, pp. 213, 224.

Note return to page Our author, as Marcus remarks, "a compté par nombres ronds;" Ajasson, ii. 291; the correct number may be found in the preceding note.

Note return to page It was a general opinion among the ancients, and one which was entertained until lately by many of the moderns, that the moon possessed the power of evaporating the water of the ocean. This opinion appears to have been derived, at least in part, from the effect which the moon produces on the tides.

Note return to page "quantum ex sole ipsa concipiat;" from this passage, taken singly, it might be concluded, that the author supposed the quantity of light received by the moon to differ at different times; but the succeeding sentence seems to prove that this is not the case; see the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 249. Marcus, however, takes a different view of the subject; Ajasson, ii. 291, 292. He had previously pointed out Pliny's opinion respecting the phases of the moon, as one of the circumstances which indicate his ignorance of astronomy, ut supra, ii. 245, 246.

Note return to page This doctrine is maintained by Seneca, Quæst. Nat. lib. ii. § 5. p. 701, 702. From the allusion which is made to it by Anacreon, in his 19th ode, we may presume that it was the current opinion among the ancients.

Note return to page I may remark, that Poinsinet, in this passage, substitutes "umbra" for "umbræque," contrary to the authority of all the MSS., merely because it accords better with his ideas of correct reasoning. Although it may be of little consequence in this particular sentence, yet, as such liberties are not unfrequently taken, I think it necessary to state my opinion, that this mode of proceeding is never to be admitted, and that it has proved a source of serious injury to classical literature. In this account of the astronomical phenomena, as well as in all the other scientific dissertations that occur in our author, my aim has been to transfer into our language the exact sense of the original, without addition or correction. Our object in reading Pliny is not to acquire a knowledge of natural philosophy, which might be better learned from the commonest elementary work of the present day, but to ascertain what were the opinions of the learned on such subjects when Pliny wrote. I make this remark, because I have seldom if ever perused a translation of any classical author, where, on scientific topics, the translator has not endeavoured, more or less, to correct the mistakes of the original, and to adapt his translation to the state of modern science.

Note return to page The terms here employed are respectively interventus, objectio, and interpositus; it may be doubted whether the author intended to employ them in the precise sense which is indicated by their etymology.

Note return to page The terms here employed are respectively interventus, objectio, and interpositus; it may be doubted whether the author intended to employ them in the precise sense which is indicated by their etymology.

Note return to page The terms here employed are respectively interventus, objectio, and interpositus; it may be doubted whether the author intended to employ them in the precise sense which is indicated by their etymology.

Note return to page "metæ et turbini inverso." The metæ were small pyramids placed at the two extremities of the spina, or central division of the circus: see Montfaucon, v. iii. p. 176; Adam, p. 341.

Note return to page The eclipses of the moon are only visible when the spectator is so situated as to be able to observe the shadow of the earth, or is on that side of the earth which is turned from the sun.

Note return to page "non semper in scrupulis partium congruente siderum motu." On the term scrupulus Hardouin remarks, "Scrupuli, nodi sunt, in quibus circuli, quos in suo cursu Sol et Luna efficiunt, se mutuo secant." Lemaire, ii. 251. Ptolemy, Magn. Const. vi. 6–11, gives a full and generally correct account of the principal phenomena of eclipses.

Note return to page Marcus conceives that our author must here mean, not the actual, but the apparent size of these bodies; Ajasson, ii. 295; but I do not perceive that the text authorizes this interpretation.

Note return to page I have given the simple translation of the original as it now stands in the MSS.; whether these may have been corrupted, or the author reasoned incorrectly, I do not venture to decide. The commentators have, according to their usual custom, proposed various emendations and explanations, for which I may refer to the note of Hardouin in Lemaire, ii. 252, with the judicious remarks of Alexandre, and to those of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 295–298, who appear to me to take a correct view of the subject.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks, "Hinc tamen potius distantia quam magnitudo Solis colligi potest." Lemaire, ii. 252. And the same remark applies to the two next positions of our author.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks on the argument of our author, perhaps a little too severely, "Absurde dictum; nam aliis oritur, aliis occidit, dum aliis est a vertice; quod vel pueri sentiunt." Lemaire, ii. 253. But we may suppose, that Pliny, in this passage, only meant to say, that as the sun became vertical to each successive part of the equinoctial district, no shadows were formed in it.

Note return to page The commentators have thought it necessary to discuss the question, whether, in this passage, Pliny refers to the Ida of Crete or of Asia Minor. But the discussion is unnecessary, as the statement of the author is equally inapplicable to both of them. Mela appears to refer to this opinion in the following passage, where he is describing the Ida of Asia Minor; "ipse mens...orientem solem aiter quam in aliis terris solet aspici, ostentat." lib. i. cap. 18.

Note return to page "Ut dictum est superiore capite, quo Plinius falso contendit Terram esse Luna minorem." Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 253. The words of the text, however, apply equally to the comparative size of the earth and the sun, as of the earth and the moon.

Note return to page "turbo rectus;" literally an upright top.

Note return to page "meta."

Note return to page This has been pointed out as one of our author's erroneous opinions on astronomy. The earth is really about 1/30 nearer the sun in our winters than in our summers. The greater degree of heat produced by his rays in the latter case depends upon their falling on the surface of the earth less obliquely. This is the principal cause of the different temperatures of the equatorial and polar regions.

Note return to page This eclipse is calculated to have occurred on the 28th of June, 168 B.C.; Brewster's Encyc. "Chronology," p. 415, 424. We have an account of this transaction in Livy, xliv. 37, and in Plutarch, Life of Paulus Æmilius, Langhorne's trans. ii. 279; he however does not mention the name of Gallus. See also Val. Maximus, viii. 11. 1, and Quintilian, i. 10. Val. Maximus does not say that Gallus predicted the eclipse, but explained the cause of it when it had occurred; and the same statement is made by Cicero, De Repub. i. 15. For an account of Sulpicius, see Hardouin's Index auctorum, Lemaire, i. 214.

Note return to page An account of this event is given by Herodotus, Clio, § 74. There has been the same kind of discussion among the commentators, respecting the dates in the text, as was noticed above, note 4, p. 29: see the remarks of Brotier and of Marcus in Lemaire and Ajasson, in loco. Astronomers have calculated that the eclipse took place May 28th, 585 B.C.; Brewster, ut supra, pp. 414,419.

Note return to page Hipparchus is generally regarded as the first astronomer who prosecuted the science in a regular and systematic manner. See Whewell, C. 3. p. 169 et seq., 177–179. He is supposed to have made his observations between the years 160 and 125 B.C. He made a catalogue of the fixed stars, which is preserved in Ptolemy's Magn. Const. The only work of his now extant is his commentary on Aratus; it is contained in Petau's Uranologie. We find, among the ancients, many traces of their acquaintance with the period of 600 years, or what is termed the great year, when the solar and lunar phenomena recur precisely at the same points. Cassini, Mem. Acad., and Bailly, Hist. Anc. Astron., have shown that there is an actual foundation for this opinion. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 302, 303.

Note return to page Seneca, the tragedian, refers to this superstitious opinion in some beautiful verses, which are given to the chorus at the termination of the fourth act of the Thyestes.

Note return to page We have an account of this event in Thucydides, Smith's trans. ii. 244, and in Plutarch, Langhorne's trans. iii. 406. It is calculated to have happened Aug. 27th, 413 B.C.; Brewster, ut supra, p. 415, 421.

Note return to page The elegant lines of Ovid, in his Fasti, i. 297 et seq., express the same sentiment: "Felices animos, quibus hoc cognoscere primis," &c.

Note return to page I have already remarked upon the use of this term as applied to the eclipses of the moon in note4, p. 31.

Note return to page According to the remarks of Marcus, it appears probable that this sol-lunar period, as it has been termed, was discovered by the Chaldeans; Ajasson, ii. 306, 307.

Note return to page "coitus."

Note return to page "Hoc enim periodo (223 mensium) plerumque redeunt eclipses, non multum differentes, denis tamen gradibus zodiaci antecedentes;" Kepler, as quoted by Alexandre, in Lemaire, ii. 238.

Note return to page The terms "sub terra" and "superne" are interpreted, by most of the commentators, below and above the horizon respectively; see Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 307.

Note return to page "globo terræ obstante convexitatibus mundi." The term convexus, as applied to the heavens, or visible firmament, simply signifies arched; not opposed to concave, like the English word convex.

Note return to page This point is discussed by Ptolemy, Magn. Const. vi. 6; "De distantia eclipticorum mensium." See also the remarks of Hardouin in Lemaire, ii. 260, 261; and of Poinsinet, i. 67.

Note return to page These are styled horizontal eclipses; they depend on the refractive power of the atmosphere, causing the sun to be visible above the horizon, although it is actually below it. Brotier states, that eclipses of this description occurred on the 17th July, 1590, on the 30th November, 1648, and on the 16th January, 1660; Lemaire, ii. 260.

Note return to page This is supposed to have been in the year 72 of our æra, when it is said that the sun was eclipsed, in Italy, on the 8th, and the moon on the 22nd of February; see Hardouin and Alexandre, in Lemaire, ii. 261.

Note return to page In a subsequent part of the work, xviii. 75, the author gives a different rate of increase, viz. 51 1/2 minutes; neither of these numbers is correct; the mean rate of increase being, according to Alexandre, about 54′ or 55′; Lemaire, ii. 261, 262. See also Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 311–14.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the effect, as here stated, has no connexion with the supposed cause.

Note return to page "luminum canonica."

Note return to page Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

Note return to page They are then said, in astronomical language, to rise heliacally.

Note return to page In the last chapter this distance was stated to be 7 degrees; see the remarks of Alexandre, in Lemaire, ii. 263.

Note return to page "radiorum ejus contactu reguntur." The doctrine of the ancient astronomers was, that the motions of the planets are always governed by the rays of the sun, according to its position, attracting or repelling them.

Note return to page A planet appears to be stationary, i. e. to be referred to the same point of the zodiac, when it is so situated with respect to the earth, that a straight line passing through the two bodies forms a tangent to the smaller orbit. The apparent motion of the planets, sometimes direct and at other times retrograde, with their stationary positions, is occasioned by the earth and the planets moving in concentric orbits, with different velocities. One hundred and twenty degrees is the mean distance at which the three superior planets become stationary. We have an elaborate dissertation by Marcus, on the unequal velocities of the planets, and on their stations and retrogradations, as well according to the system of Aristotle as to that of Copernicus; Ajasson, ii. 316 et seq. He remarks, and, I conceive, with justice, "...ce n'est pas dans les traités d'astronomie de nos savans que l'on doit puiser les détails destinés à éclaircir le texte des chapitres xii, xiii, xiv et xv du second livre de Pline...Je ne dis rien des commentaires de Poinsinet, d'Hardouin et d'autres savans peu versés en matière d'astronomie, qui ont fait dire à Pline les plus grandes absurdités."

Note return to page "Occasus planetæ vespertinus dicitur, quo die desinit post occasum sois supra horizontem oculis se præbere manifestum;" Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 265. It is then said to set heliacally.

Note return to page The interpretation of this passage has given rise to much discussion among the commentators and translators; I may refer the reader to the remarks of Poinsinet, i. 70, 71; of Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 266; and of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 328. I conceive the meaning of the author to be, that while the other planets become stationary, when at 120 degrees from the sun, Mars becomes so at 90 degrees, being detained by the rays, which act upon him more powerfully, in consequence of his being nearer to their source.

Note return to page I may refer to the remarks of Marcus on the respective distances from the sun at which Venus and Mercury become stationary, and when they attain their greatest elongations; Ajasson, ii. 328, 329. According to Ptolemy, Magn. Constr. lib. viii. cap. 7, the evening setting of Venus is at 5°40′ from the sun, and that of Mercury at 11°30′.

Note return to page "αψὶς, ligneus rotæ circulus, ab ἅπτω necto;" Hederic in loco. The term is employed in a somewhat different sense by the modern astronomers, to signify the point in the orbit of a planet, when it is either at the greatest or the least distance from the earth, or the body about which it revolves; the former being termed the apogee, aphelion, or the higher apsis; the latter the perigee, perhelion, or lower apsis; Jennings on the Globes, pp. 64, 65.

Note return to page "mundo."

Note return to page "ratione circini semper indubitata."

Note return to page In consequence of the precession of the equinoxes these points are continually advancing from W. to E., and are now about 30 degrees from the situation they were in when the observations were first made by the modern astronomers.

Note return to page Our author here probably refers to the motions of the planets through their epicycles or secondary circles, the centres of which were supposed to be in the peripheries of the primary circles. See Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 270.

Note return to page It is to this visible appearance of convexity in the heavens that Ovid refers in the story of Phaëton, where he is describing the daily path of the sun; Metam. ii. 63–67.

Note return to page "quam quod illi subjacet;" under this designation the author obviously meant to include the temperate zones, although it technically applies only to the part between the tropics. It is scarcely necessary to remark, that modern discoveries have shown that this opinion respecting the Arctic zone is not strictly correct.

Note return to page The breadth of the zodiac, which was limited by the ancients to 12 degrees, has been extended by the modern astronomers to 18, and would require to be much farther extended to include the newly discovered planet. Herschel's Astronomy, § 254.

Note return to page There is considerable difficulty in ascertaining the meaning of the terms employed by our author in describing the course of the planet Mercury through the zodiac; "medio ejus," "supra," and "infra." Hardouin's comment is as follows: "Duas zodiaci partes seu gradus pererrat, quum ipse per medium incedit signiferum: supra, quum deflectit ad Aquilonem, per quatuor alias ejusdem partes vagatur: infra, quum descendit ad Austrum, discedit duabus." Lemaire, ii. 271, 272. But Marcus has shown that the opinion of Hardouin is inadmissible and inconsistent with the facts; Ajasson, ii. 338–341. He proposes one, which he conceives to be more correct, but we may probably be led to the conclusion, that the imperfect knowledge and incorrect opinions of our author on these subjects must render it impossible to afford an adequate explanation.

Note return to page "flexuoso draconum meatu;" Poinsinet remarks, "Les Grecs... appellaient dragons les bracelets, les hausse-cols, les chainettes, et généralement tout ce qui avait une figure armillaire;" i. 79, 80.

Note return to page As this remark appears to contradict what was said in the last sentence respecting the sun, we may suspect some error in the text; see Poinsinet, Alexandre, and Marcus, in loco.

Note return to page The following comparative statement is given by Alexandre of the geocentric latitudes of the planets, as assigned by Pliny, and as laid down by the moderns. Lemaire, ii. 273:— Pliny.Moderns. Venus8 °9°22′ Moon66 0 Mercury56 54 Mars2°0′1°51′ Jupiter1 301 30 Saturn1 (or 2 °)2 30

Note return to page It appears from the remark at the end of this chapter, that this explanation applies to the superior planets alone.

Note return to page It is not easy, as Marcus observes, Ajasson, ii. 344, 345, to comprehend the exact meaning of this passage, or to reconcile it with the other parts of our author's theory.

Note return to page "Ecliptica," called by the moderns the nodes; i. e. the two points where the orbits of the planets cut the ecliptic. See the remarks of Marcus on this term; Ajasson, ii. 345, 346.

Note return to page We may presume that our author here refers to the apparent motion of the planets, not to their actual acceleration or retardation.

Note return to page The editors have differed in the reading of this passage; I have followed that of Lemaire.

Note return to page "incipit detrahi numerus." According to the explanation of Alexandre, "numerus nempe partium quas certo temporis intervallo emetiuntur." Lemaire, ii. 275. Marcus remarks in this place, "Dans tout ce chapitre et dans le suivant, Pline a placé dans une correlation de causité, tout ce qu'il croit arriver en même temps; mais il n'a pas prouvé par-là que les phénomènes célestes qui sont contemporains sont engendrés les uns par les autres." Ajasson, ii. 349.

Note return to page The hypothesis of Pliny appears to be, that the planets are affected by the rays of the sun, and that according to the angle at which they receive the impulse, they are either accelerated or retarded in their course.

Note return to page "ex priore triquetro."

Note return to page Alexandre supposes, as I conceive justly, that our author, in this passage, only refers to the writings of his own countrymen; Lemaire, ii. 276.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy, these numbers are respectively 47°51′ and 24°3′; the modern astronomers have ascertained them to be 48°and 29 °. The least elongations of the planets are, according to Ptolemy, 44°7′ and 18°50′, and according to the observations of the moderns, 45°and 16 °; Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 354.

Note return to page I have not translated the clause, "quum sint diversæ stellæ," as, according to Hardouin, it is not found "in probatissimis codd.," and appears to have little connexion with the other parts of the sentence; it is omitted by Valpy and Lemaire, but is retained by Poinsinet and Ajasson.

Note return to page When these inferior planets have arrived at a certain apparent distance from the sun, they are come to the extent of their orbits, as seen from the earth.

Note return to page "Quum ad illam Solis distantiam pervenerunt, ultra procedere non possunt, deficiente circuli longitudine, id est, amplitudine." Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 277.

Note return to page The transits of the inferior planets had not been observed by the ancients.

Note return to page "utroque modo;" "latitudine et altitudine;" Hardouin in Lemaire, ii. 279.

Note return to page "Catholica."

Note return to page "....quæ (stella Martis) ut maxime excentrica volvitur, motus etiam maxime dissonos habere diu visa est....;" Alexandre in Lemaire, ii. 180.

Note return to page "....qui numerus sexangulas mundi efficit formas."

Note return to page Lynceus was one of the Argonauts and was celebrated for the acuteness of his vision; Val. Flaccus, i. 462 et seq.

Note return to page The relative situation of these astronomical phænomena has changed since the time of Pliny, in consequence of the precession of the equinoxes. For an illustration and explanation of the various statements in this chapter I may refer to the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 368–370.

Note return to page Ptolemy's account of the colours of the planets is nearly similar to that of our author; "Candidus color Jovialis est, rutilus Martius, flavus Veneris, varius Mercurii;" De Jur. Astrol. ii. 9.

Note return to page This effect cannot be produced by any of the planets, except perhaps, to a certain extent, by Venus.

Note return to page "mundi."

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the method which Pliny employs to explain the different phases of the moon betrays his ignorance, not only of the cause of these particular phenomena, but of the general principles which affect the appearance of the heavenly bodies.

Note return to page "seminani ambitur orbe." According to the interpretation of Hardouin, "Orbe non perfecto et absoluto;" "major dimidia, minor plena;" Lemaire, ii. 284.

Note return to page As Alexandre justly remarks, our author refers here to the aspects only of the planets, not to their phases; ii 284.

Note return to page "centrum terræ;" the equator, the part equally distant from the two poles or extremities.

Note return to page It may be remarked, that the equinoxes did not actually take place at this period in the points mentioned by Pliny, but in the 28th degrees of Pisces and Virgo respectively; he appears to have conformed to the popular opinion, as we may learn from Columella, lib. ix. cap. 14. The degrees mentioned above were those fixed by the Greek astronomers who formed the celestial sphere, and which was about 138 years before the Christian æra. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 246 & 373, 374.

Note return to page The same remark applies to this as to the former observation.

Note return to page "siderum."

Note return to page The hypothesis of the author is, that the excess of moisture in the orbit of Saturn, and the excess of heat in that of Mars, unite in the orbit of Jupiter and are discharged in the form of thunder.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks, that Pliny mentions this, not as his own opinion, but that of many persons; for, in chap. 21, he attempts to prove mathematically, that the moon is situated at an equal distance between the sun and the earth; Lemaire, ii. 286.

Note return to page Marcus remarks upon the inconsistency between the account here given of Pythagoras's opinion, and what is generally supposed to have been his theory of the planetary system, according to which the sun, and not the earth, is placed in the centre; Enfield's Philosophy, i. 288, 289. Yet we find that Plato, and many others among the ancients, give us the same account of Pythagoras's doctrine of the respective distances of the heavenly bodies; Ajasson, ii. 374. Plato in his Timæus, 9. p. 312–315, details the complicated arrangement which he supposes to constitute the proportionate distances of the planetary bodies.

Note return to page Sulpicius has already been mentioned, in the ninth chapter of this book, as being the first among the Romans who gave a popular explanation of the cause of eclipses.

Note return to page "διὰ πασῶν, omnibus tonis contextam harmoniam." Hardouin in Lemaire, ii. 287.

Note return to page These appellations appear to have originated from different nations having assumed different notes as the foundation or commencement of their musical scale. The Abbé Barthelemi informs us, that "the Dorians executed the same air a tone lower than the Phrygians, and the latter a tone still higher than the Lydians; hence the denomination of the Dorian, Phrygian, and Lydian modes." It appears to have been a general practice to employ the lowest modes for the slowest airs; Anacharsis's Travels, iii. 73, 74.

Note return to page Hence the passus will be equal to 5 Roman feet. If we estimate the Roman foot at 11ċ6496 English inches, we shall have the miliare of 8 stadia equal to 1618 English yards, or 142 yards less than an English statute mile. See Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 503; also the articles Miliare and Pes in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities; and for the varieties of the stadium, as employed at different periods and in different countries, see the article Stadium. The stadium which Herodotus employed in measurements of Babylon has been supposed to consist of 490 English feet, while that of Xenophon and Strabo has been estimated at 505; see Ed. Rev. xlviii. 190. The Abbé Barthelemi supposes the stadium to be equal to 604 English feet; Anach. Travels, vii. 284.

Note return to page There appears to have been two individuals of this name, who have been confounded with each other; the one referred to by Pliny was an astronomer of Alexandria, who flourished about 260 years B.C.; the other was a native of Apamea, a stoic philosopher, who lived about two centuries later; see Aikin's Biog. in loco; also Hardouin's Index Auctorum, Lemaire, i. 209.

Note return to page The terms in the original are respectively nubila and nubes. The lexicographers and grammarians do not appear to have accurately discriminated between these two words.

Note return to page The terms in the original are respectively nubila and nubes. The lexicographers and grammarians do not appear to have accurately discriminated between these two words.

Note return to page The words in the text are "vicies centum millia "and "quinquies millia."

Note return to page Archimedes estimated that the diameter of a circle is to its circumference as 1 to 3ċ1416; Hutton's Diet. in loco. Ptolemy states it to be precisely as 1 to 3; Magn. Const. i. 12.

Note return to page The author's reasoning is founded upon the supposition of the length of the sun's path round the earth being twelve times greater than that of the moon's; the orbit therefore would be twelve times greater and the radius in the same proportion.

Note return to page "Non inter Lunam et Saturnum, sed inter Lunam et cœlum affixarum stellarum, medium esse Solem modo dixerat. Quam parum sui meminit! "Alexandre in Lem. i. 291.

Note return to page "Qui computandi modus plurimum habet verecundiæ et modestiæ, quum ibi sistit, nec ulterius progreditur." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 292.

Note return to page "....ad Saturni circulum addito Signiferi ipsius intervallo,..."

Note return to page We may remark, that our author, for the most part, adopts the opinions of Aristotle respecting comets and meteors of all kinds, while he pays but little attention to those of his contemporary Seneca, which however, on some points, would appear to be more correct. See the remarks of Marcus in Ajasson, ii. 244. Under the title of comets he includes, not only those bodies which are permanent and move in regular orbits, but such as are transient, and are produced from various causes, the nature of which is not well understood. See Aristotle, Meteor. lib. i. cap. 6, 7, and Seneca, Nat. Quæst. lib. 7, and Manilius, i. 807 et seq.

Note return to page a κόμη, coma.

Note return to page a πωγωνίος, barbatus. Most of these terms are employed by Aristotle and by Seneca.

Note return to page ab ἀκόντιον, jaculum.

Note return to page a ξίφος, ensis.

Note return to page a δίσκος, orbis.

Note return to page a πίθος, dolium. Seneca describes this species as "magnitudo vasti rotundique ignis dolio similis;" Nat. Quæst. lib. i. § 14. p. 964.

Note return to page a κέρας, cornu.

Note return to page a λαμπἀς, fax.

Note return to page ab ἵππος, equus. Seneca mentions the fax, the jaculum, and the lampas among the prodigies that preceded the civil wars; Phars. i. 528 et seq.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks, that these dates do not correspond, and adds, "Desperandum est de Pliniana chronologia; nec satis interdum scio, utrum librarios, an scriptorem ipsum incusem,...." Lemaire, i. 295. According to the most approved modern chronology, the middle of the 109th olympiad corresponds to the 211th year of the City.

Note return to page "errantium modo;" this may mean, that they move in orbits like those of the planets and exhibit the same phænomena, or simply that they change their situation with respect to the fixed stars.

Note return to page Seneca remarks on this point, "Placet igitur nostris (Stoicis) cometas ....denso aëri creari. Ideo circa Septemtrionem frequentissime apparent, quia illic plurimi est aëris frigor." Qusest. Nat. i. 7. Aristotle, on the contrary, remarks that comets are less frequently produced in the northern part of the heavens; Meteor. lib. i. cap. 6. p. 535.

Note return to page Ubi supra.

Note return to page See Aristotle, ut supra, p. 537.

Note return to page "Videtur is non cometes fuisse, sed meteorus quidam ignis;" Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 296.

Note return to page Virgil, Geor. i. 488 et seq., Manilius, i. 904 et seq., and Lucan, i. 526 et seq., all speak of the comets and meteors that were observed previous to the civil wars between Pompey and Cæsar. In reference to the existence of a comet about the time of Julius Cæsar, Playfair remarks, that Halley supposed the great comet of 1680 to have been the same that appeared in the year 44 A.C., and again in Justinian's time, 521 P.C., and also in 1106; Elem. Nat. Phil. ii. 197, 198. See Ptolemy's Cent. Dict. no. 100, for the opinion, that comets presented an omen especially unfavourable to kings. To this opinion the following passage in the Paradise Lost obviously refers; "And with fear of change perplexes monarchs."

Note return to page Seneca refers to the four comets that were seen, after the death of Cæsar, in the time of Augustus, of Claudius, and of Nero; Quæst. Nat. i. 7. Suetonius mentions the comet which appeared previous to the death of Claudius, cap. 46, and Tacitus that before the death of Nero, Ann. xiv. 22.

Note return to page "A Julio Cæsare. Is enim paulo ante obitum collegium his ludis faciendis instituerat, confecto Veneris templo; "Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 299. Jul. Obsequens refers to a "stella crinita," which appeared during the celebration of these games, cap. 128.

Note return to page "Hoc est, hora fere integra ante solis occasum;" Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 299.

Note return to page All these circumstances are detailed by Suetonius, in Julio, § 88.p. 178.

Note return to page "terris."

Note return to page Seneca remarks, "...quidam nullos esse cometas existimant, sed species illorum per repercussionem vicinorum siderum,....Quidam aiunt esse quidem, sed habere cursus suos et post certa lustra in conspectum mortalium exire." He concludes by observing, "Veniet tempus, quo ista quæ nune latent, in lucem dies extrahat, et longioris diei diligentia;" Nat. Quæst. lib. 7. § 19. p. 807.

Note return to page For some account of Hipparchus, see note3, p. 37.

Note return to page Nothing is known respecting the nature of these instruments, nor have we any means of forming even a conjecture upon the subject.

Note return to page The terms "faces," "lampades," "bolides," and "trabes," literally torches, lamps, darts, and beams, which are employed to express different kinds of meteors, have no corresponding words in English which would correctly designate them.

Note return to page From this account it would appear, that the "fax" was what we term a falling star. "Meteora ista, super cervices nostras transeuntia, diversaque a stellis labentibus, modo aërolithis ascribenda sunt, modo vaporibus incensis aut electrica vi prognata videntur, et quamvis frequentissime recurrant, explicatione adhuc incerta indigent." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 302.

Note return to page Seneca refers to this meteor; "Vidimus non semel flammam ingenti pilæ specie, quæ tamen in ipso cursu suo dissipata est....nec Germanici mors sine tali demonstratione fuit;" Nat. Quæst. lib. i. cap. 1. p. 683.

Note return to page This meteor is mentioned by Dion Cassius, lib. xlv. p. 278, but is described by him as a lampas.

Note return to page We may presume that the trabes are, for the most part, to be referred to the aurora borealis. The chasma and the appearances described in the twenty-seventh chapter are probably varieties of this meteor. On these phænomena we have the following remarks by Seneca: "Lucem in aëre, seu quamdam albedinem, angustam quidem, sed oblongam, de noctu quandoque visam, sereno cælo, si parallelo situ sit, Trabem vocant; si perpendiculari, Columnam; si, cum cuspide Bolida, siveJaculum." Nat. Quæst. vii. 4, and again, vii. 5, "Trabes autem non transcurrunt nec prætervolant, ut faces, sed commorantur, et in eadem parte cceli collucent."

Note return to page Seneca describes this meteor, ubi supra, i. 14. "Sunt chasmata, cum aliquando cœli spatium discedit, et flammam dehiscens velut in abdito ostentat. Colores quoque horum omnium plurimi sunt. Quidam ruboris acerrimi, quidam evanidæ et levis flammæ, quidam candidæ lucis, quidam micantes, quidam æquabiliter et sine eruptionibus aut radiis fulvi." Aristotle's account of chasmata is contained in his Meteor. lib. i. cap. 5. p. 534.

Note return to page The meteor here referred to is probably a peculiar form of the aurora borealis, which occasionally assumes a red colour. See the remarks of Fouché, in Ajasson, i. 382.

Note return to page The doctrine of the author appears to be, that the prodigies are not the cause, but only the indication of the events which succeed them. This doctrine is referred to by Seneca; "Videbimus an certus omnium rerum ordo ducatur, et alia aliis ita complexa sint, ut quod antecedit, aut causa sit sequentium aut signum." Nat. Quæst. i. 1.

Note return to page It would appear that, in this passage, two phenomena are confounded together; certain brilliant stars, as, for example, Venus, which have been occasionally seen in the day-time, and the formation of different kinds of halos, depending on certain states of the atmosphere, which affect its transparency.

Note return to page This occurrence is mentioned by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. i. 2; he enters into a detailed explanation of the cause; also by V. Paterculus, ii. 59, and by Jul. Obsequens, cap. 128. We can scarcely doubt of the reality of the occurrence, as these authors would not have ventured to relate what, if not true, might have been so easily contradicted.

Note return to page The term here employed is "arcus," which is a portion only of a circle or "orbis." But if we suppose that the sun was near the horizon, a portion only of the halo would be visible, or the condition of the atmosphere adapted for forming the halo might exist in one part only, so that a portion of the halo only would be obscured.

Note return to page The dimness or paleness of the sun, which is stated by various writers to have occurred at the time of Cæsar's death, it is unnecessary to remark, was a phænomenon totally different from an eclipse, and depending on a totally different cause.

Note return to page Aristotle, Meteor. lib. iii. cap. 2. p. 575, cap. 6. p. 582, 583, and Seneca, Quæst. Nat. lib. i. § 11, describe these appearances under the title which has been retained by the moderns of παρήλια. Aristotle remarks on their cause as depending on the refraction (ἀνάκλασις) of the sun's rays. He extends the remark to the production of halos (ἅλως) and the rainbow, ubi supra.

Note return to page This occurrence is referred to by Livy, xli. 21.

Note return to page This meteor has been named παρασελήνη; they are supposed to depend upon the same cause with the Parhelia. A phænomenon of this description is mentioned by Jul. Obsequens, cap. 92, and by Plutarch, in Marcellus, ii. 360. In Shakspeare's King John the death of Prince Arthur is said to have been followed by the ominous appearance of five moons.

Note return to page This phænomenon must be referred to the aurora borealis. See Livy, xxviii. 11. and xxix. 14.

Note return to page "clypei."

Note return to page Probably an aërolite. Jul. Obsequens describes a meteor as "orbis dypei similis," which was seen to pass from west to east, cap. 105.

Note return to page "ceu nubilo die."

Note return to page It would be difficult to reconcile this phænomenon with any acknowledged atmospherical phænomenon.

Note return to page Perhaps the phænomena here alluded to ought to be referred to some electric action; but they are stated too generally to admit of our forming more than a conjecture on the subject. Virgil refers to the occurrence of storms of wind after the appearance of a falling star; Geor. i. 265–6.

Note return to page These phænomena are admitted to be electrical; they are referred to by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. i. 1. This appearance is noticed as of frequent occurrence in the Mediterranean, where it is named the fire of St. Elmo; see Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 311, and Fouché in Ajasson, ii. 382.

Note return to page Perhaps this opinion may be maintained on the principle, that, when there is a single luminous appearance only, it depends upon the discharge of a quantity of electrical fluid in a condensed state; its effects are, hi this case, those that would follow from a stroke of lightning.

Note return to page This is said by Livy to have occurred to Servius Tullius while he was a child; lib. i. cap. 39; and by Virgil to Ascanius, Æn. ii. 632–5.

Note return to page "Ut circumagendo balistæ vel fundæ impetus augetur." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 313.

Note return to page "sed assidue rapta (natura) convolvitur, et circa terram immenso rerum causas globo ostendit, subinde per nubes cœlum aliud obtexens." On the words "immenso globo," Alexandre has the following comment: "Immensis cœli fornicibus appicta sidera, dumcircumvolvitur, terris ostendit;" and on the words "cœlum aliud," "obductæ scilicet nubes falsum quasi cœlum vero prætexunt." Lemaire, i. 313.

Note return to page The author probably means to speak of all the atmospheric phænomena that have been mentioned above.

Note return to page Marcus has made some remarks on this subject which may be read with advantage; Ajasson, ii. 245–6.

Note return to page The diminutive of Sus.

Note return to page Ab ὕω, pluo.

Note return to page The Hædi were in the constellation Auriga.

Note return to page We have the same account of the Oryx in Ælian, lib. vii. cap. 8.

Note return to page Our author again refers to this opinion, viii. 63, and it was generally adopted by the ancients; but it appears to be entirely unfounded.

Note return to page "cum tempestatibus confici sidus intelligimus."

Note return to page "afflantur." On this term Hardouin remarks, "Siderantur. Sideratio morbi genus est, partem aliquam corporis, ipsumque ssepe totum corpus percutientis subito: quod quum repentino eveniat impetu, e cœlo vi quadam sideris evenire putatur." Lemaire, i. 317.

Note return to page Cicero alludes to these opinions in his treatise De Divin. ii. 33; see also Aul. Gellius, ix. 7.

Note return to page The heliotropium of the moderns has not the property here assigned to it, and it may be doubted whether it exists in any plant, except in a very slight and imperfect degree: the subject will be considered more fully in a subsequent part of the work, xxii. 29, where the author gives a more particular account of the heliotrope.

Note return to page "conchyliorum;" this term appears to have been specifically applied to the animal from which the Tyrian dye was procured.

Note return to page "soricum fibras;" Alexandre remarks on these words, "fibras jecoris intellige, id est, lobos infimos.....;" Lemaire, i. 318; but I do not see any ground for this interpretation.

Note return to page It does not appear from what source our author derived this number; it is considerably greater than that stated by Ptolemy and the older astronomers. See the remarks of Hardouin and of Brotier; Lemaire. i. 319.

Note return to page The Vergiliæ or Pleiades are not in the tail of the Bull, according to the celestial atlas of the moderns.

Note return to page "Septemtriones."

Note return to page The doctrine of Aristotle on the nature and formation of mists and clouds is contained in his treatises De Meteor. lib. i. cap. 9. p. 540, and De Mundo, cap. 4. p. 605. He employs the terms ἀτμισς, νέφος, and νεφέλη, which are translated vapor, nubes and nebula, respectively. The distinction, however, between the two latter does not appear very clearly marked either in the Greek or the Latin, the two Greek words being indiscriminately applied to either of the Latin terms.

Note return to page It is doubtful how far this statement is correct; see the remarks of Hardouin, Lem. i. 320.

Note return to page The words in the original are respectively fulmen and fulgetrum; Seneca makes a similar distinction between fulmen and fulguratio: "Fulguratio est late ignis explicitus; fulmen est coactus ignis ot impetu jactus." Nat. Quæst. lib. ii. cap. 16. p. 706.

Note return to page "Præsertim ex tribus superioribus planetis, uti dictum est, cap. 18." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 322.

Note return to page Our author's opinion respecting the origin of winds nearly agrees with that of Aristotle; "nihil ut aliud ventus (ἄνεμος) sit, nisi aër multus fluctuans et compressus, qui etiam spiritus (πνεῦμα) appellatur;" De Meteor. This treatise contains a full account of the phænomena of winds. Seneca also remarks, "Ventus est aër fluens;" Nat. Quæst. lib. 3 & 5.

Note return to page Aristotle informs us, that the winds termed apogæi (ἀπόγαιοι) proceed from a marshy and moist soil; De Mundo, cap. 4. p. 605. For the origin and meaning of the terms here applied to the winds, see the remarks of Hardouin and Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 323.

Note return to page This is mentioned by Pomp. Mela.

Note return to page "In domibus etiam multis manu facta inclusa opacitate conceptacula....." Some of the MSS. have madefacta for manu facta, and this reading has been adopted by Lemaire; but nearly all the editors, as Dalechamps, Laët, Grovonius, Poincinet and Ajasson, retain the former word.

Note return to page The terms in the original are "flatus" and "ventus."

Note return to page "illos (flatus) states atque perspirantes."

Note return to page "qui non aura, non procella, sed mares appellatione quoque ipsa venti sunt." This passage cannot be translated into English, from our language not possessing the technical distinction of genders, as depending on the termination of the substantives.

Note return to page "Septem nimirum errantibus." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 306.

Note return to page In his account and nomenclature of the winds, Pliny has, for the most part, followed Aristotle, Meteor. lib. ii. cap. 4. pp. 558–560, and cap. 6. pp. 563–565. The description of the different winds by Seneca is not very different, but where it does not coincide with Aristotle's, our author has generally preferred the former; see Nat. Quæst. lib. 5. We have an account of the different winds, as prevailing at particular seasons, in Ptolemy, De Judiciis Astrol. 1. 9. For the nomenclature and directions of the winds, we may refer to the remarks of Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 328 et seq.

Note return to page Odyss. v. 295, 296.

Note return to page In giving names to the different winds, the author designates the points of the compass whence they proceed, by the place where the sun rises or sets, at the different periods of the year. The following are the terms which he employs :—"Oriens æquinoctialis," the place where the sun rises at the equinox, i. e. the East. "Oriens brumalis," where he rises on the shortest day, the S.E. "Occasus brumalis," where he sets on the shortest day, the S.W. "Occasus æquinoctialis," where he sets at the equinox, the W. "Occasus solstitialis," where he sets on the longest day, the N.W. "Exortus solstitialis," where he rises on the longest day, the N.E. "Inter septemtrionem et occasum solstitialem," between N. and N.W., N.N.W. "Inter aquilonem et exortum æquinoctialem," between N. and N.E., N.N.E. "Inter ortum brumalem et meridiem," between S. and S.E., S.S.E. Inter meridiem et hybernum occidentem," between S. and S.W., S.S.W.

Note return to page "Quod sub sole nasci videtur."

Note return to page This name was probably derived from the town Vulturnum in Campania.

Note return to page Seneca informs us, that what the Latins name Subsolanus, is named by the Greeks αφηλιώτης; Quæst. Nat. lib. 5. § 16. p. 764.

Note return to page "quia favet rebus nascentibus."

Note return to page "....semper spirantes frigora Cauri." Virgil, Geor. iii. 356.

Note return to page The eight winds here mentioned will bear the following relation to our nomenclature: Septemtrio, N.; Aquilo, N.E.; Subsolanus, E.; Vulturnus, S.E.; Auster, S.; Africus, N.W.; Favonius, W.; and Corus, N.W.

Note return to page The four winds here mentioned, added to eight others, making, in the whole, twelve, will give us the following card:— N. Septemtrio.S. Notos or Auster. N.N.E. Boreas or Aquilo.S.S.W. Libonotos. E.N.E. Cæcias.W.S.W. Libs or Africus. E. Apeliotes or Subsolanus.W. Zephyrus or Favonius. E.S.E. Eurus or Vulturnus.W.N.W. Argestes or Corus. S.S.E. Euronotus or Phœnices.N.N.W. Thrascias. We are informed by Alexandre, Lemaire, i. 330, that there is an ancient dial plate in the Vatican, consisting of twelve sides, in which the names of the twelve winds are given both in Greek and in Latin. They differ somewhat from those given above, both absolutely and relatively; they are as follows:— απαρκτίας, Septemtrio.νότος, Auster. βορέας, Aquilo.αιβόνοτος, Austroafricus. καικίας, Vulturnus.αὶψ, Africus. αφηλιώτης, Solanus.ζέφυρος, Zephyrus. εῦρος, Eurus.ιάπυξ, Corus. εὐρόνοτος, Euronotus.θρασκίας, Circius.

Note return to page This wind must have been N.N.W.; it is mentioned by Strabo, iv. 182; A. Gellius, ii. 22; Seneca, Nat. Quæst. v. 17; and again by our author, xvii. 2.

Note return to page We may learn the opinions of the Romans on the subject of this chapter from Columella, xi. 2.

Note return to page corresponding to the 8th day of the month.

Note return to page ...lustro sequenti...; "tribus annis sequentibus." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 334.

Note return to page corresponding to the 22nd of February.

Note return to page a χελιδὼν, hirundo.

Note return to page This will be either on March 2nd or on February 26th, according as we reckon from December the 21st, the real solstitial day, or the 17th, when, according to the Roman calendar, the sun is said to enter Capricorn.

Note return to page "quasi Avicularem dixeris." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 334.

Note return to page Corresponding to the 10th of May.

Note return to page According to the Roman calendar, this corresponds to the 20th July, but, according to the text, to the 17th. Columella says, that the sun enters Leo on the 13th of the Calends of August; xi. 2.

Note return to page "quasi præcursores;" Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 335. Cicero refers to these winds in one of his letters to Atticus; xiv. 6.

Note return to page ἐτησίαι, ab ἔτος, annus.

Note return to page This will be on the 13th of September, as, according to our author, xviii. 24, the equinox is on the 24th.

Note return to page This corresponds to the 11th of November; forty-four days before this will be the 29th of September.

Note return to page Or Halcyonides. This topic is considered more at length in a subsequent part of the work; x. 47.

Note return to page The author, as it appears, portions out the whole of the year into fourteen periods, during most of which certain winds are said to blow, or, at least, to be decidedly prevalent. Although the winds of Italy are less irregular than those of England, Pliny has considerably exaggerated the real fact.

Note return to page On this subject the reader may peruse the remarks of Seneca, Nat. Quæst. v. 18, written in his style of flowery declamation.

Note return to page The greatest part of the remarks on the nature of the winds, in this chapter, would appear to be taken from Aristotle's Treatise De Meteor., and it may be stated generally, that our author has formed his opinions more upon those of the Greek writers than upon actual observation.

Note return to page A.M.

Note return to page In the last chapter Ornithias is said to be a west wind.

Note return to page This obviously depends upon the geographical situation of the northern parts of Africa, to which the observation more particularly applies, with respect to the central part of the Continent and the Mediterranean. See the remarks of Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 340.

Note return to page The influence of the fourth day of the moon is referred to by Virgil, Geor. i. 432 et seq. "Sin ortu quarto," &c.

Note return to page This refers to the genders of the names of the winds, analogous to the remark in note5, p. 71.

Note return to page Eudoxus was a native of Cnidus, distinguished for his knowledge in astrology and science generally; he was a pupil of Plato, and is referred to by many of the ancients; see Hardouin's Index Auctorum, in Lemaire, i. 187, and Enfield's Hist. of Phil. i. 412, with the very copious list of references.

Note return to page "flatus repentini."

Note return to page Cicero refers to an opinion very similar to this as maintained by the Stoics; De Div. ii. 44.

Note return to page "procella."

Note return to page "ἐκ νέφους, erumpente spiritu." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i.343. Perhaps it most nearly corresponds to the term "hurricane."

Note return to page a τύφω, incendo, ardeo. We have no distinct term in our language which corresponds to the account of the typhon; it may be considered as a combination of a whirlwind and a hurricane.

Note return to page Plutarch, Sympos. Quæst. iii. 5, refers to the extraordinary power of vinegar in extinguishing fire, but he ascribes this effect, not to its coldness, but to the extreme tenuity of its parts. On this Alexandre remarks, "Melius factum negassent Plinius et Plutarchus, quam causam inanera rei absurdissimæ excogitarent." Lemaire, i. 344.

Note return to page The terms here employed are respectively "turbines," "presteres," and "vortices."

Note return to page πρηστὴο, a πρήθω, incendo. Seneca calls it "igneus turbo;" Nat. Quæst. v. 13. p. 762. See also Lucretius, vi. 423.

Note return to page Plutarch.

Note return to page A water-spout. We have a description of this phenomenon in Lucretius, vi. 425 et seq.

Note return to page "fulmen."

Note return to page This has been pointed out by Alexandre, Lemaire, i. 346, as one of the statements made by our author, which, in consequence of his following the Greek writers, applies rather to their climate than to that of Italy. The reader may form a judgement of the correctness of this remark by comparing the account given by Aristotle and by Seneca; the former in Meteor. iii. 1. p. 573, 574, the latter in Nat. Quæst. ii. 32 et seq.

Note return to page "fulgur." The account of the different kinds of thunder seems to be principally taken from Aristotle; Meteor. iii. 1. Some of the phænomena mentioned below, which would naturally appear to the ancients the most remarkable, are easily explained by a reference to their electrical origin.

Note return to page "quod clarum vocant."

Note return to page This account seems to be taken from Aristotle, Meteor. iii 1. p. 574; see also Seneca, Nat. Quest. ii. 31. p. 711. We have an account of the peculiar effects of thunder in Lucretius, vi. 227 et seq.

Note return to page This effect may be easily explained by the agitation into which the female might have been thrown. The title of "princeps Romanarum," which is applied to Marcia, has given rise to some discussion among the commentators, for which see the remarks of Hardouin and Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 348.

Note return to page Sometimes a partial thunder-cloud is formed, while the atmosphere generally is perfectly clear, or, as Hardouin suggests, the effect might have been produced by a volcanic eruption. See Lemaire, i. 348.

Note return to page Seneca gives us an account of the opinions of the Tuscans; Nat. Quæst. ii. 32; and Cicero refers to the "libri fulgurales" of the Etrurians; De Divin. i. 72.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, "Summanus est Deus summus Manium, idem Orcus et Pluto dictus." Lemaire, i. 349; he is again referred to by our author, xxix. 14; Ovid also mentions him, Fast. vi. 731, with the remark, "quisquis is est."

Note return to page The city of Bolsena is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Volsinium. From the nature of the district in which it is situate, it is perhaps more probable, that the event alluded to in the text was produced by a volcanic eruption, attended by lightning, than by a simple thunderstorm.

Note return to page "Vocant et familiaria.....quæ prima fiunt familiam suam cuique indepto." This remark is explained by the following passage from Seneca; Nat. Quæst. ii. 47. "Hæc sunt fulmina, quæ primo accepto patrimonio, in novo hominis aut urbis statu fiunt." This opinion, as well as most of those of our author, respecting the auguries to be formed from thunder, is combated by Seneca; ubi supra, § 48.

Note return to page This opinion is also referred to by Seneca. in the following passage; "privata autem fulmina negant ultra decimum annum, publica ultra trigesimum posse deferri;" ubi supra.

Note return to page "in deductione oppidorum;" according to Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 350, "quum in oppida coloniee deducuntur."

Note return to page The following conjecture is not without a degree of probability; "Ex hoc multisque aliis auctorum locis, plerique conjiciunt Etruscis auguribus haud ignotam fuisse vim electricam, licet eorum arcana nunquam divulgata sint." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 3, 50.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks in this place, "An morbus aliquis fuit, qui primum in agros debacchatus, jam urbi minabatur, forsitan ab aëris siccitate natus, quem advenientes cum procella imbres discusserunt? "Lemaire, i. 350.

Note return to page For a notice of Piso, see Lemaire, i. 208.

Note return to page We have an account of the death of Tullus Hostilius in Livy, i. 31.

Note return to page "ab eliciendo, seu quod precationibus cœlo evocaretur, id nomen traxit." This is confirmed by the following lines from Ovid, Fast. iii. 327, 328:— "Eliciunt cœlo te, Jupiter: unde minores Nunc quoque te celebrant, Eliciumque vocant."

Note return to page "beneficiis abrogare vires."

Note return to page "ictum autem et sonitum congruere, ita modulante natura." This remark is not only incorrect, but appears to be at variance both with what precedes and what follows.

Note return to page The following remark of Seneca may be referred to, both as illustrating our author and as showing how much more correct the opinions of Seneca were than his own, on many points of natural philosophy; "....necesse est, ut impetus fulminis et præmittat spiritus, et agat ante se, et a tergo trahat ventum....;" Nat. Quæst. lib. ii. § 20. p. 706.

Note return to page "quoniam læva parte mundi ortus est." On this passage Hardouin remarks; "a Deorum sede, quum in meridiem spectes, ad sinistram sunt partes mundi exorientes;" Lemaire, i. 353. Poinsinet enters into a long detail respecting opinions of the ancients on this point and the circumstances which induced them to form their opinions; i. 34 et seq.

Note return to page See Cicero de Divin. ii 42.

Note return to page "Junonis quippe templum fulmine violatum ostendit non a Jove, non a Deis mitti fulmina." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 354. The consulate of Scaurus was in the year of Rome 638. Lucan, i. 155, and Horace, Od. i. 2. refer to the destruction of temples at Rome by lightning.

Note return to page Obviously because faint flashes are more visible in the night.

Note return to page We have an explanation of this peculiar opinion in Tertullian, as referred to by Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 355; "Qui de cœlo tangitur, salvus est, ut nullo igne decinerescat."

Note return to page Although it has been thought necessary by M. Fée, in the notes to Ajasson's trans., ii. 384, 385, to enter into a formal examination of this opinion of the author's, I conceive that few of our readers will agree with him in this respect.

Note return to page Suetonius informs us, that Augustus always wore a seal's skin for this purpose; Octavius, § 90.

Note return to page The eagle was represented by the ancients with a thunderbolt in its claws.

Note return to page There is strong evidence for the fact, that, at different times, various substances have fallen from the atmosphere, sometimes apparently of mineral, and, at other times, of animal or vegetable origin. Some of these are now referred to those peculiar bodies termed aërolites, the nature and source of which are still doubtful, although their existence is no longer so. These bodies have, in other instances, been evidently discharged from distant volcanoes, but there are many cases where the substance could not be supposed to have proceeded from a volcano, and where, in the present state of our knowledge, it appears impossible to offer an explanation of their nature, or the source whence they are derived. We may, however, conclude, that notwithstanding the actual occurrence of a few cases of this description, a great proportion of those enumerated by the ancients were either entirely without foundation or much exaggerated. We meet with several variations of what we may presume to have been aërolites in Livy; for example, xxiv. 10, xxx. 38, xli. 9, xliii. 13, and xliv. 18, among many others. As naturally may be expected, we have many narratives of this kind in Jul. Obsequens.

Note return to page The same region from which lightning was supposed to proceed.

Note return to page We have several relations of this kind in Livy, xxiv. 10, xxxix. 46 and 56, xl. 19, and xliii. 13. The red snow which exists in certain alpine regions, and is found to depend upon the presence of the Uredo nivalis, was formerly attributed to showers of blood.

Note return to page This occurrence may probably be referred to an aërolite, while the wool mentioned below, i.e. a light flocculent substance, was perhaps volcanic.

Note return to page Armorum sonitum toto Germania cœlo Audiit.—Virgil, Geor. i. 474, 475. "....in Jovis Vicilini templo, quod in Compsano agro est, arma concrepuisse." Livy, xxiv. 44.

Note return to page See Plutarch, by Langhorne; Marius, iii. 133.

Note return to page See Livy, iii. 5 & 10, xxxi. 12, xxxii. 9, et alibi.

Note return to page I have already had occasion to remark, concerning this class of phænomena, that there is no doubt of their actual occurrence, although their origin is still unexplained.

Note return to page The life of Anaxagoras has been written by Diogenes Laërtius. We have an ample account of him by Enfield in the General Biography, in loco; he was born B.C. 500 and died B.C. 428.

Note return to page There is some variation in the exact date assigned by different authors to this event; in the Chronological table in Brewster's Encyc. vi. 420, it is said to have occurred 467 B.C.

Note return to page Aristotle gives us a similar account of this stone; that it fell in the daytime, and that a comet was then visible at night; Meteor. i. 7. It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the authority for this fact must be referred entirely to Aristotle, without receiving any additional weight from our author. The occurrence of the comet at the same time with the aërolite must have been entirely incidental.

Note return to page "Deductis eo sacri lapidis causa colonis, extructoque oppido, cui nomen a colore adusto lapidis, est inditum, Potidæa. Est enim ποτὶ Dorice πρὸς, ad, apud; δαίομαι, uror." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 361. It was situated in the peninsula of Pallene, in Macedonia.

Note return to page The Vocontii were a people of Gallia Narbonensis, occupying a portion of the modern Dauphiné.

Note return to page "Manifestum est, radium Solis immissum cavæ nubi, repulsa acie in Solem, refringi."

Note return to page Aristotle treats of the Rainbow much in detail, principally in his Meteor. iii. 2, 3, 4, and 5, where he gives an account of the phænomena, which is, for the most part, correct, and attempts to form a theory for them; see especially cap. 4. p. 577 et seq. In the treatise De Mundo he also refers to the same subject, and briefly sums up his doctrine with the following remark: "arcus est species segmenti solaris vel lunaris, edita in nube humida, et cava, et perpetua; quam velut in speculo intuemur, imagine relata in speciem circularis ambitiûs." cap. 4. p. 607. Seneca also treats very fully on the phenomena and theory of the Rainbow, in his Nat. Quæst. i. 3–8.

Note return to page Vide supra, also Meteor. iii. 2, and Seneca, Nat. Quæst. i. 3.

Note return to page Aristotle, Meteor. iii. 5. p. 581, observes, that the rainbow is less frequently seen in the summer, because the sun is more elevated, and that, consequently, a less portion of the arch is visible. See also Seneca, Nat. Quæst. i. 8. p. 692.

Note return to page Aristotle treats at some length of dew, snow, and hail, in his Meteor. i. cap. 10, 11 & 12 respectively.

Note return to page When water is frozen, its bulk is increased in consequence of its assuming a crystalline structure. Any diminution which may be found to have taken place in the bulk of the fluid, when thawed, must be ascribed to evaporation or to some accidental circumstance.

Note return to page "Velini lacus.....præcipiti cursu in gurgitem subjectum defertur, et illo aquarum lapsu, dispersis in aëra guttis humidis,.....iridis multiplicis phænomenon efficit....." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 365.

Note return to page We have an example in Martial, v. 34. 9, of the imprecation which has been common in all ages: Mollia nec rigidus cespes tegat ossa, nec illi Terra gravis fueris; and in Seneca's Hippolytus, sub finem: .....istam terra defossam premat, Gravisque tellus impio capiti incubet.

Note return to page The author refers to this opinion, xxix. 23, when describing the effects of venomous animals.

Note return to page inertium; "ultione abstinentium," as explained by Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 367.

Note return to page "Qued mortis genus a terræ meritis et benignitate valde abhorret." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 367.

Note return to page "Terra, inquit, sola est, e quatuor naturæ partibus sive elementis, adversus quam ingrati simus." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 368.

Note return to page "Est ironifæ formula. Quid, ait, feras et serpentes et venena terræ exprobramus, quæ ne ad tuendam quidem illam satis valent?" Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 369.

Note return to page "ossa vel insepulta cum tempore tellus occultat, deprimentia pondere suo mollitam pluviis humum." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 370.

Note return to page "figura prima." I may refer to the second chapter of this book, where the author remarked upon the form of the earth as perfect in all its parts, and especially adapted for its supposed position in the centre of the universe.

Note return to page "....si capita linearum comprehendantur ambitu;" the meaning of this passage would appear to be: if the extremities of the lines drawn from the centre of the earth to the different parts of the surface were connected together, the result of the whole would be a sphere. I must, however, remark, that Hardouin interprets it in a somewhat different manner; "Si per extremitates linearum ductarum a centro ad summos quosque vertices montium circulus exigatur." Lemaire, i. 370.

Note return to page "....immensum ejus globum in formam orbis assidua circa eam mundi volubilitate cogente." As Hardouin remarks, the word mundus is here used in the sense of cœlum. Lemaire, i. 371.

Note return to page As our author admits of the existence of antipodes, and expressly states that the earth is a perfect sphere, we may conclude that the resemblance to the cone of the pine is to be taken in a very general sense. How far the ancients entertained correct opinions respecting the globular figure of the earth, or rather, at what period this opinion became generally admitted, it is perhaps not easy to ascertain. The lines in the Georgics, i. 242, 243, which may be supposed to express the popular opinion in the time of Virgil, certainly do not convey the idea of a sphere capable of being inhabited in all its parts: Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, manesque profundi.

Note return to page "spiritus vis mundo inclusi."

Note return to page ".....Alpium vertices, iongo tractu, nee breviore quinquaginta millibus passuum assurgere." To avoid the apparent improbability of the author conceiving of the Alps as 50 miles high, the commentators have, according to their usual custom, exercised their ingenuity in altering the text. See Poinsinet, i. 206, 207, and Lemaire, i. 373. But the expression does not imply that he conceived them as 50 miles in perpendicular height, but that there is a continuous ascent of 50 miles to get to the summit. This explanation of the passage is adopted by Alexandre; Lemaire, ut supra. For what is known of Dicæarchus I may refer to Hardouin, Index Auctorum, in Lemaire, i. 181.

Note return to page "coactam in verticem aquarum quoque figuram."

Note return to page "aqunrum nempe convexitas." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 374.

Note return to page "Quam quæ ad extremum mare a primis aquis." I profess myself altogether unable to follow the author's mode of reasoning in this paragraph, or to throw any light upon it. He would appear to be arguing in favour of the actual flatness of the surface of the ocean, whereas his previous remarks prove its convexity.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks on this passage, "Nempe quod remotissimos etiam fontes alat oceanus. Sed omittit Plinius vaporationis intermedia ope hoc fieri." Lemaire, i. 376. Aristotle has written at considerable length on the origin of springs, in his Meteor. i. 13. p. 543 et seq. He argues against the opinion of those who suppose that the water of springs is entirely derived from evaporation. Seneca's account of the origin of springs is found in his Nat. Quæst. iii. 1.

Note return to page The voyage which is here alluded to was probably that performed by Drusus; it is mentioned by Dio, lib. iv., Suetonius, Claud. § 1, Vel. Paterculus, ii. 106, and by Tacitus, Germ. § 34.

Note return to page What is here spoken of we may presume to have been that part of the German Ocean which lies to the N.W. of Denmark; the term Scythian was applied by the ancients in so very general a way, as not to afford any indication of the exact district so designated.

Note return to page "Sub eodem sidere;" "which lies under the same star."

Note return to page The ancients conceived the Caspian to be a gulf, connected with the northern ocean. Our author gives an account of it, vi. 15.

Note return to page That is, of the Caspian Sea.

Note return to page The remarks which our author makes upon the Palus Mæotis, in the different parts of his work, ii. 112 and vi. 7, appear so inconsistent with each other, that we must suppose he indiscriminately borrowed them from various writers, without comparing their accounts, or endeavouring to reconcile them to each other. Such inaccuracies may be thought almost to justify the censure of Alexandre, who styles our author, "indiligens plane veri et falsi compilator, et ubi dissentiunt auctores, nunquam aut raro sibi constans." Lemaire, i. 378.

Note return to page The son of Agrippa, whom Augustus adopted. Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 378.

Note return to page See Beloe's Herodotus, ii. 393, 394, for an account of the voyage round Africa that was performed by the Phœnicians, who were sent to explore those parts by Necho king of Egypt.

Note return to page It is generally supposed that C. Nepos lived in the century previous to the Christian æra. Ptolemy Lathyrus commenced his reign U.C. 627 or B.C. 117, and reigned for 36 years. The references made to C. Nepos are not found in any of his works now extant.

Note return to page We have previously referred to Eudoxus, note3, p. 78.

Note return to page We have a brief account of Antipater in Hardouin's Index Auctorum; Lemaire, i. 162.

Note return to page We are informed by Alexandre that this was in the year of the City 691, the same year in which Cicero was consul; see note in Lemaire, i. 379.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the account here given must be incorrect; the reader who may be disposed to learn the opinions of the commentators on this point, may consult the notes in Poinsinet and Lemaire in loco.

Note return to page Dividuo globo; "Eoas partes a vespertinis dividente oceano." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 380.

Note return to page "Jam primum in dimidio computari videtur."

Note return to page "Cœlum;" the rigour of the climate.

Note return to page The division of the globe into five zones is referred to by Virgil, Geor. i. 233–239, and by Ovid, Met. i. 45, 46.

Note return to page "...interna maria allatrat,..."

Note return to page This is considerably more than the distance in the present day. The Isthmus of Suez appears, according to the statement of the most accurate geographers, to be about 70 miles in breadth.

Note return to page Hæ tot portiones terræ, as Alexandre correctly remarks, "ironice dictum. Quam paucæ enim supersunt!" Lemaire, i. 383.

Note return to page "Mundi punctus." This expression, we may presume, was taken from Seneca; "Hoc est illud punctum, quod inter tot gentes ferro et igni dividitur." Nat. Quæst. i. præf. p. 681.

Note return to page Nostro solo adfodimus; "addimus, adjungimus, annectimus, ut una fossione aretur." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 383.

Note return to page "Mundi totius."

Note return to page "Æquinoctii paribus horis."

Note return to page Dioptra. "Græce διόπτρα, instrumentum est geometricum, un quart de cerele, quo apparentes rerum inter se distantiæ anguli apertura dijudicantur." Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 384.

Note return to page This title does not correspond with the contents of the chapter.

Note return to page "Tropici duo, cum æquinoctiali circulo;" Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 884.

Note return to page The Troglodytice of the ancients may be considered as nearly corresponding to the modern Abyssinia and Nubia.

Note return to page This remark is incorrect, as far as respects nearly the whole of Egypt; see the remarks of Marcus, in Ajasson, ii. 245.

Note return to page This is a star of the first magnitude in the southern constellation of Argo; we have a similar statement in Manilius, i. 216, 217.

Note return to page The commentators suppose that the star or constellation here referred to cannot be the same with what bears this name on the modern celestial atlas; vide Hardouin in loco, also Marc. in Ajasson, ut supra. The constellation of Berenice's hair forms the subject of Catullus's 67th poem.

Note return to page In Troglodytice and in Egypt.

Note return to page The first watch of the night was from 6 P.M. to 9; the second from 9 to midnight.

Note return to page According to Columella, xi. 2. 369, this was 9 Calend. Mart., corresponding to the 21st of February.

Note return to page "In alia adverso, in alia prono mari." I have adopted the opinion of Alexandre, who explains the terms "adverso" and "prono," "ascendenti ad polum," and "ad austrum devexo;" a similar sense is given to the passage by Poinsinet and Ajasson, in their translations.

Note return to page "Anfractu pilæ." See Manilius, i. 206 et seq. for a similar mode of expression.

Note return to page "Aut;" as Poinsinet remarks, "aut est ici pour alioqui;" and he quotes another passage from our author, xix. 3, where the word is employed in a similar manner.

Note return to page We may presume that the author meant to convey the idea, that the eclipses which are visible in any one country are not so in those which are situated under a different meridian. The terms "vespertinos," "matutinos," and "meridianos," refer not to the time of the day, but to the situation of the eclipse, whether recurring in the western, eastern, or southern parts of the heavens.

Note return to page Brewster, in the art. "Chronology," p. 415, mentions this eclipse as having taken place Sept. 21st, U.C. 331, eleven days before the battle of Arbela; while, in the same art. p. 423, the battle is said to have taken place on Oct. 2nd, eleven days after a total eclipse of the moon.

Note return to page It took place on the 30th of April, in the year of the City 811, A.D. 59; see Brewster, ubi supra. It is simply mentioned by Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 12, as having occurred among other prodigies which took place at this period.

Note return to page We have an account of Corbulo's expedition to Armenia in Dion Cassius, lx. 19–24, but there is no mention of the eclipse or of any peculiar celestial phænomenon.

Note return to page The terms employed in the original are "oppositu" and "ambitu." Alexandre's explanation of the first is, "quum globi terraquei crassitudo interposita solis arcet radios;" and of the second, "quum nostra hujus globi pars a sole ambitur." Lemaire, i. 389.

Note return to page One of these towers is mentioned by Livy, xxxiii. 48; it is said to have been situated between Acholla and Thapsus, on the sea-coast.

Note return to page Hardouin, according to his usual custom, employs all his learning and ingenuity to give a plausible explanation of this passage. Alexandre, as it must be confessed, with but too much reason, remarks, "Frustra desudavit Harduinus ut sanum aliquem sensum ex illis Plinii deliramentis excuteret." He correctly refers the interval of time, which was said to occur between these signals, not to any astronomical cause, but to the necessary delay which took place in the transmission of them. He concludes, "Sed ad cursum solis hoc referre, dementiæ est. Nam ut tanta horarum differentia intersit, si moram omnem in speculandis ac transmittendis signis sustuleris, necesse erit observatores illos ultimos 135 gradibus, id est, sesquidimidio hemisphærio, a primis distare turribus. Recte igitur incredibilem Plinii credulitatem ludibrio vertit Baylius in Dictionario suo." Lemaire, i. 389.

Note return to page The distance, as here stated, is about 150 miles, which he is said to have performed in nine hours, but that the same distance, in returning, required fifteen hours. We have here, as on the former occasion, a note of Hardouin's to elucidate the statement of the author. On this Alexandre observes, "Optime; sed in tam parva locorum distantia, Elidis et Sicyonis horologia vix quinque unius hore sexagesimis differre poterant; quare eunti ac redeunti ne discrimen quidem quadrantis horæ intererat. Ineptos igitur auctores sequitur hoc quoque loco Plinius." Lemaire, i. 390, 391.

Note return to page "Vincunt spatia nocturnæ navigationis." This expression would appear to imply, that the author conceived some physical difficulty in sailing during the night, and so it seems to be understood by Alexandre; vide not. in loco.

Note return to page "Vasa horoscopica." "Vasa horoscopica appellat horologia in plano descripta, horizonti ad libellam respondentia. Vasa dicuntur, quod area in qua lineæ ducebantur, labri interdum instar et conchæ erat, cujus in margine describebantur horæ. Horoscopa, ab ὥρα et σκοπέω, hoc est, ab inspiciendis horis." Hardouin, in Lemaire, i. 391.

Note return to page These distances are respectively about 38 and 62 miles.

Note return to page We are not to expect any great accuracy in these estimates, and we accordingly find, that our author, when referring to the subject in his 6th book, ch. 39, makes the shadow at Ancona 1/35 greater than the gnomon, while, in Venetia, which is more northerly, he says, as in the present chapter, that the shadow and the gnomon are equal in length. See the remarks of M. Alexandre in Lemaire, ut supra.

Note return to page This would be about 625 miles. Strabo, ii. 114, and Lucan, ii. 587, give the same distance, which is probably nearly correct. Syene is, however, a little to the north of the tropic.

Note return to page This remark is not correct, as no part of this river is between the tropics. For an account of Onesicritus see Lemaire, i. 203, 204.

Note return to page "In meridiem umbras jaci." M. Ajasson translates this passage, "les ombres tombent pendant quatre-vingt-dix jours sur le point central du méridien." ii. 165. But I conceive that Holland's version is more correct, "for 90 days' space all the shadows are cast into the south." i. 36. The remarks of M. Alexandre are to the same effect; ".....ut bis solem in zenitho haberet (Ptolemais), Malii mensis et Augusti initio; interea vero, solem e septemtrione haberet." Lemaire, i. 393.

Note return to page About 625 miles.

Note return to page These days correspond to the 8th of May and the 4th of August respectively.

Note return to page There is considerable uncertainty respecting the identity of this mountain; our author refers to it in a subsequent part of his work, where it is said to be in the country of the Monedes and Suari; vi. 22. See the note of Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 394.

Note return to page Our author, in a subsequent part of his work, vi. 23, describes the island of Patale as situated near the mouth of the Indus; he again refers to it, xii. 25. His account of the position of the sun does not, however, apply to this place.

Note return to page If we may suppose this to have been actually the case, we might calculate the time of the year when Alexander visited this place and the length of his stay.

Note return to page We may presume, that our author means to say no more than that, in those places, they are occasionally invisible; literally the observation would not apply to any part of India.

Note return to page ἄσκια, shadowless.

Note return to page If this really were the case, it could have no relation to the astronomical position of the country.

Note return to page "In contrarium," contrary to what takes place at other times, i. e. towards the south. This observation is not applicable to the whole of this country, as its northern and southern parts differ from each other by seven or eight degrees of latitude. For an account of Eratosthenes see Lemaire, i. 186.

Note return to page "Hora duodecim in partes, ut as in totidem uncias dividebatur. Octonas igitur partes horæ antiquæ, sive bessem, ut Martianus vocat, nobis probe repræsentant horarum nostratium 40 sexagesimæ, quas miuntas vocamus." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 396.

Note return to page For a notice of Pytheas see Lemaire, i. 210. He was a geographer and historian who lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus; but his veracity does not appear to have been highly estimated by his contemporaries.

Note return to page The Thule of Pliny has been generally supposed to be the Shetland Isles. What is here asserted respecting the length of the day, as well as its distance from Britain, would indeed apply much more correctly to Iceland than to Shetland; but we have no evidence that Iceland was known to the ancients. Our author refers to the length of the day in Thule in two subsequent parts of his work, iv. 30 and vi. 36.

Note return to page Supposed to be Colchester in Essex; while the Mona of Pliny appears to have been Anglesea. It is not easy to conceive why the author measured the distance of Mona from Camelodunum.

Note return to page Chap. 6 of this book.

Note return to page a σκιὰ, umbra, and θηράω, sector. It has been a subject for discussion by the commentators, how far this instrument of Anaximenes is entitled to the appellation of a dial, whether it was intended to mark the hours, or to serve for some other astronomical purpose. See Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 398, 399. It has been correctly remarked by Brotier, that we have an account of a much more ancient dial in the 2nd book of Kings, xx. 9, 11.

Note return to page A. Gellius, iii. 3, informs us, that the question concerning the commencement of the day was one of the topics discussed by Varro, in his book "Rerum Humanarum:" this work is lost. We learn from the notes of Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 399, that there are certain countries in which all these various modes of computation are still practised; the last-mentioned is the one commonly employed in Europe.

Note return to page It has been supposed, that in this passage the author intended to say no more than that the nights are shorter at the summer solstice than at the other parts of the year; see Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 399, 400. But to this, I conceive, it may be objected, that the words "inter ortus solis" can scarcely apply to the period while the sun is below the horizon, and that the solstices generally would seem to be opposed to the equinoxes generally. Also the words "obliquior" and "rectior" would appear to have some farther reference than merely to the length of time during which the sun is above or below the horizon.

Note return to page "Vibrato;" the same term is applied by Turnus to the hair of Æneas; Æn. xii. 100.

Note return to page "Mobilitate hebetes;" it is not easy to see the connexion between these two circumstances.

Note return to page There is a passage in Galen, De Temperamentis, iii. 6, which may appear to sanction the opinion of our author; "Siccos esse, quibus macra sunt crura; humidos, quibus crassa."

Note return to page The latter part of the remark is correct, but the number of ferocious animals is also greater in the warmer regions; there is, in fact, a greater variety in all the productions of nature in the warmer districts of the globe, except in those particular spots where animal or vegetable life is counteracted by some local circumstances, as in many parts of Asia and Africa by the want of water.

Note return to page "Sensus liquidus;" Alexandre explains this expression, "judicium sanum, mens intelligendo apta." Lemaire, i. 401.

Note return to page Saturn, Jupiter and Mars: see the 8th chapter of this book.

Note return to page "Vel quando meant cum Sole in conjunctione cum eo, vel quando cum eo conveniunt in aspectu, maxime vero in quadrato, qui fit, qunm distant a Sole quarta mundi sive cœli parte." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 401.

Note return to page "Ut urbem et tecta custodirent." This anecdote is referred to by Cicero, who employs the words "ut urbem et tecta linquerent." De Divin. i. 112.

Note return to page This anecdote is also referred to by Cicero, de Div. ii.

Note return to page It has been observed that earthquakes, as well as other great convulsions of nature, are preceded by calms; it has also been observed that birds and animals generally exhibit certain presentiments of the event, by something peculiar in their motions or proceedings; this circumstance is mentioned by Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8, and by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 12.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that this supposed resemblance or analogy is entirely without foundation. The phænomena of earthquakes are described by Aristotle, De Mundo, cap. 4, and Meteor. ii. 7 and 8; also by Seneca in various parts of the 6th book of his Qusest. Nat.

Note return to page On this subject we shall find much curious matter in Aristotle's Treatise de Mundo, cap. 4.

Note return to page Poinsinet enters into a long detail of some of the most remarkable earthquakes that have occurred, from the age of Pliny to the period when he wrote, about fifty years ago; i. 249. 2.

Note return to page See Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8.

Note return to page See Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8, and Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 13.

Note return to page "Fervente;" "Fremitum aque ferventis imitante." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 404.

Note return to page The reader will scarcely require to be informed, that many of the remarks in the latter part of this chapter are incorrect. Our author has principally followed Aristotle, whose treatise on meteorology, although abounding in curious details, is perhaps one of the least correct of his works.

Note return to page This observation is taken from Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8.

Note return to page Phænomena of this kind have been frequently noticed, and are not difficult of explanation.

Note return to page "In iisdem;" "Iidem, inquit, putei inclusum terra spiritum libero meatu emittentes, terræ motus avertunt." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 406.

Note return to page "Quæ pendent." M. Ajasson translates this passage, "qui sont comme suspendues." Hardouin's explanation is, "Structis fornice cameris imposita ædificia intelligit; quod genus camerarum spiramenta plerumque habet non pauca, quibus exeat ad libertatem aer." Lemaire, i. 407.

Note return to page Many of these circumstances are referred to by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 30. On the superior security of brick buildings, M. Alexandre remarks, "Muri e lateribus facti difficilius quam ceeteri dehiscunt, unde fit ut in urbibus muniendis id constructionum genus plerumque præferatur. Ex antiquæ Italiæ palatiis templisve nihil fere præter immensas laterum moles hodie superest."

Note return to page These remarks upon the different kinds of shocks are probably taken from Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8.

Note return to page This observation is also in Aristotle, ii. 8.

Note return to page In the year of the city 663; A.C. 90.

Note return to page In the year of the city 821; A.D. 68.

Note return to page The continuation of Aufidius Bassus' history; our author refers to it in the first book.

Note return to page We have no authentic accounts of this mutual change of place between two portions of land, nor can we conceive of any cause capable of effecting it. Our author mentions this circumstance again in book xvii. ch. 38.

Note return to page See Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8.

Note return to page "Eodem videlicet spiritu infusi (maris) ac terræ residentis sinu recept i."

Note return to page U.C. 770; A.D. 17. We have an account of this event in Strabo, xii. 57; in Tacitus, Ann. ii. 47; and in the Universal History, xiv. 129, 130. We are informed by Hardouin, that coins are still in existence which were struck to commemorate the liberality of the emperor on the occasion, inscribed "civitatibus Asiæ restitutis." Lemaire, i. 410.

Note return to page U.C. 537; A.C. 217.

Note return to page This circumstance is mentioned by Livy, xxii. 5, and by Florus, ii. 6.

Note return to page "Præsagiis, inquit, quam ipsa clade, sæviores sunt terræ motus." Alexander in Lemaire, i. 410.

Note return to page This phænomenon is distinctly referred to by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 21. It presents us with one of those cases, where the scientific deductions of the moderns have been anticipated by the speculations of the ancients.

Note return to page Odyss. iv. 354–357; see also Arist. Meteor. i. 14; Lucan, x. 509–511; Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 26; Herodotus, ii. 4, 5; and Strabo, i. 59.

Note return to page These form, at this day, the Monte Circello, which, it is remarked, rises up like an island, out of the Pontine marshes. It seems, however, difficult to conceive how any action of the sea could have formed these marshes.

Note return to page See Strabo, i. 58. ii.

Note return to page ii. 5. et alibi.

Note return to page The plain in which this river flows, forming the windings from which it derives its name, appears to have been originally an inlet of the sea, which was gradually filled up with alluvial matter.

Note return to page "Paria secum faciente natura." This appears to have been a colloquial or idiomatic expression among the Romans. See Hardouin in Lemaire, 1. 412.

Note return to page It may be remarked, that the accounts of modern travellers and geologists tend to confirm the opinion of the volcanic origin of many of the islands of the Archipelago.

Note return to page Brotier remarks, that, according to the account of Herodotus, this island existed previous to the date here assigned to it; Lemaire, i. 412, 413: it is probable, however, that the same name was applied to two islands, one at least of which was of volcanic origin.

Note return to page U.C. 517, A.C. 237; and U.C. 617, A.C. 107; respectively.

Note return to page Hiera, Automata; ab ἱερὰ, sacer, et αὐτομάτη, sponte nascens. Respecting the origin of these islands there would appear to be some confusion in the dates, which it is difficult to reconcile with each other; it is, I conceive, impossible to decide whether this depends upon an error of our author himself, or of his transcribers.

Note return to page July 25th, U.C. 771; A.C. 19.

Note return to page U.C. 628; A.C. 125.

Note return to page See Ovid, Metam. xv. 290, 291; also Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 29.

Note return to page This event is mentioned by Thucydides, lib. 3, Smith's Trans. i. 293; and by Diodorus, xii. 7, Booth's Trans. p. 287, as the consequence of an earthquake; but the separation was from Locris, not from Eubœa. See the remarks of Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 415.

Note return to page It is somewhat uncertain to what island our author applied this name; see the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire.

Note return to page See Ovid, Metam. xv. 287.

Note return to page It is not improbable, from the situation and geological structure of the places here enumerated, that many of the changes mentioned above may have actually occurred but there are few of them of which we have any direct evidence.

Note return to page This celebrated narrative of Plato is contained in his Timæus, Op. ix. p. 296, 297; it may be presumed that it was not altogether a fiction on the part of the author, but it is, at this time, impossible to determine what part of it was derived from ancient traditions and what from the fertile stores of his own imagination. It is referred to by various ancient writers, among others by Strabo. See also the remarks of Brotier in Lemaire, i. 416, 417.

Note return to page Many of these changes on the surface of the globe, and others mentioned by our author in this part of his work, are alluded to by Ovid, in his beautiful abstract of the Pythagorean doctrine, Metam. xv. passim.

Note return to page See Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 8, and Strabo, i. For some account of the places mentioned in this chapter the reader may consult the notes of Hardouin in loco.

Note return to page Poinsinet, as I conceive correctly, makes the following clause the commencement of the next chapter.

Note return to page See Ovid, Metam. xv. 293–295; also the remarks of Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 418.

Note return to page "Spatium intelligit, fretumve, quo Sicilia nunc ab Italia dispescitur." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 419.

Note return to page See Strabo, ix.

Note return to page "Spiracula."

Note return to page "Busta urbium."

Note return to page "Suboriens," as M. Alexandre explains it, "renascens;" Lemaire, i. 420.

Note return to page "Scrobibus;" "aut quum terra fossis excavatur, ut in Pomptina palude, aut per naturales hiatus." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 420.

Note return to page This circumstance is mentioned by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vi. 28, as occurring "pluribus Italiæ locis;" it may be ascribed to the exhalations from volcanos being raised up into the atmosphere. It does not appear that there is, at present, any cavern in Mount Soracte which emits mephitic vapours. But the circumstance of Soracte being regarded sacred to Apollo, as we learn from our author, vii. 2, and from Virgil, Æn. xi. 785, may lead us to conjecture that something of the kind may formerly have existed there.

Note return to page The author may probably refer to the well-known Grotto del Cane, where, in consequence of a stratum of carbonic acid gas, which occupies the lower part of the cave only, dogs and other animals, whose mouths are near the ground, are instantly suffocated.

Note return to page Celebrated in the well-known lines of Virgil, Æn. vii. 563 et seq., as the "sævi spiracula Ditis."

Note return to page Apuleius gives us an account of this place from his own observation; De Mundo, § 729. See also Strabo, xii.

Note return to page See Aristotle, De Mundo, cap. iv.

Note return to page "Ad ingressum ambulantium, et equorum cursus, terræ quoque tremere sentiuntur in Brabantino agro, quæ Belgii pars, et circa S. Audomari fanum." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 421, 422.

Note return to page See Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iii. 25.

Note return to page Martial speaks of the marshy nature of the Cæcuban district, xiii. 115. Most of the places mentioned in this chapter are illustrated by the remarks of Hardouin; Lemaire, i. 422, 423.

Note return to page "Saltuares." In some of the MSS. the term here employed is Saliares, or Saltares; but in all the editions which I am in the habit of consulting, it is Saltuares.

Note return to page There is, no doubt, some truth in these accounts of floating islands, although, as we may presume, much exaggerated. There are frequently small portions of land detached from the edges of lakes, by floods or rapid currents, held together and rendered buoyant by a mass of roots and vegetable matter. In the lake of Keswick, in the county of Cumberland, there are two small floating islands, of a few yards in circumference, which are moved about by the wind or by currents; they appear to consist, principally, of a mass of vegetable fibres.

Note return to page It has been observed, that there are certain places where bodies remain for a long time without undergoing decomposition; it depends principally upon a dry and cool condition of the air, such as is occasionally found in vaults and natural caverns. See the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 424.

Note return to page We may conceive of a large mass of rock being so balanced upon the fine point of another rock, as to be moved by the slightest touch; but, that if it be pushed with any force, it may be thrown upon a plane surface, and will then remain immovable.

Note return to page Perhaps the author may refer to some kind of earth, possessed of absorbent or astringent properties, like the Terra Sigillata or Armenian Bole of the old Pharmacopœias.

Note return to page A σὰρξ, caro, and φάγω, edo We may conceive this stone to have contained a portion of an acrid ingredient, perhaps of an alkaline nature, which, in some degree, might produce the effect here described. It does not appear that the material of which the stone coffins are composed, to which this name has been applied, the workmanship of which is so much an object of admiration, are any of them possessed of this property.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks on this statement, "Montes istæ videntur originem dedisse fabulæ quæ in Arabicis Noctibus legitur....;" Lemaire, i. 425. Fouché, indeed, observes, that there are mountains composed principally of natural loadstone, which might sensibly attract a shoe containing iron nails. Ajasson, ii. 386. But I conceive that we have no evidence of the existence of the magnetic iron pyrites having ever been found in sufficient quantity to produce any sensible effect of the kind here described.

Note return to page We may remark generally, that of the "miracula" related in this chapter, the greatest part are entirely without foundation, and the remainder much exaggerated.

Note return to page "Mundo;" the heavens or visible firmament, to which the stars and planets appear to be connected, so as to be moved along with it.

Note return to page "Ancillante; ""Credas ancillari sidus, et indulgere mari, ut non ab eadem parte, qua pridie, pastum ex oceano hauriat." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 427.

Note return to page Not depending on the time of the rising and setting of the sun or the latitude of the place, but determinate portions of the diurnal period.

Note return to page By a conjectural variation of a letter, viz. by substituting "eos "for "eas," Dalechamp has, as he conceives, rendered this passage more clear; the alteration is adopted by Lemaire.

Note return to page "In iisdem ortus occasusque operibus;" "Eodem modo utrinque orientibus occidentibusque sideribus," as interpreted by Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 428.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that both the alleged fact and the supposed cause are incorrect. And this is the case with what our author says in the next sentence, respecting the period of eight years, and the hundred revolutions of the moon.

Note return to page "Solis annuis causis." The circumstances connected with the revolution of the sun, acting as causes of the period and height of the tides, in addition to the effect of the moon.

Note return to page "Inanes;" "Depressiores ac minus tumentes." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 429.

Note return to page According to the remark of Alexandre, "Uno die et dimidio altero, 36 circiter horis, in Gallia." Lemaire, i. 429.

Note return to page Alexandre remarks on this passage, "Variat pro locis hoc intervallum a nullo fere temporis momento ad undecim horas et amplius;" Lemaire, i 429.

Note return to page Our author has already referred to Pytheas, in the 77th chapter of this book.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the space here mentioned, which is nearly 120 feet, is far greater than the actual fact.

Note return to page "Ditioni paret;" "Lunæ solisque efficientiæ, quæ ciet æstum." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 430.

Note return to page The effect here described could not have depended upon the tides, but upon some current, either affecting the whole of the Mediterranean, or certain parts of it. See the remarks of Hardouin in Lemaire.

Note return to page Pliny naturally adopted the erroneous opinions respecting the state of the blood-vessels, and the cause of the pulse, which were universally maintained by the ancients.

Note return to page The name of Euripus is generally applied to the strait between Bœotia and Eubœa, but our author here extends it to that between Italy and Sicily. A peculiarity in the tide of this strait is referred to by Cicero, De Nat. Deor. iii. 24.

Note return to page "Estus idem triduo in mense consistit." "Consistentia, sive mediocritas aquarum non solum septima die sentitur, sed et octava, ac nona durat," as Hardoum explains this passage, Lemaire, i. 431.

Note return to page Now called the Guadalquivir.

Note return to page The modern Seville.

Note return to page This circumstance is noticed by most of the ancients, as by Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 1; by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iv. 2; and by Strabo. It has, however, no relation to the tide, but depends upon the quantity of water transmitted into the Euxine by the numerous large rivers that empty themselves into it.

Note return to page It has been suggested, with some plausibility, that the greater height of the tides at this period will cause a greater quantity of matter to be cast on shore. This circumstance is referred to by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iii. 26; and by Strabo.

Note return to page Alexandre observes on this supposed fact, "Algarum molles quædam species intelligendæ sunt, quæ convolutæ et marcidæ in littus ejiciuntur." Lemaire, i. 432.

Note return to page It may cause some surprise to find that such an opinion has been entertained even in modern times; but more correct observation has shown it to be without foundation. Lemaire.

Note return to page "Spiritus sidus;" "Quod vitalem humorem ac spiritus in corporibus rebusque omnibus varie temperet." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 433.

Note return to page "Terras saturet;" as Alexandre interprets it, "succo impleat;" Lemaire.

Note return to page This circumstance is alluded to by Cicero, De Divin. ii. 33, and by Horace, Sat. ii. 4, 30. It is difficult to conceive how an opinion so totally unfounded, and so easy to refute, should have obtained general credence.

Note return to page Lib. xviii. chap. 75.

Note return to page Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 1, remarks, that as the sun is continually evaporating the water of the sea, it must eventually be entirely dried up. But we have reason to believe, that all the water which is evaporated by the solar heat, or any other natural process, is again deposited in the form of rain or dew.

Note return to page "Terræ sudor;" according to Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 4: this opinion. was adopted by some of the ancients.

Note return to page The commentators discuss at considerable length the relative merits of the three hypotheses here proposed, to account for the saltness of the ocean; all of which are equally unfounded. See Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 434, 435. Aristotle's opinion on this subject is contained in his Meteor.

Note return to page It is not easy to ascertain the origin of the very general opinion respecting the peculiar physical action of the moon. The alleged facts are, for the most part, without foundation, and I am not aware of any circumstance which could, originally, have made them a part of the popular creed of so many nations, ancient as well as modern. Perhaps some of the effects which have been ascribed to the specific action of the moon, may be explained by the lower temperature and greater dampness of the air, during the absence of the sun.

Note return to page There appears to be some doubt respecting the history of the person here referred to: according to the account of Hardouin, Fabianus was a naturalist, who enjoyed a high repution; he lived in the time of Tiberius: see Lemaire, i. 188.

Note return to page This would be a depth of 3125 yards, not very far short of two miles; see Adam's Rom. Antiq. p. 503.

Note return to page "βαθέα Ponti;" Aristotle refers to this as one of those parts where the sea is unfathomable; Meteor. i. 13.

Note return to page A distance of nearly nine and a half miles.

Note return to page The specific gravity of sea water varies from 1ċ0269 to 1ċ0285. The saline contents of the water of the English Channel are stated to be 27 grs. in 1000. Turner's Chem. p. 1289, 1290.

Note return to page The modern names of the rivers and lakes here mentioned are the Liris, communicating with the Lago di Celano; the Adda, with the Lago di Como; the Ticino, with the Lago Maggiore; the Mincio, with the Lago di Guarda; the Oglio, with the Lago di Sero; and the Rhone with the Lake of Geneva. There may be some foundation for the alleged fact, because the specific gravity and the temperature of the lake may differ a little from that of the river which passes through it.

Note return to page According to Brotier, "fons ille olim nobilissimus, nunc ignobile est lavacrum, cujus aqua marino sapore inficitur." He conceives that there is no actual foundation for this so frequently repeated story; and conjectures that it originated from the similitude of the names, the fountain in Sicily and the river in the Peloponnesus being both named Alpheus. He goes on to mention some examples of springs of fresh water rising up on the sea-coast; Lemaire, i. 438. The allusion to the fountain of Arethusa, by Virgil, in the commencement of the 10th eclogue, is well known to all classical scholars. The lines of Virgil have been elegantly imitated by Voltaire, in the Henriade, ix. 269, 270.

Note return to page This is mentioned by Ovid, Met. xv. 273, 274.

Note return to page This is again referred to by our author, vi. 31; also by Strabo, and by Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iii. 26.

Note return to page Pausanias.

Note return to page The river here referred to is the Tanager, the modern Rio Negro. See the remarks of Hardouin and Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 439.

Note return to page From a note in Pomsinet, i. 302, we learn that there has been some doubt respecting the locality of this river. It is mentioned by Virgil, Æn. i. 244, and it forms the subject of Heyne's 7th Excursus, ii. 124 et seq. Virgil also speaks of the Timavus, Ec. viii. 6; and Heyne, in a note, gives the following description of it: "Timavus in ora Adriæ, non longe ab Aquileia fluvius ex terra novem fontibus seu capitibus progressus, brevi cursu, in unum alveum collectus, lato altoque flumine in mare exit." i. 127, 128.

Note return to page This remark is not to be taken in its full extent; the water of these lakes contains a large quantity of saline and other substances dissolved in it, and, consequently, has its specific gravity so much increased, that various substances float on it which sink in pure water.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, this is now called the Lake of Andoria, near the town of Casalnuovo; Lemaire, i. 439. Poinsinet calls it Anduria, i. 303.

Note return to page The petrifying quality of this river is referred to by Ovid, Met. xv. 313, 314; Seneca quotes these lines when treating on this subject, Nat. Quæst. iii. 20.

Note return to page Aristotle, Strabo, and Silius Italicus, viii. 582, 583, refer to this property of the Silarus; but, according to Brotier, it does not appear to be known to the present inhabitants of the district through which it flows. Lemaire, i. 440.

Note return to page In a subsequent part of the work, xxxi. 8, our author remarks, "Reatinis tantum paludibus ungulas jumentorum indurari." We may presume that the water contained some saline, earthy or metallic substance, either in solution, or in a state of minute division, which would produce these effects. It does not appear that anything of this kind has been observed by the moderns in this water.

Note return to page The coral beds with which the Red Sea abounds may have given rise to this opinion: see the remarks of Alexandre in loco. Hardouin informs us, that this clause respecting the Red Sea is not found in any of the MSS. Lemaire, i. 441. A similar observation occurs in a subsequent part of the work, xiii. 48.

Note return to page There are thermal springs in the Alpine valleys, but not any in the elevated parts of the Alps themselves.

Note return to page The volcanic nature of a large portion of the south of Italy and the neighbouring islands may be regarded as the cause of the warm springs which are found there.

Note return to page This river may be supposed to have been principally supplied by melted snow; it would appear to be colder, because its temperature would be less elevated than the other streams in the neighbourhood.

Note return to page The statement, if correct, may be referred to the discharge of a quantity of inflammable gas from the surface of the water. The fact is men- tioned by Lucretius, vi. 879, 880, and by Mela.

Note return to page "Quasi alternis requiescens, ac meridians: diem diffindens, ut Varro loquitur, insititia quiete." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 443. He says that there is a similar kind of fountain in Provence, called Collis Martiensis.

Note return to page There has been considerable difference of opinion among the commentators, both as to the reading of the text and its interpretation, for which I shall refer to the notes of Poinsinet, i. 307, of Hardouin and Alexandre, Lemaire, i. 443, and of Richelet, Ajasson, ii. 402.

Note return to page We have an account of the Troglodytsæ in a subsequent part of the work, v. 5. The name is generally applied by the ancients to a tribe of people inhabiting a portion of Æthiopia, and is derived from the circumstance of their dwellings being composed of caverns; a τρωγλὴ and δύνω. Alexandre remarks, that the name was occasionally applied to other tribes, whose habitations were of the same kind; Lemaire, i. 443. They are referred to by Q. Curtius as a tribe of the Æthiopians, situated to the south of Egypt and extending to the Red Sea, iv. 7.

Note return to page Q. Curtius gives nearly the same account of this fountain.

Note return to page The Po derives its water from the torrents of the Alps, and is therefore much affected by the melting of the snow or the great falls of rain, which occur at different seasons of the year; but the daily diminution of the water, as stated by our author, is without foundation.

Note return to page "Fontem ibi intermittentem frustra qusæsivit cl. Le Chevalier, Voyage de la Troade, t. i. p. 219." Lemaire, i. 444.

Note return to page Strabo, in allusion to this circumstance, remarks, that some persons make it still more wonderful, by supposing that this spring is connected with the Nile. We learn from Tournefort, that there is a well of this name in Delos, which he found to contain considerably more water in January and February than in October, and which is supposed to be connected with the Nile or the Jordan: this, of course, he regards as an idle tale. Lemaire.

Note return to page Hardouin informs us, that these warm springs are called "i bagni di Monte Falcone," or "di S. Antonio." They are situate so very near the sea, that we may suppose some communication to exist, which may produce the alleged effect. Lemaire.

Note return to page According to Hardouin this is the modern Torre di Pitino; he conceives that the river here mentioned must be the Vomanus. The effect here described is, to a certain extent, always the case with rivers which proceed from mountains that are covered with snow. Lemaire, i. 445.

Note return to page Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iii. 25, makes the same remark: the fact would seem to be, that in certain districts the cattle are found to be for the most part white, and in other places black; but we have no reason to suppose that their colour has any connexion with the water which they employ.

Note return to page This is asserted by Aristotle, Hist. Anim. iii. 12. We have a similar statement made by Ælian respecting the Scamander; viii. 21.

Note return to page "Annonæ mutationem significans."

Note return to page The peculiar nature of the water of the Lyncestis is referred to by many of the ancients: we may suppose that it was strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas. See Ovid, Met. xv. 329–331; also Aristotle, Meteor. ii. 3, and Seneca, Nat. Quæst. iii. 20.

Note return to page Vitruvius and Athenæus.

Note return to page Calenum was a town in Campania; this peculiar property of its water is referred to by Val. Maximus, i. 8, 18.

Note return to page Literally, Jovis cultus; as interpreted by Hardouin, "tanquam si dixeris, divinum Jovis munus hunc fontem esse." Lemaire, i. 447.

Note return to page Seneca affirms its poisonous nature; Nat. Quæst. iii. 25. Q. Curtius refers to a spring in Macedonia of the same name, "quo pestiferum virus emanat." x. 10.

Note return to page There appears to be some uncertainty respecting the locality of this district; see the remarks of Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 447.

Note return to page "Hunc fontem describit eximie Plinius jun. lib. iv. epist. ult. Est ad orientalem Larii lacus plagam, Lago di Como, x mill. pass. a Como." Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 448.

Note return to page Our author, in a subsequent passage, v. 39, speaks of Cydonea, "cum fonte calido."

Note return to page According to Hardouin, i. 448, there is a considerable variation in the MSS. with respect to this name: he informs us that "συναὸς urbs est Magnæ Phrygiæ Ptolemæo, v. 2."

Note return to page Tacitus gives an account of this oracle as having been visited by Germanicus; Ann. ii. 54.

Note return to page Our author refers to this history in the First book of the present work.

Note return to page "Comparatos scilicet cum aëris externi temperie." Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 448.

Note return to page Thin leaves or films of metal have little affinity for water, and have, generally, bubbles of air attached to them; so that, when placed upon the water, the fluid is prevented from adhering to them, and thus they remain on the surface.

Note return to page Depending not upon their absolute, but their specific gravity.

Note return to page Being partly supported by the water.

Note return to page The stone may have floated in consequence of its being full of pores: these are more quickly filled with water when it is broken into small pieces. It was probably of the nature of pumice or some other volcanic product.

Note return to page This is well known to depend upon the commencement of the decomposition of some part of the viscera, by which there is an evolution of gaseous matter.

Note return to page This is an erroneous statement; it is not easy to ascertain what was the source of the error.

Note return to page Rain, as it falls from the clouds, is nearly pure; and rivers, or receptacles of any kind, that are supplied by it, are considerably more free from saline impregnations than the generality of springs.

Note return to page This statement is altogether incorrect.

Note return to page When salt water freezes, it is disengaged from the saline matter which it previously held in solution; a greater degree of cold is therefore required to overcome the attraction of the water for the salt, and to form the ice, than when pure water is congealed.

Note return to page "Celerius accendi." We can scarcely suppose that by this term our author intended to express the actual burning or inflaming of the water, which is its literal and ordinary meaning. This, however, would appear to be the opinion of Hardouin and Alexandre; Lemaire, i. 449. Holland translates it, "made hot and set a-seething," i. 46; Poinsinet, "s'éhauffe le plus vîte," i. 313; and Ajasson, "plus prompte à s'échauffer," ii. 217.

Note return to page The temperature of the ocean, in consequence of its great mass and the easy diffusion and mixture of its various parts, may be conceived to be longer in becoming raised or depressed than any particular portion of the land, where contemporary observations may be made.

Note return to page The evaporation that is going on during the heats of summer, and the heavy rains which in many countries fall during the autumn, may produce the effects here described, in confined seas or inlets.

Note return to page The statement is true to a certain extent, as is proved by the well-known experiments of Franklin and others; but the degree of the effect is considerably exaggerated. See the observations of Hardouin, Brotier, and Alexandre; Lemaire, i. 450, 451.

Note return to page In the Mediterranean the warm vapours rising from the water and its shores may melt the snow as it descends; but this is not the case in the parts of the main ocean which approach either to the Arctic or the Antarctic regions.

Note return to page The theory of springs is well understood, as depending upon the water tending to rise to its original level, so as to produce an equilibrium of pressure.

Note return to page When we consider the great extent of the base of Ætna, and that the crater is in the form of an inverted cone, we shall perceive that there is ample space for the existence of springs in the lower part of the mountain, without their coming in contact with the heated lava.

Note return to page Samosata is situated on the Euphrates, in the north of Syria.

Note return to page The Petroleum or Bitumen of the modern chemists; it is a tarry substance, more or less fluid, which has probably been produced by carbonaceous matter, as affected by heat or decomposition, below the surface of the earth. Our author has exaggerated its properties and action upon other bodies.

Note return to page Respecting the transaction here mentioned, I shall refer to the note of Hardouin, Lemaire, i. 452.

Note return to page The substance here mentioned may be considered as not differing essentially from the Maltha of the last chapter, except in being of a more fluid consistence.

Note return to page The Astaceni are supposed to have inhabited a district near the sources of the Indus, probably corresponding to the modern Cabul.

Note return to page We may conceive of a quantity of inflammable vapour on the surface of the naphtha, which might, in some degree, produce the effect here described.

Note return to page Horace, in one of his Epodes, where he refers to the magical arts of Medea, says, that it was a cloak, "palla," which was sent to Creüsa; v. 65. So far as there is any foundation for the story, we may suppose that some part of her dress had been impregnated with an inflammable substance, which took fire when she approached the blazing altar.

Note return to page When the volcanos are less active the flame is visible in the night only.

Note return to page The observations of modern travellers and geologists have proved, that the number of extinct volcanos is considerably greater than those now in action.

Note return to page Chimæra was a volcano in Lycia, not far from the Xanthus; the circumstance of its summit emitting flame, while its sides were the resort of various savage animals, probably gave rise to the fabulous story of the Centaur of this name, a ferocious monster who was continually vomiting forth flame.

Note return to page The word in the text is "fœnum"; Hardouin suggests that the meaning of the author may have been litter, or the refuse of stables. Lemaire, i. 454.

Note return to page The emission of a gas, which may be kindled by the application of flame, is a phenomenon of no very rare occurrence; but the effects are, no doubt, much exaggerated. See the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 454.

Note return to page The country of the Bactrians was a district to the S.E. of the Caspian Sea, and to the north of the sources of the Indus, nearly corresponding to the modern Bucharia.

Note return to page There would appear to be some uncertainty as to the locality of this place: our author derived his statement from the writer of the treatise de Mirab. Auscult.

Note return to page "Caminis."

Note return to page Probably the crater of a former volcano.

Note return to page This mountain, as well as the θεῶν ὄχημα, mentioned below, has been supposed to be situated on the west of Africa, near Sierra Leone, or Cape Verd; but, as I conceive, without sufficient authority. See Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 455.

Note return to page "Internus." "In interiore nemore abditus." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 455.

Note return to page If this account be not altogether fabulous, the appearance here described may be, perhaps, referred to the combustion of an inflammable gas which does not acquire a very high temperature.

Note return to page We have an account of this place in Strabo, vii. 310. Our author has already referred to it in the 96th chapter of this book, as a pool or lake, containing floating islands; and he again speaks of it in the next chapter.

Note return to page We have an account of this volcano in Ælian, Var. Hist. xiii. 16. It would appear, however, that it had ceased to emit flame previous to the calamitous events of which it was supposed to be the harbinger.

Note return to page This circumstance is mentioned by Dion Cassius, xli. 174. We may conceive that a sudden influx of water might force up an unusually large quantity of the bitumen.

Note return to page We have a full account of this circumstance in Strabo, vi. 277.

Note return to page "Currum deorum Latine licet interpretari." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 456.

Note return to page "torrentesque solis ardoribus flammas egerit;" perhaps the author may mean, that the fires of the volcano assist those of the sun in parch- ing the surface of the ground.

Note return to page "Tot rogis terræ ?" in reference to the remark in a former chapter, "natura terras cremat."

Note return to page "Humani ignes," according to Hardouin, "Hi nostri ignes, quos vitæ usus requirit, ut Tullius ait de Nat. Deor. ii. 67;" Lemaire, i. 457.

Note return to page This is the mode which many savage tribes employ for exciting flame.

Note return to page It is not known whether the Scantia was a river or a lake, or where it was situated; see Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 457.

Note return to page This may have been owing to the emission of an inflammable gas which burns at a comparatively low temperature, as was observed on a former occasion.

Note return to page These are said by Columella, xi. 3, to occur in August; the statement as to the fire occurring on these particular days we may presume is erroneous.

Note return to page Aricia was a town in Campania, near the modern Lake of Nemi: this place, as well as the other places mentioned by our author, were probably of volcanic origin.

Note return to page Sidicinum was a town in Campania, also called Teanum; probably the modern Teano.

Note return to page Egnatia was a town in Calabria, on the coast of the Adriatic: the circumstance mentioned by our author is ridiculed by Horace, in his well-known lines, Sat. i. 5, 97; but it is not improbable that there may be some foundation for it.

Note return to page This circumstance is referred to by Val. Maximus, i. 8, 18. The altar was probably in the neighbourhood of the Lacinian Promontory, at the S.W. extremity of the Bay of Tarentum, the modern Capo delle Colonne.

Note return to page This may be referred to the inflammable vapours mentioned above, unless we regard the whole narrative as fabulous.

Note return to page See Livy, i. 39, and Val. Maximus, i. 6. 2. Although it would be rash to pronounce this occurrence and the following anecdotes respecting Marcius to be absolutely impossible, we must regard them as highly improbable, and resting upon very insufficient evidence.

Note return to page In the 66th chapter of this book.

Note return to page In the estimate of distances I have given the numbers as they occur in the text of Lemaire, although, in many cases, there is considerable doubt as to their accuracy. See the observations of Hardouin and Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 460.

Note return to page Artemidorus was an Ephesian, who wrote on geography; see Hardouin's Index Auct., Lemaire, i. 167.

Note return to page Isidorus was a native of Nicæa; he appears to have been a writer on various topics in natural history, but not much estimated; see Hardouin's Index Auct., in Lemaire, i. 194.

Note return to page The modern Cape St. Vincent and Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page This was a city on the Sinus Issicus, the present Gulf of Aiasso, situated, according to Brotier, between the sites of the modern towns of Scanderoon and Rosos. See Lemaire, i. 461.

Note return to page Respecting this and the other distances mentioned in this chapter, I may refer the reader to the remarks of Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 461.

Note return to page It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the calculations of our author do not indicate the real distance between the extreme points of the habitable parts of the globe, as known to the ancients, but the number of miles which must be passed over by a traveller, in going from place to place; in the first instance, a considerable part of the way by sea, and, in the second, almost entirely by land.

Note return to page It appears to be difficult to ascertain the identity of the place here mentioned; I may refer to the remarks of Hardouin and Brotier in Le- maire, i. 464.

Note return to page The same remarks may be made upon this and the following numbers as upon those in the former paragraph; for further information I shall refer my readers to the notes of Hardouin, Brotier, and Alexandre, in Lemaire, i. 465–468.

Note return to page There is great uncertainty respecting the locality of the Thule of the ancients; there was, in fact, nothing known respecting the locality or identity of any of the places approaching to the Arctic circle; the name appears to have been vaguely applied to some country lying to the north of the habitable parts of Europe. In note3, p. 109, I have already had occasion to offer some remarks on the locality of Thule. Our author speaks of Thule in two subsequent parts of his work, iv. 30 and vi. 39.

Note return to page It is probable, that these supposed "immense islands," if they were not entirely imaginary, were the countries of Sweden and Norway, the southern extremities alone of which had been visited by the ancients.

Note return to page Strabo, ii.; Vitruvius, i. 6; Macrobius, in Somn. Scip. ii. 20.

Note return to page Our author has previously referred to Eratosthenes, in the 76th chapter of this book.

Note return to page Our author has referred to Hipparchus, in the 9th chapter of this book.

Note return to page "Aliter, inquit, et cautius multo Dionysodorus est audiendus, qui miraculo solo nititur, quam Hipparchus et Eratosthenes, qui geometricis nituntur principiis." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 469. Nothing further is known of Dionysodorus; see Hardouin's Index Auct. in Lemaire, i. 123.

Note return to page Marcus Terentius Varro. He was born B.C. 116, espoused the cause of Pompey against Cæsar, and served as his lieutenant in Spain. He afterwards became reconciled to Cæsar, and died in the year B.C. 26. He is said to have written 500 volumes, but nearly all his works are lost (destroyed, it is said, by order of Pope Gregory VII.). His only remains are a Treatise on Agriculture, a Treatise on the Latin Tongue, and the fragments of a work called Analogia.

Note return to page C. Sulpicius Gallus was Consul in the year 166 B.C. He wrote a Roman History, and a work on the Eclipses of the Sun and Moon.

Note return to page Titus Vespasianus, the Emperor, to whom Pliny dedicates his work. His poem is mentioned in c. 22 of this Book. See pages 1, 2, and 55 of the present volume.

Note return to page It is most probable that Quintus Ælius Pætus Tubero is here meant. He was son-in-law, and, according to Cicero, nephew of Æmilius Paulus, and Consul in the year B.C. 167. There are two other persons found mentioned of the name of Q. Ælius Tubero.

Note return to page The freedman and amanuensis of Cicero. He was a man of great learning, and was supposed to have invented short-hand. He also wrote a Life of Cicero.

Note return to page Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi. He was Consul in the year B.C. 133, and was a stout opponent of the Gracchi. He wrote Annals of the History of Rome from the earliest periods.

Note return to page Livy, the well-known Roman historian.

Note return to page He was the intimate friend of Cicero, and wrote Chronicles or Annals, in three books, a Life of Cicero, and some other historical works. A work still exists, called "Lives of Eminent Commanders," which is ascribed sometimes to him and sometimes to one Æmilius Probus, a writer of the reign of Theodosius. The latter probably abridged the original work of Nepos.

Note return to page Statius Sebosus. He is mentioned by Cicero as the friend of Catulus. He wrote a work called the "Periplus," and another on the Wonders of India.

Note return to page A Roman historian and lawyer, who flourished about B.C. 124. He wrote a Book of Annals, in which was contained a valuable account of the Second Punic war. This work was epitomized by Brutus and held in high estimation by the Emperor Adrian.

Note return to page Fabianus Papirius, a Roman rhetorician and naturalist, whose works are highly commended by Pliny and Seneca. He wrote a History of Animals, and a book on Natural Causes.

Note return to page Quintus Valerius Antias. He flourished about B.C. 80, and wrote the Annals of Rome, down to the time of Sylla.

Note return to page Marcus Licinius Crassus Mucianus. He was instrumental in raising the Emperor Vespasian to the throne, and was Consul in the years A.D. 52, 70, and 74. He published three Books of Epistles, and a History in eleven Books, which appears to have treated chiefly of Eastern affairs.

Note return to page Aulus Cæcina. He was sent into exile by Cæsar, joined the Pompeians in Africa, and was taken prisoner by Cæsar, but his life was spared. Cicero wrote several letters to him, and commends his abilities. His work appears to have been on Divination as practised by the Etrurians.

Note return to page He appears to have been a diviner or soothsayer of Etruria, and to have written a work on Etruscan prodigies.

Note return to page He also wrote a work on Etruscan divination, but it does not appear that anything further is known of him.

Note return to page Sergius Paulus. He is also mentioned in the Index to the 18th Book. Nothing further seems to be known of him.

Note return to page The greatest, with the exception of Aristotle, of the Greek Philosophers, and the disciple of Socrates.

Note return to page A native of Nicæa in Bithynia, who flourished B.C. 160. He is called the "Father" of Astronomy. He wrote a Commentary on the Phænomena of Aratus and Eudoxus, which is still extant. His works, including those on the Lunar Month and the Fixed Stars, have not come down to us. His Catalogue of the Stars is preserved in the Almagest of Ptolemy.

Note return to page Timæus of Locri in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher, said to have been the instructor of Plato. He wrote a work on Mathematics. A work "On the Soul of the World and of Nature," which is still extant, has been ascribed to him, but on doubtful grounds.

Note return to page An astronomer and peripatetic philosopher of Alexandria. He was employed by Julius Cæsar to superintend his revision of the Calendar. It is supposed that he wrote a work on the Celestial Revolutions, and a Commentary on the works of Aristotle.

Note return to page A priest, mathematician, and astrologer of Egypt. A Letter on the Astrological Sciences, written by him to King Necepsos, is said to be extant in the Royal Library at Vienna, as also a work called the "Organum Astrologicum," dedicated to the same king. Juvenal seems to use his name as a common term for an astrologer.

Note return to page He is mentioned by Julius Firmicus as "a most just emperor of Egypt, and a very good astronomer." A work by him is quoted by Galen in his tenth Book on Simples, but it was most probably of spurious origin.

Note return to page "Pythagoricis" here may either mean the works of the followers of Pythagoras of Samos, or the books which were written by that philosopher. Pliny, in Books 19, 20, and 24, speaks of several writings of Pythagoras, and Diogenes Laertius mentions others; but it is more generally supposed that he wrote nothing, and that everything that passed by his name in ancient times was spurious.

Note return to page A Stoic philosopher of Apamea in Syria. He was the instructor of Cicero, and the friend of Pompey. He wrote works on history, divination, the tides, and the nature of the gods. Some fragments only have survived.

Note return to page Of Miletus, was born B.C. 610, and was the successor of Thales, the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy. He is said to have first taught the obliquity of the ecliptic and the use of the gnomon.

Note return to page A philosopher of Rhodes or Byzantium. Seneca says that he boasted of having studied astronomy among the Chaldeans. He is mentioned by Varro and Columella as having written on rural matters, and is praised by Censorinus.

Note return to page Of Alexandria, the great geometrician, and instructor of Ptolemy I. He was the founder of the mathematical school of Alexandria.

Note return to page He was a Greek by birth, and lived in the time of Nero. He is extolled by Tacitus, B. 14, for his superlative wisdom, beyond which nothing is known of him.

Note return to page Of Cnidus, an astronomer and legislator who flourished B.C. 366. He was a friend and disciple of Plato, and said to have been the first who taught in Greece the motions of the planets. His works on astronomy and geometry are lost, but his Phænomena have been preserved by Aratus, who turned his prose into verse.

Note return to page Born at Abdera in Thrace, about B.C. 460. He was one of the founders of the atomic theory, and looked upon peace of mind as the summum bonum of mortals. He wrote works on the nature and organization of the world, on physics, on contagious maladies, on the chameleon, and on other subjects.

Note return to page A Grecian astronomer. A work of his, called "Apotelesmatica," is said to be preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna.

Note return to page An astrologer of Rhodes, patronized by Augustus and Tiberius. He wrote a work on Stones, and a History of Egypt. Tacitus, in his Annals, B. vi., speaks highly of his skill in astrology.

Note return to page A geographer of Antioch, and an opponent of the views of Eratosthenes. Cicero declares that he himself was unable to understand a thousandth part of his work.

Note return to page A Peripatetic philosopher and geographer, of Messina in Sicily. He studied under Aristotle and wrote several works, the principal of which was an account of the history, geography, and moral and religious condition of Greece. A few fragments only are extant.

Note return to page Of Syracuse, the most famous mathematician of antiquity, born B.C. 287. A few only of his works have come down to us, published at Oxford in 1792, by Torelli.

Note return to page Born either at Astypalæa or Ægina. He was chief pilot of the fleet of Alexander during the descent of the Indus and the voyage to the Persian Gulf. He wrote a work called the "Alexandropædia," or Education of Alexander. In his description of what he saw in India, many fables and falsehoods are said to have been interwoven, so much so that the work (which is now lost) is said to have resembled a fable more than a history.

Note return to page Of Cyrene, born B.C. 276. He was invited from Athens by Ptolemy Euergetes, to become keeper of the library at Alexandria. He was a man of most extensive erudition, as an astronomer, geographer, philosopher, historian and grammarian. All of his writings have perished, with the exception of a few fragments on geographical subjects.

Note return to page Of Massilia, now Marseilles, a celebrated navigator who flourished about the time of Alexander the Great. In his voyages he visited Britain and Thule, of which he probably gave some account in his work "on the Ocean." He has been wrongfully accused of falsehood by Strabo. Another work written by him was his "Periplus," or 'Circumnavigation' from Gades to the Tanais, probably, in this instance, the Elbe.

Note return to page Of Halicarnassus, the father of Grecian history; born B.C. 484. Besides his great work which has come down to us, he is supposed to have written a history of Arabia.

Note return to page Probably the most learned of the Greek philosophers. His works were exceedingly numerous, and those which have survived to us treat of natural history, metaphysics, physical science, ethics, logic, and general literature.

Note return to page A native of Cnidus in Caria, and private physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, having been made prisoner by him at the battle of Cunaxa. He wrote a History of Persia in 23 books, which, with the exception of a small abridgement by Photius and a few fragments, is now lost. He also wrote a book on India. He was much censured, probably without sufficient reason, for the credulity displayed in his works.

Note return to page Of Ephesus, a geographer, who lived about B.C. 100. He wrote a Periplus, and a work on Geography; a few fragments only of abridgements of these have survived.

Note return to page Of Charax in Parthia, of which country he wrote an account which still exists. He flourished in the reign of Augustus.

Note return to page Of Chios, a celebrated historian, and disciple of the orator Isocrates. His principal works were a History of Greece, and a Life of Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great.

Note return to page Now the Straits of Gibraltar.

Note return to page This is said more especially in reference to the western parts of Asia, the only portion which was perfectly known to the ancients. His meaning is, that Asia as a portion of the globe does not lie so far north as Europe, nor so far south as Africa.

Note return to page Now the Don. It was usually looked upon as the boundary between Europe and Asia. Pliny's meaning seems to be, that the Tanais divides Asia from Europe, and the Nile, Asia from Africa, the more especially as the part to the west of the Nile was sometimes considered as belonging to Asia. It has been however suggested that he intends to assign these rivers as the extreme eastern boundaries of the internal or Mediterranean sea.

Note return to page At no spot are the Straits less than ten miles in width; although D'Anville makes the width to be little less than five miles. This passage of our author is probably in a corrupt state.

Note return to page This probably stood near the site of the town of Tarifa of the present day.

Note return to page Probably the point called 'Punta del Sainar' at the present day.

Note return to page Now called Ximiera, Jebel-el-Mina, or Monte del Hacho.

Note return to page The Rock of Gibraltar.

Note return to page The fable was that they originally formed one mountain, which was torn asunder by Hercules, or as Pliny says, "dug through."

Note return to page This was the opinion of Herodotus, but it had been so strenuously combated by Polybius and other writers before the time of Pliny, that it is difficult to imagine how he should countenance it.

Note return to page He probably alludes to Leucopetra, now called Capo dell' Armi. Locri Epizephyrii was a town of Bruttium, situate north of the promontory of Zephyrium, now called Capo di Bruzzano.

Note return to page So called from the Bætis, now the Guadalquivir or Great River.

Note return to page The situation of this town is not known, but it is supposed to have been about five leagues from the present city of Mujacar, or Moxacar. It was situate on the Sinus Urgitanus.

Note return to page So called from the city of Tarraco, on the site of the present Tarragona.

Note return to page Corresponding nearly in extent with the present kingdom of Portugal.

Note return to page Now Gaudiana, a corruption of the Arabic Wadi Ana, "the river Ana."

Note return to page According to Hardouin this place is the modern town of Montiel, but Pinet and D'Anville make it the same as Alhambra.

Note return to page According to modern writers it conceals itself in this manner for a distance of fifteen miles.

Note return to page From the Balearic Channel to the Gulf of Gascony or Bay of Biscay.

Note return to page Probably the Sierra Nevada is meant by this name; Hardouin considers it the same as the Sierra de los Vertientes.

Note return to page Probably the Sierra Morena.

Note return to page The Monte de Toledo.

Note return to page The Sierra de las Asturias.

Note return to page The present Cadiz. It was originally a Phœnician colony.

Note return to page Now Cordova.

Note return to page Now Ecija.

Note return to page Now Seville.

Note return to page The Roman colonies or colonies "civium Romanorum" are those here meant. The colonists in such case enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizens, the town in which they lived being founded under the supervision of the Roman magistracy.

Note return to page "Municipia." These were towns in conquered countries which were not founded by the Romans, but whose inhabitants retained their original institutions, at the same time receiving certain of the rights of Roman citizens; most frequently, immunity to a greater or less degree from payment of tribute.

Note return to page "Latium ;" also called "Jus Latii" and "Latinitas." This was the name given to those circumscribed or limited rights as Roman citizens which were at first bestowed upon the conquered states of Italy, before the time of the Social War. Indeed the Latinus held a kind of intermediate state between the Civis Romanus with all his rights, and the peregrinus or foreigner with all his disabilities. These Latin rights were afterwards extended to the people of other countries, but retained their original name.

Note return to page The free towns were those, the inhabitants of which were at liberty to enjoy their ancient institutions and modes of internal government, though at the same time they enjoyed none of the privileges of Roman citizens.

Note return to page "Fœderati civitates ;" the inhabitants of which were called 'federati' or 'socii.' They were in alliance with the Romans, but in some cases paid them tribute in the same manner as the 'stipendiaria' next mentioned. In some instances they also enjoyed the Latin rights.

Note return to page From the numerous creeks or estuaries with which the coast is here indented. Commentators are at a loss for the site of the town of Onoba (or Ossonoba according to some readings). D'Anville considers it to be the same with the present town of Moguer; other commentators have suggested Gibraleon, and the vicinity of Palos.

Note return to page The Odiel and the Tinto; the Urium being supposed to be the same with the Tinto of the present day.

Note return to page Some readings have "Hareni montes," and others "Arenæ montes," the "mountains of sand." There is no doubt that the sandy heights or downs on this coast are here meant, which are called at the present day "Dunes" by the French, and by the natives "Arenas gordas."

Note return to page Probably the line of sea-shore between Roia and the city of Cadiz, skirting the Bay of Cadiz. Hardouin however thinks that the coast between the Guadalquivir and the Guadalete is meant, now occupied in part by the town of San Lucar de Barameda.

Note return to page In the Fourth Book, c. 36.

Note return to page The present Cape Trafalgar.

Note return to page Hardouin says that the present Vejer is the place meant, while others have suggested Puerto de Santa Maria, or Cantillana. Others again identify it with Bejer de la Frontera, though that place probably lies too far inland. The Roman ruins near Porto Barbato were probably its site.

Note return to page Hardouin and other commentators suggest that the site of the present Tarifa is here meant; it is more probable however that D'Anville is right in suggesting the now deserted town of Bolonia.

Note return to page Probably the present Tarifa.

Note return to page The exact site of Carteia is unknown; but it is generally supposed to have stood upon the bay which opens out of the straits on the west of the Rock of Gibraltar, now called the Bay of Algesiras or Gibraltar; and upon the hill at the head of the bay of El Rocadillo, about half-way between Algesiras and Gibraltar.

Note return to page We learn also from Strabo, that Tartessus was the same place as Carteia; it is not improbable that the former was pretty nearly the Phoenician name of the place, and the latter a Roman corruption of it, and that in it originated the 'Tarshish' of Scripture, an appellation apparently given to the whole of the southern part of the Spanish peninsula. Probably the Greeks preserved the appellation of the place more in conformity with the original Phoenician name.

Note return to page By the "inland sea" Pliny means the Mediterranean, in contradistinction to the Atlantic Ocean without the Straits of Cadiz.

Note return to page The ruins of this place, probably, are still to be seen on the east bank of the river Guadiaro, here alluded to.

Note return to page With its river flowing by it. This place is probably the present Marbella, situate on the Rio Verde.

Note return to page Probably the present Castillo de Torremolinos, or else Castillo de Fuengirola.

Note return to page The present city of Malaga. Hardouin thinks that the river Guadalquivirejo is here meant, but as that is some miles distant from the city, it is more probable that the Guadalmedina, which is much nearer to it, is the stream alluded to.

Note return to page Not improbably Velez Malaga, upon a river of the same name. Hardouin thinks that the place is the modern Torrox on the Fiu Frio, and D'Anville the present city of Almunecar, on the Rio Verde.

Note return to page Most probably the present Almunecar, but it is uncertain. D'Anville says the present Torre de Banas; others have suggested the town of Motril.

Note return to page Now Salobrena.

Note return to page Either the present Adra or Abdera: it is uncertain which.

Note return to page Probably the present Mujacar. D'Anville suggests Almeria.

Note return to page Also called Bastitani, a mixed race, partly Iberian and partly Phœnician.

Note return to page The Greek λύσσα, "frantic rage" or "madness." The etymologies here suggested are puerile in the extreme.

Note return to page Plutarch, quoting from the Twelfth Book of the Iberica of Sosthenes, tells us that, "After Bacchus had conquered Iberia [the present Spain], he left Pan to act as his deputy, and he changed its name and called the country Pania, after himself, which afterwards became corrupted into Spania."

Note return to page He alludes to the expedition of Hercules into Spain, of which Diodorus Siculus makes mention; also his courtship of the nymph Pyrene, the daughter of Bebryx, who was buried by him on the Pyrenæan mountains, which thence derived their name.

Note return to page It is unknown where this town was situate; Hardouin and D'Anville think it was on the site of the present village of San Thome, once an episcopal see, now removed to Jaen. The people of Mentisa, mentioned in c. 4, were probably inhabitants of a different place. D'Anville in his map has two Mentisas, one 'Oretana,' the other 'Bastitana.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, the place now called Toia.

Note return to page Now the Segura.

Note return to page 'Nova' or 'New' Carthage, so called from having been originally founded by a colony of Carthaginians B.C. 242. It was situate a little to the west of the Saturni Promontorium, or Promontory of Palos. It was taken by Scipio Africanus the elder B.C. 210.

Note return to page The present Lorca.

Note return to page This place is even now called by the inhabitants Sepulcro de Scipion. Cneius Cornelius Scipio Calvus, after the defeat of his brother P. Cornelius Scipio, in the year B.C. 211, by the forces of Asdrubal and Mago, fled to a tower at this spot, which was set fire to by the troops of Asdrubal, and he perished in the flames.

Note return to page So called from the town of Ossigi afterwards mentioned.

Note return to page It is unknown where this place stood; Medina Sidonia has been suggested.

Note return to page Probably the present Fuentes del Rey, between Andujar and Jaen, according to Pinet.

Note return to page D'Anville suggests that this is the present Arjona; but more probably it was the village of Arjonilla, two leagues south of Andujar. Gruter has an inscription found here, "MUNIC ALBENSE URGOANON."

Note return to page There were five cities of this name in Spain. Hardouin thinks that this is the modern Alcala la Real, between Granada and Cordova.

Note return to page Most probably the modern Sierra de Elvira, though some writers have suggested the city of Granada.

Note return to page Probably near the modern Montilla. Hardouin takes it to be the present Granada.

Note return to page Poinsinet thinks that this is the present Ecija, but other writers take it to be Alhama, between Granada and Malaga.

Note return to page Perhaps the present Archidona. Some writers have suggested the modern Faventia and Velez.

Note return to page Probably near the present Puente de Don Gonzalo, on the banks of the Rio Genil.

Note return to page Probably near Aguilar on the river Cabra; or else the present Teba, between Osuna and Antequera.

Note return to page Agla the Less.

Note return to page Probably the present Cabra. The sites of the two preceding towns are not known.

Note return to page "The Encampment in the Vineyards." Probably this was the same as the Castra Postumiana mentioned by Hirtius in his Book on the Spanish War as being four miles from Attegua. It appears to be the present Castro, or Castro el Rio, situate on the banks of the river Guadajoz.

Note return to page In some readings "Episibrium." Probably the present Espeja.

Note return to page Its present site is unknown.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, the present Puente de Pinos, six leagues north of Granada. Others take it to be Illora, south of Alcala la Real.

Note return to page The present Huesca, according to Hardouin; more probably, however, Huector, on the banks of the river Genil.

Note return to page Perhaps Escusar, five leagues from Granada. But according to some it is the same as Truelo or Eruelo.

Note return to page Called Ucubis by Hirtius. Morales suggests that it is Sierra la Ronda, but Pinet says Stoponda.

Note return to page The sites of this and the preceding place are unknown.

Note return to page In relation to the 'conventus juridicus,' we may here observe that under the Roman sway, in order to facilitate the administration of justice, a province was divided into a number of districts or circuits, each of which was so called, as also 'forum' or 'jurisdictio.' At certain times of the year fixed by the proconsul or chief magistrate, the people assembled in the chief town of the district (whence the name 'conventus'), upon which judges were selected to try the causes of litigant parties.

Note return to page Probably near the town at the present day called Espelui. Strabo, in Book iii., tells us that Laconian institutions and customs were prevalent in some parts of Spain.

Note return to page This place was ravaged by fire and levelled with the ground by the troops of Scipio, in consequence of the vigorous defence they had made, and the losses they had caused to the Roman army. It probably stood about four miles from the present city of Baeza.

Note return to page The sites of this place and the next are unknown.

Note return to page Most probably the present town of Porcuna. Ubeda or Ubedos has also been suggested.

Note return to page The present town of Montoro.

Note return to page Now Alcoorrucen, near Perabad.

Note return to page Ansart suggests that the reading is not Sacili of the Martiales, but Onoba of the Martiales, to distinguish it from Onoba Æstuaria, previously mentioned. It is not improbable that the place was so called from the Martian or Martial legion having originally colonized it. The site of Onoba is unknown.

Note return to page Cordova was so called from the great number of patricians, who were among the original colonists, when it was founded by Marcellus. To the present day it is noted for the pride of its nobles. The Great Captain Gonzalo de Cordova used to say, that "other towns might be better to live in, but there was none better to be born in." It was the birth-place of Lucan and the two Senecas.

Note return to page The site of these two places is unknown at the present day.

Note return to page Now called by the similar name of Genil or Xenil.

Note return to page Perhaps the present Alcolea.

Note return to page Perhaps the Cantillana of the present day: there is, however, the greatest uncertainty as to the sites of these places.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern city of Penaflor: D'Anville places it about two leagues thence, and near the city of Lora.

Note return to page Now Sevilla la Vieja, or Old Seville; called by the lower classes Santi-pone.

Note return to page Now Seville. This colony was founded by Julius Cæsar, and also bore the name of Julia Romula.

Note return to page Or north side of the river.

Note return to page Probably on the site of the present Alcala del Rio.

Note return to page 'The [good] genius of Julius,' probably meaning Cæsar. Nothing seems to be known of its site.

Note return to page Caura may be the present Coria, a town three leagues from Seville.

Note return to page Probably the Rio Guadalete.

Note return to page Either the present Sebrija, or in the vicinity of the city of San Lucar.

Note return to page Probably the present Bonania.

Note return to page Probably between Trebujena and the city of Xeres. It was the usual place of meeting for the people of the territory of Gades; and its importance may be judged from its appellation 'Regia' or 'royal,' and its numerous coins. Its ruins are still to be seen on a hill there.

Note return to page It is not improbable that this was the present city of Xeres. Some geographers however take it to be that of Medina Sidonia, and look upon Xeres as the site of the ancient Asta.

Note return to page Now Ecija. It stood on the plain of the Bætis, some distance south of the river, on its tributary the Singulis or Xenil.

Note return to page The site of this place is unknown. It probably obtained its name from being a colony of one of the legions, the 7th, 10th, 13th or 14th; which were called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' from being composed of the men of two legions originally.

Note return to page "The Valour of Julius." Sanson places it not far from Miragenil.

Note return to page "The Fame of Julius." Perhaps the present Olivera, or else Teba, six leagues to the south of Estepa.

Note return to page The present city of Ossuna. "Genua Urbanorum" would seem to mean "the knees of the citizens." Though all the MSS. agree in this reading, it probably is an error for "gemina Urbanorum," and it may have been a colony of one of the legions called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' as previously mentioned. The other part of its appellation may possibly have originated in the fact of its first inhabitants being all natives of the city of Rome.

Note return to page The use of the word fuit, 'was,' implies that the place had been destroyed. Cneius Pompeius, the eldest son of Pompey the Great, was defeated at Munda, in the year B.C. 45, and the town destroyed. Pompey escaped from the battle, but was taken a short time after and put to death. The site of the ancient town is very generally supposed to be the modern village of Monda, S.W. of Malaga, and about three leagues from the sea. It is more probable however that it was in the vicinity of Cordova, and there are ruins of ancient walls and towers between Martos, Alcandete, Espejo and Baena, which are supposed to denote its site.

Note return to page Now Alameda; eight leagues from the other Astiji or Ecija.

Note return to page Now Estepa, six leagues from Ecija.

Note return to page Perhaps Mancloua, between the towns of Ecija and Carmona; the sites of all the other places here mentioned appear to be quite unknown.

Note return to page Sanson supposes the Alostigi to have inhabited the territory near Almagia, between Malaga and Antiqueira.

Note return to page The Celtici are supposed to have inhabited the country between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir, the eastern parts of Alentejo and the west of Estremadura, as far as the city of Badajoz.

Note return to page Probably part of Estremadura, and the vicinity of Badajoz in an easterly direction.

Note return to page The exact meaning of this passage is somewhat obscure, but he probably means to say that the Celtici have an identity of sacred rites, language, and names of towns with the Celtiberians; though it had become the usage in Bætica more generally to distinguish the towns by their Roman names.

Note return to page "The Fame of Julius." Its site is not known.

Note return to page "The Concord of Julius." Probably the same as the modern Valera la Vega, near Frejenal.

Note return to page Probably meaning "Restored by Julius." Nothing is known of its site.

Note return to page According to an authority quoted by Hardouin, this may possibly be Medina de las Torres.

Note return to page Probably Constantina in Andalusia, to the north of Penaflor.

Note return to page The tribe or nation of the Tereses are supposed to have dwelt in the vicinity of the modern San Nicolo del Puerto.

Note return to page Calentum was their town; probably the present Cazalla near Alaniz. This place will be found mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 14.

Note return to page The ruins two leagues north of Ronda la Vieja are supposed to be those of this place. There are the remains of an aqueduct and theatre, and numerous coins are found here.

Note return to page Probably the present Ronda la Vieja.

Note return to page Identified by inscriptions with the present Aroche. The sites of several of the following places are unknown.

Note return to page The Azuaga of modern times; but, according to Hardouin, Argallen.

Note return to page According to Hardouin this was on the site of the modern Fuente de la Ovejuna, fourteen leagues from Cordova.

Note return to page This has been identified by inscriptions with the modern Villa de Capilla.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern Almaden de la Plata.

Note return to page Probably the same as the modern Monte Major.

Note return to page The ruins of this place are probably those seen at Carixa, near Bornos, in the vicinity of Seville.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the same as the modern Las Cabezas, not far from Lebrija.

Note return to page The sites of these two towns are unknown. Bæsippo, Barbesula and Callet have been already mentioned.

Note return to page The ruins of Saguntia are to be seen between Arcos and Xeres della Frontera, on the river Guadalete; they bear their ancient name under the form of Cigonza. Mela, B. iii. c. 1, says that Oleastro was a grove near the Bay of Cadiz. Brana was probably the same place that is mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Urbona.

Note return to page We may here mention for the more correct information of the reader that the Roman mile consisted of 1000 paces, each pace being five English feet. Hence its length was 1618 English yards (taking the Roman foot at 11ċ6496 English inches), or 142 yards less than the English statute mile.

Note return to page Nova Carthago, or New Carthage.

Note return to page Now Cazlona, on the confines of New Castile and the kingdom of Granada. It was a place of great importance, and the chief town of the Oretani. Himilce, the rich wife of Hannibal, was a native of this place.

Note return to page This was the 'porticus Octaviæ,' which, having been commenced by his sister Octavia, the wife of Marcellus and Antony, was completed by Augustus. It lay between the Circus Flaminius and the Theatre of Marcellus, occupying the site of the former portico, which had been built by Q. Cæcilius Metellus, and enclosing the two temples of Juno and of Jupiter Stator. It contained a public library, in which the Senate often met, and it was in this probably that the map or plan, mentioned by Pliny, was deposited. It also contained a great number of statues, paintings, and other works of art, which, with the library, were destroyed by fire in the reign of Titus.

Note return to page Nova Carthago or New Carthage, now Carthagena.

Note return to page Now Zaragoza or Saragossa, on the right bank of the river Ebro. Its original name was Salduba, but it was changed in honour of Augustus, who colonized it after the Cantabrian war, B.C. 25.

Note return to page This was the most remote place of any consideration in Celtiberia, on the west. Its ruins are still to be seen on the summit of a hill surrounded with rocks, forming a natural wall between Corunna del Conde and Pennalda de Castro.

Note return to page This was Asturica Augusta, the chief city of the nation of the Astures, and situate on one of the tributaries of the Astura, now Esta. On its site is situate the present Astorga: its ruins are very extensive.

Note return to page Now Lugo.

Note return to page Or Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city there are the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre.

Note return to page Probably the present town of Vera near Muxacra.

Note return to page The "Promontory of Saturn," now Cabo de Palos.

Note return to page D'Anville takes this place to be the port of Vacur; if so, the distance from Cape Palos is exactly 170 miles.

Note return to page Now Segura.

Note return to page The modern town of Elche was probably built from the ruins of this place.

Note return to page Now called the Gulf of Alicant.

Note return to page With the Arabian El prefixed, this has formed the name of the famous port of Alicant.

Note return to page Now Denia, a thriving town.

Note return to page Now called the Xucar.

Note return to page Now called Albufera.

Note return to page The present city of Valencia.

Note return to page Or Turia, now the Guadalaviar.

Note return to page Or Saguntus, famed for the fidelity of its inhabitants to the Roman cause: after a siege of nine months, rather than submit to the Carthaginians under Hannibal, they set fire to their town and perished in the flames, B.C. 219. It was rebuilt eight years afterwards and made a Roman colony. The ruins of the ancient town, which was said to have been originally founded by Greeks from Zacynthus, are still to be seen, and the ancient walls (muri veteres) give name to the present Murviedro, which is built on its site.

Note return to page Now the Murviedro, which flows past the city of that name and the town of Segorbe.

Note return to page Dertosa, the present Tortosa, is supposed to have been inhabited by them.

Note return to page Now the Ebro.

Note return to page Hardouin places this on the site of the modern Fuente de Ivero. The Ebro takes its rise in the Val de Vieso.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, the present Logrono. At present the Ebro only becomes navigable at Tudela, 216 miles from the sea. Other writers, however, take Varia to be the present Valtierra, near Tudela.

Note return to page Or the Subur, now the Francoli. It flows into the sea at the port of Tarraco, now Tarragona.

Note return to page The more ancient commentators think that Carthago Vetus, or the colony of Old Carthage (now Carta la Vieja), is here alluded to, but more probably it is Carthago Nova that is meant.

Note return to page On the Subi, previously mentioned; now called Villa Nova.

Note return to page Now the Llobregat.

Note return to page Their territory was situate around the present Gulf of Ampurias.

Note return to page Their chief cities were Gerunda, the present Gerona, and Ausa or Vicus Ausæ, now Vic d'Osona.

Note return to page In the country beyond Gerona.

Note return to page Living in the upper valley of the river Sicoris or Segre, which still retains, from them, the name of Cerdague.

Note return to page The people of the modem Navarre and Guipuzcoa.

Note return to page In the later writers Barcelo, now Barcelona. It was said to have been originally founded by Hercules, and afterwards rebuilt by Hamilcar Barcas, who gave it the name of his family. Its name as a Roman colony was Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino. The modern city stands somewhat to the east of the ancient one.

Note return to page The modern Badalona, two leagues from Barcelona.

Note return to page On the sea-shore,—the present Pineda.

Note return to page Now the Tordera.

Note return to page The modern city of Blanos stands on its site.

Note return to page Probably the present Ter or Tet.

Note return to page The modem Ampurias. We learn from Strabo that a wall divided the town of the Greeks from that of the old inhabitants. It was the usual landing-place for travellers from Gaul. It was originally colonized by the Phocæans from Massilia or Marseilles.

Note return to page Hardouin says that the Ticher or Tichis is the same with the modern Ter, but in such case Pliny would have mentioned it before coming to Emporiæ. Its present name however does not appear to be accurately known.

Note return to page A promontory extending from the Pyrenæan chain, on which a temple of Venus was situate. It is now called Cabo de Cruz. The distance mentioned by Pliny is probably too great.

Note return to page The people of the present Tortosa.

Note return to page Probably not the same people as the Edetani, in whose district Saguntum and Valencia were situate.

Note return to page The people of Gerunda or Gerona.

Note return to page They are nowhere else mentioned. Ukert supposes that their city stood in the district between the Sicoris and Nucaria.

Note return to page Their city was Tiara Julia.

Note return to page The people of Aquæ Calidæ or the 'Hot Springs,' called at the present day Caldes, four leagues from the city of Barcelona.

Note return to page Ptolemy places Bæcula between Ausa and Gerunda.

Note return to page The people of the present Belchite.

Note return to page The people of the present Xelsa, on the Ebro.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Calagurris, now Calahorra, a city of the Vascones, on the banks of the Ebro. They remained faithful to Sertorius to the last, and after slaughtering their wives and children and eating their flesh, their city was taken and destroyed; which event put an end to the Sertorian war. It was called" Nassica," in contradistinction to Calagurris Fibularia, which is afterwards mentioned by Pliny. The latter is mentioned by Cæsar as forming one community with Osca (now Huesca), and was probably the present Loarre, though some writers take the first-named Calagurris to be that place, and the latter one to be the present Calahorra.

Note return to page The people of Ilerda, the present Lerida, on the Sicoris or Segre. It is memorable for its siege by Cæsar, when the Pompeian forces under Afranius and Petreius had retired thither. It was a most flourishing city, though in the times of the later Roman emperors it had fallen into decay.

Note return to page The people of the present Huesca.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Turiazo, the present Tarazona, five leagues south of Tudela.

Note return to page The people of Cascantum, the present town of Cascante in Navarre.

Note return to page The people of Ergavica. Its ruins, at the confluence of the Guadiela and Tagus, are still to be seen, and are called Santaver. By some writers this place is considered to be the same as the modern Fraga, on the river Cinca, five leagues from Lerida.

Note return to page The people of Graccuris. Its former name of Ilurcis was changed in honour of Sempronius Gracchus, who placed new settlers there after the conquest of Celtiberia. It is supposed to be the same as the modern Agreda, four leagues from Tarazona.

Note return to page The people of Leonica, probably the modern Alcaniz, on the river Guadalope, in Arragon.

Note return to page The people of Tarraga, the present Tarrega, nine leagues east of Lerida, in Catalonia.

Note return to page The people of Arcobriga, now Los Arcos, in Navarre, five leagues south of Estella.

Note return to page Perhaps the same as the Andosini, a people mentioned by Polybius, B. iii. c. 35, as situate between the Iberus and the Pyrenees. There is a small town of Navarre called Androilla.

Note return to page The people probably of the site now occupied by Huarte Araquil, six leagues to the west of Pampeluna.

Note return to page Probably the same as the Bursaones of Livy, the Bursavolenses of Hirtius, and the Bursadenses of Ptolemy. Their exact locality is unknown.

Note return to page Mention has been made of Calagurris Fibularensis or Fibulicensis under Calagurris Nassica: see p. 168.

Note return to page The people of Complutum, the modern Alcala de Henares, on the river Henares, six leagues to the east of Madrid. It is not quite certain whether it stood on the exact site of Alcala, or on the hill of Zulema, on the other side of the Henares.

Note return to page The town of Cares, adjoining the more modern one of Puente la Reyna, probably marks their site.

Note return to page Probably so called from the river Cinga, the modern Cinca: or they may have given their name thereto.

Note return to page The people probably of the present Mediana on the Ebro, six leagues below Zaragoza.

Note return to page Their town was Larnum, situate on a river of the same name. It was probably the present Torderas, situate on the river of that name.

Note return to page Of this people nothing appears to be known. In the old editions the next people mentioned are the "Ispalenses," but since the time of Hardouin, they have been generally omitted, as wrongly introduced, and as utterly unknown. Spanish coins have however been more recently discovered with the name 'Sblaie' or 'Splaie,' inscribed in Celliberian characters, and numismatists are of opinion that they indicate the name of the town of this people, which in Latin would be Ispala. This at all events is the opinion of M. de Saulcy.

Note return to page The people of the present town of Lumbier in Navarre, called by its inhabitants Irumberri.

Note return to page The people of the present city of Pampeluna.

Note return to page Carthago Nova, or New Carthage.

Note return to page The colony of Acci was called Colonia Julia Gemella Accitana. The town of Acci or Accis was on the site of the present Guadix el Viejo, between Granada and Baza. It was colonized by the third and sixth legions under Julius or Augustus, from which it obtained the name of' Gemella,' the origin of which name is previously mentioned, p. 161.

Note return to page The ruins of this place are supposed to be those seen at Lebazuza or Lezuza, not far from the city of Cuença.

Note return to page The "jus Italicum" or "Italiæ," "Italian rights" or "privileges," differed from the "jus Latinum." It was granted to provincial towns which were especially favoured by the magistracy of Rome, and consisted of exemption from taxes, a municipal constitution, after the manner of the Italian towns, and many other rights and exemptions.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the people of the town formerly called Saliotis, now Cazorla. They are called "Cæsari venales," from the circumstance of their territory having been purchased by Cæsar.—Castulo or Cazlona has been previously mentioned.

Note return to page The people of Sætabis, now Xativa in Valencia. This town was famous for its manufacture of fine table-napkins, to which reference is made by Pliny at the beginning of his Introduction addressed to Titus, in his quotation from the lament of Catullus on the loss of his table-napkins which his friends had filched from him. See p. 1 of the present volume.

Note return to page According to some writers, the present Cuença was the ancient Valeria; but perhaps it was situate at the present village of Valera la Vieja, or Old Valeria, eight leagues south of Cuença.

Note return to page The people of Alaba, not far from the present town of Ergavica.

Note return to page They were so called from their town of Basti, now Baza, on the river Guadalentin in Granada.

Note return to page Their town was probably the present Consuegra, twelve leagues from the city of Toledo.

Note return to page So called from the promontory Dianium or Artemisium, named from a temple of Diana there situate, and having in its vicinity a town of the same name. The present town of Denia still retains nearly the original name. Its lake, now called Albufera de Valencia, has been previously mentioned, p. 166.

Note return to page The modern Yniesta marks the site of their town.

Note return to page The people probably of Eliocroca, now Lorca, on the high road from Carthago Nova to Castulo.

Note return to page There were two places of the name of Mentesa, one in the district of the Oritani, and the other in that of the Bastitani or Bastuli.

Note return to page Ptolemy, B. ii., mentions a city of this nation, called 'Oretum Grermanorum.' It has been supposed that it was the present Calatrava, five leagues from Ciudad Real.

Note return to page Supposed to be in the vicinity of the present Calatajud.

Note return to page The present Toledo.

Note return to page Their town is supposed to have stood on the site of the present Murcia.

Note return to page Now Coruña del Conde.

Note return to page The people of the present Alava on the Ebro.—A small town there still bears the name of Alvana.

Note return to page This nation is not mentioned elsewhere. Possibly they are the Murbogi, mentioned by Ptolemy.

Note return to page Their town Segisamon was either the present Veyzama in Guipuzcoa, or, more probably, Sasamon, eight leagues north-west of Burgos.

Note return to page The people of Carissa, on the site of the present Carixa near Seville.

Note return to page Strabo assigns the Numantini to the Arevacæ, and not the Pelendones. The ruins of the city of Numantia were still to be seen at Puente Garray near the city of Soria, in Hardouin's time, the 17th century.

Note return to page D'Anville places their city, Intercatia, at the place called Villa nueva de Azuague, forty miles from the present Astorga; others again make it to have been sixty miles from that place.

Note return to page Their town was on the site of the modern city of Palencia, on the river Carion.

Note return to page The people of Cauca, the present Coca, situate between Segovia and Valladolid, on the river Eresma.

Note return to page This was the chief city of the Cantabri. It has been already mentioned, but we may add that it stood near the sources of the Ebro, on the eminence of Retortillo, south of Reynosa. Five stones still mark the boundaries which divided the territory from that of the Fourth Legio.

Note return to page Supposed to be the present Briviesca; the site of Tritium does not appear to be known, but it has been suggested that it was near Najara, in the vicinity of Logrono.

Note return to page It does not appear to be certain whether the Areva was the present Ucero, or the Arlanzon, which flows near Valladolid.

Note return to page The modern Siguenza.

Note return to page Now El Burgo d'Osma, in the province of Soria.

Note return to page This must not be mistaken for the modern Segovia, between Madrid and Valladolid: it was a small town in the vicinity of Numantia.

Note return to page Probably the present Lerma, on the river Arlanza.

Note return to page The people of Asturica Augusta, now Astorga, in the province of Leon. The ruins of this fine city are said still to give a perfect idea of a fortified Roman town.

Note return to page Their chief city stood on the site of the present Cigarrosa, or San Estevan de Val de Orres. Its ruins are still to be seen, and a Roman bridge, the people preserving a tradition that an old town once stood there called Guigurra.

Note return to page The people of Lance or Lancia, probably the present Lollanco or Mansilla; though Oviedo has been suggested. This however may be the Ovetum mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiv. c. 17.

Note return to page Mentioned by Pliny in B. xix. c. 2, as famous for their flax. Their locality near the coast does not appear to be exactly known. The Pæsici previously mentioned were situate on the peninsula of Cabo de Penas.

Note return to page Now the city of Lugo in Gallicia.

Note return to page The people of Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city are the remains of an aqueduct and an amphitheatre. This people probably derived their name from their fashion of wearing braccæ, "breeches" or "trowsers," like their neighbours of Gallia Braccata. The exact localities of the various other tribes here mentioned do not appear to be exactly known.

Note return to page Our author is mistaken here, even making allowance for the shortness of the Roman mile (1618 yards), as the length is only 470 miles. Coastwise it is 620.

Note return to page Now Oyarzun. It is also mentioned in B. iv. c. 34.

Note return to page He is also in error here; for, taken in a straight line, this distance is but 210 miles.

Note return to page The distance is about 560 miles.

Note return to page It may be worth while here to take some notice of the mineral productions of Spain in modern times, from which we shall be able to form a more accurate judgement as to the correctness of the statement here made by Pliny. Grains of gold are still to be found in the rivers Tagus and Douro; but there is not found sufficient of the precious metal to pay for the search. Silver is found in the mines of the Guadal canal. Copper and lead are to be found in abundance. There is a mine of plumbago four leagues from Ronda; and tin is found in Gallicia. In every province there are iron mines, those in Biscay being the most remarkable. Lodestone is found in Seville, cobalt on the Pyrenees, quicksilver and cinnabar at Almaden, arsenic in Asturias, and coal in Asturias and Arragon. There are salt-mines at Mingrilla and Cardona; alum is found in Arragon, antimony at Alcaraz. On the Sierra Morena, and in Gallicia, there is saltpetre in numerous localities; amber in Asturias and Valencia, and sulphur in Murcia, Arragon, and Seville. Pipe-clay of a peculiar quality is found in the vicinity of Andujar. Gypsum and marble are found in great abundance, and stone for building purposes, of the best quality. Amethysts, white cornelians, rubies, agates, garnets, and rock crystals, with other precious stones, are also found in abundance and of the finest quality.

Note return to page Transparent stone. Further mention is made of it by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 45.

Note return to page Or Mediterranean.

Note return to page From the chief city Narbo Martius, and later Narbona, now Narbonne, situate on the river Atax, now Aude. It was made a Roman colony by the Consul Q. Martius B.C. 118, and from him received its surname. It was the residence of the Roman governor of the province and a place of great commercial importance. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient city, but some vestiges of the canal, by which it was connected with the sea at twelve miles' distance.

Note return to page From the linen breeches which the inhabitants wore, a fashion which was not adopted by the Romans till the time of the Emperors. Severus wore them, but the use of them was restricted by Honorius.

Note return to page Still called the 'Var.' It divides France from Nice, a province of Sardinia.

Note return to page Now the Cevennes. They lie as much to the west as the north of Gallia Narbonensis.

Note return to page The range of the Jura, north of the Lake of Geneva.

Note return to page Inhabiting the former Comte de Roussillon, or Département des Pyrénées Orientales. They were said to have been originally a Bebrycian or Thracian colony.

Note return to page Probably the inhabitants of the present Conserans, on the west of the Département de l' Arriége.

Note return to page Probably the Tech, and the Verdouble, which falls into the Gly.

Note return to page Probably the present Elne, on the Tech.

Note return to page The present Castel Roussillon.

Note return to page The Aude of the present day.

Note return to page The bodies of water now called Etangs de Bages et de Sigean.

Note return to page Now the Herault.

Note return to page Now called the Lez, near the city of Montpellier.

Note return to page Now called Etangs de Leucate, de Sigean, de Gruissan, de Vendres, de Thau, de Maguelonne, de Perols, de Mauguio, du Repausset; Marais d'Escamandre, de Lermitane et de la Souteyrane, and numerous others.

Note return to page Now the town of Agde. Strabo also informs us that this place was founded by the Massilians.

Note return to page This people seems to have inhabited the eastern parts of the departments of l'Arriége and the Haute Garonne, that of Aude, the south of that of Tarn, and of that of Herault, except the arrondissement of Montpellier.

Note return to page Dalechamp takes this to be Foz les Martigues; but the locality is doubtful. Most probably this is the same place that is mentioned by Strabo as Rhoë, in conjunction with the town of Agathe or Agde, and the Rodanusia of Stephen of Byzantium, who places it in the district of Massilia or Marseilles.

Note return to page Now the Rhone.

Note return to page Now the Lake of Geneva.

Note return to page The modern Saone.

Note return to page Now the rivers Isère and Durance.

Note return to page Most probably from Libici, a town in the south of Gaul, of which there are coins in existence, but nothing else seems to be known. At the present day there are four mouths of the Rhone, the most westerly of which is called the "Dead" Rhone; the next the "Lesser" Rhone; the third the "Old" Rhone; and the fourth simply the Rhone. D'Anville considers the "Lesser" Rhone to have been the "Spanish" mouth of the ancients. In consequence of the overflowings of this river there is great confusion upon this subject.

Note return to page This mouth of the Rhone was much used by the Massilians for the purposes of commerce with the interior of Gaul, and the carriage of the supplies of tin which they obtained thence.

Note return to page The manner in which Pliny here expresses himself shows that he doubts the fact of such a place having even existed; it is mentioned by none of the preceding geographers, and of those who followed him Stephen of Byzantium is the only one who notices it. An inscription was found however in the reign of Charles V. of France, in which it was stated that Ataulphus, king of the Visigoths, selected Heraclea as his place of residence. On the faith of this inscription, Spon and Ducange have placed Heraclea at the modern Saint-Gilles, and other writers at Saint-Remy, where the inscription was found. Unfortunately, however, Messrs. Devic and Vaissette, in their "History of Languedoc," have proved that this inscription is of spurious origin.

Note return to page The "Fossæ Marianæ" are also mentioned by Ptolemy and Solinus; though they differ in the situation which they have respectively assigned them. They were formed by Marius when advancing to dispute the passage of the Rhone with the Cimbri, who had quitted Spain for the purpose of passing the Pyrenees and invading Italy, in the year B.C. 102. There is considerable difficulty in determining their position, but they are supposed to have commenced at the place now called the Camp of Marius, and to have terminated at the eastern mouth of the Rhone near the present Arles.

Note return to page Pliny is the first who mentions the name of this lake, though previous writers had indicated its existence. Strabo informs us that above the mouth of the Rhone there is a large lake that communicates with the sea, and abounds in fish and oysters. Brotier and D'Anville identify it with the present lake of Martigues or of Berre.

Note return to page D'Anville takes this place to be the present town of Martigues; Brotier thinks that it was situate on the spot now called Le Cap d'Œil, near the town of Saint-Chamas; and Bouche, the historian of the Province, places it at Marignane, on the east side of the lake already mentioned.

Note return to page "Campi Lapidei," called by the natives at the present day "LaCrau;" probably from the same Celtic root as our word "Crags;" though Bochart derives it from the Hebrew. Æschylus and Hyginus speak of this combat of Hercules, and Mela relates that being engaged in a mortal struggle with Albion and Geryon, the sons of Neptune, he invoked the aid of Jupiter, on which a shower of stones fell from the heavens and destroyed his antagonists. Those on this plain are said to be the remains of the stony shower. It is supposed by the scientific that many of these stones are aërolites, and that tradition has ingeniously adapted this story to their real origin. The vicinity of Tunbridge Wells presents a somewhat similar appearance.

Note return to page The people probably of the site of the present isle of Camargue.

Note return to page They probably inhabited the district south of the Durance, between it and the Rhone.

Note return to page They inhabited the country in which the present Avignon, Orange, Cavaillon, and perhaps Carpentras are situate.

Note return to page They are thought by Hardouin to have dwelt in the vicinity of the present town of Talard in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

Note return to page They inhabited the eastern part of the departments of the Drôme and the Vaucluse.

Note return to page Their territory comprehended the southern part of the department of the Ain, the department of the Isère, the canton of Geneva, and part of Savoy.

Note return to page It was said to have been colonized from Phocæa, a town of Ionia in Asia Minor. Lucan in his Third Book more than once falls into the error of supposing that it was colonized from Phocis in Greece.

Note return to page We learn from Justin, B. xliii., that this privilege, as well as others, and a seat at the public shows, were granted to the Massilians by the Roman Senate, in return for their sympathy and assistance after the city had been taken and plundered by the Gauls.

Note return to page According to D'Anville the present Cap de l'Aigre, though Mannert takes it to be the Cap de la Croisette.

Note return to page D'Anville takes this to be the same as the present Port de la Ciotat.

Note return to page Probably occupying the south-east of the department of the Var. It is supposed by Hardouin that the village of Ramatuelle, near the coast, south of the Gulf of Grimaud, represents the ancient name; and D'Anville and other writers are of the same opinion.

Note return to page Probably the country around the modern Brignole and Draguignan was inhabited by them.

Note return to page They inhabited Verignon and Barjols in the southern part of the department of the Var.

Note return to page D'Anville takes this to be the place called Agaï, between Frejus and La Napoule: but in so doing he disregards the order in which they are given by Pliny.

Note return to page "The Forum of Julius." Now Frejus. As its name implies, it was a colony of the Eighth Legion. It was probably called 'Pacensis,' on some occasion when peace had happily been made with the original inhabitants, and 'Classica' from the fleet being stationed there by Augustus.

Note return to page Still known as the Argens, from the silvery appearance of the water. It has choked up the harbour with sand, in which probably the ships of Augustus rode at anchor.

Note return to page They inhabited the coast, in the vicinity of the modern Cannes.

Note return to page They are supposed to have inhabited the country of Grasse, in the south-east of the department of the Var.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy they had for their capital the town of Salinæ; which some take to be the modern Saluces, others Castellane, and others again Seillans, according to Holstein and D'Anville.

Note return to page D'Anville thinks that they lived in the valley of Queyras, in the department of the Hautes Alpes, having a town of the same name.

Note return to page The Adunicates are supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the department of the Basses Alpes, between the towns of Senez and Digne.

Note return to page The modem Antibes. Mount Cema is the present Monte-Cemelione.

Note return to page "Arelate of the Sixth Legion," a military colony; now the city of Arles. It is first mentioned by Cæsar, who had some ships built there for the siege of Massilia or Marseilles. It was made a military colony in the time of Augustus.

Note return to page "Beterræ of the Seventh Legion." The modern town of Beziers.

Note return to page "Arausio of the Second Legion," now Orange, a town in the department of Vaucluse.

Note return to page Now Valence, in the department of the Drôme.

Note return to page Now Vienne, in the department of the Isère.

Note return to page Aix, in the department of the Bouches du Rhône.

Note return to page Avignon, in the Vaucluse.

Note return to page Apt, in the department of Vaucluse.

Note return to page Riez, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

Note return to page The modern Alps, near Viviers, is probably built on the site of this town. The text shows that it was different from Augusta, probably the Alba Augusta mentioned by Ptolemy, though D'Anville supposes them to have been the same place.

Note return to page Some writers take this place to be the present Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, in the department of the Drôme.

Note return to page Probably so called from its lofty position, and supposed by D'Anville to have been situate on the modern Mont Ventoux, or "Windy Mountain." Other writers place it at La Croix Haute, near the city of Avignon.

Note return to page There is a village in the department of the Var, six leagues from Toulon, called Bormes, not improbably from these people.

Note return to page The modern Cavaillon, in the department of the Vaucluse.

Note return to page Now Carcassone, in the department of the Aude.

Note return to page Probably Saint Tibéry, on the river Hérault.

Note return to page Now Carpentras. Ptolemy also makes mention of the Memini.

Note return to page Probably situate on the river Cœnus of Ptolemy, between the eastern mouth of the Rhone and Massilia. Probably the name in Pliny should be "Cœnienses."

Note return to page Walckenaer places this people in the vicinity of Cambo, in the arrondissement of Bayonne, in the department of the Basses Pyrenees.

Note return to page In names similar to this, as Festus remarks, "Forum" has the meaning of "Market;" much as that word is used as a compound in our names, such as Market Drayton, &c. Bouche thinks that by this place is meant the modern Le Canet: but D'Anville takes it to be Gonfaron, a corruption, he thinks, of Voconfaron from the Latin name.

Note return to page The site of Glanum was about a mile to the south of the village of Saint Remi, between Cavaillon and Aries. On the spot there are the remains of a Roman mausoleum and a triumphal arch.

Note return to page The people of Luteva, now Lodève, in the department of the Hérault.

Note return to page "The people of Forum Neronis," which place has been supposed by some to have been the same with Carpentoracte: D'Anville supposes Forcalquier to have been Forum Neronis, while Walckenaer takes Momas to have been that place. From the text it would appear to have been identical with Luteva.

Note return to page The modern Nismes, which in its ruins contains abundant marks of its ancient splendour. The family of the Antonines came from this place. The remains of its aqueduct still survive, containing three rows of arches, one above the other, and 180 feet in height.

Note return to page The people of the present Pézenas, in the department of the Hérault.

Note return to page Their chief town is supposed to have been Albiga, now Albi, in the department of Tarn.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the present Senez in the Basses Alpes. De la Saussaye says that their coins read 'Samnagenses,' and not' Sanagenses,' and that they inhabited Senas, a town in the vicinity of Aix.

Note return to page Their chief town was Tolosa, now Toulouse, in the department of the Haute-Garonne.

Note return to page They probably lived in the vicinity of the present Montauban, in the department of the Tarn et Garonne.

Note return to page Probably the inhabitants of the site of the modern town of Tarascon. There is, however, considerable doubt as to these two names.

Note return to page Poinsinet thinks that they occupied Vabres, a place situate in the south of the department of Aveyron.

Note return to page Now Vaison, in the department of Vaucluse.

Note return to page "The Grove of Augustus." This town appears to have been overflowed by the river Druma, which formed a lake on its site. Its remains were still to be seen in the lake in modern times, and from it the town on the margin of the lake takes its name of Le Luc.

Note return to page Under the name "formula" Pliny perhaps alludes to the official list of the Roman government, which he had consulted for the purposes of accuracy.

Note return to page Bouche places the site of this people at the village of Avançon, between Chorges and Gap, in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

Note return to page The present town of Digne, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

Note return to page It is not known from what points these measurements of our author are taken.

Note return to page The modern names of these localities will form the subject of consideration when we proceed, in c. 7, to a more minute description of Italy.

Note return to page This passage is somewhat confused, and may possibly be in a corrupt state. He here speaks of the Apennine Alps. By the "lunata juga" he means the two promontories or capes, which extend east and west respectively.

Note return to page This seems to be the meaning of "alumna," and not "nurse" or "foster-mother," as Ajasson's translation has it. Pliny probably implies by this antithesis that Rome has been "twice blessed," in receiving the bounties of all nations of the world, and in being able to bestow a commensurate return. Compared with this idea, "at once the nurse and mother of the world" would be tame indeed!

Note return to page By adding its deified emperors to the number of its divinities. After what Pliny has said in his Second Book, this looks very much like pure adulation.

Note return to page Or "Great Greece." This is a poor and frivolous argument used by Pliny in support of his laudations of Italy, seeing that in all probability it was not the people of Greece who gave this name to certain cities founded by Greek colonists on the Tarentine Gulf, in the south of Italy; but either the Italian tribes, who in their simplicity admired their splendour and magnificence, or else the colonists themselves, who, in using the name, showed that they clung with fondness to the remembrance of their mother-country; while at the same time the epithet betrayed some vanity and ostentation in wishing thus to show their superiority to the people of their mother-country.

Note return to page The comparison of its shape to an oak leaf seems rather fanciful; more common-place observers have compared it to a boot: by the top (cacumen) he seems to mean the southern part of Calabria about Brundisium and Tarentum; which, to a person facing the south, would incline to the coast of Epirus on the left hand.

Note return to page The 'Parma' or shield here alluded to, would be one shaped like a crescent, with the exception that the inner or concave side would be formed of two crescents, the extremities of which join at the central projection. He says that Cocinthos (now Capo di Stilo) would in such case form the central projection, while Lacinium (now Capo delle Colonne) would form the horn at the extreme right, and Leucopetra (now Capo dell' Armi) the horn on the extreme left.

Note return to page The Tuscan or Etrurian sea, and the Adriatic.

Note return to page The Varus, as already mentioned, was in Gallia Narbonensis, while the Arsia, now the Arsa, is a small river of Istria, which became the boundary between Italy and Illyricum, when Istria was annexed by order of Augustus to the former country. It flows into the Flanaticus Sinus, now Golfo di Quarnero, on the eastern coast of Istria, beyond the town of Castel Nuovo, formerly Nesactium.

Note return to page Now the Pescara.

Note return to page Now Palo, a city on the coast of Etruria, eighteen miles from Portus Augusti, at the mouth of the Tiber.

Note return to page This distance is overstated: the circuit is in reality about 2500 miles.

Note return to page For instance, from Pola to Ravenna, and from Iadera to Ancona.

Note return to page Sardinia is in no part nearer to Italy than 140 miles.

Note return to page Issa, now Lissa, is an island of the Adriatic, off the coast of Liburnia; it is not less than eighty miles distant from the nearest part of the coast of Italy.

Note return to page That is to say, the south, which was so called by the Romans: the meaning being that Italy extends in a south-easterly direction.

Note return to page Italy was divided by Augustus into eleven districts; the ninth of which nearly corresponded to the former republic of Genoa.

Note return to page The modern Nizza of the Italians, or Nice of the French.

Note return to page Now the Paglione.

Note return to page Livy mentions four of these tribes, the Celelates, the Cerdiciates, the Apuani, and the Friniates.

Note return to page Or "Long-haired." Lucan, B. i. 1. 442, 3, refers to this characteristic of the Alpine Ligurians: Et nunc tonse Ligur, quondam per colla decora Crinibus effusis toti prælate Comatæ.

Note return to page It is probably the ruins of this place that are to be seen at the present day at Cimiez in the vicinity of Nice.

Note return to page The modern Monaco.

Note return to page These tribes have been already mentioned in c. 5, as belonging to the province of Gallia Narbonensis.

Note return to page It is supposed that they dwelt near the present Vinadio in Piedmont.

Note return to page It is supposed that they inhabited the vicinity of the present town of Chorges, between Embrun and Gap.

Note return to page They probably dwelt near the modern town of Montserrat.

Note return to page They probably dwelt near the modern Biela, eight leagues from Verceil in Piedmont.

Note return to page Some writers place them near the modern city of Casale.

Note return to page Their locality is supposed by some writers to be near the present Cortemiglia, five leagues from the town of Alba.

Note return to page Now the Roya, flowing between very high banks.—Lucan, B. ii. 1. 422, speaks of the Rutuba as "Cavus," "flowing in deep cavities."

Note return to page Probably the present Vintimiglia.

Note return to page The modern Arozia.

Note return to page The present town of Albenga.—Livy, B. xxix. c. 5, calls the inhabitants Albingauni.

Note return to page Now called Vaï or Ve, and Savona.

Note return to page The modern Bisagna, which waters Genua, the modern Genoa.

Note return to page Now the Lavagna, which also washes Genoa.

Note return to page "The Port of the Dolphin;" now Porto Fino.

Note return to page Probably the ruins called those of Tregesa or Trigoso are those of Tigullia.

Note return to page Now Sestri di Levante.

Note return to page The modern Magra.

Note return to page Of which they were considered as a chain, and called the Apennine Alps.

Note return to page Now the Po.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, now Castel Arqua.

Note return to page Now Tortona. It was a city of importance, and there are considerable ruins still in existence.

Note return to page The modern Voghera, upon the river Staffora.

Note return to page Probably the present Verrua.

Note return to page Called by the Ligurians Bodincomagus, by the Romans Industria. Its remains are to be found at Monteù di Po, a few miles below Chevasso, on the right bank of the river.

Note return to page The modern Pollenza, a small town on the river Tenaro near Alba.

Note return to page Its site has been placed at Chieri near Turin, and at Carrù on the Tanaro, a few miles south of Bene, which is perhaps the most probable.

Note return to page The modern Valenza.

Note return to page Placed by D'Anville at Vico near Mondovi, and by other writers at Carmagnole and Saluzzo: but Durandi has shown that the ruins still to be seen near Bene in Piedmont are those of Augusta Vagiennorum. Bene is supposed to be a corruption of Bagienna, the name of the town in the middle ages. The name of the Vagienni also probably survives in that of Viozenna, an obscure place in that vicinity.

Note return to page Still called Alba; a town near the northern foot of the Apennines. It probably had its appellation from Cn. Pompeius Strabo, the father of Pompey the Great, who conferred many privileges on the Cisalpine Gauls. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Helvius Pertinax.

Note return to page The modern Aste.

Note return to page The modern Acqui, so called from its mineral springs. It is again mentioned by Pliny in B. XXXI. Numerous remains of the ancient town have been discovered.

Note return to page Ansart observes that this measurement is nearly correct.

Note return to page For an account of this see Herodotus, B. i. c. 94, Tacitus, Ann. B. iv. c. 55, and Velleius Paterculus, B. i. c. 1. These writers all agree as to the fact of the migration of a colony of Lydians under the conduct of Tyrrhenus to the part of Italy afterwards called Etruria. This subject however, as well as the migrations of the Pelasgi, is involved in the greatest obscurity.

Note return to page From the Greek verb θύειν "to sacrifice," he implies:—from their custom of frequently sacrificing, says Servius, on the Xth Book of the Æneid. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says that they were from their frequent sacrifices called θυόσκοοι. These are probably fanciful derivations; but there is no doubt that the people of Etruria were for several centuries the instructors of the Romans in the arts of sacrifice, augury, and divination.

Note return to page The ruins of Luna, which was destroyed by the Normans in the middle ages, are still visible on the banks of the Magra. The modern name of the port is Golfo della Spezzia.

Note return to page The modern city of Lucca has its site and name.—Livy, B. xli. c. 13, informs us that this colony was founded in the year of the city 576, during the Consulship of Claudius Pulcher and Sempronius Gracchus.

Note return to page The modern city of Pisa. See Virgil, B. x. 1. 179, as to the origin of this place.

Note return to page The modern Serchio.

Note return to page Now the Arno.

Note return to page The people of Pisa or Pisæ, a city of Elis in the Peloponnesus.

Note return to page Now Vadi, a small village on the sea-shore.

Note return to page Still called the Cecina. It entered the Tyrrhenian sea, near the port of Vada Volaterrana just mentioned.

Note return to page The present Piombino is supposed to have arisen from the ruins of this place.

Note return to page Now the Bruno.

Note return to page The modern Ombrone.

Note return to page Now known as Telamone Vecchio.

Note return to page There are ruins near lake Orbitello, which bear the name of Cosa: Ansedonia was said to have risen from its ruins, and in its turn fallen to decay.

Note return to page Two localities have been mentioned as the site of Graviscæ, at both of which there are ancient remains: one on the right bank of the Marta, about a mile from its mouth, and the other on the sea-coast at a spot called Santo Clementino or Le Saline, a mile south of the mouth of the Marta. Probably the latter are the remains of Graviscæ, although Dennis (Etruria, i. pp. 387–395) inclines to be in favour of the former.

Note return to page The modern Torre Chiaruccia, five miles south of Civita Vecchia.

Note return to page The modern Torre di Santa Severa.

Note return to page Now the Vaccina.

Note return to page The remains of this once powerful city are marked by the village of Cervetri or Old Cære. According to Strabo it received its name from the Greek word χαῖρε "hail!" with which the inhabitants saluted the Tyrrhenian or Lydian invaders. It was to this place that the Romans sent their most precious sacred relics when their city was taken by the Gauls. Its most interesting remains are the sepulchres, of which an account is given in Dennis's Etruria.

Note return to page Its remains are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village of Palo.

Note return to page Its site is supposed to have been at the spot now called the Torre di Maccarese, midway between Palo and Porto, and at the mouth of the river Arone. Its situation was marshy and unhealthy.

Note return to page This exceeds the real distance, which is about 230 miles.

Note return to page The site of the Etruscan Falerii or Falisci is probably occupied by the present Civita Castellana; while that of the Roman city of the same name, at a distance of four miles, is marked by a single house and the ruins of a church, called Santa Maria di Falleri. The ancient city was captured by the Romans under Camillus.

Note return to page In his book of "Origines," which is now lost.

Note return to page "The Grove of Feronia." The town was so called from the grove of that Sabine goddess there situate. In the early times of Rome there was a great resort to this spot not only for religious purposes, but for those of trade as well. Its traces are still to be seen at the village of Saint Orestes, near the south-east extremity of the hill there, which is still called Felonica. This is in southern Etruria, but Ptolemy mentions another place of the same name in the north-west extremity of Etruria, between the Arnus and the Macra.

Note return to page The people of the spot now called Siena, in Tuscany.

Note return to page Now Sutri, on the river Pozollo.

Note return to page The people of Arretium, one of the most powerful cities of Etruria. The three tribes or peoples here mentioned probably did not occupy distinct towns, but constituted separate communities or municipal bodies, being distinct colonies or bodies of settlers. The Julienses were the colonists settled there by Augustus. The Fidentes had probably settled at an earlier period. The modern Arezzo has risen on the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the Etruscan city are pointed out on an elevated spot called Poggio di San Cornellio, two or three miles southeast of Arezzo. Many valuable relics of antiquity have been discovered here. The family of Mæcenas sprang from this place.

Note return to page The people of Aquæ Tauri, a watering-place of Etruria, situate about three miles north of the present Civita Vecchia, and now called Bagni di Ferrata. The baths are described by Rutilius in his Itinerary, who calls them Tauri Thermæ (the Bull's Baths), and ascribes their name to the fact of their having been accidentally discovered by a bull.

Note return to page The people of Blera, on the site of the modern village of Bieda, about twelve miles south of Viterbo. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been found here.—See Dennis's Etruria, vol. i. pp. 260–272.

Note return to page The people of Cortona, a powerful city of Etruria, which is still known by the same name. It was probably in the number of the cities of Etruria that were ravaged by Sylla, and then recolonized by him. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been discovered there.

Note return to page The people of Capena, an ancient and important city of Etruria, which, after long opposing the inroads of the Romans, was reduced to submission shortly after the fall of Veii, B.C. 393. It existed and held municipal rank till the time of the Emperor Aurelian, after which all traces of its name or existence were lost, till 1750, when Galetti fixed its site with great accuracy at Civitucola or San Martino, about 24 miles from Rome. It was situate on the banks of a small river now called the Grammiccia, and in its territory was the celebrated 'Lucus Feroninæ' previously mentioned.

Note return to page The new and old colonists of the city of Clusium, who probably enjoyed distinct municipal rights. The modern Chiusi stands on its site.

Note return to page The modern Fiorenze or Florence occupies the site of their city.

Note return to page The village of Fiesole stands on its site. Extensive remains of the ancient city are still to be found.

Note return to page The site of Ferentinum is now uninhabited, but is still known by the name of Ferento. The rivers of the ancient city are very considerable; it was finally destroyed by the people of Viterbo in the 12th century.

Note return to page An ancient town of Etruria near Falisci. Cluver thinks that it was situate at Gallese, a village nine miles north of Civita Castellana; but Dennis considers its site to have been between Borghetto on the Tiber and Corchiano, where there are considerable remains of an Etruscan city. The spot is named San Silvestro, from a ruined church there.

Note return to page Or Horta; the spot now called Orte, where numerous Etruscan remains are found; it probably derived its name from the Etruscan goddess Horta. Hortanum, the name given to it by Pliny, is perhaps an adjective form of the name, "oppidun" being understood.

Note return to page Possibly the same as 'Urbs Vetus,' on the side of which the present Orvieto stands.

Note return to page Now Nepi, near the river Pozzolo.

Note return to page According to Hardouin the site of the Novem Pagi, or nine Boroughs, is occupied by the modern Il Mignone, near Civita Vecchia.

Note return to page Its site is generally supposed to have been at Oriuolo, about five miles north of Bracciano; but Dennis informs us that there are no ancient remains at that place. Being a præfecture it may have consisted of only a number of little villages, united in one jurisdiction.

Note return to page The modern Pistoia stands on its site.

Note return to page Now Perugia.

Note return to page Supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the site of the modern Sovretto.

Note return to page Probably situate in the modern duchy of Castro.

Note return to page The people of Tarquinii near Rome, the head of the Etruscan confederation. It was here that Demaratus the Corinthian, the father of Tarquinius Priscus, settled. It was deserted by its inhabitants in the eighth or ninth century, who founded the town of Corneto on a hill opposite to it. The ruins are known as Turchina, a corruption of the ancient name.

Note return to page The site of their town is probably marked by the modern Toscanella.

Note return to page The ruins of their town still retain somewhat of their ancient name in that of "Vetulia."

Note return to page The people of the powerful city of Veii, subdued by Camillus. Its ruins have been discovered in the vicinity of the village of Isola Farnese.

Note return to page Their town stood on the site of the present Bisontia.

Note return to page The people of Volaterræ, the present Volterra, one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan Confederation. It was for a time the residence of the kings of Lombardy. The modern town covers only a small portion of the area of the ancient city, of which there are some interesting remains.

Note return to page The people of Volci or Vulci, of which the ruins bear the same name. Its sepulchres have produced vast treasures of ancient art.

Note return to page The people of Volsinii or Vulsinii, now called Bolsena. This was one of the most ancient and powerful of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation. On their subjugation by the Romans the Etruscan city was destroyed, and its inhabitants were compelled to settle on a less defensible site. The new city was the birth-place of Sejanus, the worthless favourite of Tiberius. Of the ancient city there are scarcely any remains.

Note return to page Called also Crustumeria, Crustumium, and Crustuminium. It was a city of Latium on the borders of the Sabine country, and was subdued by Romulus, though it afterwards appears as independent in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. The territory was noted for its fertility. The exact site of the city is unknown; a place called Marcigliana Vecchia, about nine miles from Rome, seems the most probable.

Note return to page The site of Caletra is quite unknown. It was situate at some point in the present valley of the Albegna.

Note return to page The First Region extended from the Tiber to the Gulf of Salernum, being bounded in the interior by the Apennines. It consisted of ancient Latium and Campania, comprising the modern Campagna di Roma, and the provinces of the kingdom of Naples.

Note return to page Livy, B. i. c. 3, and Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. 1. 389, inform us that the name of Albula was changed into Tiberis in consequence of king Tiberinus being accidentally drowned in it.

Note return to page Still known by that name. The Glanis is called la Chiana.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, now known as Citta di Castello.

Note return to page A municipal town of Umbria, situate near the confluence of the rivers Nar and Tiber, and on the Flaminian Way. There are the ruins of an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and some temples, now the modern Otricoli.

Note return to page The territory of Umbria extended from the left bank of the Tiber, near its rise, to the Adriatic.

Note return to page The Sabines occupied the left bank of the Tiber from the Umbri to the Anio. The Crustumini and the Fidenates probably occupied the southern part of the district about the river Alba.

Note return to page The Nera and the Tevcrone. The exact situation of the district of Vaticanum has not been ascertained with exactness.

Note return to page As not so much causing mischief by its inundations, as giving warning thereby of the wrath of the gods and of impending dangers; which might be arrested by sacrifices and expiatory rites.—See Horace, Odes, B. i. 2. 29.

Note return to page The frontier of ancient Latium was at Circeii, but that of modern Latium extended to Sinuessa.

Note return to page A town of Latium, situate at the foot of the Mons Circeius, now Monte Circello. It was used as a place of retirement, and Tiberius and Domitian had villas there. The Triumvir Lepidus was banished thither by Octavius after his deposition. It was also famous for its oysters, which were of the finest quality. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill called Monte di Citadella, about two miles from the sea.

Note return to page Now the Garigliano, the same river which he previously calls the Glanis. It was the boundary between Latium and Campania.

Note return to page Founded by Ancus Martius, as we learn from Livy. It was abandoned under the Emperor Claudius, who built the Portus Romanus or Portus Augusti in its vicinity; and it only continued famous for its salt-works, which had been established there by Ancus Martius. Its ruins, still called Ostia, are nearly three miles from the coast, in consequence of the receding of the sea.

Note return to page Now San Lorenzo. It was between Ostia and Antium.

Note return to page By some, Æneas was supposed to have been worshiped by that name.

Note return to page Now the river Numico.

Note return to page The ruins of this once great city may still be seen near the present village of the same name. Its situation was peculiarly unhealthy. Another tradition, besides the one mentioned by Pliny, was, that it was founded by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was twenty-four miles distant from Rome.

Note return to page A temple of Venus, of which the ruins are still to be seen.

Note return to page Its few ruins are still known as Anzio Rovinato. It was famous for its temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace, Odes, i. 35. Near the site is the modern village of Porto d'Anzo.

Note return to page This island was occupied by villas of the Roman nobility, and was the resort of Cicero, Augustus and Tiberius. There is still a fortified town called the Torre di Astura.

Note return to page The modern Ninfa.

Note return to page "The Roman Bulwarks." They were thrown up to protect the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Rome from the inroads of the Volscians

Note return to page To our previous note we may add that this spot was supposed to have been once inhabited by the enchantress Circe, the daughter of the Sun, and from her to have taken its name.

Note return to page This has been also translated "dedicated to Nicodorus, the Archon of Athens," but nothing appears to be known of such a fact as the dedication to Nicodorus of any of his works.

Note return to page Now called the "Palude Pontine." They are again mentioned in B. xxvi. c. 9.

Note return to page Now called Il Portatore.

Note return to page It was situate fifty-eight miles from Rome; the modern town of Terracina stands on its site. The remains of the ancient citadel are visible on the slope of Montecchio.

Note return to page The exact site of this place is unknown. Servius, in his Commentary on B. x. of the Æneid, l. 564, tells the same story of the serpents.

Note return to page This was near Amyclæ. A villa was situate there called "Speluncæ," from the cavities in the rock, in one of which the Emperor Tiberius nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof. The modern village of Sperlonga, eight miles west of Gaëta, marks its site.

Note return to page Now Lago di Fondi.

Note return to page Now Gaëta, said to have received its name from being the burial place of Caieta, the nurse of Æneas. The shore was studded with numerous villas of the Roman nobility. It is now a city of great opulence; in its vicinity extensive ruins are to be seen.

Note return to page On the spot now called Mola di Gaëta. Many of the wealthy Romans, and among them Cicero, had villas here: and at this place he was put to death. It was destroyed by the Saracens in the year 856. The remains of antiquity to be seen on this spot are very extensive.

Note return to page Homer places these Cannibals on the coast of Sicily, but the Romans in general transplanted them to the vicinity of Circeii, and suppose Formiæ to have been built by Lamus, one of their kings. It is more probable however that it was founded by the Laconians, from whom it may have received its name of Hormiæ (from the Greek ὅρμος), as being a good roadstead for shipping.

Note return to page Its site is occupied by the present Trajetta. In its marshes, formed by the overflow of the Liris, Caius Marius was taken prisoner, concealed in the sedge.

Note return to page The town of Minturnæ stood on both banks of the river.

Note return to page Its ruins are probably those to be seen in the vicinity of Rocca di Mondragone. It was a place of considerable commercial importance. On its site Livy says there formerly stood the Greek city of Sinope.

Note return to page "Felix illa Campania."

Note return to page Now Sezza.

Note return to page A marshy district of Latium, extending about eight miles along the coast from Terracina to Speluncæ, famous in the time of Horace for the first-rate qualities of its wines.

Note return to page A district famous for its wines, extending from the Massican Hills to the north bank of the Volturnus.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the town of Calenum was on the site of the present Calvi near Capua.

Note return to page Now called Monte Marsico, and as famous for its wine (called Museatella) as it was in the Roman times.

Note return to page Now Monte Barbaro. The wines of most of these places will be found fully described by Pliny in B. xiv.

Note return to page More fully mentioned, B. xviii. c. 29, where the 'alicæ' or fermenty made from the spelt grown here is again referred to.

Note return to page Of Baiæ, Puteoli, and Stabiæ, for instance.

Note return to page The modern Saove.

Note return to page Now called the Volturno, with a small place on its banks called Castel Volturno.

Note return to page The present village of Torre di Patria is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page Strabo describes Cumæ as a joint colony of the Chalcidians of Eubœa and the Cymæans of Æolis. Its sea-shore was covered with villas of the Roman aristocracy, and here Sylla spent the last years of his life. Its site is now utterly desolate and its existing remains inconsiderable.

Note return to page Now Capo or Punta di Miseno; a town built on a promontory of Campania, by Æneas, it was said, in honour of his trumpeter, Misenus, who was drowned there. It was made by Augustus the principal station of the Roman fleet. Here was the villa of Marius, which afterwards belonged to Lucullus and the Emperor Tiberius, who died here.

Note return to page Famous for its warm springs, and the luxurious resort of the Roman patricians. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Cæsar had villas here. In later times it became the seat of every kind of pleasure and dissipation. It is now rendered unwholesome by the Malaria, and the modern Castello di Baja, with numerous ruins, alone marks its site.

Note return to page The modern village of Baolo stands near its site. It was here that Hortensius had his fish-ponds, mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c. 55. It rivalled its neighbour Baiæ in ministering to the luxury of the wealthy Romans, and was occupied by numerous villas so late as the reign of Theodosius.

Note return to page Probably the inner part of the Gulf of Cumæ or Puteoli, but separated from the remainder by an embankment eight stadia in length. It was famous for its oyster-beds. Behind it was the Lake Avernus, occupying the crater of an extinct volcano, and supposed by the Greeks to be the entrance to the Infernal Regions. Agrippa opened a communication with the Lucrine Lake to render Lake Avernus accessible to ships. The Lucrine Lake was filled up by a volcanic eruption in 1538, and a mountain rose in its place. The Lake Avernus is still called the Lago di Averno.

Note return to page Or "the town Cimmerium." Nothing is known of it.

Note return to page Now Pozzuolo. The Romans called it Puteoli, from the strong smell of its mineral springs. There are still many ruins of the ancient town, which was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and as many times rebuilt.

Note return to page Now called Salpatara. This was the name given to the volcanic plain extending from Cumæ to Capua, and supposed to have been once covered with fire; whence the name, from φλέγω, "to burn."

Note return to page Now the Lago di Fusaro. It seems to have had its name from its vicinity to Avernus, the supposed entrance to the infernal regions. Its banks were, in the later times of the Roman republic, adorned with the villas of the wealthy.

Note return to page Neapolis, or the "New City," was founded by the Chalcidians of Cumæ on the site of Parthenope, the supposed burial-place of the Siren of that name. It was so called as being only a 'new quarter' of the neighbouring city of Cumæ. The modern city of Naples stands nearly on its site.

Note return to page Said to have been founded by Hercules. It was on the occasion of its destruction by an eruption of Vesuvius, A.D. 79, that our author unfortunately met his death, a martyr to his thirst for knowledge. Its closer proximity to Vesuvius caused it to be buried under a more solid body of materials ejected from the mountain than was the case with Pompeii; which seems to have been suffocated with ashes, while Herculaneum was covered with volcanic tufa most probably hardened by the agency of water. A few scattered inhabitants are supposed to have afterwards settled upon the site where it was buried, which for many centuries was utterly forgotten, till brought to light in 1738. Part of the site over the buried town is occupied by the villages of Resina and Portici. The works of art found here far exceed in value and interest those discovered at Pompeii.

Note return to page This seems to have been a town of Oscan origin. The first traces of it were found in 1689, but excavations were not commenced till 1721. It perished in the same eruption of Vesuvius as Herculaneum.

Note return to page Now the Sarno. Its course was changed by the great eruption of Vesuvius previously mentioned.

Note return to page The modern Nocera stands on its site. Pompeii was used as its harbour.

Note return to page Now Sorrento.

Note return to page Now also called Capo della Minerva.

Note return to page It probably had its name from Campania, of which it was the capital, and which was so called from its extensive campi or plains. The site of this luxurious and magnificent city is now occupied by the village of Santa Maria di Capoua, the modern city of Capua being on the site of ancient Casilinum. Of ancient Capua there are but few remains. It was made a Roman colony by Julius Cæsar.

Note return to page Originally a city of the Volscians: Cicero had a villa there, and Juvenal and the emperor Pescennius Niger were natives of it. The present Aquino stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of it to be seen.

Note return to page Or Suessa Aurunca, to distinguish it from the Volscian city of Suessa Pometia. The poet Lucilius was a native of it. The modern Sessa stands in its vicinity.

Note return to page The modern Venafri stands near its site. It was famous for the excellence of its olives.

Note return to page On the banks of the Suris, and the most northerly town of the Volsci. The modern Sora is in its vicinity, and the remains of its walls are still to be seen.

Note return to page The modern Teano occupies its site. It was famous for the medicinal springs in its vicinity. There was another Teanum, in Apulia.

Note return to page The town on its site still preserves the name. Bells were made here, whence in the later writers they are called "Nolæ." There is also an ecclesiastical tradition that church bells were first used by Saint Paulinus, bishop of this place, whence they were called 'Campanæ.' The emperor Augustus died here.

Note return to page The remains of the ancient town, of which the ruins are very extensive, are called Avella Vecchia. It was famous for its fruit, especially its filberts, to which it gives name in the French "Avelines." It was first a Greek colony, and then a town of the Oscans.

Note return to page A city of Latium, sixteen miles from Rome, and said to have been of Sicilian origin. The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of its citadel. It was celebrated for the temple and grove of Diana, whose high priest was always a fugitive slave who had killed his predecessor, and was called "Rex nemorensis," or "king of the grove." See Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 59; Art of Love, B. i. 1. 260; and Lucan, B. vi. 1. 74.

Note return to page The ancient city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, king of Rome. The Roman colony here was probably but small. The Roman patrician families, the Julii, Servilii, Tullii, and Quintii, are said to have migrated from Alba Longa, which, according to tradition, had given to Rome her first king.

Note return to page The people of Acerra, still called by the same name; it was plundered and burnt by Hannibal, B.C. 216, but was rebuilt by order of the Roman senate.

Note return to page The people of Allifæ, a former city of Samnium, on the borders of Campania. The modern city of A life, a decayed place, stands on its site. There are considerable remains.

Note return to page The people of Atina, an ancient city of the Volscians. The modern city of Atina, noted for the bleakness of its situation, stands on its site. There are extensive ruins of the ancient city.

Note return to page The people of Aletrium or Alatrium, an ancient city of the Hernici. The modern Alatri stands on its site; there are but few ancient remains.

Note return to page The people of Anagnia in Latium, still called Anagni. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient place, which was of considerable importance.

Note return to page The people of Atella, an ancient city of Campania. Some remains of its ruins are to be seen two miles east of the town of Aversa, near the villages of San Arpino and San Elpidio.

Note return to page The people of Affilæ, an ancient Hernican town. It is still called Affile, and has many ancient remains.

Note return to page The people of Arpinum, once a famous city of the Volscians. The present Arpino occupies its site; there are few Roman remains, but its ancient walls, of Cyclopean construction, still exist. It was the birthplace of Marius and Cicero. The villa of the latter was on the banks of the adjoining river Fibrenus. It was, and is still, famous for its woollen manufactures.

Note return to page The people of Auximum, a city of Picenum. Its site is occupied by the modern Osimo; there are numerous remains of antiquity to be seen.

Note return to page Or perhaps "Abellini," people of Abelliacum; which, if meant, ought not to be included in this division, being a city of the Hirpini. This city was finally destroyed in the wars of the Greeks and Lombards, and the modern Avellino rose on its site. There are considerable ruins in the vicinity. According to Hardouin, this place also claimed the honour of giving name to filberts, which grew abundantly in its vicinity. If such is the case, it seems probable that both it and Abella took their names from that fruit as called by the early inhabitants. See Note in p. 198.

Note return to page An ancient city of Latium. Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the Via Appia. See a curious story connected with it in Ovid's Fasti, B. iii. 1. 667 et seq.

Note return to page There were two cities of this name on the confines of Samnium and Campania, one in the valley of the Volturnum, the modern Caiazzo, the other in Campania, between Capua and Beneventum, whose ruins are probably those to be seen at Le Galazzi, between Caserta and Maddaloni.

Note return to page Once a considerable city of Latium. The modern city of San Germano has risen on its ruins, while the name of Monte Casino has been retained by the monastery founded near it by St. Bernard A.D. 529.

Note return to page The present Calvi probably occupies its site.

Note return to page It is not named in history. Its site was probably between Palestrina and Il Piglio.

Note return to page The people of Cereatæ, a town of Latium. It is supposed that the ancient monastery of Casamari occupied its site.

Note return to page The people of Cora, an ancient city of Latium. The present Cori stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of the ancient walls and other buildings.

Note return to page The people of Castrimœnium, a colony of Sylla. It has been suggested that these were the same people whom Pliny speaks of at a subsequent place in this chapter as the Munienses, an extinct people of Latium. If so, the name was perhaps changed on the establishment here by Sylla of his colony. It probably stood near the modern city of Marino.

Note return to page The people of Cingulum, a city of Picenum, the site of which is occupied by the modern Cingoli.

Note return to page It is conjectured that Fabia was on the same site as the present village of Rocca di Papa.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Forum Popilii in Campania; its site is unknown.

Note return to page The people of Frusino, originally a Volscian city. The modern Frosinone occupies its site.

Note return to page The people of Ferentinum, a city of the Hernici: the present city of Ferentino stands on its site. The ruins are very extensive.

Note return to page Probably the people of Fregellæ, an ancient city of the Volscians. Its site is now unknown, but it was probably on the banks of the Liris, opposite to the modern Ceprano.

Note return to page The people of Fabrateria or Frabateria, a Volscian city. A Roman colony was placed there B.C. 124, by C. Gracchus, and probably the old inhabitants for that reason styled themselves "Veteres." The ruins at San Giovanni in Cerico, about three miles from Falvaterra, are supposed to be those of this place, or at least of the new town or colony. In such case Falvaterra may occupy the site of the original city.

Note return to page The people of Ficulnea or Ficulia, a city of ancient Latium, on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed to have decayed soon after the reign of M. Aurelius. Its site was probably on the modern domain of Cesarini, though some separate the ancient Latin city from the Roman town, and fix the locality of the former on the hill called Monte Gentile, or that of the Torre Lupara.

Note return to page These are omitted in most editions, but if a correct reading, the word must signify the "people of Fregellæ," and the Freginates must be the people of Fregenæ in Etruria; although they do not appear properly to belong to this locality.

Note return to page "The Market of Appius." It was distant forty-three miles from Rome, and we learn from Horace, that it was the usual resting-place for travellers at the end of one day's journey from Rome. It is also mentioned in the account of the journey of St. Paul (Acts xxviii. 15) as one of the usual resting-places on the Appian way. There are now no inhabitants on the spot, but considerable ruins still exist, as well as the forty-third milestone, which is still to be seen.

Note return to page Probably the inhabitants of Ferentium or Ferentinum, now Ferento, five miles from Viterbo, a city of Etruria, of which very considerable remains exist.

Note return to page The people of Gabii, formerly one of the most famous cities of Latium. On its site the ruins of a mediæval fortress now stand, known as Castiglione. Some remains of the walls still exist.

Note return to page The people of Interamna Lirmas, a Roman colony on the banks of the Liris; and as there were several cities of the same name, it was generally distinguished by the epithet "Lirinas." Pliny no doubt calls it "Succasina," from its vicinity to Casinum. Its site, though uninhabited, is still called Terame, and there are numerous remains of antiquity.

Note return to page Probably the people of Lavinium were thus called from their supposed Trojan descent. The town was said to have been founded by Æneas in honour of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. In the times of the Antonines it was united with Laurentum; their ruins are to be seen at Casale di Copocotta.

Note return to page The people of Norba, a town of Latium. It is now called Norma, and there are still some remains of the ancient walls.

Note return to page Nomentum, now called La Mentana, was a Latin town, fourteen miles from Rome.

Note return to page The people of Præneste, one of the most ancient towns of Latium. It was originally a Pelasgic city, but claimed a Greek origin, and was said to have been built by Telegonus, the son of Ulysses. During summer it was much frequented by the Romans for its delightful coolness. The remains of its ancient walls are still to be seen at Palestrina.

Note return to page The people of Privernum, now Piperno, an ancient city of Latium.

Note return to page The people of Setia, now Sesse or Sezza, an ancient town of Latium, to the east of the Pomptine marshes. It was famous for its wine.

Note return to page The people of Signia, now Segni, a town of Latium founded by Tarquinius Priscus. There are still some remains of its walls.

Note return to page The people of Suessula, now Castel di Sessola.

Note return to page The people of Telesia, a town of Samnium seven leagues from Capua, now called Telese.

Note return to page Trebula was distinguished probably by this surname from a town of that name in Samnium. There seem to have been two places of the name in the Sabine territory, but it is not known which is here meant. The ruins of one of them are supposed to be those not far from Maddaloni.

Note return to page The people of Treba, now Trevi, a town of Latium.

Note return to page The people of Tusculum, an ancient town of Latium, the ruins of which are to be seen on a hill about two miles distant from the modern Frascati. Cicero's favourite residence was his Tusculan villa, and Cato the censor was a native of this place.

Note return to page The people of Verulæ, a town of the Hernici, in Latium, now Veroli.

Note return to page The people of Velitræ, an ancient town of the Volsci, now Velletri. It was the birth-place of the emperor Augustus.

Note return to page The people of Ulubræ, a small town of Latium, near the Pomptine Marshes; its site is unknown.

Note return to page The people of Urbinum; there were two places of that name in Umbria, now called Urbeno and Urbania.

Note return to page The name probably by which the city was called in the mystical language of the priesthood. It has been said that this mysterious name of Rome was Valentia; if so, it appears to be only a translation of her name Græcized—ρώμη, "strength." This subject will be found again mentioned in B. xxviii. c. 4.

Note return to page Solinus says that he was put to death as a punishment for his rashness. M. Sichel has suggested that this mysterious name was no other than Angerona.

Note return to page It is not known whether this mystical divinity was the goddess of anguish and fear, or of silence, or whether she was the guardian deity of Rome. Julius Modestus says that she relieved men and cattle when visited by the disease called "angina," or "quinsy," whence her name.

Note return to page The Carmental, the Roman, and the Pandanian or Saturnian gates, according to Varro.

Note return to page Titus was saluted Imperator after the siege of Jerusalem, and was associated with his father Vespasian in the government. They also acted together as Censors.

Note return to page The Lares Compitales presided over the divisions of the city, which were marked by the compita or points where two or more streets crossed each other, and where 'ædiculæ' or small chapels were erected in their honour. Statues of these little divinities were erected at the corner of every street. It was probably this custom which first suggested the idea of setting up images of the Virgin and Saints at the corners of the streets, which are still to be seen in many Roman Catholic countries at the present day.

Note return to page This was a gilded column erected by Augustus in the Forum, and called "milliarium aureum;" on it were inscribed the distances of the principal points to which the "viæ" or high-roads conducted.

Note return to page Supposing the circuit of the city to have been as he says, 13 2/5 miles, he must either make a great miscalculation here, or the text must be very corrupt. The average diameter of the city would be in such case about 4 1/2 miles, the average length of each radius drawn from the mile-column 2 1/4 miles, and the total amount 83 1/4 miles, whereas he makes it but 20 3/4 miles, or little better than an average of half-a-mile for each radius. We may also remark that the camp of the Prætorian cohorts here mentioned was established by the emperor Tiberius, by the advice of Sejanus. Ajasson's translation makes the measurement to be made to twelve gates only, but the text as it stands will not admit of such a construction.

Note return to page The Aventine, Cælian, and Quirinal hills.

Note return to page Such as Ocriculum, Tibur, Aricia, &c.

Note return to page Near Antium. Casale di Conca stands on its site.

Note return to page Suæssa Pometia. It was destroyed by the consul Servilius, and its site was said, with that of twenty-two other towns, to have been covered by the Pomptine Marsh, to which it gave its name.

Note return to page A town of Latium destroyed by Ancus Martius.

Note return to page An ancient city of Latium, conquered by Romulus; on which occasion he slew its king Acron and gained the spolia opima. Nibby suggests that it stood on the Magugliano, two miles south-east of Monte Gentile. Holstein says that it stood where the present Sant' Angelo or Monticelli stands.

Note return to page Also destroyed by Ancus Martius. A farm called Dragonello, eleven miles from Rome, is supposed to have stood upon its site. Tellene was also destroyed by the same king. Tifata was a town of Campania.

Note return to page A city of Latium, which was conquered by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that its ruins are visible about a mile to the north of Monte Sant' Angelo.

Note return to page A Sabine town, the people of which were incorporated by Tarquinius Priscus with the Roman citizens. It is supposed to have stood on the present Monte Sant' Angelo.

Note return to page An ancient city of Latium, subdued by Tarquinius Priscus, on which occasion Ocrisia, the mother of Servius Tullius, fell into the hands of the Romans as a captive. It was probably situate on one of the isolated hills that rise from the plain of the Campagna.

Note return to page Both Virgil and Ovid allude to this tradition.

Note return to page Said to have been so called from being "opposite" to the ancient city of Saturnia. The Janiculus or Janiculum was a fortress on the opposite bank of the Tiber, and a suburb of Rome, connected with it by the Sublician bridge.

Note return to page A very ancient city situate three miles from Rome, and said to have been so called from its position on the Tiber, ante amnem. In the time of Strabo it had become a mere village. It stood at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber.

Note return to page An ancient city of Latium reduced by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that the town of Palombara, near the foot of Monte Gennaro, stands on its site.

Note return to page An ancient city of Latium. It probably gradually fell into decay. Lucius Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, is represented as dwelling here during the siege of Ardea. Its site is thought by some to have been at Castellaccio or Castel dell' Osa, and by others at Lunghezza, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture.

Note return to page An ancient city of the Sabines. Its ruins are visible at San Vittorino, a village near Aquila.

Note return to page An ancient town of the Volsci, five leagues from Velletri. Sermonata now stands on its site. It must not be confounded with the town of the Peligni, the birth-place of Ovid.

Note return to page "Populi Albenses." It does not appear to be exactly known what is the force of this expression, but he probably means either colonies from Alba, or else nations who joined in the confederacy of which Alba was the principal. Niebuhr looks upon them as mere demi or boroughs of the territory of Alba.

Note return to page "Accipere carnem." Literally, "to take the flesh." It appears that certain nations, of which Alba was the chief, were in early times accustomed to meet on the Alban Mount for the purposes of sacrifice. The subject is full of obscurity, but it has been suggested that this minor confederacy co-existed with a larger one including all the Latin cities, and there can be little doubt that the common sacrifice was typical of a bond of union among the states that partook therein. It does not necessarily appear from the context that more than the thirty-one states after mentioned took part therein, though the text may be so construed as to imply that the Latin nations previously mentioned also shared in the sacrifice; if so, it would seem to imply that Alba was the chief city of the whole Latin confederacy. See this subject ably discussed in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography, under the article Latini.

Note return to page The people of Æsulæ. Of this Latin city nothing is known. The territory is mentioned by Horace, and Gell places its site on the Monte Affiliano.

Note return to page The people of Bubentum. Nothing is known of this Latin city or of the preceding ones.

Note return to page Bola was an ancient city of Latium, taken successively by Coriolanus and M. Postumius. Its site is supposed to have been five miles from the modern Palestrina, at the modern village of Lugnano.

Note return to page The people of Corioli. It was probably a Latian town, but fell into the possession of the Volsci, from whom it was taken by Cn. Marcius, who thence obtained the name of "Coriolanus." Monte Giove, nineteen miles from Rome, has been suggested as its site.

Note return to page Pliny is supposed to be in error in representing Fidenæ, the early antagonist of Rome, as being extinct in his time, and he will be found in the sequel reckoning it in the Fourth Region. This ancient Latian town never lost its municipal rank, though it had no doubt in his time become a mere country town. The present Castel Giubileo is supposed to be situate on its site.

Note return to page The people of Horta, a town of Etruria, now Horte. Many Etruscan remains have been discovered there.

Note return to page The people of Longula, a Volscian town. Buon Riposo now occupies its site.

Note return to page The people of Pedum; nothing is known of it. The rest of these nations are either almost or entirely unknown.

Note return to page This was an ancient town between Pompeii and Surrentum. After its overthrow, as mentioned by Pliny, it was in some measure rebuilt, possibly after this passage was penned. It was finally destroyed by the great eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79, and it was here that our author breathed his last.

Note return to page A town three miles west of Capua. It was of much importance as a military position, and played a considerable part in the second Punic war. The period of its final destruction is unknown; but modern Capua is built on its site.

Note return to page This city took the lead in the war of the Latin cities against Tarquinius Priscus. Gell and Nibby think that it was situate about eleven miles from Rome, a mile to the south of the Appian way, where there are some remains that indicate the site of an ancient city, near the stream called the Fosso delle Fratocche. Livy tells us that with the spoils thence derived, Tarquinius celebrated the Ludi Magni for the first time.

Note return to page Opposite Capreæ, and situate on the Promontory of Minerva. Sorrento now stands on its site.

Note return to page The modern Silaro; it was the boundary between Lucania and Campania, and rises in the Apennines.

Note return to page A town in the south of Campania, at the head of the Gulf of Pæstum. In consequence of the aid which they gave to Hannibal, the inhabitants were forced to abandon their town and live in the adjoining villages. The name of Picentini was given, as here stated, to the inhabitants of all the territory between the Promontory of Minerva and the river Silarus. They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes, who were transplanted thither after the conquest of Picenum, B.C. 268. The modern Vicenza stands on its site.

Note return to page The Argonaut. Probably this was only a vague tradition.

Note return to page By using the genitive 'Salerni,' he would seem to imply that the Roman colony of Salernum then gave name to the district of which Picentia was the chief town. Ajasson however has translated it merely "Salernum and Picentia." 'Intus' can hardly mean "inland," as Picentia was near the coast, and so was Salernum.

Note return to page This was an ancient town of Campania, at the innermost corner of the Gulf of Pæstum, situate near the coast, on a height at the foot of which lay its harbour. It attained great prosperity, as Salerno, in the middle ages, and was noted for its School of Health established there; which issued periodically rules for the preservation of health in Latin Leonine verse.

Note return to page "Græciæ maxime populi." This may also be rendered "a people who mostly emigrated from Greece," in reference to the Siculi or Sici- lans, but the other is probably the correct translation.

Note return to page A town of Lucania, colonized by the Sybarites about B.C. 524. In the time of Augustus it seems to have been principally famous for the exquisite beauty of its roses. Its ruins are extremely magnificent.

Note return to page Now the Golfo di Salerno.

Note return to page A Greek town founded by the Phocæans. It was the birth-place of the philosophers Parmenides and Zeno, who founded a school of philosophy known as the Eleatic. Castell' a Mare della Brucca stands on its site.

Note return to page Now Capo di Palinuro; said to have received its name from Palinurus, the pilot of Æneas, who fell into the sea there and was murdered by the natives. See Virgil, Æneid, B. vi. 1. 381 et seq.

Note return to page Now the Golfo di Policastro.

Note return to page This tower or column was erected in the vicinity of Rhegium on the Straits of Sicily. It was 100 stadia, or about eight miles, from the town, and at it passengers usually embarked for Sicily. The spot is now called Torre di Carallo.

Note return to page Now the Faraone.

Note return to page A Greek colony. The present Policastro occupies very nearly its site. It seems to have received its name from the cultivation of box trees in its vicinity.

Note return to page Or more properly Laos, originally a Greek colony. In the vicinity is the modern town of Laino, and the river is called the Lao.

Note return to page Ptolemy mentions it as an inland town, and Livy speaks of it as a Lucanian city. It probably stood near the modern Maratea, twelve miles south-east of Policastro.

Note return to page The modern Bato.

Note return to page The bay of Bivona, formerly Vibo, the Italian name for the Greek city of Hippo or Hippona. On its site stands the modern Bivona.

Note return to page "Locus Clampetiæ." Clampetia or Lampetia stood in the vicinity of the modern Amantia. From other authors we find that it was still existing at this time. If such is the fact, the meaning will be "the place where the former municipal town of Clampetia stood," it being supposed to have lost in its latter years its municipal privileges.

Note return to page One of the ancient Ausonian towns, and afterwards colonized by the Ætolians. Like its namesake in Cyprus it was famous for its copper. Its site is now occupied by Torre di Lupi.

Note return to page A Greek city, almost totally destroyed by Hannibal; Santa Eufemia occupies its site.

Note return to page One of the cities of the Bruttii; now Cosenza.

Note return to page The part which now constitutes the Farther Calabria.

Note return to page Supposed to be the same as the Arconte, which falls into the Crathis near Consentia. Nothing is known of the town here alluded to, but it must not be confounded with Acherontia, the modern Acerenza, in Apulia, which was a different place.

Note return to page Supposed to have been the same as the modern port of Tropea.

Note return to page The modern Marro.

Note return to page Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near Palmi.

Note return to page Probably the modern Melia stands on its site.

Note return to page A town on the promontory of the same name, now called Scilla or Sciglio, where the monster Scylla was fabled to have dwelt.

Note return to page Homer says (Odyssey, xii. 124), that it had its name from the nymph Cratæis, the mother of Scylla. It is probably the small stream now called Fiume di Solano or dei Pesci.

Note return to page The modern Capo di Cavallo, according to the older commentators; but more recent geographers think that the Punta del Pezzo was the point so called.

Note return to page Now called Capo di Faro, from the lighthouse there erected.

Note return to page Originally a Greek colony; a Roman colony was settled there by Augustus. The modern city of Reggio occupies its site.

Note return to page It extended south of Consentia to the Sicilian Straits, a distance of 700 stadia. It produced the pitch for which Bruttium was so celebrated. Its site still has the name of Sila.

Note return to page Or White Rock, now Capo dell' Armi. It forms the extremity of the Apennine Chain.

Note return to page The site of the city of Locri is supposed to have been that of the present Motta di Burzano.

Note return to page He says that they were called Epizephyrii, from the promontory of Zephyrium, now the Capo di Burzano; but according to others, they had this name only because their colony lay to the west of their native Greece. Strabo says that it was founded by the Locri Ozolæ, and not the Opuntii, as most authors have stated.

Note return to page This expression is explained by a reference to the end of the First Chapter of the present Book.

Note return to page Called by some the Canal de Baleares.

Note return to page Or Southern Sea.

Note return to page The modern Iviza and Formentera.

Note return to page The Greek for which is πίτυς.

Note return to page Less than two leagues in width.

Note return to page The real distance is 34 miles from the northern point of Iviza, called Punta de Serra, to the southern point of Formentera, namely—across Iviza 22 miles, across the sea 5, and across Formentera 7.

Note return to page Now Denia.

Note return to page This is not correct: the distance is but 45 miles.

Note return to page This is incorrect: taken at the very greatest, the distance is only 522 stadia, eight to the mile.

Note return to page The Xucar in Spain.

Note return to page We more generally find it stated that the isle of Formentera, one of the Pityusse, was called Colubraria. He probably refers to the islands of the group about twenty leagues from the coast of Spain, now known by the name of Columbrete; but they are not near the Xucar, from which, as well as from the Pityusss, they are distant about seventy miles. The latter islands are now generally considered as part of the group of the Baleares.

Note return to page Now Majorca and Minorca, with the ancient Pityussæ.

Note return to page They served as mercenaries, first under the Carthaginians and afterwards under the Romans. The ancient writers generally derive the name of the people from their skill as archers—βαλεαρεῖς, from βάλλω, "to throw "; but Strabo assigns to the name a Phœnician origin, as being equivalent to the Greek γυμνῆται "light-armed soldiers." It is probably from their light equipment that the Greeks gave to the islands the name of γυμνησἱαι. Livy says that they used to go naked during the summer.

Note return to page Seventy miles is the real length of Majorca, and the circumference is barely 250 miles.

Note return to page Still called Palma. This and Pollentia were Roman colonies settled by Metellus.

Note return to page Now Pollenza.

Note return to page Now Sineu on the Borga.

Note return to page The circumference is about 110 miles, the length 32.

Note return to page Now Ciudadela.

Note return to page Now Port Mahon. The site of Sanisera, which was probably more inland, is unknown.

Note return to page Now Cabrera. The distance is not twelve, but nine miles.

Note return to page Now called the Malgrates.

Note return to page Now Dragonera.

Note return to page Now El Torre.

Note return to page As already mentioned he seems to confound Formentera, which was called Ophiusa, with the present group of Columbrete, which islands were probably called Colubraria.

Note return to page The former editions mostly omit "nec"; and so make it that Ebusus does produce the rabbits. Certainly, it does seem more likely that he would mention that fact than the absence of it, which even to Pliny could not appear very remarkable.

Note return to page D'Anville thinks that this is Metapina, but D'Astruc thinks that the flat islands, called Les Tignes, are meant.

Note return to page Now called Brescon, near Agde, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Who were of Greek origin, and so called them, because they stood in a row, στοῖχος.

Note return to page Now called Porqueroles. Prote signifies the first, Mese the middle one, and Hypæa the one below the others.

Note return to page Now Port Croz. D'Anville considers that Pliny is mistaken in identifying this island with Pomponiana or Pompeiana, which he considers to be the same with the peninsula now called Calle de Giens, which lies opposite to Porqueroles.

Note return to page Now called the Ile du Levant or du Titan. The group is called the Islands of Hières or Calypso.

Note return to page These are probably the little islands now known as Ratoneau, Pomègue, and If. It has however been suggested that these names belong to the islands of Hières already mentioned in the text, and that Sturium is the present Porquerolles, Phœnice Port-Croz, and Phila, Levant or Titan.

Note return to page Now Antibes, or Antiboul in the Provençal idiom.

Note return to page Now Saint Honorat de Lérins. The island of Lero is the present Sainte Marguerite de Lérins, and is nearer to Antibes than Lerina. The Lerinian monastery was much resorted to in the early ages of Christianity.

Note return to page In ancient Etruria, now Torre di Vada. The distance is, in reality, about ninety miles.

Note return to page Mariana was situate in the northern part of the island, and the ruins of Aleria are still to be seen on the banks of the river Tavignano, near the coast.

Note return to page Probably near the present Monte Cristo.

Note return to page He probably means the group of islands called Formicole, which are situate only thirty-three miles from Corsica, and not near sixty.

Note return to page Now La Gorgona.

Note return to page Both of these names meaning "Goat island." It is now called Capraia.

Note return to page The modern Giglio.

Note return to page Now Gianuto, opposite Monte Argentaro on the main-land.

Note return to page These are probably the small islands now called Formiete or Formicole di Grossetto, Troja, Palmajola, and Cervoli.

Note return to page The modern Elba.

Note return to page Now Pianosa.

Note return to page Astura still retains its ancient name, Palmaria is the present Palmarola, Sinonia is now Senone, and Pontiæ is the modern Isola di Ponza.

Note return to page Now Ventotiene.

Note return to page Deriving its name from the Greek word προχυτὸς, meaning "poured forth."

Note return to page The present island of Ischia, off the coasts of Campania. The name of Pithecusæ appears to have been given by the Greeks to the two islands of Ænaria and Prochyta collectively.

Note return to page Ovid, like many other writers, mentions Inarime as though a different island from Pithecusæ. See Met. B. xiv. 1.89. As is here mentioned by Pliny, many persons derived the name "Pithecusæ" from πίθηκος "an ape," and, according to Strabo, "Aremus" was the Etrurian name for an ape. Ovid, in the Metamorphoses, loc. cit., confirms this tradition by relating the change of the natives into apes. The solution of its name given by Pliny appears however extremely probable, that it gained its name from its manufacture of πιθηκὰ, or earthen vessels. Virgil is supposed to have coined the name of "Inarime."

Note return to page Now Posilippo. It is said to have derived its name from the Greek παυσἰλυπον, as tending to drive away care by the beauty of its situation. Virgil was buried in its vicinity.

Note return to page The modern Castel del' Ovo.

Note return to page Now Capri. Here Tiberius established his den of lustfulness and iniquity. He erected twelve villas in the island, the remains of several of which are still to be seen.

Note return to page The distance between is hardly five miles.

Note return to page These rocks appear at the present day to be nameless. The old name seems to mean, the "Rabbit Warrens."

Note return to page Phintonis, according to Hardouin, is the modern Isola di Figo, according to Mannert, Caprera. Cluver makes Fossæ to be the present Isola Rossa, while Mannert considers it to be the same with Santa Maddalena.

Note return to page ταφρὸς being the Greek for the Latin word "fossa," the ordinary meaning of which is an "excavation."

Note return to page Probably the Cape of Carbonara, from which however Africa is distant only 121 miles, and the gulf of Gades or Cadiz 980.

Note return to page Now Capo Falcone.

Note return to page Now Asinara or Zavara, and Isola Piana.

Note return to page Now called Santo Antiocho, off La Punta dell' Ulga.

Note return to page According to Cluver, the modern Coltelalzo.

Note return to page The "Baths of Juno." The identity of these islands does not appear to have been ascertained.

Note return to page Said by Pausanias to have been descended from persons who escaped on the fall of Troy under the command of Iolaüs.

Note return to page Of the town of Sulcis. Its ruins are probably those seen at the village of Sulci, near the port Palma di Solo.

Note return to page Their town was probably on the site of the present Iglesias.

Note return to page Their town was probably either the present Napoli or Acqua di Corsari.

Note return to page Their town is probably indicated by the ruins on the river Gavino.

Note return to page Their town was Caralis, the present Cagliari.

Note return to page Their town was probably Nora, the present Torre Forcadizo.

Note return to page "At Libyso's Tower."

Note return to page From the Greek ἴχνος, "a footstep."

Note return to page Now La Licosa, a small rocky island.

Note return to page Now Torricella, Praca, and Brace, with other rocks.

Note return to page Posidonius, quoted by Strabo, says 550.

Note return to page Meaning that it comes from the Greek verb ῥηλνυμι, "to break." This is probably only a fanciful origin of the name.

Note return to page The present Garofalo. At the present day small boats approach it without danger.

Note return to page In Chap. x. Pelorus is the modern Capo di Faro.

Note return to page Now Capo di Passaro.

Note return to page The present Capo di Boco Marsala.

Note return to page Now Cape Bon. The real distance is but seventy-eight miles.

Note return to page The following are more probably the correct distances: 150, 210, and 230 miles.

Note return to page Now Messina.

Note return to page The modern Capo di Santo Alessio.

Note return to page Now called Taormini; the remains of the ancient town are very considerable.

Note return to page Probably the present Alcantara.

Note return to page The present Madonia and Monte di Mele.

Note return to page Now called I Fariglioni.

Note return to page In modern times called "Lognina Statione," according to Hardouin.

Note return to page The modern city of Catania stands on its site.

Note return to page The Fiume di Santo Leonardo, according to Hardouin, but Mannert says the river Lentini. Ansart suggests the Guarna Lunga.

Note return to page Now Lentini. The ruins of Megaris are still to be seen, according to Mannert.

Note return to page Now the Porcaro.

Note return to page The modern city of Siracosa.

Note return to page See B. xxxi. c. 30, for particulars of this fountain.

Note return to page According to Mirabella, these springs are in modern times called Fonte di Canali, Cefalino, Fontana della Maddalena, Fonte Ciane, and Lampismotta.

Note return to page The modern Fonte Bianche. The Elorus, according to Hardouin, is the modern Acellaro, according to Mannert, the Abisso.

Note return to page The southern side.

Note return to page Now the Maulo, or Fiume di Ragusa.

Note return to page Still called Camarina. Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city now remain.

Note return to page According to Hardouin the Fiume Salso; but according to D'Anville and Mannert, the Fiume Ghiozzo.

Note return to page Now Girgenti. Gigantic remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

Note return to page See note 15 in this page.

Note return to page The Achates is the modern Belice, the Mazara retains its name, and the Hypsa is now the Marsala.

Note return to page So called by the Greeks from its abundant growth of parsley, called by them σέλινον. Its remains are still to be seen at the spot called Selenti.

Note return to page Now Trapani. Some vestiges of its ancient mole are to be seen.

Note return to page The present Monte San Juliano.

Note return to page The great city of Palermo stands on its site. It was founded by the Phœnicians.

Note return to page The modern Solunto.

Note return to page Himera was destroyed by the Carthaginians, B.C. 408, upon which its inhabitants founded Thermæ, so called from its hot springs. This was probably the colony of Thermæ mentioned above by Pliny, though wrongly placed by him on the southern coast between Selinus and Agrigentum. The modern town of Termini stands on the site of Thermæ; remains of its baths and aqueduct are still to be seen. Himera stood on a river of the same name, most probably the present Fiume Grande, and Fazello is of opinion that the town was situate on the site now occupied by the Torre di Bonfornello. Himera was the birthplace of the poet Stesichorus.

Note return to page Or Cæphalœdium. Some remains of it are to be seen at the spot called Cefalu.

Note return to page Probably on the site now occupied by the town of San Marco. Fazello and Cluver however place Aluntium near San Filadelfo, where some ruins were formerly visible, and regard San Marco as the site of Agathyrna or Agathyrnum.

Note return to page Probably situate near the church of Santa Maria at Tindari, now the Capo di Mongioio.

Note return to page Now called Melazzo.

Note return to page Their city was Centuripa, on a hill S.W. of Ætna. The modern Centorbi occupies its site, and some of its ruins may still be seen.

Note return to page Netum probably stood on the spot now known as Noto Anticho.

Note return to page The ruins of Segesta are supposed to be those near the river San Bartolomeo, twelve miles south of Alcamo.

Note return to page Asaro occupies its site.

Note return to page A people dwelling at the foot of Mount Ætna, according to D'Anville, at a place now called Nicolosi.

Note return to page The people of Agyrium; the site of which is now called San Filippo d'Argiro. Diodorus Siculus was a native of this place.

Note return to page Acræ occupied a bleak hill in the vicinity of the modern Pallazolo, where its ruins are still to be seen.

Note return to page Their town was Bidis near Syracuse. The modern Bibino or San Giovanni di Bidini is supposed to stand on its site.

Note return to page The people of Cetaria, between Panormus and Drepanum. Its site is unknown.

Note return to page The people of Cacyrum, supposed to have stood on the site of the modern Cassaro. The Drepanitani were so called from living on the promontory of Drepanum.

Note return to page The ruins near La Cittadella are probably those of Ergetium.

Note return to page The people of Echetla. According to Faziello and Cluver its ruins were those to be seen at the place called Occhiala or Occhula, two miles from the town of Gran Michele.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the city of Eryx, on the mountain of that name, now San Giuliano. The ancient city stood probably half-way down the mountain.

Note return to page The town of Entella survived till the thirteenth century, when it was destroyed by the Emperor Frederic II. The ruins were formerly to be seen near Poggio la Reale.

Note return to page Perhaps the people of Enna, once a famous city. According to the story as related by Ovid and Claudian, it was from this spot that Proserpine was carried off by Pluto. It stood on the same site as the town of Castro Giovanni. This note may however be more applicable to the Hennenses, mentioned below.

Note return to page The ruins of Enguinum are probably those in the vicinity of the modern town of Gangi.

Note return to page The people of Gela, one of the most important cities of Sicily. Its site was probably the modern Terranova, near the river Fiume di Terranova.

Note return to page The people probably of Galata or Galaria; on the site of which the modern village of Galata is supposed to stand.

Note return to page The people probably, of Halesa; its ruins are supposed to be those near the village of Tysa, near the river Pettineo.

Note return to page The people of Hybla. There were three cities of this name in Sicily, the Greater, the Less, and Hybla Megara. The name was probably derived from the local divinity mentioned by Pausanias as being so called.

Note return to page The people of Herbita; the site of which was probably at Nicosia, or else at Sperlinga, two miles south of it.

Note return to page There were two places in Sicily known as Herbessus or Erbessusone near Agrigentum, the other about sixteen miles from Syracuse, on the site, it is supposed, of the present Pantalica.

Note return to page The people of Halicyæ, in the west of Sicily. The modern town of Salemi is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page The people of Adranum or Hadranum, a town famous for its temple of the Sicilian deity Adranus. Its site is occupied by the modern town of Aderno. The ruins are very considerable.

Note return to page The people of Ietæ; the site of which town is said by Fazello to be the modern Iato. The sites of the places previously mentioned cannot be identified.

Note return to page The site of their town is situate at the modern Mistretta, where some ruins are still to be seen.

Note return to page The site of their town was probably the present village of Mandri Bianchi on the river Dittaino.

Note return to page Probably the people of Motuca, mentioned by Ptolemy, now Modica.

Note return to page Their town probably stood on the site of the present Mineo.

Note return to page It has been suggested that these are the same as the people of Tauromenium, said to have been a Naxian colony.

Note return to page They are supposed to have dwelt on the site of the present Noara.

Note return to page The ruins of the town of Petra are supposed to have been those to be seen near Castro Novo, according to Mannert.

Note return to page Fazello is of opinion that the present Colisano occupies the site of the ancient Paropus.

Note return to page The city of Phthinthias was peopled by the inhabitants of Gela, by command of Phthinthias the despot of Agrigentum. Its ruins are probably those seen in the vicinity of the modern Alicata.

Note return to page The people of Selinus previously mentioned in p. 218.

Note return to page Randazzo, at the foot of Ætna, is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Tissa.

Note return to page The people of Triocala, now Troccoli, near Calata Bellota.

Note return to page Zancle was the ancient Greek name of Messina, which was so called from its similarity in shape to a sickle. The Messenian colony of the Zanclæi probably dwelt in its vicinity.

Note return to page Gaulos is the present Gozo, and Melita the important island of Malta. The distance here mentioned is in reality only sixty-one miles from Camerina.

Note return to page Now Pantellaria.

Note return to page The modern island of Maretimo.

Note return to page Probably the present island of Limosa.

Note return to page Galata still has the name of Calata, Lopadusa is the present Lam- pedosa, and Æthusa, according to Mannert, is called Favignana.

Note return to page Now Levanzo.

Note return to page According to Mannert, this is the island Alicur, to the west of the Æolian or Liparian islands. Ustica still retains its ancient name.

Note return to page The least distance between these localities is forty-five miles.

Note return to page There are now eleven, some of which are supposed to have risen from the sea since the time of Pliny.

Note return to page From Vulcan the god of fire, the Greek Hephaestus.

Note return to page Now called the Great Lipara.

Note return to page According to Solinus, c. vi., Æolus succeeded him. Its name Me- logonis was by some ascribed to its great produce of honey.

Note return to page The shortest distance between these localities is forty-six miles.

Note return to page Now called Volcano.

Note return to page Now Strongoli and Stromboli. It is the only one of these mountains that is continually burning. Notwithstanding the dangers of their locality, this island is inhabited by about fifty families.

Note return to page Strabo makes the same mistake; the distance is twenty miles.

Note return to page According to Hardouin and D'Anville this is the modern Saline, but Mannert says Panaria. The geographers differ in assigning their ancient names to the other three, except that Euonymos, from its name, the "lefthand" island, is clearly the modern Lisca Bianca.

Note return to page These are the Gulf of Locri, the Gulf of Scyllacium, and the Gulf of Tarentum.

Note return to page Now called the Sagriano, though some make it to be the modern Alaro. The site of the town of Caulon does not appear to be known:, it is by some placed at Castel Vetere on the Alaro.

Note return to page Said by Hardouin to be the modern Monasteraci or Monte Araci.

Note return to page Supposed to have been situate on a hill near the modern Padula.

Note return to page The modern Punta di Stilo, or "Point of the Column."

Note return to page The modern Gulf of Squillace.

Note return to page Now Squillace.

Note return to page Now the Gulf of Saint Eufemia.

Note return to page Hannibal's Camp." This was the seaport of Scyllacium, and its site was probably near the mouth of the river Corace.

Note return to page According to Strabo, B. vi., he intended to erect a high wall across, and so divide it from the rest of Italy; but if we may judge, from the use by Pliny of the word "intercisam," it would seem that it was his design to cut a canal across this neck of land.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the Carcines is the present river Corace, the Crotalus the Alli, the Semirus the Simari, the Arocas the Crocchio, and the Targines the Tacina.

Note return to page The present Strongolo, according to D'Anville and Mannert.

Note return to page The present Monte Monacello and Monte Fuscaldo are supposed to form part of the range called Clibanus.

Note return to page Meaning that it was sacred to Castor and Pollux. Such are the changes effected by lapse of time that these two islands are now only bleak rocks. The present locality of the other islands does not appear to be known.

Note return to page Now Capo di Colonne.

Note return to page The real distance from Acroceraunimn, now Capo Linguetta, is 153 miles, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Or Crotona, one of the most famous Greek cities in the south of Italy. No ruins of the ancient city, said by Livy to have been twelve miles in circumference, are now remaining. The modern Cotrone occupies a part of its site. Pythagoras taught at this place.

Note return to page The modern Neto.

Note return to page Now called Turi, between the rivers Crati and Sibari or Roscile.

Note return to page A Greek town, famous for the inordinate love of luxury displayed by its inhabitants, whence a voluptuary obtained the name of a "Sybarite." It was destroyed by the people of Crotona, who turned the waters of the Crathis upon the town. Its site is now occupied by a pestilential swamp.

Note return to page A famous Greek city founded on the territory of the former Ionian colony of Siris. The foundations of it may still be seen, it is supposed, near a spot called Policoro, three miles from the sea. The rivers are now called the Sinno and the Agri.

Note return to page The modern Salandra or Salandrella, and the Basiento.

Note return to page So called from its lying between the two seas. It was once a celebrated Greek city, but was in ruins in the time of Pausanias. The place called Torre di Mare now occupies its site.

Note return to page The site of Aprustum is supposed to be marked by the village of Argusto, near Chiaravalle, about five miles from the Gulf of Squillace. Atina was situate in the valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. The ruins of Atina, which are very extensive, are to be seen near the village of Atena. Livy and Acron speak of Bantia as in Apulia, and not in Lucania. An ancient abbey, Santa Maria di Vanze, still marks its site.

Note return to page The ruins of Eburi are supposed to be those between the modern Eboli and the right bank of the Silarus. The remains of Grumentum, a place of some importance, are still to be seen on the river Agri, half a mile from the modern Saponara. Potenza occupies the site of ancient Potentia.

Note return to page The Sontini were probably situate on the river Sontia, now the Sanza, near Policastro. The Sirini probably had their name from the river Siris.

Note return to page Volcentum was situate near the Silarus, probably on the spot now called Bulcino or Bucino. The site of Numistro appears to be unknown.

Note return to page In his work "De Originibus."

Note return to page Livy, B. viii., and Justin mention how that Alexander I. (in the year B.C. 326) was obliged to engage under unfavourable circumstances near Pandosia, on the Acheron, and fell as he was crossing the river; thus accomplishing a prophecy of Dodona which had warned him to beware of Pandosia and the Acheron. He was uncle to Alexander the Great, being the brother of Olympias. The site of Pandosia is supposed to have been the modern Castro Franco.

Note return to page This word is understood in the text, and Ansart would have it to mean that the "Gulf of Tarentum is distant," &c., but, as he says, such an assertion would be very indefinite, it not being stated what part of the Gulf is meant. He therefore suggests that the most distant point from Lacinium is meant; which however, according to him, would make but 117 miles straight across, and 160 by land. The city of Tarentum would be the most distant point.

Note return to page Messapus, a Beotian, mentioned by Strabo, B. ix.

Note return to page A son of Lycaon.

Note return to page Of Lacinium and Acra Iapygia. About seventy miles seems to be the real distance; certainly not, as Pliny says, 100.

Note return to page The modern Taranto to Brindisi.

Note return to page Probably situate at the further extremity of the bay on which Tarentum stood.

Note return to page According to D'Anville and Mannert, the modern Oria. Messapia is the modern Mesagna.

Note return to page The modern Santa Maria dell' Alizza, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page The modern Gallipoli, in the Terra di Otranto. The real distance from Tarentum is between fifty and sixty miles.

Note return to page The "Iapygian Point," the present Capo di Santa Maria di Leuca.

Note return to page Its site is occupied by the little village of Vaste near Poggiordo, ten miles S.W. of Otranto. In the sixteenth century considerable remains of Basta were still to be seen.

Note return to page The modern Otranto stands on its site. In the fourth century it became the usual place of passage from Italy to Greece, Apollonia, and Dyrrhachium. Few vestiges of the ancient city are now to be seen.

Note return to page Anciently Apollonia, in Illyria, now called Pallina or Pollona.

Note return to page This was M. Terentius Varro, called "the most learned of the Romans." His design, here mentioned, seems however to have evinced neither learning nor discretion.

Note return to page Now called Soleto. The ruins of the ancient city, described by Galateo as existing at Muro, are not improbably those of Fratuertium, or, perhaps more rightly, Fratuentum.

Note return to page The modern Lecce is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page Called Valetium by Mela. Its ruins are still to be seen near San Pietro Vernotico, on the road from Brindisi to Lecce. The site is still called Baleso or Valesio.

Note return to page Ansart takes this to be the modern village of Cavallo, on the promontory of that name; but it is more probably the modern Ceglie, situate on a hill about twelve miles from the Adriatic, and twenty-seven miles west of Brindisi. Extensive ruins still exist there. There was another town of the same name in the south of Apulia.

Note return to page Now Brindisi. Virgil died here. The modern city, which is an impoverished place, presents but few vestiges of antiquity. The distance to Dyrrhachium is in reality only about 100 miles.

Note return to page They occupied probably a portion of the modern Terra di Bari.

Note return to page Said by Hardouin to be the modern Carouigna or Carovigni; but Mannert asserts it to be the same as the modern Ruvo.

Note return to page Or Gnatia, called by Strabo and Ptolemy a city of Apulia. It was probably the last town of the Peucetians towards the frontiers of Calabria. Horace, in the account of his journey to Brundusium (I. Sat. i. 97–100), makes it his last halting-place, and ridicules a pretended miracle shown by the inhabitants, who asserted that incense placed on a certain altar was consumed without fire being applied. The same story is referred to by Pliny, B. ii. c. 111, where he incorrectly makes Egnatia a town of the Salentini. Its ruins are visible on the sea-coast, about six miles S.E. of Monopali, and an old town still bears the name of Torre d'Agnazzo.

Note return to page Now Bari, a considerable city. In the time of Horace it was only a fishing town. It probably had a considerable intercourse with Greece, if we may judge from the remains of art found here.

Note return to page It is difficult to identify these rivers, from the number of small torrents between Brindisi and the Ofanto or Aufidus. According to Mannert, the Pactius is the present Canale di Terzo.

Note return to page An important city of Apulia, said to have been founded by Diomedes. Horace alludes to its deficiency of water. The modern Canosa is built on probably the site of the citadel of the ancient city, the ruins of which are very extensive.

Note return to page The ruins of this place are still to be seen at some little distance from the coast, near the village of Salpi. The story about Hannibal was very probably of Roman invention, for Justin .and Frontinus speak in praise of his continence and temperance. Appian however gives some further particulars of this alleged amour.

Note return to page The present Manfredonia has arisen from the decay of this town, in consequence of the unhealthiness of the locality. Ancient Uria is supposed to have occupied the site of Manfredonia, and the village of Santa Maria di Siponto stands where Siponti stood.

Note return to page Probably the Cervaro. Hardouin says the Candelaro.

Note return to page The present Porto Greco occupies its site.

Note return to page Still known as Gargano.

Note return to page Probably the present Varano.

Note return to page Now Lago di Lesina. The Frento is now called the Fortore.

Note return to page To distinguish it from Teanum of the Sidicini, previously mentioned.

Note return to page Between the Tifernus and the Frento. Its remains are said to be still visible at Licchiano, five miles from San Martino. The Tifernus is now called the Biferno.

Note return to page A people of Central Italy, occupying the tract on the east coast of the peninsula, from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and from the frontiers of Apulia to those of the Marrucini.

Note return to page Strabo (B. vi.) refers to this tradition, where he mentions the oracle of Calchas, the soothsayer, in Daunia in Southern Italy. Here answers were given in dreams, for those who consulted the oracle had to sacrifice a black ram, and slept a night in the temple, lying on the skin of the victim.

Note return to page The modern Lucera in the Capitanata.

Note return to page The birth-place of Horace; now Verosa in the Basilicata.

Note return to page The modern Canosa stands on the site of the citadel of ancient Canusium, an Apulian city of great importance. The remains of the ancient city are very considerable.

Note return to page So called, it was said, in remembrance of Argos, the native city of Diomedes. It was an Apulian city of considerable importance. Some slight traces of it are still to be seen at a spot which retains the name of Arpa, five miles from the city of Foggia.

Note return to page The names of these two defunct cities were used by the Romans to signify anything frivolous and unsubstantial; just as we speak of "castles in the air," which the French call "chatêaux en Espagne."

Note return to page Livy and Ptolemy assign this place to Samnium Proper, as distinguished from the Hirpini. It was a very ancient city of the Sanmites, but in the year B.C. 268, a Roman colony was settled there, on which occasion, prompted by superstitious feelings, the Romans changed its name Maleventum, which in their language would mean "badly come," to Beneventun or "well come." The modern city of Benevento still retains numerous traces of its ancient grandeur, among others a triumphal arch, erected A.D. 114 in honour of the emperor Trajan.

Note return to page The remains of Æculanum are to be seen at Le Grotte, one mile from Mirabella. The ruins are very extensive.

Note return to page There were probably two places called Aquilonia in Italy; the remains of the present one are those probably to be seen at La Cedogna. That mentioned by Livy, B. x. c. 38–43, was probably a different place.

Note return to page These are supposed by some to be the people of Abellinum mentioned in the first region of Italy. Nothing however is known of these or of the Abellinates Marsi, mentioned below.

Note return to page AEcæ is supposed to have been situate about nineteen miles from Herdonia, and to have been on the site of the modern city of Troja, an episcopal see. The Compsani were the people of Compsa, the modern Conza; and the Caudini were the inhabitants of Caudium, near which were the Fauces Caudinæ or "Caudine Forks," where the Roman army was captured by the Samnites. The site of this city was probably between the modern Arpaja and Monte Sarchio; and the defeat is thought to have taken place in the narrow valley between Santa Agata and Moirano, on the road from the former place to Benevento, and traversed by the little river Iselero. The enumeration here beginning with the Æclani is thought by Hardouin to be of nations belonging to Apulia, and not to the Hirpini. The Æclani, here mentioned, were probably the people of the place now called Ascoli di Satriano, not far from the river Carapella. Of the Aletrini and Atrani nothing appears to be known.

Note return to page Probably the people of Afiilæ, still called Affile, and seven miles from Subiaco. Inscriptions and fragments of columns are still found there.

Note return to page The people of Atinum, a town of Lucania, situate in the upper valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. Its site is ascertained by the ruins near the village of Atena, five miles north of La Sala. Collatia was situate on the Anio, now called the Teverone.

Note return to page The ruins of the town of Canuæ are still visible at a place called Canne, about eight miles from Canosa. The Romans were defeated by Hannibal, on the banks of the Aufidus in its vicinity, but there is considerable question as to the exact locality. The ruins of the town are still considerable.

Note return to page Forentum was the site of the present Forenza in the Basilicate. It is called by Horace and Diodorus Siculus, Ferentum. The ancient town probably stood on a plain below the modern one. Some remains of it are still to be seen.

Note return to page On the site of Genusium stands the modern Ginosa. The ruins of the ancient city of Herdonea are still to be seen in the vicinity of the modern Ordona, on the high road from Naples to Otranto. This place witnessed the defeat by Hannibal of the Romans twice in two years.

Note return to page The mention of the Hyrini, or people of Hyrium or Hyria, is probably an error, as he has already mentioned Uria, the same place, among the Daunian Apulians, and as on the sea-shore. See p. 228. It is not improbably a corrupted form of some other name.

Note return to page From the Frento, on the banks of which they dwelt.

Note return to page Viesta, on the promontory of Gargano, is said to occupy the site of the ancient Merinum.

Note return to page According to Mannert, the modern town of Noja stands on the site of ancient Netium.

Note return to page They inhabited Ruvo, in the territory of Bari, according to Hardouin.

Note return to page Their town was Silvium; probably on the site of the modern Savigliano.

Note return to page According to D'Anville their town was Strabellum, now called Rapolla.

Note return to page Their town is supposed to have been on the site of the modern Bovino, in the Capitanata.

Note return to page The people of Apamestæ; probably on the site of the modern San Vito, two miles west of Polignano.

Note return to page The people of Butuntum, now Bitonto, an inland city of Apulia, twelve miles from Barium, and five from the sea. No particulars of it are known. All particulars too of most of the following tribes have perished.

Note return to page D'Anville places their city, Sturni, at the present Ostuni, not far from the Adriatic, and fourteen leagues from Otranto.

Note return to page The people of Aletium already mentioned.

Note return to page Their town possibly stood on the site of the present village of Veste, to the west of Castro. The Neretini were probably the people of the present Nardo.

Note return to page Probably the people of the town which stood on the site of the present San Verato.

Note return to page They occupied what is now called the Abruzzo Inferiore.

Note return to page Now the Trigno.

Note return to page On the site of the present Vasto d'Ammone, five miles south of the Punta della Penna. There are numerous remains of the ancient city.

Note return to page According to Strabo Buca bordered on the territory of Teanum, which would place its site at Termoli, a seaport three miles from the mouth of the Biferno or Tifernus. Other writers, however, following Pliny, have placed it on the Punta della Penna, where considerable remains were visible in the 17th century. Ortona still retains its ancient name.

Note return to page Now the Pescara.

Note return to page The sites of their towns are unknown; but D'Anville supposes the Higher or Upper Carentum to have occupied the site of the modern Civita Burella, and the Lower one the Civita del Conte.

Note return to page Teate is supposed to be the present Chieti.

Note return to page The people of Corfinium, the chief city of the Peligni. It is supposed to have remained in existence up to the tenth century. Its ruins are seen near Pentima, about the church of San Pelino.

Note return to page The site of Superæquum is occupied by the present Castel Vecchio Subequo.

Note return to page The people of Sulmo, a town ninety miles from Rome. It was the birth-place of Ovid, and was famous for the coldness of its waters, a circumstance mentioned by Ovid in his Tristia, B. iv. ch. x. 1. 4. It is now called Sulmona.

Note return to page The people of Anxanum or Anxa, on the Sangro, now known as the city of Lanciano; in the part of which, known as Lanciano Vecchio, remains of the ancient town are to be seen.

Note return to page The people probably of Atina in Samnium, which still retains the same name.

Note return to page They probably took their name from the Lake Fucinus, the modern Lago Fucino, or Lago di Celano.

Note return to page They dwelt in a town on the verge of Lake Fucinus, known as Lucus.

Note return to page The ruins of Marruvium may still be seen at Muria, on the eastern side of Lake Fucinus.

Note return to page It has been suggested, from the discovery of a sepulchral inscription there, that Capradosso, about nine miles from Rieti in the upper valley of the Salto, is the site of ancient Cliternia. The small village of Alba retains the name and site of the former city of Alba Fucensis, of which there are considerable remains.

Note return to page The modern town of Carsoli is situate three miles from the site of ancient Carseoli, the remains of which are still visible at Civita near the Ostoria del Cavaliere. Ovid tells us that its climate was cold and bleak, and that it would not grow olives, though fruitful in corn. He also gives some other curious particulars of the place.—Fasti, B. iv. 1. 683 et seq.

Note return to page The modern Civita Sant Angelo retains nearly its ancient name as that of its patron saint. It is situate on a hill, four miles from the Adriatic, and south of the river Matrinus, which separated the Vestini from the territories of Adria and Picenum.

Note return to page The village of Ofena, twelve miles north of Popoli, is supposed to retain the site of ancient Aufina. Numerous antiquities have been found here.

Note return to page Cato in his 'Origines' stated that they were so called from the fact of their being descended from the Sabines.

Note return to page The site of the town of Bovianum is occupied by the modern city of Bojano; the remains of the walls are visible. Mommsen however considers Bojano to be the site of only Bovianum Undecumanorum, or "of the Eleventh Legion," and considers that the site of the ancient Samnite city of Bovianum Vetus is the place called Piettrabondante, near Agnone, twenty miles to the north, where there appear to be the remains of an ancient city.

Note return to page The people of Aufidena, a city of northern Samnium, in the upper valley of the Sagrus or Sagro. Its remains, which show it to have been a place of very great strength, are to be seen near the modern village of Alfidena, on a hill on the left bank of the modern Sangro.

Note return to page The people of Esernia, now Isernia.

Note return to page The people of Ficulia or Ficolea, a city of ancient Latium on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed that it was situate within the confines of the domain of Cesarini, and upon either the hill now called Monte Gentile, or that marked by the Torre Lupara.

Note return to page Sæpinum is supposed to be the same with the modern Supino or Sipicciano.

Note return to page The ruins of the ancient Sabine city of Amiternum are still visible at San Vittorino, a village about five miles north of Aquila. Considerable remains of antiquity are still to be seen there.

Note return to page The people of Cures, an ancient city of the Sabines, to the left of the Via Salaria, about three miles from the left bank of the Tiber, and twenty-four from Rome. It was the birth-place of Numa Pompilius. Its site is occupied by the present villages of Correse and Arci, and considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

Note return to page Nothing is known of this place; but it has been suggested that it stood in the neighbourhood of Forum Novum (or 'New Market'), next mentioned, the present Vescovio.

Note return to page This Interamna must not be confounded with Interamna Lirinas, mentioned in C. 9, nor Interamna Nartis, mentioned in C. 19. It was a city of Picenum in the territory of the Prætutii. The city of Teramo stands on its site; and extensive remains of the ancient city are still in existence.

Note return to page From their town, Norsia in the duchy of Spoleto is said to derive its name.

Note return to page The people of Nomentum, now La Mentana.

Note return to page The people of Reate, now Rieti, below Mursia.

Note return to page The people of Trebule Mutuscæ, said to have stood on the site of the present Monte Leone della Sabina, below Rieti. This place is mentioned in the seventh Æneid of Virgil, as the "Olive-bearing Mutusca."

Note return to page Their town was Trebula Suffena, on the site of the present Montorio di Romagna. The Tiburtes were the people of Tibur, the modern Tivoli; and the Tarinates were the inhabitants of Tarinum, now Tarano.

Note return to page The people of Cominium, the site of which is uncertain. It is supposed that there were three places of this name. One Cominiun is mentioned in the Samnite wars as being about twenty miles from Aquilonia, while Cominium Ceritum, probably another place, is spoken of by Livy in his account of the second Punic War. The latter, it is suggested, was about sixteen miles north-west of Beneventum, and on the site of the modern Cerreto. The Comini here mentioned by Pliny, it is thought, dwelt in neither of the above places. The sites of the towns of many of the peoples here mentioned are also equally unknown.

Note return to page Solinus, B. ii., also states, that this place was founded by Marsyas, king of the Lydians. Hardouin mentions that in his time the remains of this town were said to be seen on the verge of the lake near Transaco.

Note return to page From the Greek τέβεσθαι "to worship."

Note return to page The river Velinus, now Velino, rising in the Apennines, in the vicinity of Reate, overflowed its banks and formed several small lakes, the largest of which was called Lake Velinus, now Pie di Lugo or Lago, while a smaller one was called Lacus Reatinus, now Lago di Santa Susanna. In order to carry off these waters, a channel was cut through the rocks by Curius Dentatus, the conqueror of the Sabines, by means of which the waters of the Velinus were carried through a narrow gorge to a spot where they fall from a height of several hundred feet into the river Nar. This fall is now known as the Fall of Terni or the Cascade Delle Marmore.

Note return to page Still called Monte Fiscello, near the town of Civita Reale. Virgil calls the Nar (now the Nera), "Sulphureâ Nar albus aquâ," "The white Nar with its sulphureous waters."—Æneid, vii. 517.

Note return to page A Sabine divinity said to have been identical with Victory. The Romans however made her the goddess of leisure and repose, and represented her as being worshiped by the husbandmen at harvest home, when they were "vacui," or at leisure. She is mentioned by Ovid in the Fasti, B. vi. 1. 307. The grove here alluded to was one of her sanctuaries.

Note return to page The modern Teverone, which rises near Tervi or Trevi.

Note return to page A town of the Æqui, now known as Subiaco. In its vicinity was the celebrated villa of Claudius and Nero, called the Villa Sublacencis.

Note return to page This was a town of the Sabines between Reate and Interocrea, in the vicinity of a small lake of the same name. It was a mere pool, according to Dionysius, being but 400 feet in diameter. It is supposed that the floating island was formed from the incrustations of carbonate of lime on the banks, which, becoming detached, probably collected in the middle. The lake still exists, but the floating island has disappeared. There are some fine ruins of Roman baths in the vicinity of the lake.

Note return to page It was a custom with the early Italian nations, especially the Sabines, in times of danger and distress, to vow to the deity the sacrifice of all the produce of the ensuing spring, that is, of the period from the first day of March till the last day of April. It is probable that in early times human sacrifices were the consequence; but at a later period the following custom was adopted instead. The children were allowed to grow up, and in the spring of their twentieth or twenty-first year were with covered faces driven across the frontier of their native country, to go whithersoever chance or the guidance of the deity might lead them. The Mamertini in Sicily were said to have had this origin.

Note return to page Now the Aterno, which falls into the sea at Atri or Ortona.

Note return to page A famous city of Etruscan origin, which still retains its name of Adria or Atri. It had very considerable intercourse with Greece, and there are extensive remains of antiquity in its vicinity, towards Ravegnano. The river is still called the Vomano.

Note return to page These places are again mentioned in B. xiv. c. 8.

Note return to page Or "New Castle." It probably occupied the site of the now deserted town of Santo Flaviano, near the banks of the river Tordino, the Batinus of Pliny, and below the modern town of Giulia Nova.

Note return to page The river still has the name of Tronto; Porto di Martin Scuro occupies the site of the town.

Note return to page Who had crossed over as colonists from the opposite coast of Illyricum.

Note return to page According to Mannert the river Tesino is the same as the Albula, and Tervium is the modern town of Grotte a Mare; but D'Anville makes the latter to be the town of Cupra next mentioned.

Note return to page This was called Cupra Maritima, to distinguish it from the town of the Cuprenses Montani, afterwards mentioned. It is said by Strabo to have had its name from the Tyrrhenian name of Juno. From the discovery of an inscription belonging to her temple here, there is little doubt that D'Anville is right in his suggestion that the site of Cupra is at Grotte a Mare, eight miles from the mouth of the Truentus or Tronto.

Note return to page The Fortress of the Firmani," five miles from Firmum, an important city of Picenum. The Fortress was situate at the mouth of the Leta, and was the port of the city. It is still called Porto di Fermo.

Note return to page Often called "Asculum Picenum" to distinguish it from Asculum in Apulia. It was a place of considerable strength, and played a great part in the Social War. It is unknown at what period it became a Roman colony. The modern city of Ascoli stands on its site.

Note return to page Now called Monte Novano, according to D'Anville and Brotier.

Note return to page Its site is supposed to have been that of the small town called Santo Elpidio a Mare, four miles from the sea, and the same distance north of Fermo. The remains of Potentia are supposed to be those in the vicinity of the modern Porto di Recanati. Numana is supposed to be the modern Umana, near the Cuscione, where, in the seventeenth century, extensive ruins were to be seen.

Note return to page It still retains its ancient name, which was derived from the Greek ἀγκὼν "the elbow," it being situate on a promontory which forms a curve, and almost encloses the port. The promontory is still called Monte Comero. A triumphal arch, erected in honour of Trajan, who constructed a new mole for the port, is still in fine preservation, and there are remains of an amphitheatre.

Note return to page The modern city of Osimo stands on the site of Auximum, about twelve miles south-west of Ancona. Numerous inscriptions, statues, and other remains have been found there.

Note return to page Cluver conjectures that Beregra stood at Civitella di Tronto, ten miles north of Teramo; but nothing further relative to it is known. Cingulum was situate on a lofty mountain; the modern town of Cingoli occupies its site.

Note return to page The mountaineers." They inhabited Cupra Montana, which is supposed to have stood on the same site as the modern Ripa Transone.

Note return to page The people of Falaria or Faleria. There are considerable remains of this town about a mile from the village of Falerona, among which a theatre and amphitheatre are most conspicuous. The remains of Pausula are supposed to be those seen on the Monte dell' Olmo. The town of the Ricinenses is supposed to have been on the banks of the Potenza, two miles from Macerata, where some remains were to be seen in the seventeenth century.

Note return to page Septempeda is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern San Severino, on the river Potenza. Tollentinum or Tollentum was probably on the site of the modern Tolentino. The town of the Treienses is supposed to have occupied a site near the modern San Severino, in the vicinity of Montecchio.

Note return to page A colony of the people of Pollentia was established at Urbs Salvia, occupying the site of the modern Urbisaglia on the bank of the Chiento.

Note return to page Cisalpine Gaul was so called because the inhabitants adopted the use of the Roman toga.

Note return to page This fanciful derivation would make their name to come from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower."

Note return to page Now the Esino.

Note return to page So called from the Galli Senones. The modern city of Sinigaglia occupies its site. The river Metaurus is still called the Metauro.

Note return to page The Temple of Fortune." At this spot the Flaminian Way joined the road from Ancona and Picenum to Ariminum. The modern city of Fano occupies the site, but there are few remains of antiquity.

Note return to page The modern Pesaro occupies the site of the town; the river is called the Foglia.

Note return to page This was a flourishing town of Umbria. Augustus showed it especial favour and bestowed on it the Grove and Temple of Clitumnus, though at twelve miles' distance from the town. The modern town of Spello occupies its site, and very extensive remains of antiquity are still to be seen. It probably received two Roman colonies, as inscriptions mention the "Colonia Julia Hispelli" and the "Colonia Urbana Flavia." It is considered probable that Hispellum, rather than Mevania, was the birth-place of the poet Propertius. Tuder is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Todi, on the Tiber.

Note return to page The people of Ameria, an important and flourishing city of Umbria. There are still remains of the ancient walls; the modern town of Amelia occupies its site.

Note return to page The site of Attidium is marked by the modern village of Attigio, two miles south of the city of Fabriano, to which the inhabitants of Attidium are supposed to have migrated in the middle ages.

Note return to page The people of Asisium. The modern city of Assisi (the birth-place of St. Francis) occupies its site. There are considerable remains of the ancient town.

Note return to page The people of Arna, the site of which is now occupied by the town of Civitella d'Arno, five miles east of Perugia. Some inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been found here.

Note return to page The people of Æsis, situate on the river of the same name. It is still called Iesi. Pliny, in B. xi. c. 97, mentions it as famous for the excellence of its cheeses.

Note return to page The people of Camerinum, a city of Umbria. The present Camerino occupies its site. Its people were among the most considerable of Umbria. The site of the Casuentillani does not appear to be known.

Note return to page The people of Carsulæ, an Umbrian town of some importance. Its ruins are still visible about half way between San Germino and Acqua Sparta, ten miles north of Narni. Holsten states that the site was still called Carsoli in his time, and there existed remains of an amphitheatre and a triumphal arch in honour of Trajan. Nothing seems to be known of the Dolates.

Note return to page The people of Fulginium. From Cicero we learn that it was a municipal town. The modern city of Foligno has risen on its site. An inscription discovered here has preserved the name of Fulginia, probably a local divinity.

Note return to page The people of Forum Flaminii, situated on the Flaminian Way, where it first entered the Apennines, three miles from Fulginium. It was here that the Emperors Gallus and Volusianus were defeated and slain by Æmilianus, A.D. 256. The ruins at the spot called Giovanni pro Fiamma mark its site. The site of Forum Julii appears to be unknown, as also that of Forum Brentani.

Note return to page The people of Forum Sempronii, the only town in the valley of the Metaurus. The modern city of Fossombrone, two miles distant, has thence taken its name. Considerable vestiges of the ancient town are still to be seen. The battle in which Hasdrubal was defeated by the Roman consuls Livius and Nero, B.C. 207, was probably fought in its vicinity.

Note return to page The people of Iguvium, an ancient and important town of Umbria. Its site is occupied by the modern city of Gubbio. Interamna on the Nar has been previously mentioned.

Note return to page The people of the town of Mevania, now called Bevagna, in the duchy of Spoleto. The Mevanionenses were the people of Mevanio, or Mevaniolæ, in the vicinity of Mevania, and thought by Cluver to be the modern Galeata.

Note return to page Their town was Matilica, which still retains that name. It is situate in the Marches of Ancona.

Note return to page Their town still retains the name of Narni.

Note return to page Their town was surnamed Favonia and Camellaria, to distinguish it from several others of the same name. The present Nocera stands on its site.

Note return to page The people of Ocriculum, now Otricoli, previously mentioned.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the ruins of Ostra are those near Monte Nuovo, now Sinigaglia, but D'Anville thinks that the modern Corinaldo marks its site.

Note return to page Nothing is known of the Plestini, nor yet of the Pitulani, who seem to have been a different people to those mentioned in the First Region.

Note return to page The town of Sentis, according to D'Anville and Mannert, was in the vicinity of the modern town of Sasso Ferrato.

Note return to page The people of Sarsina, an important town of Umbria, famous as being the birth-place of the comic poet Plautus. It is now called Sassina, on the Savio.

Note return to page The people of Spoletum, now Spoleto. It was a city of Umbria on the Via Flaminia, colonized by the Romans B.C. 242. In the later days of the Empire it was taken by Totilas, and its walls destroyed. They were however restored by Narses.

Note return to page The people of Suasa; the remains of which, according to D'Anville and Mannert, are those seen to the east of the town of San Lorenzo, at a place called Castel Leone.

Note return to page The monastery of Sestino is supposed to stand on the site of Sestinum, their town, at the source of the river Pesaro.

Note return to page The site of their town is denoted by the modern Sigello in the Marches of Ancona.

Note return to page Their town is supposed to have been also situate within the present Marches of Ancona, where they join the Duchy of Spoleto.

Note return to page Their town was Trebia. The modern Trevi stands on its site.

Note return to page The people of Tuficum, which Holsten thinks was situate between Matelica and Fabrianum, on the river called the Cesena.

Note return to page The site of Tifernum Tiberinum is occupied by the present Citta di Castello, and that of Tifernum Metaurense, or "on the Metaurus," by Sant Angelo in Vado in the Duchy of Urbino. The first-named place was in the vicinity of the estates of the Younger Pliny.

Note return to page D'Anville and Mannert are of opinion that Urbania on the Metaurus, two leagues south-east of Urbino, marks the site of their town. The Hortenses probably dwelt on the site of the present Urbino.

Note return to page The site of their town was probably the present Bettona. The site of the towns of the peoples next mentioned is unknown.

Note return to page Nothing is known of its position. There were cities in Campania and Cisalpine Gaul also called Acerræ. The first has been mentioned under the First Region. Of the other places and peoples mentioned in this Chapter no particulars seem to have come down to us.

Note return to page Now the Conca. It is called "rapax Crustumium" by Lucan, B. ii. l. 406.

Note return to page One of the most important cities of Umbria. It played a conspicuous part in most of the internal wars of the Romans. The modern city of Rimini which stands on its site, still retains two striking monuments of its grandeur; the Roman bridge of marble, which crosses the river Ariminus, erected by Augustus and Tiberius, and a triumphal arch of marble, erected in honour of Augustus. The river Ariminus is now called the Marocchia, and the Aprusa is the Ausa.

Note return to page A papal decree, issued in 1756, declared the river Lusa to have been the ancient Rubicon, but the more general opinion is that the Pisatello, a little to the north of it, has better claims to that honour. On the north bank of the Rubicon a pillar was placed by a decree of the Senate, with an inscription giving notice that whoever should pass in arms into the Roman territory would be deemed an enemy to the state. It is especially celebrated in history by Cæsar's passage across it at the head of his army, by which act he declared war against the republic. See Lucan, B. i. 1. 200–230.

Note return to page The Sapis is the modern Savio, or Rio di Cesena; the Vitis is the Bevano, and the Anemo is the Roncone.

Note return to page Strabo and Zosimus however state that it was first founded by the Thessalians. Ravenna first came into notice on being made one of the two chief stations of the Roman fleet. The harbour which was made for it was called "Classes," and between it and Ravenna sprang up the town of Cæsarea. Though not deemed unhealthy, it lay in a swampy district. Theodoric made it the capital of the kingdom of the Goths. The modern city stands on the site of the ancient town. The river Bedesis is now called the Montone.

Note return to page No remains of it are extant; but it is supposed that it stood near the entrance of the Lagunes of Comacchio.

Note return to page The modern Bologna stands on its site, and there are but few remains of antiquity to be seen.

Note return to page He probably means only the Etruscan cities north of the Apennines.

Note return to page The modern town of Brescello occupies its site. Here the Emperor Otho put an end to his life on learning the defeat of his troops by Vitellius. It appears to have been a strong fortress in the time of the Lombard kings.

Note return to page The modern Modena stands on its site. It was famous in the history of the civil wars after Cæsar's death. Decimus Brutus was besieged here by M. Antonius, in the years B.C. 44 and 43, and under its walls the consuls Hirtius and Pansa were slain. Its vicinity, like that of Parma, was famous for the excellence of its wool.

Note return to page This was a Roman colony, which was enlarged by Augustus, and from him received the name of Colonia Julia Augusta. It was called, after the fall of the Western Empire, Chrysopolis or the "Golden City." The modern city of Parma occupies its site.

Note return to page A Roman colony. The present city of Piacenza stands on its site.

Note return to page It still retains the name of Cesena, and is a considerable place. After the fall of the Western Empire it was used as a fortress of great strength. We shall find Pliny again mentioning it in B. xiv. c. 6, as famous for the goodness of its wines, a reputation which it still maintains. The name of Claterna, once a municipal town of importance, is still retained in part by a small stream which crosses the road nine miles from Bologna, and is called the Quaderna. An old church and a few houses, called Santa Maria di Quaderna, probably mark the site of the vicinity of the town, which was situate on the high road.

Note return to page This Forum Clodii is said by D'Anville to be the modern Fornocchia. Forum Livii is supposed to have occupied the site of the present city of Forli. Forum Popili or Forli Piccolo occupies the site of Forum or Foro Popili.

Note return to page This place is supposed to have stood on the spot where the episcopal town of Bertinoro now stands. In inscriptions it is called Forodruentinorum. Forum Cornelii, said to have been so called from the Dictator Sylla, occupied the site of the modern town of Imola. The poet Martial is said to have resided for some time in this town.

Note return to page The people of Faventia, now Faenza. Pliny, B. xix. c. i., speaks of the whiteness of its linen, for the manufacture of which it was celebrated. At this place Carbo and Norbanus were defeated with great loss by Metellus, the partisan of Sylla, in B.C. 82.

Note return to page The people of Fidentia. The present Borga di San Donnino stands on its site, which is between Parma and Placentia, fifteen miles from the former city.

Note return to page Cluver thinks that their town was on the site of the modern Castel Bondino.

Note return to page So named after Æmilius Lepidus. The people of Regium Lepidum, the site of whose town is occupied by the modern Reggio.

Note return to page Solonatium is supposed to have had the site of the modern Citta di Sole or Torre di Sole.

Note return to page Nothing certain is known of this people or their town, but it is thought by Rezzonico that by this name were meant those who occupied the wood-clad heights of the Apennines, above Modena and Parma. Cicero mentions a Saltus Gallicanus as being a mountain of Campania, but that is clearly not the spot meant here.

Note return to page Their town is thought to have stood on the same site as the modern Tenedo.

Note return to page Their town was perhaps on the same site as the modern Villac, on the river Nura.

Note return to page The modern city of Ombria probably stands on the site of Urbana, their town, of which considerable remains are still to be seen.

Note return to page These and the Senones were nations of Cisalpine Gaul. The Boii emigrated originally from Transalpine Gaul, by the Penine Alps, or the Pass of Great St. Bernard. They were completely subdued by Scipio Nasica in B.C. 191, when he destroyed half of their population, and deprived them of nearly half of their lands. They were ultimately driven from their settlements, and established themselves in the modern Bohemia, which from them takes its name. The Senones, who had taken the city of Rome in B.C. 390, were conquered and the greater part of them destroyed by the Consul Dolabella in B.C. 283.

Note return to page The Po, which rises in Monte Viso in Savoy.

Note return to page Already mentioned in C. 7 of the present Book.

Note return to page Ovid in his account of the adventure of Phaëton (Met. B. ii.) states that he fell into the river Padus.

Note return to page The Tanarus is still called the Tanaro. The Trebia, now the Trebbia, is memorable for the defeat on its banks of the Romans by Hannibal, B.C. 218. The Incia is the modern Enza or Lenza, the Tarus the Taro, the Gabellus the Secchia, the Scultenna the Panaro, and the Rhenus the Reno.

Note return to page The Stura still has the same name; the Orgus is the modern Orco. The streams called Duriæ are known as the Dora Baltea and the Dora Riparia; the Sessites is the Sesia, the Ticinus the Tessino, the Lambrus the Lambro, the Addua the Adda, the Ollius the Oglio, and the Mincius the Menzo.

Note return to page This seems to be the meaning of "gravis terræ," unless it signifies "pressing heavily upon the land," and so cutting out channels for its course. He has previously stated that, though rapid, it is not in the habit of carrying away its banks. See a very able article on the question whether the name Eridanus belonged originally to this river or to some other in the north of Europe, in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography under the word "Eridanus."

Note return to page That is to say, the canal made by Augustus was so called.

Note return to page It was on this occasion that, after a stay of only a few days in Britain, he quitted the island, returned to Rome, and celebrated a splendid triumph. This outlet of the Po has now the name of Po di Primero.

Note return to page Now the Santerno, noted for the sluggishness of its waters.

Note return to page The Ostium Caprasiæ is now called the Porto Interito di Bell' Ochio, the Ostium Sagis the Porto di Magnavacca; Volane, or Volana, is the south main branch of the river. The Ostia Carbonaria, mentioned below, was the north main branch, subdivided into several small branches; and the Fossæ or Fossiones Philistinæ connected the river, by means of the Tartarus, with the Athesis.

Note return to page The reading is doubtful here, and even this, which is perhaps the best, appears to be corrupt; for it is difficult to conceive how all the mouths previously mentioned could have been upon one canal, and besides it would seem that Olane was one of the natural mouths of the river.

Note return to page More generally Adria, from which, as Pliny says, the Adriatic takes its name. Either a Greek, or, what is more probable, as Pliny states, an Etruscan colony, it became the principal emporium of trade with the Adriatic, in consequence of which it was surrounded with canals and other works to facilitate its communications with other rivers. It is still called Adria, and in its vicinity to the south, considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

Note return to page So called from the Philistæi, said to have been the ancient inhabitants of the spot. They are now called the Bocca della Gnoca, the Bocca della Scovetta, the Busa delle Tole, the Sbocco dell'Asinino, &c. The Ostia Carbonaria and the Fosse Philistinæ were to the north of the ones previously mentioned.

Note return to page He seems to confound the Fosses of Philistina with the Tartarus (now Tartaro). That river however connected the Fosses of Philistina with the Athesis, now the Adige.

Note return to page Now the Bacchiglione.

Note return to page The modern Brondolo.

Note return to page Now Chioggia, formed by the rivers Brenta and Brentella. Hardouin thinks the Clodian Canal to be the same as the modern Fossa Paltana.

Note return to page Now Monteu di Po, below Chevasso, mentioned in the 7th Chapter.

Note return to page This place is supposed to have been situate in the vicinity of the modern Saluzzo, on the north bank of the Po. Segusio occupied the site of the modern Susa.

Note return to page Augusta of the Taurini. The present city of Turin stands on its site. It was made a Roman colony by Augustus. With the exception of some inscriptions, Turin retains no vestiges of antiquity.

Note return to page The present city of Aosta occupies its site. This was also a Roman colony founded by Augustus, after he had subdued the Salassi. It was, as Pliny says in C. 5, the extreme point of Italy to the north. The remains of the ancient city are of extreme magnificence.

Note return to page The Grecian pass of the Alps was that now known as the Little St. Bernard; while the Penine pass was the present Great St. Bernard. Livy in his History, B. xxi. c. 38, points out the error of taking these mountains to have derived their name from the Pœni or Carthaginians. There is no doubt that they took their name from the Celtic word signi fying a mountain, which now forms the "Pen" of the Welsh and the "Ben" of the Scotch.

Note return to page Now called Ivrea or Lamporeggio, at the entrance of the valley of the Salassi, the present Val d'Aosta. There are some remains of the ancient town to be seen.

Note return to page The present town of Vercelli stands on its site.

Note return to page Now called Novara, in the Duchy of Milan.

Note return to page It became a Roman municipal town, but owes its greatness to the Lombard kings who made it their capital, and altered the name to Papia, now Pavia.

Note return to page Pompey's Praises." The present Lodi Vecchio marks its site.

Note return to page It was the capital of the Insubres, a Gallic nation, and was taken by the Romans in B.C. 222, on which it became a municipium and Roman colony. On the division of the empire by Diocletian, it became the residence of his colleague Maximianus, and continued to be the abode of the Emperors of the West till it was plundered by Attila, who transferred the seat of government to Ravenna. It afterwards became the capital of the kingdom of the Ostro-Goths, and was again sacked by the Goths in A.D. 539, and its inhabitants put to the sword. The present city, known to us as Milan, contains no remains of antiquity.

Note return to page The modern Como and Bergamo stand on their sites.

Note return to page From its name, signifying the "market of Licinius," it would appear to be of Roman origin. Its site is supposed to have been at a place called Incino, near the town of Erba, between Como and Lecco, where inscriptions and other antiquities have been found.

Note return to page Deriving it from the Greek ὄρος, "a mountain," and βίος, "life."

Note return to page Etiamnum prodente se altius quam fortunatius situm." Hardouin seems to think that "se" refers to Cato, and that he informs us to that effect; but to all appearance, it relates rather to the town, which even yet, by its ruins, showed that it was perched too high among the mountains to be a fertile spot.

Note return to page The district of the Veneti. These people, taking refuge in the adjoining islands in the fifth century to escape the Huns under Attila, founded the modern city of Venice.

Note return to page Now called the Sile, which flows past Trevigio or Treviso.

Note return to page The mountainous district in the vicinity of Tarvisium, the modern Treviso.

Note return to page Situate in a marsh or lagune on the river Sile. It became a Roman colony after Pliny's time, under the Emperor Trajan. Its villas are described by Martial as rivalling those of Baiæ. The Emperor Verus died here A.D. 169. The modern village of Altino is a very impoverished place. The Liquentia is now called the Livenza.

Note return to page Now called Oderzo, on the river Montegano, which flows into the Liquenza. The conduct of the people of this place, in the wars between Pompey and Cæsar, is mentioned by Lucan, in his Pharsalia, B. iv. 1. 462.

Note return to page From inscriptions we find that this place was called Colonia Julia Concordia, from which it seems probable that it was one of the colonies founded by Augustus to celebrate the restoration of peace. It rapidly rose into importance, and is often mentioned during the later ages of the Roman Empire, as one of the most important cities in this part of Italy. It is now a poor village, with the same name, and no remains of antiquity beyond a few inscriptions.

Note return to page The Romatinum is the modern Lemene. Pliny seems to imply, (though from the uncertainty of the punctuation it is not clear,) that on the Romatinum there was a port of that name. If so, it would probably occupy the site of the present Santa Margherita, at the mouth of the Lemene.

Note return to page The greater Tiliaventum is the modern Tagliamento; and Hardouin suggests that the smaller river of that name is the Lugugnana.

Note return to page This river is supposed to be the same with the modern Stella, and the Varamus the Revonchi, which joins the Stella.

Note return to page Now called the Ansa. The Natiso is the modern Natisone, and the Turrus the Torre; the former flowed past Aquileia on the west, the latter on the east, in former times, but their course is probably now changed, and they fall into the Isonzo, four miles from the city.

Note return to page The capital of Venetia, and one of the most important cities of Northern Italy. In the year A.D. 452 it was besieged by Attila, king of the Huns, taken by storm, and plundered and burnt to the ground. On its site, which is very unhealthy, is the modern village of Aquileia, with about 1400 inhabitants. No ruins of any buildings are visible, but the site abounds with coins, shafts of columns, inscriptions, and other remains of antiquity.

Note return to page Ptolemy states that Concordia and Aquileia were situate in the district of the Carni.

Note return to page Still called the Timavo.

Note return to page Castel Duino stands on its site. It will be found again mentioned in B. xiv. C. 8, for the excellence of its wines.

Note return to page Now the Gulf of Trieste. Tergeste was previously an insignificant place, but made a Roman colony by Vespasian. The modern city of Trieste occupies its site.

Note return to page Most probably the modern Risano. Cluver and D'Anville are of that opinion, but Walckenaer thinks that it was a small stream near Muja Vecchia; which seems however to be too near Trieste.

Note return to page In the time of Augustus, and before Istria was added as a province to Italy.

Note return to page He alludes to an old tradition that the Argonauts sailed into the Ister or Danube, and then into the Save, till they came to the spot where the modern town of Upper Laybach stands, and that here they built Nauportus, after which they carried their ship across the mountains on men's shoulders into the Adriatic. He intends to suggest therefore that the place had its name from the Greek ναῦς "a ship" and πορψμὸς "a passage."

Note return to page The modem town of Laybach stands on its site. It is situate on the Save, and on the road from Aquileia to Celeia. The Roman remains prove that the ancient city exceeded the modern one in magnitude. According to tradition it was founded by the Argonauts. It subsequently became a Roman colony, with the title of Julia Augusta. It is again mentioned in C. 28.

Note return to page Now the Golfo di Quarnaro. Liburnia was separated from Istria on the north-west by the river Arsia, and from Dalnatia on the south by the river Titus or Kerka, corresponding to the western part of modern Croatia, and the northern part of modern Dalmatia. Iapydia was situate to the north of Dalmatia and east of Liburnia, or the present military frontier of Croatia, between the rivers Kulpa and Korana to the north and east, and the Velebich mountains to the south. Istria consisted of the peninsula which still bears the same appellation.

Note return to page This passage, "while others make it 225," is omitted in many of the MSS. and most of the editions. If it is retained, it is not improbable that his meaning is, "and the circumference of Liburnia which joins it, with the Flanatic Gulf, some make 225, while others make the compass of Liburnia to be 180 miles." It depends on the punctuation and the force of "item," and the question whether the passage is not in a corrupt state; and it is not at all clear what his meaning really is.

Note return to page He alludes to C. Sempronius Tuditanus, Consul B.C. 129. He gained his victory over the lapydes chiefly through the skill of his legatus, D. Junius Brutus. He was a distinguished orator and historian. He was the maternal grandfather of the orator Hortensius.

Note return to page This place is only mentioned by Pliny, but from an inscription found, it appears that the emperor Justin II. conferred on it the title of Justinopolis. It is thought that it occupied the site of the present town of Capo d'Istria.—Parentium stood on the site of the present Parenzo.

Note return to page It still retains its name.

Note return to page Supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Castel Nuovo, past which the Arsia, now the Arsa, flows.

Note return to page Since Istria had been added to it by Augustus.

Note return to page Livy seems to imply that Cremona was originally included in the territory of the Insubres. A Roman colony being established there it became a powerful city. It was destroyed by Antonius the general of Vespasian, and again by the Lombard king Agilulfus in A.D. 605. No remains of antiquity, except a few inscriptions, are to be seen in the modern city.

Note return to page The modern city of Este stands on the site of Ateste. Beyond inscriptions there are no remains of this Roman colony.

Note return to page Asolo stands on its site.

Note return to page It was said to have been founded by the Trojan Antenor. Under the Romans it was the most important city in the north of Italy, and by its commerce and manufactures attained great opulence. It was plundered by Attila, and, by Agilulfus, king of the Lombards, was razed to the ground. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of Livy. Modern Padua stands on its site, but has no remains of antiquity.

Note return to page Now called Belluno. Vicetia has been succeeded by the modem Vicenza.

Note return to page Mantua was not a place of importance, but was famous as being the birth-place of Virgil; at least, the poet, who was born at the village of Andes, in its vicinity, regarded it as such. It was said to have had its name from Manto, the daughter of Tiresias. Virgil, in the Æneid, B. x., alludes to its supposed Tuscan origin.

Note return to page Led by Antenor, as Livy says, B. i.

Note return to page The Cenomanni, a tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, seem to have occupied the country north of the Padus, between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. From Polybius and Livy we learn that they had crossed the Alps within historical memory, and had expelled the Etruscans and occupied their territory. They were signalized for their amicable feelings towards the Roman state.

Note return to page Their town was Fertria or Feltria, the modern Feltre.

Note return to page The modern city of Trento or Trent occupies the site of Tridentum, their town. It is situate on the Athesis or Adige. It became famous in the middle ages, and the great ecclesiastical council met here in 1545.

Note return to page It was a Roman colony under the name of Colonia Augusta, having originally been the capital of the Euganei, and then of the Cenomanni. It was the birth-place of Catullus, and according to some accounts, of our author, Pliny. Modern Verona exhibits many remains of antiquity.

Note return to page D'Anville says that the ruins of this town are to be seen at the modern Zuglio.

Note return to page Hardouin thinks that their town, Flamonia, stood on the site of the modern Flagogna.

Note return to page Their town, Forum Julii, a Roman colony, stood on the site of the modern Friuli. Paulus Diaconus ascribes its foundation to Julius Cæsar.

Note return to page Supposed by Miller to have inhabited the town now called Nadin or Susied.

Note return to page Their town was probably on the site of the modern Quero, on the river Piave, below Feltre.

Note return to page Probably the same as the Tarvisani, whose town was Tarvisium, now Treviso.

Note return to page The conqueror of Syracuse. The fact here related probably took place in the Gallic war.

Note return to page This must be the meaning; and we must not, as Holland does, employ the number as signifying that of the lakes and rivers; for the Ticinus is in the eleventh region.

Note return to page Now the Adda, running through Lago di Como, the Tesino through Lago Maggiore, the Mincio through Lago di Garda, the Seo through Lago di Seo, and the Lambro now communicating with the two small lakes called Lago di Pusiano and Lago d'Alserio, which in Pliny's time probably formed one large lake.

Note return to page Now Vado in Liguria, the harbour of Sabbata or Savo. Using the modern names, the line thus drawn runs past Vado, Turin, Como, Brescia, Verona, Vicenza, Oderzo, Aquileia, Trieste, Pola, and the Arsa.

Note return to page It is from this people that the group of volcanic hills between Padua and Verona derive their present name of Colli Euganei or the "Euganean Hills." From the Triumpilini and the Camuni, the present Val Camonica and Val Trompia derive their names.

Note return to page Probably meaning, that for a sum of money they originally acknowledged their subjection to the Roman power.

Note return to page The Lepontii probably dwelt in the modern Val Leventina and the Val d'Osula, near Lago Maggiore; the Salassi in the Val d'Aosta.

Note return to page Making it to come from the Greek verb λείπω, "to leave behind."

Note return to page As though being evyevetot or εὐγένειοι or εὐγενεῖς, "of honourable descent," or "parentage."

Note return to page Strabo mentions the Stoni or Stœni among the minor Alpine tribes. Mannert thinks that they dwelt near the sources of the river Chiese, about the site of the modern village of Storo.

Note return to page It has been suggested that from them the modern Valtelline takes its name.

Note return to page Hardouin suggests that the Suanetes, who are again mentioned, are the people here meant.

Note return to page They are supposed to have dwelt in the present canton of Martignac in the Valais, and the Vaudois.

Note return to page They dwelt in the Tarantaise, in the duchy of Savoy. The village called Centron still retains their name.

Note return to page The states subject to Cottius, an Alpine chief, who having gained the favour of Augustus, was left by him in possession of this portion of the Alps, with the title of Præfect. These states, in the vicinity of the modern Mount Cenis, seem to have extended from Ebrodunum or Embrun in Gaul, to Segusio, the modern Susa, in Italy, including the Pass of Mont Grenèvre. The territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman empire, as a separate province called the "Alpes Cottiæ."

Note return to page They dwelt in the vicinity of Ebrodunum or Embrun already mentioned.

Note return to page The "mountaineers." Some editions read here "Appuani," so called from the town of Appua, now Pontremoli.

Note return to page The Vagienni, and the Capillati Ligures, or "Long-haired Ligurians," have been previously mentioned in Chap. 7.

Note return to page The trophy or triumphal arch which bore this inscription is that which was still to be seen at Torbia near Nicæa in Illyria, in the time of Gruter, who has given that portion of the inscription which remained unobliterated, down to "gentes Alpinæ," "the Alpine nations." Hardouin speaks of another triumphal arch in honour of Augustus at Segusio or Susa in Piedmont, which appears to have commenced in a somewhat similar manner, but only the first twelve words were remaining in 1671.

Note return to page Adopted son of his great uncle Julius Cæsar.

Note return to page Most of the MSS. omit the figures XVII here, but it is evidently an accident; if indeed they were omitted in the original.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied the Val Venosco, at the sources of the Adige. The Isarci dwelt in the Val de Sarra or Sarcha, near Val Camonica; and the Breuni in the Val Brounia or Bregna, at the source of the Tessino.

Note return to page D'Anville thinks that they inhabited the Val d'Agno, near Trento, between Lake Como and the Adige. He also detects the name of the Focunates in the village of Vogogna.

Note return to page They inhabited the banks of the river Lech, their town being, according to Strabo, Damasia, afterwards Augusta Vindelicorum, now Augsburg.

Note return to page Probably the Sarunetes, already mentioned. The Brixentes inhabited the modern Brixen in the Tyrol. The Lepontii have been previously mentioned. The Seduni occupied the present Sion, the capital of the Valais. The Salassi have been already mentioned. According to Bouche, the Medulli occupied the modern Maurienne in Savoy. The Varagri dwelt in Le Chablais.

Note return to page The Uceni, according to Hardouin, occupied Le Bourg d'Oysans in the modern Graisivaudan; the Caturiges, the modern Chorges according to Ansart; the Brigiani, probably Briançon, and the Nemaloni, as Hardouin thinks, the place called Miolans.

Note return to page They probably dwelt in the Ville de Seyne, in Embrun; the Esubiani near the river Hubaye, in the Vallée de Barcelone in Savoy; the Veamini in Senez, the Triulatti at the village of Alloz, the Ecdini near the river Tinea, and the Vergunni in the vicinity of the district of Vergons.

Note return to page The Eguituri probably dwelt near the modern town of Guillaumes, the Oratelli at the place now called Le Puget de Théniers, and the Velauni near the modern Bueil.

Note return to page Or subjects of Cottius, previously mentioned.

Note return to page A mistake for L. Æmilus Papus. He and C. Regulus were Consuls in B.C. 225. They successfully opposed the Cisalpine Gauls, who invaded Italy; but Regulus was slain in the engagement.

Note return to page It is difficult to say what is the exact force of "parci" here; whether in fact it means that Italy shall be wholly exempted from such treatment, as an indignity offered to her soil, or whether her minerals were to be strictly kept in reserve as a last resource. Ajasson, in his Translation, seems to take the former view, Littré the latter.

Note return to page From the river now called the Arsa to that called the Kerka.

Note return to page Hardouin thinks that "Ismeni" is the proper reading here; but all the MSS. seem to be against him.

Note return to page Mentioned in the next Chapter.

Note return to page Their town was Aluus or Aloiis.

Note return to page Their town was Flanona, which gave name to the Sinus Flanaticus or Golfo di Quarnero. The chief town of the Lopsi was Lopsica, and of the Varvarini, Varvaria.

Note return to page The island of Fertina is supposed to have been the modern Berwitch or Parvich. Curicta is now called Karek or Veglia. The Illyrian snails mentioned by our author, B. ix. c. 56, are very numerous here. Caius Antonius, the brother of Marcus, acting under Julius Cæsar, was besieged here by Libo. See the interesting account in Lucan's Pharsalia, B. iv. 1. 402–464.

Note return to page The places on their sites are now called Albona, Fianona, Tersact or Tersat near Fiume, Segna, Lopsico, Ortopia, and Veza.

Note return to page Now Carin. Ænona is now called Nona, and the Tedanius is the modern Zermagna.

Note return to page The whole of this group of islands were sometimes called the Absyrtides, from Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, who according to tradition was slain there. See the last Chapter, p. 266.. Ovid, however, in his "Tristia," states that this took place at Tomi, on the Pontus Euxinus or Black Sea, the place of his banishment.

Note return to page Said by D'Anville to be now called Arbe, and Crexa to be the modern Cherso. Gissa is thought to have been the modern Pago.

Note return to page It was the capital of Liburnia. The city of Zara or Zara Vecchia stands on its site. There are but little remains of the ancient city.

Note return to page Supposed to be the present Mortero.

Note return to page The Titus or Kerka. Scardona still retains its name.

Note return to page Now called the Cabo di San Nicolo.

Note return to page This measurement would make it appear that the present Sabioncello is meant, but that it ought to come below, after Narona. He probably means the quasi peninsula upon which the town of Tragurium, now Trau Vecchio, was situate; but its circumference is hardly fifty miles. So, if Sicum is the same as the modern Sebenico, it ought to have been mentioned previously to Tragurium.

Note return to page Spalatro, the retreat of Diocletian, was in the vicinity of Salona. Its ancient name was Spolatum, and at the village of Dioclea near it, that emperor was born. On the ruins of the once important city of Salona, rose the modern Spalato or Spalatro.

Note return to page Its site is unknown, though D'Anville thinks that it was probably that of the modern Tain.

Note return to page Clissa is supposed to occupy its site. Tribulium is probably the modern Ugliane.

Note return to page The people of the island of Issa, now Lissa, off the coast of Liburnia. It was originally peopled by a Parian or a Syracusan colony. It was famous for its wine, and the beaked ships "Lembi Issaici," rendered the Romans good service in the war with Philip of Macedon.

Note return to page The modern Almissa stands on its site; and on that of Rataneum, Mucarisca.

Note return to page Now called Narenta; the river having the same name.

Note return to page The localities of all these peoples are unknown.

Note return to page Or Epidaurus. It is not noticed in history till the civil war between Pompey and Cæsar, when, having declared in favour of the latter, it was besieged by M. Octavius. The site of it is known as Ragusa Vecchia, or Old Ragusa, but in the Illyric language it is called Zaptal. Upon its destruction, its inhabitants moved to Rausium, the present Ragusa. There are no remains extant of the old town.

Note return to page It still retains the name of Risine, upon the Golfo di Cattaro, the ancient Sinus Rhizonicus.

Note return to page In the former editions called "Ascrivium." The modern Cattaro is supposed to occupy its site. Butua is the modern Budua, and Olcinium, Dulcigno. It is probable that the derivation of the name of this last place, as suggested by Pliny, is only fanciful.

Note return to page Now called Drin and Drino.

Note return to page Now called Scutari or Scodar, the capital of the province called by the Turks Sangiac de Scodar.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern Endero stands on the site of their capital.

Note return to page Grabia, mentioned by Pouqueville, in his "Voyage de la Grece," seems to retain the name of this tribe.

Note return to page Pouqueville is of opinion that they occupied the district now known as Musaché.

Note return to page Dalechamp thinks that the two words "Retinet nomen" do not belong to the text, but have crept in from being the gloss of some more recent commentator. They certainly appear to be out of place. This promontory is now called Cabo Rodoni.

Note return to page The modern Albania.

Note return to page Pouqueville is of opinion that they inhabited the district about the present village of Presa, seven leagues N.E. of Durazzo.

Note return to page From Ptolemy we learn that Lychnidus was their town; the site of which, according to Pouqueville, is still pointed out at a spot about four leagues south of Ochrida, on the eastern bank of the Lake of Ochrida.

Note return to page Now called El Bassan; though Pouqueville says Tomoros or De Caulonias. Commencing in Epirus, they separated Illyricum from Macedonia. See Lucan's Pharsalia, B. vi. 1. 331.

Note return to page The Romans are said to have changed its Greek name Epidamnum, from an idea that it was inauspicious, as implying "damnum" or "ruin." It has been asserted that they gave it the name of Durrhachium or Dyrrhachium, from "durum," rugged, on account of the ruggedness of its locality. This however cannot be the case, as the word, like its predecessor, is of Greek origin. Its unfortunate name, "Epidamnus," is the subject of several puns and witticisms in that most amusing perhaps of all the plays of Plautus, the Menæchmi. It was of Corcyrean origin, and after playing a distinguished part in the civil wars between Pompey and Cæsar, was granted by Augustus to his veteran troops. The modern Durazzo stands on its site.

Note return to page Now called the Voioussa.

Note return to page The monastery of Pollina stands on its site. It was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyreans. There are scarcely any vestiges of it remaining.

Note return to page See further mention of this spot in B. ii. c. 110.

Note return to page Pouqueville states that the ruins of Amantia are to be seen near the village of Nivitza, on the right bank of the river Suchista. The remains of Bullis, the chief town of the Buliones, according to the same traveller, are to be seen at a place called Gradista, four miles from the sea.

Note return to page The same writer states that Oricum was situate on the present Gulf De la Vallona or d'Avlona, and that its port was the place now called by the Greeks Porto Raguseo, and by the Turks Liman Padisha.

Note return to page The "Heights of Thunder." They were so called from the frequent thunderstorms with which they were visited. The range however was more properly called the "Ceraunii Montes," and the promontory terminating it "Acroceraunii" or "Acroceraunia," meaning "the end of the Ceraunii." The range is now called the Mountains of Khimara, and the promontory, Glossa, or in Italian, Linguetta, meaning "the Tongue."

Note return to page In C. 15 of the present Book.

Note return to page About 70 English miles is the distance.

Note return to page The Donau or Danube.

Note return to page Noricum corresponded to the greater part of the present Styria and Carinthia, and a part of Austria, Bavaria, and Salzburg.

Note return to page According to D'Anville the modern Wolk-Markt, on the river Drau or Drave. Celeia is the modern Cilley in Carniola. Teurnia, according to Mannert, is the Lurnfelde, near the small town of Spital.

Note return to page According to Mannert it was situate near the modern town of Innichen, near the sources of the Drave.

Note return to page Supposed to be the same as the Vindobona or Vindomona of other authors, standing on the site of the modern city of Vienna.

Note return to page According to Cluver, it stood on the site of the modern Clausen in Bavaria.

Note return to page Mannert says that this place was the same with the modern Solfeld, near Klagenfurt.

Note return to page D'Anville and other writers think that this is the Neusiedler See, not far from Vienna. Mannert, however, is of opinion that the name ought to be written Pelso, and that the modern Balaton or Platten See is meant.

Note return to page The mountainous and woody tract in the vicinity of the Lake Balaton, on the confines of ancient Noricum and Pannonia.

Note return to page Now Sarvar on the river Raab, on the confines of Austria and Hungary.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern Sopron or Œdenburg.

Note return to page This province corresponded to the eastern part of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the whole of Hungary between the Danube and Saave, Slavonia, and part of Croatia and Bosnia. It was reduced by fiberius, acting under the orders of Augustus.

Note return to page Now Laybach, previously mentioned in c. 22. Sissia has been succeeded by the modern Sissek on the Saave.

Note return to page The modern Draave or Drau.

Note return to page Now the Sau or Saave.

Note return to page According to Hardouin the Serretes and the Serrapilli inhabited the modern Carinthia on both sides of the Draave. The sites of the other nations here mentioned are unknown.

Note return to page So called from the river Colapis. The other tribes are unknown.

Note return to page Probably the same as the mountain range near Warasdin on the Draave. The nations mentioned here dwelt on the western and eastern slopes of this range.

Note return to page Now known as Zagrabia.

Note return to page Now the Culpa.

Note return to page Dion Cassius, B. xix., says that the river Colapis or Colops flowed past the walls of the town of Siscia, but that Tiberius Cæsar caused a trench to be dug round the town, and so drew the river round it, leading it back on the other side into its channel. He calls the island Segetica.

Note return to page Now the Bossut. Sirmium occupied the site of the present Sirmich.

Note return to page The modern Tzeruinka, according to D'Anville and Brotier.

Note return to page Now the Walpo and the Sarroiez, according to Hardouin; or the Bosna and the Verbas, according to Brotier and Mannert.

Note return to page Corresponding to the present Servia and Bulgaria.

Note return to page Of the Danube with the Saave or Savus just mentioned.

Note return to page Now the Morava, which runs through Servia into the Danube. The Pingus is probably the Bek, which joins the Danube near Gradistic. The Timachus is the modern Timoch, and the Œscus is the Iscar in Bulgaria.

Note return to page Now called the Vid, the Osma, and the Jantra, rising in the Balkan chain.

Note return to page Ajasson remarks here that the name of Illyricum was very vaguely used by the ancients, and that at different periods, different countries were so designated. In Pliny's time that region comprised the country between the Arsia and the mouth of the Drilo, bounding it on the side of Macedonia. It would thus comprehend a part of modern Carniola, with part of Croatia, Bosnia, Dahnatia, and Upper Albania. In later times this name was extended to Noricum, Pannonia, Moesia, Dacia, Macedonia, Thessalia, Achaia, Epirus, and even the Isle of Crete.

Note return to page Here meaning that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and Greece south of the Adriatic. In more ancient times the Adriatic was included in the Ionian Sea, which was probably so called from the Ionian colonies which settled in Cephallenia and the other islands on the western coast of Greece.

Note return to page More properly "Diomedeæ," being a group of small islands off the coast of Apulia now called Isole di Tremiti, about eighteen miles from the mouth of the Fortore. They were so called from the fable that here the companions of Diomedes were changed into birds. A species of seafowl (which Pliny mentions in B. x. c. 44) were said to be the descendants of these Greek sailors, and to show a great partiality for such persons as were of kindred extraction. See Ovid's Metamorphoses, B. xiv. 1. 500. The real number of these islands was a matter of dispute with the ancients, but it seems that there are but three, and some mere rocks. The largest of the group is the island of San Domenico, and the others are San Nicola and Caprara. The small island of Pianosa, eleven miles N.E., is not considered one of the group, but is not improbably the Teutria of Pliny. San Domenico was the place of banishment of Julia, the licentious daughter of Augustus.

Note return to page Now called the Bagni di Monte Falcone. See B. ii. c. 106.

Note return to page Now called Cherso and Osero, off the Illyrian coast. Ptolemy mentions only one, Apsorrus, on which he places a town of that name and another called Crepsa. The Pullaria are now called Li Brioni, in the Sinus Flanaticus, opposite the city of Pola.

Note return to page See p. 258.

Note return to page In B. xxxvii. c. 11, lie again mentions this circumstance, and states that some writers have placed them in the Adriatic opposite the mouths of the Padus. Scymnus of Chios makes mention of them in conjunction with the Absyrtides. This confusion probably arose from the fact previously noted that the more ancient writers had a confused idea that the Ister communicated with the Adiatic, at the same time mistaking it probably for the Vistula, which flows into the Baltic. At the mouth of this last-mentioned river, there were Electrides or "amber-bearing "islands.

Note return to page "Vanitatis."

Note return to page Crexa, Gissa, and Colentun, in c. 25.

Note return to page According to Brotier, these are situate between the islands of Zuri and Sebenico, and are now called Kasvan, Capri, Smolan, Tihat, Sestre, Parvich, Zlarin, &c. Some writers however suggest that there were no islands called Celadussse, and that the name in Pliny is a corruption of Dyscelados in Pomponius Mela; which in its turn is supposed to have been invented from what was really an epithet of Issa, in a line of Apollonius Rhodius, B. iv. 1. 565. ισσὰ τε δυσκέλαδος, "and inauspicious Issa." See Brunck's remarks on the passage.

Note return to page Now Brazza. According to Brotier the island is still celebrated for the delicate flavour of the flesh of its goats and lambs. Issa is now called Lissa, and Pharia is the modern Lesina. Baro, now Bua, lies off the coast of Dalmatia, and was used as a place of banishment under the emperors.

Note return to page Now Curzola, or, in the Sclavonic, Karkar. It obtained its name of Nigra or Melæna, "black," from the dark colour of its pine woods. Sir G. Wilkinson describes it in his "Dalmatia and Montenegro," vol. i.

Note return to page Now called Meleda or Zapuntello. It is more generally to the other island of Melita or Malta that the origin of the "Melitæi" or Maltese dogs is ascribed. Some writers are of opinion that it was upon this island that St. Paul was shipwrecked, and not the larger Melita.

Note return to page So called from their resemblance to a stag, ἔλαφος, of which the modern Giupan formed the head, Ruda the neck, Mezzo the body, Calamotta the haunches, and the rock of Grebini or Pettini the tail. They produce excellent wine and oil, and are looked upon as the most valuable part of the Ragusan territory.

Note return to page Still known as Sasino. It is ten miles from Ragusa, the port of Oricum, according to Pouqueville.

Note return to page The original numbers are lost.

Note return to page He was a Spaniard by birth, a native of Mellaria in Hispania Bætica. He is mentioned by Cicero as a man of great learning, and is probably the same person that is mentioned by Ovid in his Pontic Epistles, B. iv. ep. xvi. 1. 29, as a distinguished tragic writer.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page M. Porcius Cato, or Cato the Elder; famous as a statesman, a patriot, and a philosopher. He wrote "De Re Rustica," a work which still survives, and "Letters of Instruction to his Son," of which only some fragments remain. He also wrote a historical work called "Origines," of which Pliny makes considerable use. Of this also only a few fragments are left. His life has been written by Cornelius Nepos, Plutarch, and Aurelius Victor.

Note return to page M. Vipsanius Agrippa, the distinguished partisan of Augustus, to whose niece Marcella he was married, but he afterwards divorced her for Julia, the daughter of Augustus by Scribonia, and the widow of Marcellus. He distinguished himself in Gaul, at Actium, and in Illyria. He constructed many public works at Rome, and among then the Pantheon; he also built the splendid aqueduct at Nismes. He died suddenly in his 51st year. His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, who pronounced his funeral oration. He wrote memoirs of his own life. Pliny often refers to the "Commentarii" of Agrippa, by which are meant, it is supposed, certain official lists drawn up by him in the measurement of the Roman world under Augustus. His map of the world is also mentioned by Pliny in c. 3 of the present Book.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page From Servius, Suetonius and Plutarch we learn that Augustus wrote Memoirs of his Life, in thirteen books; from Suetonius, that he composed a Summary of the Empire (which was probably that referred to in the above note on Agrippa); and from Quintilian, Aulus Gellius, and Pliny, B. xviii. c. 38, that he published Letters written to his grandson Caius.

Note return to page P. Terentius Varro, surnamed Atacinus, from the Atax, a river of Gallia Narbonensis, in which province he was born, B.C. 82. Of his "Argonautica," his "Cosmographia" (probably the same with his "Iter"), his "Navales Libri," and his Heroic and Amatory Poems, only a few fragments now exist. Of his life nothing whatever is known.

Note return to page Valerias Antias. See end of B. ii.

Note return to page C. Julius Hyainus, a native of Spain, and freedman of Augustus, by whom he was placed at the Palatine Library. He lived upon terms of intimacy with Ovid. He wrote works on the sites of the cities of Italy, the Nature of the Gods, an account of the Penates, an account of Virgil (probably the same as the work called "Commentaries on Virgil"), on the Families of Trojan descent, on Agriculture, the "Propempticon Cinnæ," the Lives of Illustrious Men (quoted by John of Salisbury in his "Polycraticon "), a book of Examples, and a work on the Art of War, also mentioned by John of Salisbury. A book of Fables, and an Astronomical Poem, in four books, are ascribed to him, but they are probably productions of a later age.

Note return to page L. Antistius Vetus, Consul with Nero, A.D. 55. While commanding in Germany he formed the project of connecting the Moselle and the Saone by a canal, thus establishing a communication between the Mediterranean and the Northern Ocean. Nero having resolved on his death, he anticipated his sentence by opening his veins in a warm bath. His mother-in-law Sextia, and his daughter Pollentia, in a similar manner perished with him.

Note return to page He was born, it is supposed, at Tingentera, or Cingentera, on the bay of Algesiras, and probably flourished in the reign of Claudius. He was the first Roman author who wrote a treatise on Geography. It is still extant, and bears marks of great care, while it is written in pure and unaffected language.

Note return to page C. Scribonius Curio, the third known of that name. He was the first Roman general who advanced as far as the Danube. Like his son of the same name, he was a violent opponent of Julius Cæsar. He was eloquent as an orator, but ignorant and uncultivated. His orations were published, as also an invective against Cæsar, in form of a dialogue, in which his son was introduced as one of the interlocutors. He died B.C. 53.

Note return to page L. Cælius Antipater. See end of B. ii.

Note return to page L. Arruntius, Consul, A.D. 6. Augustus declared in his last illness that he was worthy of the empire. This, with his riches and talents, rendered him an object of suspicion to Tiberius. Being charged as an accomplice in the crimes of Albucilla, he put himself to death by opening his veins. It appears not to be certain whether it was this person or his father who wrote a history of the first Punic war, in which he imitated the style of Sallust.

Note return to page Statius Sebosus. See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Licinius Crassus Mucianus. See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Of this writer no particulars whatever are known.

Note return to page In most editions this name appears as L. Ateius Capito, but Sillig separates them, and with propriety it would appear, as the name of Capito the great legist was not Lucius. Ateius here mentioned was probably the person surnamed Prætextatus, and Philologus, a freedman of the jurist Ateius Capito. For Sallust the historian he composed an Abstract of Roman History, and for Asinius Pollio he compiled precepts on the Art of Writing. His Commentaries were numerous, but a few only were surviving in the time of Suetonius.

Note return to page C. Ateius Capito, one of the most famous of the Roman legists, and a zealous partisan of Augustus, who had him elevated to the Consulship A.D. 5. He was the rival of Labeo, the republican jurist. His legal works were very voluminous, and extracts from them are to be found in the Digest. He also wrote a work on the Pontifical Rights and the Law of Sacrifices.

Note return to page A distinguished grammarian of the latter part of the first century B.C. He was entrusted by Augustus with the education of his grandsons Caius and Lucius Cæsar. He died at an advanced age in the reign of Tiberius. He wrote upon antiquities, history, and philosophy: among his numerous works a History of the Etruscans is mentioned, also a treatise on Orthography. Pliny quotes him very frequently.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page He is mentioned in c. 17, but nothing more is known of him.

Note return to page Nothing is known of him. The younger Pliny addressed three Epistles to a person of this name, B. ii. Ep. 15, B. v. Ep. 4. 14.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Also called by Pliny Cornelius Alexander. Suidas states that he was a native of Ephesus and a disciple of Crates, and during the war of Sylla in Greece was made prisoner and sold as a slave to C. Lentulus, who made him the tutor of his children, and afterwards restored him to freedom. Servius however says that he received the franchise from L. Cornelius Sylla. He was burnt with his house at Laurentum. Other writers say that he was a native of Catiæum in Lesser Phrygia. The surname of "Polyhistor" was given to him for his prodigious learning. His greatest work seems to have been a historical and geographical account of the world, in forty-two books. Other works of his are frequently mentioned by Plutarch, Photius, and other writers.

Note return to page The historian of the Peloponnesian war, and the most famous, perhaps, of all the ancient writers in prose.

Note return to page Of Eresus in Lesbos; the favourite disciple of Aristotle, and designated by him as his successor in the presidency of the Lyceum. He composed more than 200 works on various subjects, of which only a very few survive.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page He is frequently mentioned by Cicero, and was famous for his eloquence. Pliny informs us in his 34th book, that from his hatred of the Romans he was called the "Roman-hater." It is probable that he was the writer of a Periegesis, or geographical work, from which Pliny seems to quote.

Note return to page No particulars of this author are known. He probably wrote on geography.

Note return to page He is again mentioned by Pliny in B. iv. c. 13, and B. vi. c. 31, and by Solinus, c. xxii. 60. It is supposed that he was the author of a Periplus or Circumnavigation of the Earth, mentioned by Pliny B. vii. c. 48; but nothing further is known of him.

Note return to page Diodorus Siculus was a native of Agyra or Agyrium, and not of Syracuse, though lie may possibly have resided or studied there. It cannot be doubted that he is the person here meant, and Pliny refers in his preface by name to his βιβλιοθήκη, "Library," or Universal History. A great portion of this miscellaneous but valuable work has perished. We have but few particulars of his life; but he is supposed to have written his work after B.C. 8.

Note return to page Of Syracuse; an historian probably of the time of Philip and Alexander. He was the author of a Periplus of Asia, and an account of Sicily and Sardinia. From his stories in the last he obtained the name of "Thaumatographus "or "writer of wonders."

Note return to page Of Calliphanes the Geographer nothing is known.

Note return to page Probably Timagenes, the rhetorician of Alexandria. He was taken prisoner and brought to Rome, but redeemed from captivity by Faustus, the son of Sylla. He wrote many works, but it is somewhat doubtful whether the "Periplus," in five Books, was written by this Timagenes. He is also supposed to have written a work on the Antiquities of Gaul.

Note return to page Now called Monti della Chimera, or Mountains of Khimara. See p. 262.

Note return to page The Ægean Sea, the present Archipelago.

Note return to page This country contained, according to Pouqueville, the present Sangiacs of Janina, Delvino, and Chamouri, with the Vavodilika or Principality of Arta. This name was originally given to the whole of the west of Greece, from the Promontory of Acroceraunia to the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf, in contradistinction to Corcyra and the island of Cephallenia.

Note return to page This district, according to Pouqueville, occupied the present Cantons of Chimera, Iapouria, Arboria, Paracaloma, and Philates.

Note return to page They occupied the site of the present Paramythia, according to Pouqueville.

Note return to page Antigonia was about a mile distant, Pouqueville says, from the modern town of Tebelen.

Note return to page From 'A "not," and ὄρνις "a bird." Its site is now unknown. There were many places of this name. Avernus or Aornos in Campania has been previously mentioned.

Note return to page The remains of Cestria are still to be seen at Palea Vnetia, near the town of Filiates. Pouqueville calls the place Chamouri.

Note return to page According to Pouqueville, the modern Zagori stands on the site of Perrhæbia. Pindus is sometimes called Grammos, but is still known by its ancient name.

Note return to page Cassiope or Cassope stood near the sea, and near the present village of Kamarina. Its extensive ruins are still to be seen.

Note return to page Their district, according to Pouqueville, was in the present Canton of Drynopolis.

Note return to page The Selli or Sellæ lived in the vicinity of the temple of Jupiter at Dodona, in the modern canton of Souli, according to Pouqueville.

Note return to page The country about Dodona is called Hellopia by Hesiod. By some the Helli or Hellopes are considered the same as the Selli. Pouqueville thinks that the Hellopes dwelt in the modern cantons of Janina, Pogoniani, Sarachovitzas, and Courendas, and that the temple of Jupiter stood at the spot now called Proskynisis, near Gardiki, the town of Dodona being near Castritza. Leake is of the same opinion as to the site of the town; but, as has been a subject of remark, it is the only place of celebrity in Greece of which the situation is not exactly known. Leake however thinks that the temple stood on the peninsula now occupied by the citadel of Joanina.

Note return to page Pouqueville thinks that this is the hill to be seen at the modern village of Gardiki. He is also of opinion that the springs here mentioned are those at the modern village of Besdounopoulo. His opinions however on these points have not been implicitly received.

Note return to page B. iii. c. 26. The Dardani, Triballi, and Mœsi are mentioned in c. 29. The localities of the other tribes here mentioned are not known with any exactness.

Note return to page It retains the same name or that of Khimara, and gives its name to the Acroceraunian range. It was situate at the foot of the chain, which begins at this spot.

Note return to page "Aquæ regiæ." Pouqueville suggests, without good reason, as Ansart thinks, that this spring was situate near the modern Drimodez or Dermadez.

Note return to page The place called Palæo-Kistes now stands on its site, and some remains of antiquity are to be seen.

Note return to page Now the Calama.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Butrinto. It was said to have been founded by Helenus, the son of Priam. Pamponius Atticus had an estate here.

Note return to page This corresponds to the present Gulf of Arta, and was especially famous for being the scene of the battle of Actium. The city of Ambracia lay to the north of it. The present Arta is generally believed to occupy its site.

Note return to page Pouqueville has shown that Pliny is in error here, and he says that the Acheron is the modern Mavro Potamos; but according to Leake, the name of it is Gurla, or the river of Suli. It flows into the Port Fanari, formerly called Glykys Limen, or Sweet Harbour, from the freshness of the water there. The Acherusian Lake is probably the great marsh that lies below Kastri.

Note return to page It is now called the Arta, and gives name to the Gulf.

Note return to page The site of Anactoria or Anactorium, like that of its neighbour Actium, has been a subject of much dispute; but it is now pretty generally agreed that the former stood on the modern Cape Madonna, and Actium on the headland of La Punta.

Note return to page Pouqueville takes the ruins in the vicinity of Turco Palaka, eight miles from Margariti, to be those of Pandosia.

Note return to page This district probably occupied the present cantons of Vonitza and Xeromeros. It was called Curetis from the Curetes, who are said to have come from Ætolia and settled in Acarnania after their expulsion by Ætolus and his followers.

Note return to page The modern Vonitza is supposed to stand on its site.

Note return to page Leake places its site at Ai Vasili, where some ruins are to be seen.

Note return to page "The city of Victory." Founded by Augustus on the spot where he had pitched his camp before the battle of Actium.

Note return to page Now called Capo Ducato or Capo tis Kiras. It is situate at the extremity of the island of Leucas, and opposite to Cephallenia. Sappho is said to have leapt from this rock on finding her love for Phaon unrequited: the story however is devoid of all historical truth.

Note return to page Now the island of Santa Maura. It was originally a peninsula, and Homer speaks of it as such; but the Corinthians cut a canal through the isthmus and converted it into an island. After the canal had been choked up for some time with sand, the Romans reopened it. It is at present dry in some parts.

Note return to page Probably from its town Nericus, mentioned by Homer.

Note return to page From the Greek word διορυκτὸς, a "foss" or "trench."

Note return to page It probably had this name from the circumstance of the inhabitants of Nericus being removed thither by the Corinthians under Cypselus. The remains of Leucas, which was ravaged by the Romans B.C. 197, are still to be seen.

Note return to page Its remains are still to be seen in the valley of Kandili, south of Vonitza.

Note return to page Pouqueville says that very extensive and perfect ruins of this place are to be seen near the village of Lepenou.

Note return to page This famous city was deserted on the foundation of Nicopolis by Augustus. The place of its site has been a subject of much dispute, but it is considered most probable that Leake has rightly suggested that the ruins in the plain of Vlikha, at the village of Neokhori, are those of this city.

Note return to page Now the Aspropotamo.

Note return to page One of the group of the Echinades; small islands off the coast of Acarnania, which are mentioned by Pliny, in C. 19 of the present Book. It is now quite united to the mainland.

Note return to page Pouqueville says that Athamania occupied the localities now known as Djoumerca and Radovitch. It properly belonged to Epirus, and Pliny makes a mistake in considering it as a part of Ætolia.

Note return to page According to Pouqueville the ruins of Tymphæa are to be seen near the village of Paliouri, four miles from Janina.

Note return to page Ephyre, a town of the Agreei, is also mentioned by Strabo, but nothing whatever is known of it.

Note return to page The main body of the Perrhæbi were a people of Thessaly.

Note return to page Dolopia, now called Anovlachia, was properly reckoned part of Epirus.

Note return to page They are probably not the same people as the inhabitants of Atrax in Thessaly, which will be found mentioned in the 15th Chapter of this Book.

Note return to page The most famous city of Ætolia in its day, and the residence of Œneus, father of Meleager and Tydeus, and grandfather of Diomedes. The greater part of its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to his new city of Nicopolis. Leake supposes its ruins to be those seen by him at Kurt-Aga, to the east of the river Evenus.

Note return to page Now called the Fidaris.

Note return to page Pouqueville supposes the site of Macynia to have been that of the modern Koukio-Castron, and that of Molycria the present Manaloudi.

Note return to page Probably the present Varassova; there was a town called Chalcis, or Hypochalcis, at its foot. The present Kaki-Skala was probably the mountain of Taphiassus.

Note return to page Opposite the Promontory of Rhium, at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf. It is now called the Castle of Roumelia, or the Punta of the Dardanelles of Roum Ili.

Note return to page Leake and Dodwell make it a mile and a half.

Note return to page Or Rhium. It is now called the Castle of the Morea.

Note return to page The modern Enebatché or Lepanto; whence the Corinthian Gulf takes its modern name.

Note return to page Proschium was built at a later period on the site of Pylene. Its site appears to be unknown. The modern Kyra-tis-Irinis is thought to occupy the site of Pleuron.

Note return to page Leake supposes some ruins between Kurt-aga, the site of Chalcedon, and the east end of the Lagoon of Missolonghi, to be the remains of Halicyrna.

Note return to page Leake supposes it to be identical with the high mountain now called Kelberini. Others again identify it with Gribovo.

Note return to page Pliny erroneously places this mountain in Acarnania. It was a range of Ætolia, now called Zygos.

Note return to page Perhaps the modern Djourmerca.

Note return to page Either the present Plocopari, or perhaps, more probably, Viena.

Note return to page A part of Mount Taphiassus. It is mentioned only by Pliny.

Note return to page They are supposed to have inhabited the modern districts of Malandrino and Salone. They were called "Ozolæ" or 'strong-smelling,' either from the undressed skins worn by them, or from the quantities of asphodel that grew in their country; or else from the vapours thrown off by the mineral springs in those parts.

Note return to page Pouqueville imagines its ruins to be those seen about two leagues from the modern Galaxidi.

Note return to page Lapie marks this in his map as the modern port of Ianakhi.

Note return to page So called from the ancient town of Crissa, which stood on it. It is the same as the modern Gulf of Salona.

Note return to page Or Eupalium. Leake supposes it to have stood in the plain of Marathia, opposite the islands of Trazonia, where some ruins still exist.

Note return to page Pausanias makes this town to be the same with the Homeric Crissa, but Strabo distinguishes the two places, and his opinion is now generally followed; Cirrha being thought to have been built at the head of the Crissæan gulf, as the port of Crissa. Its ruins are thought to be those which bear the modern name of Magula.

Note return to page Or Chalæum. Pliny erroneously calls it a town of Phocis, it being on the coast of the Locri Ozolæ. He is wrong also in placing it seven miles from Delphi, and not improbably confounded it with Cirrha. Leake suggests that its site was the present Larnaki.

Note return to page The modern village of Kastri stands on part of the site of ancient Delphi. Its ruins have been explored by Chandler, Leake, and Ulrichs.

Note return to page The two highest summits of the range of Parnassus in the vicinity of Delphi were Tithorea, now Velitza, to the N.W., and Lycorea, now Liakura, to the N.E. Its rocks above Delphi were called the Phædriades or "Resplendent."

Note return to page The famed Castalian spring is now called the Fountain of St. John, from the chapel of that saint which stands close to its source.

Note return to page Now the Mavro-Potamo.

Note return to page Its ruins are still to be seen about three leagues from Kastri.

Note return to page Or Crisso. It was situate inland to the S.W. of Delphi. Its ruins are to be seen at a short distance from the modern village of Chryso.

Note return to page It is supposed that the few ruins seen near the modern Aspra Spitia are those of this place. It was famous for its hellebore, which was extensively used for the cure of madness. There were two other places or the same name.

Note return to page The people of Bulis, near the Crissæan Gulf. Its ruins are situate at a short distance from the monastery of Dobé.

Note return to page Ansart suggests that this was the present port of Agio-Sideri or Djesphina.

Note return to page It occupied the site of the modern Salona; the walls of its ancient Acropolis are still to be seen. It was the chief town of the Locri Ozolæ.

Note return to page Pouqueville thinks that the ruins seen near Moulki are those of Tithrone, and that Tritea stood on the site of the present Turcochorion.

Note return to page Or Amphrysus, famous for the strength of its fortifications and its scarlet berries for dyeing. Some remains of it are to be seen at the modern village of Dhistomo.

Note return to page On the frontiers of Doris and Phocis. Leake thinks that its ruins are those seen midway between Kamares and Glamista. Daulis was also the name of an ancient town of Phocis, the ruins of which are to be seen at the modern village of Dhavlia.

Note return to page Probably the present Palæo Kastro, at the Port de Dobrena or Polaca.

Note return to page Leake thinks that the Corsian Thebes, a port of Bœotia, is represented by the modern Khosia.

Note return to page Helicon is a range of mountains with several summits, the loftiest of which is now called Paleovuni. Helicon was a grove of the Muses, and the fountain of Aganippe was supposed to impart poetic inspiration to those who drank of it.

Note return to page See p. 288.

Note return to page From Apis, the son of Phoroneus, or Telchines, according to Pausanias. After the arrival of Pelops, it took from him its name of Peloponnesus, or the "Island of Pelops."

Note return to page The Ionian from the north, and the Ægean, or rather, Myrtoan, Sea from the east.

Note return to page That part of Greece proper which lies to the north of the Isthmus.

Note return to page Now the Gulfs of Lepanto and Egina.

Note return to page Lecheæ was the harbour of Corinth on the Corinthian, and Cenchreæ on the Saronic Gulf. The name of the latter is still preserved in the modern appellation Kechries, which is given to its ruins.

Note return to page Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Macedonia, son of Antigonus, king of Asia.

Note return to page Caius Caligula, the Emperor.

Note return to page The Emperor Nero actually commenced the work, having opened the undertaking with great pomp, and cut away a portion of the earth with his own hands. He had advanced four stadia, when the work was interrupted by the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul.

Note return to page We cannot agree with Hardouin that "exitus" here means "death," in allusion to the unfortunate end of all those who had made the attempt. The opinion of Spanheim seems rather deserving of support (though censured by Hardouin), that it merely means "the result" in each case; it being the fact, that in all the instances the contemplated undertaking was interrupted by some unforeseen event. Periander and Herodes Atticus also contemplated the formation of this channel.

Note return to page It is not known when it exchanged this name for that of Corinth; being called by both names in Homer. Scarcely any remains of it are now to be seen. The small town on its site is called Gortho, a corruption of its ancient name. The water of the famed spring of Pirene is now only used for washing clothes.

Note return to page Now Patras. There are few remains of the ancient city, which was one of the twelve cities of Achaia. It was made a Roman colony by Augustus.

Note return to page See C. 3 of the present Book, p. 275.

Note return to page Originally a district in the south of Thessaly had this name; but to distinguish it from that in the Peloponnesus, its people were called the Phthiotian Achæi.

Note return to page From the Greek word αἰγιαλὸς, "the sea-shore."

Note return to page Situate on the coast, about five miles from the present Vostitza.

Note return to page In the interior. The modern Trikala stands on its site.

Note return to page Helice was the place of meeting of the Achæan league; when, in B.C. 373, together with Bura, it was swallowed up by an earthquake, and their sites were covered by the sea. Such of the people as escaped fled to the places mentioned above by Pliny. Pouqueville says that some remains of these places may still be seen emerging from the sea.

Note return to page The modern Basilico or Vasilika stands on its site.

Note return to page The places called Paleo-Kastro and Vostitza are supposed to occupy the sites of Ægira and Ægium. To the east of Vostitza considerable ruins are still to be seen.

Note return to page Supposed to be the present Artotina.

Note return to page Towns of Roman Argolis. The ruins of the former are supposed to be those at a spot still called Klenes, near the village of Curtesi. The remains of Hysieæ, on the road from Argos to Tegea, stand on a hill above the plain of Achladokampos.

Note return to page Now called Tekieh; fifteen stadia from Rhium.

Note return to page Or Pharæ; 150 stadia from Patre.

Note return to page The modern Kato-Achaia.

Note return to page Its remains are to be seen near the modern village of Karavostasi. Pliny is mistaken probably in calling it a colony, as we know that it was placed under the authority of the colony of Patræ, which alone was allowed to enjoy the privilege of self-government.

Note return to page Pouqueville thinks that it was situate on the river now called the Verga. Leake supposes that the town of Hyrmine stood on the site of the present Kastro Tornese on the peninsula of Khlemutzi; but Boblaye and Curtius place it further north, at the modern harbour of Kunupeli, where there are some ancient ruins.

Note return to page Now Capo Papa.

Note return to page The locality of Cyllene is doubtful. Most writers place it at Glarentza, but Pouqueville suggests Andravida or Andravilla, and Mannert places it near Clarenza. Chelinates or Chelonatas was probably the name originally of the whole peninsula of Khlemutzi, but the point here mentioned was most probably the modern Cape Tornese.

Note return to page It lay in the interior, south of Sicyonia, and north of Argos. Pouqueville found its ruins on the banks of the Asopus.

Note return to page Strabo says that this was the name of the most ancient town of Phliasia, and that the inhabitants afterwards deserted it for Phlius.

Note return to page Some small ruins of it are to be seen at the foot of the hill of Kaloskopi, its ancient Acropolis.

Note return to page By Olympiads, which were reckoned according to the order of celebration of the Olympic games: they were established in the year B.C. 776, and were celebrated every fourth year.

Note return to page It was destroyed in the year B.C. 572 by the Eleans, not a vestige of it being left. The Alpheus retains the name of Alfio.

Note return to page Or "the Fish," from its peculiar shape. It is now called Katakolo.

Note return to page Probably situate in the valley between Elis and Messenia, which was so called. It is not elsewhere mentioned; and its ruins are thought to be those near the sea, on the right bank of the river Cyparissus. Leprion is again mentioned in c. x.

Note return to page Or Platamodes. Supposed to be the present Aja Kyriaki.

Note return to page This city survived through the middle ages, when it was called Arkadia. In 1525 it was destroyed by the Turks, and when rebuilt resumed nearly its ancient name as Cyparissia, by which it is now called. The bay or gulf is called the Gulf of Arkadia.

Note return to page Messenian Pylos probably stood on the site of the modem Erana; Pouqueville says however that it is still called Pilo, and other writers place it at Zonchio. It stood on the modern Bay of Navarino.

Note return to page Its site was at the spot called Palæo Kastro, near the modern town of Modon. The site of Messenian Helos, so called from its position in the marshes, τὸ ἕλος, is now unknown.

Note return to page Now Capo Gallo.

Note return to page It stood on the western side of the Messenian Gulf, which from it was called the Asinæan Gulf. Grisso, or, according to some, Iaratcha, occupies its site. Koroni however is most probably the spot where it stood, the inhabitants of ancient Corone having removed to it. Petalidhi stands on the site of Corone. A small portion of the Messenian Gulf was probably called the Coronean.

Note return to page Now Cape Matapan.

Note return to page Now the Pyrnatza.

Note return to page Its ruins, which are extensive, are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village of Mavromati. Ithome was the citadel of Messene, on a mountain of the same name, now called Vourcano.

Note return to page It is supposed that in ancient times it occupied the site of the more modern Samos or Samia in Triphylia. The modern Sareni is thought to occupy its site.

Note return to page Dorion or Dorium, the spot where, according to Homer, the Muses punished Thamyris with blindness, is supposed to have been situate on the modern plain of Sulima.

Note return to page Nothing seems to be known of this place; but it is not improbable that it gave its name to the place so called in Sicily, originally a Messenian colony.

Note return to page Or Tænarus, afterwards called Cænopolis. The present town of Kisternes, or Kimaros, occupies its site.

Note return to page Its site is generally placed at Sklavokhori, six miles from Sparta; but Leake supposes it to have been situate on the hill called Aghia Kyriaki, between that place and Sparta.

Note return to page Or Pharis. The present Chitries occupies its site.

Note return to page Or Leuctrum, on the river Pamisus, now called Levtros. It must not be confounded with the town in Bœotia where the Thebans defeated the Spartans, B.C. 371.

Note return to page Or Lacedæmon. Its site is occupied by the modern villages of Magula and Psykhiko. The principal modern town in the vicinity is Mistra.

Note return to page Or Therapne, on the left bank of the Eurotas. Some ruins of it are still to be seen.

Note return to page Considerable ruins of it are still to be seen to the N.E. of the modern town of Skarhamula.

Note return to page Authors are not agreed as to the site of this town and that of Anthea or Anthene.

Note return to page Memorable for the pitched battle between 300 Argives and 300 Spartans,—Othryades being the sole survivor of the Spartans, and Alcenor and Chromius of the Argives.

Note return to page By Homer called Enope.

Note return to page Pente Dactylon, or Pente Dactyli, the "Five Fingers," is the present name of the range of Taygetus. Its principal summits are now St. Elias and Paixamadhi. The river Eurotas is now called Iris and Niris in its upper and middle course, and Basili-potamo from the Spartan plain to the sea.

Note return to page Ægila, according to Leake, occupied the site of the present Scutari; if so, this gulf was probably the Gulf of Scutari. Psamathus was near the point of Tænarum.

Note return to page Or Gythium, near the mouth of the Eurotas. It was famous for its cheeses. The ruins are called Paleopoli, a little to the north of Marathonisi.

Note return to page Now Capo Santo Angelo.

Note return to page Now Capo Skillo.

Note return to page Or BϾ. Its ruins are to be seen at the head of the Gulf of Vatika.

Note return to page It stood on the site of the place called Palee-Emvasia, above Monembasia.

Note return to page Its site is the modern Porto Kari, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Leake places Cyphanta either at Cyparissi, or farther north, at Lenidhi. Ansart makes it the modern Porto Botte, or Stilo.

Note return to page Now the Banitza. The Erasinus is the modern Kephalari.

Note return to page So called from its breed of horses. It is now also called Argos; three leagues from Napoli di Romania.

Note return to page Its site is now called Milos. In the marshes in its vicinity Hercules was said to have killed the Lernæan Hydra.

Note return to page Karvata is the name of the place on its site. Its ruins are numerous, and of great magnificence.

Note return to page Its ruins are of the most interesting nature, presenting enormous masses of stone, of Cyclopian architecture. The spot is at the present day called Palæ-Nauplia.

Note return to page It must not be confounded with the place in Arcadia, where Epaminondas fell. Its site appears to be unknown.

Note return to page Or Apesas, in the territory of Cleonæ, now called Fuka. Artemius is probably the present Malvouni, or Malcyo.

Note return to page A river of the same name rose in this mountain; its identity is unknown.

Note return to page So called from Niobe, the sister of Pelops and wife of Amphion, king of Thebes. The spring of Amymone ran into the lake of Lerna.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the modem village of Castri: they are very extensive.

Note return to page The modern Dhamala occupies the site of Trœzen.

Note return to page The identity of this Coryphasium seems to be unascertained. There was a promontory of that name in Messenia; but it cannot be the place here spoken of.

Note return to page It is supposed that Pliny here alludes to Argos Hippium, which he has previously mentioned; but only in connection with the rivers Inachus and Erasinus, and not as included in the list of the towns of Argolis. The origin of the term "Dipsian" is probably unknown. It could hardly allude to drought, as Argos was abundantly supplied with water. But see B. vii. c. 57.

Note return to page Ansart says that this is the modern Porto Estremo, at the mouth of the Saronic Gulf.

Note return to page Hesychius says that oaks were called σαρωνιδὲς in the language of ancient Greece. This gulf is now called the Gulf of Egina, or of Athens.

Note return to page He was worshipped here under the form of a serpent; and his temple, five miles from Epidaurus, was resorted to by patients from all parts of Greece for the cure of their diseases. The ruins of this temple are still to be seen, and those of the theatre at Epidaurus are very extensive. The village of Pidharvo stands in the midst of the ruins.

Note return to page The modern Capo Franco.

Note return to page Lapie takes Anthedus, or Anthedon, to be the place now called Porto d'Athene.

Note return to page This appears to have been a port of Corinth, on a promontory of the same name, meaning, probably from its shape, the "Bull's Head Point."

Note return to page Called the 'Posideium'; in its vicinity the games were celebrated. The Isthmian Sanctuary was especially famous as a place of refuge.

Note return to page From δρυμωδὴς, "woody," it being filled with groves and forests.

Note return to page Now called the Khan of Tripotamo.

Note return to page Now called Paleopoli. Here Epaminondas fell, fighting against the Spartans, B.C. 362.

Note return to page In the N.E. of Arcadia. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near the modern Chionia. It was in the vicinity of the lake of the same name, the scene of one of the labours of Hercules.

Note return to page An important city: the modern Piali marks its site.

Note return to page Built upon the ruins of the ancient Mantinea.

Note return to page An ancient town mentioned by Homer, N.W. of Mantinea. The modern Kalpaki stands on its site.

Note return to page Or Pheneus, on the N.W. of Arcadia. Phonia stands on its site.

Note return to page Near Tegea; said to have been the birth-place of Evander. On the foundation of Megalopolis, it was nearly deserted, but was restored by Antoninus Pius. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near the modern village of Thana, according to Ansart.

Note return to page It being said to have been so called in compliment to Evander, a native, as above stated, of Palantium.

Note return to page Founded by the advice of Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra, B.C. 371, near the frontiers of Messenia. The ruins of its theatre, once the largest in Greece, are the only remains of it now to be seen, near the modern village of Sinano.

Note return to page It contained a famous temple of Æsculapius. Its ruins are to be seen near the village of Atzikolo. The exact site of Bucolion, which was near Megalopolis, is probably unknown, though Ansart says that the spot is called Troupiais. Of Carnion nothing is known.

Note return to page The town of Parrhasia, which is mentioned by Homer, seems to have given name to the Parrhasian district. Leake thinks it to be the same as Lycosura.

Note return to page On the river Ladon: its ruins are seen near the modern Vanena.

Note return to page In the west of Arcadia, on the river Alpheus.

Note return to page Or "Juno's Town." It was a place of great importance, situate on the lower Alpheus. Its remains are to be seen on a hill west of the village of Aianni, or St. John. They are very inconsiderable. Its wine was highly esteemed, and still maintains its ancient celebrity.

Note return to page Of Pylæ, Pallene, Agree, and Epium, nothing appears to be known.

Note return to page Or Cynætha, in the north of Arcadia, upon the Aroanian mountains, beyond the natural boundaries of Arcadia. The modern village of Kalavryta occupies its site; but there are scarcely any traces of its remains.

Note return to page Or Lepreum, so called to distinguish it from Lepreum in Elis.

Note return to page Nothing seems to be known of this Parthenium. Alea lay between Orchomenus and Stymphalus. Its ruins have been discovered in the dark valley of Skotini, a mile to the N.E. of the village of Buyati.

Note return to page Its site has the modern name of Palæopyrgos. The sites of Enispe, mentioned by Homer, and Macistum, are unknown.

Note return to page Or Cleitor, a famous town of Arcadia. Its ruins are to be seen on the plain of Kalzana, or Katzanes. One of the rivulets that ran past it still retains the name of Clitora.

Note return to page Its ruins, few in number, but testifying its importance, are found near the modern village of Kleves, not far from Kurtesi. The Nemean games were celebrated in honour of Hercules in the grove of Nemea, between Cieonæ and Phlius.

Note return to page From the village of Bembina there, mentioned by Strabo, and on which Koutzomati probably now stands.

Note return to page Now called Olono. It received its name from the Centaur Pholus, accidentally slain by one of the poisoned arrows of Hercules.

Note return to page The modern Zyria.

Note return to page Nomiai and Hellenitza are modern names given to this mountain.

Note return to page In the south of Arcadia. It is now called Roinon.

Note return to page Or Artemisium, forming the boundary between Argolis and Arcadia. It is now called Turniki.

Note return to page The pass by this mountain from Argolis to Tegea is still called Partheni.

Note return to page Now called Zembi, according to Ansart.

Note return to page The town of Nonacris stood at its foot. The river Styx took its rise in these mountains.

Note return to page Now called the Landona.

Note return to page The town now called Fonia, already mentioned by Pliny. The waters of its marshes were discharged by a subterranean passage, said to have been made by Hercules.

Note return to page Now called the Dogana. The two principal heights of Mount Erymanthus are Olonos and Kalefoni.

Note return to page The people of Aliphira, a town of Arcadia, in the district of Cynura. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill of Nerovitza.

Note return to page The people of Abea, in Messenia.

Note return to page people of Pyrgos, in Arcadia.

Note return to page The people of Parorea, in Arcadia. Of the two next, nothing appears to be known.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Typaneæ, in Elis.

Note return to page The people of Thrius, in Elis, near Patræ.

Note return to page The people of Tritia, in Achaia, now Chalanthistra.

Note return to page Nero abolished the institutions of the Roman province of Achaia, which had been assigned to the Roman senate, and governed by a proconsul, granting it its liberty. Vespasian, however, again established the provincial government, and compelled the Greeks to pay a yearly tribute.

Note return to page Now Vostitza.

Note return to page See p. 281.

Note return to page From the Greek ἀκτὴ, "the sea-shore."

Note return to page It still retains its ancient name.

Note return to page Or Pegæ. It lay on the borders of the Corinthian Gulf, being, as Pliny says, the utmost point of the Peloponnesus on that side, as Megara was on the Saronic Gulf. According to Kruse, Psato occupies its site, but according to Lapie, Alepochori. The former is most probably correct.

Note return to page On the Corinthian Gulf. Porto Ghermano occupies its site.

Note return to page On the Saronic Gulf, to the north of Cenchreæ. The present Porto Cocosi occupies its site.

Note return to page Now Leandra, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Or Crommyon. It was the chief place on the Saronic Gulf, between the Isthmus, properly so called, and Megara. Its rains are thought to be those seen near the chapel of Saint Theodorus. It was said to have been the haunt of the wild boar killed by Theseus.

Note return to page So called from being the scene of the ravages of the robber Sciron. They are now called Kaki Scala.

Note return to page Famous as the principal seat of the worship of the goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Its remains are to be seen at the modern Lefsina.

Note return to page Pera Chora marks its site. It was a member of the Tetrapolis of Attica, and Probalinthos another.

Note return to page Ulrichs, the best authority, places the port of Phalerum at the east corner of the great Phaleric Bay, in the vicinity of Tripirghi, or the Three Towers. The three harbours of the Piræus are the present Phanari, Stratiotiki or Paschalimani, and Drako or Porto Leone.

Note return to page The Piræus was united to the city by two walls, called the "Long Walls," forty stadia in length. The length of the Phaleric wall was thirty-five stadia.

Note return to page It is to be regretted that such was his opinion. He could have well spared space for a description of it.

Note return to page The city of Cephisia, still called Kivisia, was one of the twelve cities of Cecrops. The fountain of transparent water is still to be seen here.

Note return to page Or the "Nine Springs." It was the only source of good water for drinking purposes in Athens. This spring is still called by its ancient name. Of Larine nothing seems to be known.

Note return to page This is thought to have been the ancient name of the mountain afterwards known as Pentelicus, so famous for its marble, now called Mendeli or Penteli.

Note return to page The northern or Greater Hymettus is now called Telo-Vuni, the southern or Lesser Mavro-Vuni.

Note return to page On the N.E. of Athens, now called the Hill of Saint George.

Note return to page Probably on the river of the same name.

Note return to page Now Capo Colonna.

Note return to page North of Sunium and the modern bay of Panorimo. Thoricus was one of the Demi of Attica.

Note return to page This was the name of two Demi, though probably one place. It lay on the east coast to the north of Thoricus. Its harbour was probably the modern Dhaskalio; and the town is placed by Leake at the ruins called Paleokastro, to the south of the village of Dardheza.

Note return to page On the east coast, between Prasiæ and Brauron.

Note return to page One of the twelve ancient cities of Cecrops, on the eastern coast. Its name is supposed to be preserved in those of the villages Vraona and Paleo Vraona.

Note return to page A Demus belonging to the tribe Æantis. It was famous for its temple of Nemesis, the goddess of retribution. The present Obrio Castro occupies its site.

Note return to page Memorable for the defeat of the Persians by the Athenians, B.C. 490. The site of the ancient town of Marathon is thought not to have been at the modern village of Marathon, but a place called Vrana, to the south of it.

Note return to page The eastern part of the Eleusinian plain was thus called, from the Demus of Thria. Its exact site is uncertain.

Note return to page Melite was a Demus of the tribe Cecropis, of Athens, west of the inner Ceramicus.

Note return to page Now Oropo, on the eastern frontiers of Bœotia and Attica, near the Euripus. It originally belonged to the Bœotians.

Note return to page Its ruins are supposed to be those seen eight miles from Egripo. Lukisi has also been suggested.

Note return to page Its ruins are still to be seen on the S.W. slope of Mount Faga.

Note return to page On the S.E. slope of Mount Helicon. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Eremo or Rimokastro.

Note return to page Now Livadhia. The celebrated cave of Trophonius stood in its vicinity.

Note return to page Extensive remains of it are still to be seen; but the modern town of Theba or Stiva stands only on the site of its ancient Cadmea or citadel.

Note return to page To distinguish it from places of the same name in Egypt, Phthiotis, and Lucania.

Note return to page On the range of mountains of that name separating Bœotia from Megaris and Attica. The forest abounded in game, and the vicinity was a favourite scene of the poetic legends. Paleovuni is the highest summit of the Heliconian range. Leake fixes the Grove of the Muses at the present church of Saint Nicholas, at the foot of Mount Marandali, one of the summits of Helicon.

Note return to page These fountains or springs are very difficult to identify, but Hippocrene, or the "Iorse-Spring" (said to have been produced by Pegasus striking the ground with his feet), was probably at the present Makariotissa; while Aganippe is the fountain that flows midway between Paleo-panaghia and Pyrgaki.

Note return to page This place was originally a member of the Bœotian confederacy, but joined the Athenians, though it did not become an Attic Demus. Leake thinks that its ruins are those seen at Myupoli. Ross thinks that it stood to the east of Ghyfto-kastro, while other writers are of opinion that it stood more to the west, near the modern village of Kundara.

Note return to page Razed to the ground by the Roman prætor Lucretius, for having espoused the cause of king Perseus. Its remains are seen about a mile from the village of Mazi, on the road from Thebes to Lebadæa.

Note return to page Memorable for the defeat of the Persians under Mardonius, B.C. 479.

Note return to page Distant twenty stadia from Orchomenus. Leake places it at the modern Izamali, Forchhammer at Avro-Kastro.

Note return to page Its site is uncertain. Leake supposes it to be at Paleokastro, between the north end of Lake Hylica and the foot of Mount Palea. Ulrichs places it at the south end of the lake.

Note return to page The modern Kakosia occupies its site.

Note return to page At the foot of Mount Cithæron. Leake places it eastward of Katzula, at the foot of the rocks there.

Note return to page Leake identifies it with the ruins on the torrent of Plataniki, below the mountain of Siamata. Pausanias says it was situate seven stadia beyond Teumessus, and at the foot of Hypatus, now Siamata.

Note return to page On Lake Copaïs. The modern village of Topolia occupies its site.

Note return to page The waters of the Cephisus here burst forth from their subterraneous channel.

Note return to page On Lake Copaïs. Its ruins are at a short distance to the south of the modern Kardhitza.

Note return to page South of Mount Helicon. Its principal remains are those of its theatre, a temple of Hera, and the agora or market-place.

Note return to page On the borders of Phocis; famous for the battles fought in its vicinity between the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 447, and between Philip of Macedon and the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 338, and that in which Sylla defeated the generals of Mithridates B.C. 86. It stood on the site of the modern village of Kapurna.

Note return to page On the river Copais, at the foot of Mount Tilphusion.

Note return to page On the river of that name, and on the road from Thebes to Anthedon.

Note return to page Its site appears to be unknown.

Note return to page Enumerated by Homer with Aulis. Ancient critics have, without sufficient reason, identified it with Hysiæ.

Note return to page It was sacked by the Athenians, B.C. 413, and in ruins in the time of Pausanias.

Note return to page The modern Grimadha or Grimala occupies its site.

Note return to page The modern channel of Egripo.

Note return to page The place where the Grecian fleet assembled when about to sail for Troy. Leake says that its harbour is now called Vathy, evidently from the Greek βαθὺς, "wide."

Note return to page So called from dwelling near Mount Cnemis.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen three miles from the modern Talanti.

Note return to page Now the Golfo di Talanti.

Note return to page On the Eubœan Sea, which here extended to the Corinthian Gulf. It was in ruins in the time of Strabo. Cynus was the chief sea-port of the Locri Opuntii. Its site is marked by a tower called Palæopyrgo, and some ruins to the south of the village of Livanates.

Note return to page The modern village of Lefti stands on its site, and there are some ruins to be seen.

Note return to page In C. iv. of this Book.

Note return to page Or Cnemides, a fortress built on the range of Mount Cnemis, near the modern Nikoraki.

Note return to page Ravaged by Philip of Macedon. Its ruins are near the modern village of Vogdhani.

Note return to page The Lower Larymna. Its ruins are seen between the modern Matzumadi and Martini.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Andera.

Note return to page Between Daphnus and Cynus. Gell found its ruins on a hill near the sea-shore.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen three miles from those of Thronium.

Note return to page Now called the Gulf of Zeitoun. The people from whom it received its name were the Malienses.

Note return to page Its ruins are two leagues from the modern town of Zeitoun.

Note return to page Or Sperchia.

Note return to page Strabo says that it lay below the town of Pindus. It is perhaps the present Palæo Choria.

Note return to page Its ruins are placed by Leake near the modern Mariolates.

Note return to page Like Pindus, one of the four towns or Tetrapolis of Doris. Its site corresponds to the modern Gravia.

Note return to page He seems to think that the name Græcus is older than that of Hellen, in which he is supported by Apollodorus.

Note return to page So called from Echion, fabled to have sprung from the dragon's teeth. Its site is marked by the modern village called Akhino. The Sperchius is now called the Ellada.

Note return to page This famous spot still retains its name. It is also called Bocca di Lupo.

Note return to page From τραξὺς, "narrow," in allusion to the narrowness of the mountain passes. Brotier places it on the site of the modern Zeitoun, but he is probably in error.

Note return to page A peak of the range of Œta.

Note return to page The name of a town and small district of Phthiotis: it eventually gave its name to the whole of Greece, which by its inhabitants was called Hellas.

Note return to page Near the river Amphrysus. Leake places it at Kefalosi, at the extremity of Mount Othrys.

Note return to page The modern Zeitoun.

Note return to page Said to have been the city of Achilles.

Note return to page According to Stephanus of Byzantium, Cierium was identical with Arne. Leake places it at the modern Mataranga.

Note return to page So called from the people called Minyæ, who derived their name from Minyas, the father of Orchomenus. In the time of Strabo, this city, the capital of the Minyan empire, was in ruins. Its site is now called Seripu.

Note return to page Leake places its site on the left bank of the Peneius, opposite the village of Gunitza.

Note return to page The residence of Admetus, and in later times of the tyrants of Thessaly. The modern Valestina occupies its site.

Note return to page Spoken of in C. 17 of the present book.

Note return to page The ancient capital of the Pelasgi. It is now called Larissa, Larza, or Ienitchen.

Note return to page Leake places Gomphi on the heights now called Episkopi, on the left bank of the Bliuri.

Note return to page Its ruins are said to be seen about eight miles from the modern city of Volo.

Note return to page The city of Volo stands on its site. The Gulf is called the Bay of Volo.

Note return to page This is not strictly correct. Demetrias was founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes, about two or three miles to the west of Pagasa, the inhabit- ants of which were removed to that place. Its remains are to be seen, according to Leake, on the face of a maritime height called Goritza.

Note return to page Pharsalus, now Farsa or Fersala, in Thessaliotis. On its plain Pompey was defeated by Cæsar, B.C. 48.

Note return to page Or Cranon; said to have been anciently called Ephyre. Leake places its site at some ruins called Palea Larissa, distant two hours and twenty-seven minutes' journey from Larissa. It was the residence of the powerful family of the Scopadæ.

Note return to page This range in Macedonia is now called Verria. Herodotus states that it was impassable for cold, and that beyond were the gardens of Midas, where roses grew spontaneously.

Note return to page The name of the eastern part of the great mountain chain extending west and east from the Promontory of Acroceraunia on the Adriatic to the Thermaic Gulf. It is now called by the Greeks Elymbo, and by the Turks Semavat-Evi, the "Abode of the Celestials." A portion of this range was called Pierus; and Ossa, now Kissavo, the "ivy-clad," was divided from Olympus on the N.W. by the Vale of Tempe. Othrys extended from the south of Mount Pindus, to the eastern coast and the Promontory between the Gulf of Pagasa and the northern point of Eubœa.

Note return to page Now called Plessedhi or Zagora; situate in the district of Magnesia in Thessaly, between lake Bœbeis and the Pagasæan Gulf.

Note return to page Now the Gouropotamo.

Note return to page Flowing into the Asopus near Thermopylæ.

Note return to page In Pieria. Supposed to be the modern Litokhoro.

Note return to page The modern Rajani.

Note return to page This lake received the rivers Onchestus, Amyrus, and others. It is now called Karla, from an adjoining village which has ceased to exist. The town of Bœbe was in its vicinity.

Note return to page Now the Salambria or Salamria.

Note return to page The jugerum was properly 240 feet long and 120 broad, but Pliny uses it here solely as a measure of length; corresponding probably to the Greek πλέθρον, 100 Grecian or 104 Roman feet long. Tempe is the only channel through which the waters of the Thessalian plain flow into the sea.

Note return to page Il. B. ii. c. 262. He alludes to the poetical legend that the Orcus or Titaresius was a river of the infernal regions. Its waters were impregnated with an oily substance, whence probably originated the story of the unwillingness of the Peneus to mingle with it. It is now called the Elasonitiko or Xeraghi.

Note return to page Near Libethrum; said to be a favourite haunt of the Muses, whence their name "Libethrides." It is near the modern Goritza.

Note return to page Leake places its site on the height between the southernmost houses of Volo and Vlakho-Makhala. No remains of it are to be seen.

Note return to page Ansart says that on its site stands the modern Korakai Pyrgos.

Note return to page Near Neokhori, and called Eleutherokhori.

Note return to page Now Kortos, near Argalisti, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Now Haghios Georgios, or the Promontory of St. George.

Note return to page At the foot of Mount Pelion. Leake places it at some ruins near a small port called Tamukhari. The chestnut tree derived its Greek and modern name from this place, in the vicinity of which it still abounds.

Note return to page Probably near the village of Hagia Eutimia, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Now Trikeri.

Note return to page Melibœa was near the modern Mintzeles, and Rhizus near Pesi Dendra, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Ansart says, in the vicinity of the modern Conomio.

Note return to page Situate at the foot of Mount Homole, between Tempe and the village of Karitza. Leake thinks that the Convent of St. Demetrius, on the lower part of Mount Kissavo, stands on its site.

Note return to page Now Tournovo, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Now called Democo, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Between the Titaresius and the Peneus. The modern village of Tatari stands on its site.

Note return to page Probably the place of the same name mentioned in the last Chapter.

Note return to page Probably the same as Acharræ on the river Pamisus, mentioned by Livy, B. xxxii. c. 13.

Note return to page On the Dotian Plain, mentioned by Hesiod, and probably the same place that Pindar calls Lacereia.

Note return to page The birth-place of Protesilaüs, the first victim of the Trojan war.

Note return to page Nothing is known of this place. The word "porro" appears instead of it in some editions.

Note return to page Philip, the Conqueror of Greece, and Alexander, the Conqueror of Asia.

Note return to page The original Emathia, as mentioned by Homer, is coupled with Pieria as lying between the Hellenic cities of Thessaly and Pæonia, and Thrace.

Note return to page A tribe of the south-west of Mœsia, and extending over a part of Illyricum. According to Strabo, they were a wild race, of filthy habits, living in caves under dunghills, but fond of music.

Note return to page A people of Mœsia, mentioned in C. 29 of the last Book.

Note return to page Supposed by some writers to be the same place as Edessa. Ansart says it is the spot now known as Moglena.

Note return to page Now Verria in Roumeia. St. Paul and Silas withdrew to this place from Thessalonica. The remains are very considerable.

Note return to page Described by Livy as of great strength. It occupied the site of the modern Stagus.

Note return to page Surnamed Lyncestis; the chief town of Upper Macedonia. It must have stood not far from the modern town of Felurina.

Note return to page Now the Platamona.

Note return to page Now Kitron. The Romans usually called it Citron or Citrus.

Note return to page In the inmost recess of the Thermaic Gulf. Leake supposes it to have occupied the site of the present Palea Khora, near Kapsokhori.

Note return to page Now the Vistritza, by the Turks called Inje-Karra. Cæsar calls it the boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly.

Note return to page The people apparently of Aloros just mentioned.

Note return to page Vallæ and Phylacæ appear to have been two towns of Pieria.

Note return to page The people of Cyrrhus; probably on the site of the present Vistritza. Leake however makes a place called Paleokastro to occupy its site. Tyrissæ was probably in its vicinity.

Note return to page Now Alaklisi, upon a lake formed by the Lydias. Philip made it the capital of Macedonia, and it was the birth-place of Alexander the Great. It was made a Roman colony under the name of Julia Augusta Pella.

Note return to page Its ruins are still called Stoli.

Note return to page There were two places of this name in Macedonia; one called Antigonia Psaphara in Chalcidice, and the other in Pæonia.

Note return to page Between Idomene and the plains of Pella. As Pliny here says, it was a different place from Europus of Almopia, by which the Rhœdias flows. Of the following places nothing seems to be known.

Note return to page Coupled by Herodotus with Pella. Eordæa seems to have been the name of the district on the river Eordaicus, identified with the modern Devol.

Note return to page They dwelt in the vicinity of Mount Scomium. The river Axius is the modern Vardhari.

Note return to page Or Thrace.

Note return to page People of Paroræa in Thrace.

Note return to page The people probably of Eordæa, already mentioned.

Note return to page Leake thinks that Almopia was the name of the district now called Moglena.

Note return to page The Mygdones were a Thracian people in the east of Macedonia, on the Thermaic Gulf.

Note return to page The people of Arethusa, a town of Bisaltia in Macedonia, in the pass of Aulon. Euripides, the tragic poet, was buried here.

Note return to page A town of Mygdonia.

Note return to page The people of Idomene, a town about twelve miles from the pass of Stena, now Demirkapi, or the 'Iron Gate,' on the river Vardhari.

Note return to page Their district of Doberus is supposed to have been near the modern Doghiran.

Note return to page It has been suggested that Garescus stood on the same site as the modern Nurocopo. Many of these peoples are now entirely unknown.

Note return to page The people of Lyncestis, in Macedonia, of Illyrian origin and on the frontiers of Illyria. Lyncus was the ancient capital, Heraclæa the more modern one.

Note return to page Probably the inhabitants of the slopes of Mount Othrys.

Note return to page Amantia was properly in Illyria, to the south of the river Aoüs. Leake places it at Nivitza.

Note return to page A people of the north of Epirus, on the borders of Macedonia. They were said to have derived their name from Orestes, who, after the murder of his mother, founded in their territory the town of Argos Oresticum.

Note return to page A Greek city of Illyria. Dr. Holland discovered its remains at Graditza on the Aoüs or Viosa.

Note return to page The bulwark of the Macedonian maritime frontier to the south. Leake discovered its site near the modern Malathria.

Note return to page On the right bank of the river Strymon in Thracian Macedonia. It stood on the site of the modern Zervokhori.

Note return to page A people of Epirus on the borders of Thessaly.

Note return to page In Mygdonia, at the mouth of the Axius—King Perseus put all its male inhabitants to death. Its site was at or near the modern Kulakia.

Note return to page Now Saloniki. Its original name was Thermæ, but it was first made an important city by Cassander, B.C. 315, who gave it its new name in honour of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great: S, Paul visited it about A.D. 53, and two years after addressed from Corinth two Epistles to his converts in the city.

Note return to page Polybius says, in Strabo, B. vii., 267 miles.

Note return to page As already mentioned, Thermæ became merged in Thessalonica, when refounded by Cassander under that name.

Note return to page Now the Gulf of Saloniki.

Note return to page This is probably an error. Pydna, already mentioned, lay far inland in the district of Pieria.

Note return to page On the peninsula of Pallene. Its male inhabitants were put to death by the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war.

Note return to page Now Capo Paliuri, the extreme point of the Isthmus of Pallene.

Note return to page The most westerly of the three peninsulas of Chalcidice. Phlegra is generally understood to have been its former name.

Note return to page Perhaps the same as Nyssa, between the rivers Nestus or Mestus, and Strymon.

Note return to page Its ruins are now called Pinaka. It was a colony of the Corinthians, but refounded by Cassander, King Philip having previously destroyed the city.

Note return to page South-east of Thessalonica, and north of Chalcidice. It was given by King Philip to the Olynthians.

Note return to page Near Mount Athos.

Note return to page Now Molivo, at the head of the Toronaic Gulf, part of which thence took its name.

Note return to page The name of a promontory at the extremity of the peninsula of Si- thonia, in Chalcidice. It seems to correspond with the modern Cape Kartali.

Note return to page In the district of Chalcidice, on the S.W. of the peninsula of Sithonia.

Note return to page On the east of the peninsula of Sithonia. It gave its name to the Sinus Singiticus or Singitic Gulf.

Note return to page Now Monte Santo, at the end of the long peninsula running out from Chalcidice.

Note return to page This is a mistake. It is only forty miles in length. From Lieut. Smith (Journal of Royal Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 65) we learn that its average breadth is about four miles; consequently Pliny's statement as to its circumference must be greatly exaggerated. Juvenal, Sat. x. l. 174, mentions the story of the canal as a specimen of Greek falsehood; but distinct traces have survived, to be seen by modern travellers, all the way from the Gulf of Monte Santo to the Bay of Erso in the Gulf of Contessa, except about 200 yards in the middle, which has been probably filled up.

Note return to page Or Acrothöum. Pliny, with Strabo and Mela, errs in thinking that it stood on the mountain. It stood on the peninsula only, probably on the site of the modern Lavra.

Note return to page Or the 'Heaven City,' from its elevated position. It was founded by Alexarchus, brother of Cassander, king of Macedon.

Note return to page Probably on the west side of the peninsula, south of Thyssus.

Note return to page Or "long-lived."

Note return to page Now Erisso; on the east side of the Isthmus, about a mile and a half from the canal of Xerxes. There are ruins here of a large mole.

Note return to page A little to the north of the Isthmus now called Stavro. It was the birth-place of Aristotle the philosopher, commonly called the Stagirite, and was, in consequence, restored by Philip, by whom it had been destroyed; or, as Pliny says in B. vii. c. 30, by Alexander the Great.

Note return to page The name of the central one of the three peninsulas projecting from Chalcidice. The poets use the word Sithonius frequently as signifying 'Thracian.'

Note return to page Possibly not the same as the Heraclea Sintica previously mentioned.

Note return to page Now called Pollina, south of Lake Bolbe, on the road from Thessalonica to Amphipolis.

Note return to page Sacred to Poseidon or Neptune. Now Capo Stavros in Thessaly, the west front of the Gulf of Pagasa, if indeed this is the place here meant.

Note return to page On the left or eastern bank of the river Strymon, which flowed round it, whence its name Amphi-polis, "round the city." Its site is now occupied by a village called Neokhorio, in Turkish Jeni-Keni or "New- town." A few remains are still to be seen. The bay at the mouth of the Strymon, now Struma or Kara-Sou, is called the Gulf of Orphano.

Note return to page A Thracian people, extending from the river Strymon on the east to Crestonica on the west.

Note return to page In Mount Scomius namely, one of the Hæmus or Balkan range.

Note return to page Under Alexander the Great. On his death his empire was torn in pieces by the contentions of his generals.

Note return to page In allusion to the legendary accounts of the Indian expeditions of Bacchus and Hercules.

Note return to page On the conquest of Perseus. Plutarch says that these seventy cities were pillaged in one and the same hour. They were thus punished for their support of Perseus.

Note return to page Alexander the Great and Paulus Æmilius.

Note return to page Or præfectures, as the Romans called them.

Note return to page In the last Chapter.

Note return to page An extensive tribe occupying the country about the rivers Axius, Strymon, and Nestus or Mestus.

Note return to page This river is now called the Mesto or Kara-Sou.

Note return to page A range between the Strymon and the Nestus, now the Pangea or Despoto-Dagh.

Note return to page Probably a canton or division of the Bessi.

Note return to page The most powerful people of Thrace; dwelling on both sides of the Artiscus, and on the plain of the Hebrus.

Note return to page Now the Maritza. It rises near the point where Mount Scomius joins Mount Rhodope. The localities of most of the tribes here named are unknown.

Note return to page The name of this people is often used by the poets to express the whole of Thrace. The district of Edonis, on the left bank of the Strymon, properly extended from Lake Cercinitis as far east as the river Nestus.

Note return to page Or "Trouble City," also called Eumolpias.

Note return to page Or "Philip's City;" founded by Philip of Macedon; still called Philippopoli.

Note return to page Because it stood on a hill with three summits. Under the Roman empire it was the capital of the province of Thracia.

Note return to page On account probably of the winding nature of the roads; as the height of the Balkan range in no part exceeds 3000 feet. With Theopompus probably originated the erroneous notion among the ancients as to its exceeding height.

Note return to page The people of Mœsia. The Aorsi and Getæ are again mentioned in C. 25 of this Book.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the present Bulgaria, it is supposed.

Note return to page Following the account which represent him as a king of the Cicones, and dwelling in the vicinity of Mount Rhodope. The Sithonii here mentioned dwelt about the mouth of the Ister, or Danube, and were a different people from those of Sithonia, in Chalcidice, referred to in a previous note.

Note return to page The Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page It is difficult to conceive which place of this name is here alluded to, as there seem to have been four places on this coast so called, and all mentioned by Pliny in the present Book.

Note return to page Call Æsyma by Homer; between the rivers Strymon and Nestus.

Note return to page Now called Kavallo, on the Strymonic Gulf. The site of Datos appears to be unknown.

Note return to page Now called Filiba, or Felibejik, on a height of Mount Pangæus, on the river Gangites, between the Nestus and the Strymon. It was founded by Philip, on the site of the ancient town of Crenides, in the vicinity of the gold mines. Here Augustus and Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius, B.C. 42; and here the Apostle Paul first preached the Gospel in Europe, A.D. 53. See Acts xvi. 12.

Note return to page Its site seems unknown, but it is evidently a different place from that mentioned in the last Chapter.

Note return to page Also called Mestus.

Note return to page Sintica, previously mentioned.

Note return to page Now Aco Mamas, at the head of the Toronaic Gulf. It was the most important Greek city on the coast of Macedon. It was taken and destroyed by Philip, B.C. 347, and its inhabitants sold as slaves. Mecyberna, already mentioned, was used as its sea-port.

Note return to page On the coast, and east of the river Nestus. Its people were proverbial for their stupidity, though it produced the philosophers Democritus, Protagoras, and Anaxarchus. No traces of its site are to be found.

Note return to page Now called the Lagos Buru. The name of the Bistones is sometimes used by the poets for that of the Thracians in general.

Note return to page Or mares rather. Diomedes was the son of Ares, or Mars, and king of the Bistones. He was slain by Hercules.

Note return to page By some identified with the modern Curnu, by others with Bauron.

Note return to page Or Ismarus, at the foot of Mount Ismarus.

Note return to page Now Marogna.

Note return to page A promontory opposite the island of Samothrace.

Note return to page A town on a promontory of the same name, said to have been frequented by Orpheus.

Note return to page The Plain of Doriscus is now called the Plain of Romigik. Parisot suggests the true reading here to be 100,000, or, as some MSS. have it, 120,000, there being nothing remarkable in a plain containing 10,000 men. Pliny however does not mention it as being remarkable, but merely suggests that the method used by Xerxes here for numbering his host is worthy of attention.

Note return to page Now the Maritza. At its mouth it divides into two branches, the eastern forming the port of Stentor.

Note return to page Still called Enos.

Note return to page A son of Priam and Hecuba, murdered by Polymnestor, king of the Thracian Chersonesus, to obtain his treasures. See the Æneid, B. iii.

Note return to page From the Greek, μάκρον τεῖχος.

Note return to page Now the Gulf of Enos.

Note return to page Now Ipsala, or Chapsylar, near Keshan.

Note return to page Now Rodosto, or Rodostshig, on the coast of the Propontis, or Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page Now called the Peninsula of the Dardanelles, or of Gallipoli. The wall was built to protect it from incursions from the mainland.

Note return to page He here skips nearly five degrees of latitude, and at once proceeds to the northern parts of Thrace, at the mouth of the Danube, and moves to the south.

Note return to page Or, the "city of the Ister," at the south of Lake Halmyris, on the Euxine. Its site is not exactly known; but by some it is supposed to have been the same with that of the modern Kostendsje.

Note return to page Now Temesvar, or Jegni Pangola, the capital of Scythia Minor. It was said to have been so called from the Greek τέμνω, "to cut," because Medea here cut to pieces the body of her brother Absyrtus. It is famous as the place of Ovid's banishment; and here he wrote his 'Tristia' and his 'Pontic Epistles.'

Note return to page Usually identified with the modern Collat, or Collati.

Note return to page Its site does not appear to be known, nor yet those of many of the towns here mentioned.

Note return to page This story no doubt arose from the similarity of its name to γέρανος, "a crane;" the cranes and the Pigmies, according to the poets, being in a state of continual warfare.

Note return to page Supposed to be the present Varna.

Note return to page Now called Daphne-Soui, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Said to have been built by Aristæus, son of Apollo.

Note return to page Now Missivri.

Note return to page Or Anchiale, now Akiali.

Note return to page Now Sizeboli, famous for its temple of Apollo, with his statue, thirty cubits in height, which Lucullus carried to Rome. In later times it was called Sozopolis.

Note return to page Now Tiniada.

Note return to page The present Midjeh, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Afterwards called Zagora, which name it still bears.

Note return to page Or Straits of Constantinople.

Note return to page Between Galata and Fanar, according to Brotier.

Note return to page Or Golden Horn; still known by that name.

Note return to page The site of the present Constantinople.

Note return to page These rivers do not appear to have been identified.

Note return to page The present Silivri occupies its site.

Note return to page An important town of Thrace. Eski Erekli stands on its site.

Note return to page Now Vizia, or Viza.

Note return to page He alludes to the poetical story of Tereus, king of Thrace, Progne, and Philomela. Aldrovandus suggests that the real cause of the absence of the swallow is the great prevalence here of northern winds, to which they have an aversion.

Note return to page So called probably from the Thracian tribe of the Cænici, or Cæni.

Note return to page Now called Erkene, a tributary of the Hebrus.

Note return to page All that is known of it is, that it is mentioned as a fortress on the Propontis.

Note return to page Hexamila now occupies its site.

Note return to page The isthmus or neck of the Peninsula of Gallipoli, or the Dardanelles.

Note return to page That of Corinth. They are both about five miles wide at the narrowest part.

Note return to page Now Cardia, or Caridia. It was the birth-place of king Eumenes.

Note return to page From καρδία, in consequence of its supposed resemblance to a heart.

Note return to page Lysimachus destroyed Cardia, and, building Lysimachia, peopled it with the inhabitants.

Note return to page Mannert identifies it with the ancient Ægos and the modern Galata.

Note return to page More generally called Ægospotamos, the "Goat River," upon which the town of Ægos stood. It was here that Lysander defeated the Athenian fleet, B.C. 405, which put an end to the Peloponnesian war.

Note return to page Antoninus, in his Itinerary, makes this distance twenty-six miles.

Note return to page B. ii. c. 92. The present Straits of Gallipoli.

Note return to page Now Gallipoli, a place of considerable commercial importance.

Note return to page Now Ialova; famous in Grecian poetry, with Abydos, for the loves of Hero and Leander.

Note return to page Now Lamsaki.

Note return to page The village of Aidos, or Avido, probably marks its site. To the north, Xerxes passed over to Sestos on his bridge of boats, B.C. 480.

Note return to page Now Capo Helles.

Note return to page Now Jeni-Hisari, the N.W. promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the Grecian camp during the Trojan war.

Note return to page Meaning the "Bitch's tomb," the fable being that Hecuba, in her old age, was changed into that animal. It was near the town of Madytus.

Note return to page Meaning that their fleet was anchored off here during the Trojan war.

Note return to page A magnificent temple was erected near his tomb at Eleus, where he also had a sacred grove. It was greatly enriched by the votive offerings of Greek travellers. According to D'Anville, its site lay to the south of Mastusia.

Note return to page Now called Kilidbahr. Near this place the Spartans were defeated by the Athenians, who erected a trophy near the tomb of Hecuba.

Note return to page In the present Chapter; where he says that the distance from Byzantium to Dyrrhachium is 711 miles. See p. 305.

Note return to page αἲξ, "a goat." Other authors give other derivations for the name of Ægean,—from the town of Ægæ in Eubœa, or from Ægeus, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into it; or from Ægæa, a queen of the Amazons, who perished there; or from Ægæon, a god of the sea; or from the Greek αἰγὶς, "a squall," on account of its storms.

Note return to page See c. 5 of this Book.

Note return to page Both places in Eubœa, mentioned in c. 21 of this Book.

Note return to page Now Corfu. Of its city of Corcyra only a few ruins now exist.

Note return to page There are still some remains of it near the village called Cassopo.

Note return to page Now Fano, or Merlere.

Note return to page Now Paxo and Antipaxo.

Note return to page On the contrary, they lie at the other end of the isle of Corcyra. Some of them are mere rocks, and cannot be distinguished by their ancient names. The present names of four are Sametraki, Diaplo, Boaia, and the Isle of Ulysses.

Note return to page Now Capo Drasti.

Note return to page Now Capo Levkimo. The islands are those of Santo Niccolo.

Note return to page Or Islands of the Teleboans.

Note return to page These three seem to be those now called Magnisi, Kalamota, and Kastus. These lie facing the promontory of Leucadia, the others opposite Ætolia.

Note return to page Opposite Acarnania: by the Venetians they were called the Islands of Kurtzolari. Some of them are cultivated, others again are mere rocks.

Note return to page Now called Cephallenia.

Note return to page Now Zante.

Note return to page Now Thiaki, or Cefalogna Piccola—Little Cephallenia.

Note return to page The general opinion is, that Strabo is right in identifying this island with one of the Echinades; but it seems impossible now to say which of them was so called.

Note return to page Sometimes confounded with Cephallenia; but, according to Virgil and Mela, as well as Pliny, they were different islands.

Note return to page Crocylæa was a town of Acarnania, referred to by Homer; and there was a district of Ithaca called Crocyleium. Pliny is probably in error in mentioning Crocyle as an island.

Note return to page Or the "Black Island;" probably from its thick foliage.

Note return to page Pale, Cranii, and Proni.

Note return to page So called from its fir-trees. It now has the name of Scopo.

Note return to page Now Monte Stefano.

Note return to page See c. 6 of this Book.

Note return to page Supposed by some writers to be the same with the rocky isle now called Dyscallio. Though mentioned by Homer, its existence was disputed by many of the ancient commentators.

Note return to page The modern Strivali and Stamphane.

Note return to page The present Guardiania, according to Lapie.

Note return to page According to Ansart, these were Prote, now Prodano, and Sphagia, formerly Sphacteria, before Pylos, now called Zonchio, or Old Navarino; the third being perhaps the isle of Bechli, in the Bay of Navarino.

Note return to page Now called Sapienza, Santa Maria, and Cabrera.

Note return to page Venetico and Formignes are the names of two of them.

Note return to page Now Servi.

Note return to page The modern Cerigo.

Note return to page It is much further from the Cape of Malea or Santo Angelo than the distance here mentioned. It derived its name of Porphyris from the purple fishery established here by the Phœnicians.

Note return to page The modern Isle of Port Tolon. Irine is the present Hipsyli according to Leake, who also identifies Ephyre with Spetzia.

Note return to page At the south of Argolis.

Note return to page The modern Dhoko, according to Leake. Some authorities think that Tiparenus, and not Ephyre, is the modern Spetzia.

Note return to page Leake thinks that Colonis and Hydreia, now called Hydra, were the same island; but Kiepert thinks it the same as the small island to the south of Spetzia.

Note return to page Now Poros.

Note return to page These are the islands now called Moni Jorench, Kophinidia, and San Giorgio d'Arbora. It is perhaps impossible to identify them, except that Belbina is generally supposed to be the island of San Giorgio.

Note return to page Now Kyra.

Note return to page The modern Angistri.

Note return to page Which name, or Eghina, it still retains.

Note return to page See c. 9 of this Book.

Note return to page Probably the modern Laoussa, one of this group.

Note return to page By Brotier said to be the modern Pentenesia. The other islands here mentioned seem not to have been identified.

Note return to page Now Cerigotto.

Note return to page Dalechamps suggests Hesperus.

Note return to page The island "of the Blessed."

Note return to page Now Capo Salomon.

Note return to page From the Greek κριοῦ μέτωπον, "the ram's forehead"; now called Capo Crio.

Note return to page Also called Elæa. Pococke speaks of it as a promontory called Chaule-burnau.

Note return to page Hardouin calls it Chisamo.

Note return to page The modern Khania. The quince derived its Latin name, "Malum Cydonium," from this district, to which it was indigenous. From its Latin name it was called melicotone by the writers of the Elizabethan period.

Note return to page Now Minolo, according to Hardouin.

Note return to page The port of Apteron, or Aptera, which Mr. Pashley supposes to be denoted by the ruins of Palæokastro; he also thinks that its port was at or near the modern Kalyres.

Note return to page Now La Suda, according to Hardouin, who says that Rhithymna is called Retimo; Panormus, Panormo; and Cytæum, Setia.

Note return to page Supposed by Ansart to have stood in the vicinity of the modern city of Candia.

Note return to page Strabo says that it stood on the narrowest part of the island, opposite Minoa. Vestiges of it have been found at the Kastéle of Hierapetra. Its foundation was ascribed to the Corybantes.

Note return to page Now Lionda.

Note return to page Next to Cnossus in splendour and importance. Mr. Pashley places its site near the modern Haghius Dheka, the place of the martyrdom of the ten Saints, according to tradition, in the Decian persecution.

Note return to page It has been remarked, that Pliny is mistaken here if he intends to enumerate Cnossus among the towns of the interior of Crete. The only remains of this capital of Crete, situate on the north of the island, are those seen at Makro-Teikho, or the "Long Walls," so called from the masses of Roman brick-work there seen.

Note return to page Though an inland town, it probably stood in the vicinity of the headland or promontory of the same name, which is now called Kavo Stavro. Many of these names are utterly unknown.

Note return to page One of the most important towns of Crete, on the N.W. slope of Mount Ida, about fifty stadia from the port of Astale. Mr. Pashley says that some remains probably of tills place are still to be seen on a hill near a place called Eletherna, five miles south of the great convent of Arkadhi.

Note return to page The loftiest point of the mountain-range that traverses the island of Crete from west to east. Its head is covered with snow. The modern name is Psiloriti, looking down on the plain of Mesara. The word Ida is supposed to mean a mountain in which mines are worked, and the Idæi Dactyli of Crete were probably among the first workers in iron and bronze. The position of Mount Cadistus, belonging to the range of White Mountains, has been fixed by Hoeck at Cape Spadha, the most northerly point of the island. It is thought that Pliny and Solinus are in error in speaking of Cadistus and Dictynnæus as separate peaks, these being, both of them, names of the mountain of which the cape was formed; the latter name having been given in later times, from the worship and temple there of Dictynna.

Note return to page Now Grabusa, the N.W. promontory of Crete.

Note return to page Now Ras-al-Sem, or Cape Rasat, in Africa. The distance, according to Brotier, is in reality about 225 miles.

Note return to page Now Skarpanto.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, all of these are mere rocks rather than islands.

Note return to page The modern Haghios Theodhoros.

Note return to page According to Hoeck, they are now called Turlure.

Note return to page Now called Standiu.

Note return to page Now Capo Xacro, on the east, though Cape Salomon, further north, has been suggested. In the latter case, the Grandes islands would correspond with Onisia and Leuce, mentioned by Pliny.

Note return to page Now Gaidurognissa. None of the other islands here mentioned seem to have been identified.

Note return to page Between Eubœa and Locris. They are now called Ponticonesi.

Note return to page Now Koluri. It is memorable for the naval battle fought off its coast, when Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks, B.C. 480.

Note return to page Now called Lypsokutali.

Note return to page Now Makronisi, or "the Long Island." Its ancient name was also Macris. Strabo identifies it with the Homeric Cranaë, to which Paris fled with Helen.

Note return to page Usually called Cea, one of the Cyclades, about thirteen miles S.E. of Sunium. Its modern name is Zea. Iulis was the most important town, and the birth-place of the poets Simonides and Bacchylides, of the sophist Prodicus, the physician Erasistratus, and the Peripatetic philosopher Ariston. Extensive remains of it still exist.

Note return to page There are considerable remains of this town, called by the inhabit- ants Stais Palais.

Note return to page Or Coresia. It was the harbour of Iulis, to which place we learn from Strabo that its inhabitants were transferred.

Note return to page On the S.W. side of the island. Its ruins are inconsiderable, but retain their ancient name.

Note return to page Now called Eubœa, as also Egripo, or Negropont,—a corruption of the former word and "pont," "a bridge."

Note return to page Hardouin speaks of this as existing in his time, 1670, and being 250 feet in length. It is supposed to have been first constructed about B.C. 411, for the purpose of uninterrupted communication with Bœotia.

Note return to page Now Capo Mandili.

Note return to page Now Kavo Doro, or Xylofago.

Note return to page Now Lithadha, with a mountain 2837 feet above the sea.

Note return to page These measurements are not exactly correct. The length from north to south is about ninety miles; the extreme breadth across, thirty, and in one part, not more than four miles.

Note return to page Still extant in the time of Strabo, who speaks of it as an inconsiderable place.

Note return to page Its site is now called Lipso. It contained warm baths sacred to Hercules, and used by the Dictator Sylla. They are still to be seen.

Note return to page Now Egripo, or Negropont, having given name to the rest of the island. The Euripus is here only forty yards across, being crossed by a bridge, partly of stone, partly of wood. The poet Lycophron and the orator Isæus were natives of this place, and Aristotle died here.

Note return to page Near the promontory of that name, now Capo Mandili. In the town there was a famous temple of Poseidon, or Neptune. According to Hardouin, the modern name is Iastura.

Note return to page One of the most powerful cities of Eubœa. It was destroyed by the Persians under Darius, and a new town was built to the south of the old one. New Eretria stood, according to Leake, at the modern Kastri, and old Eretria in the neighbourhood of Vathy. The tragic poet Achæus, a contemporary of Æschylus, was born here; and a school of philosophy was founded at this place by Menedemus, a disciple of Plato.

Note return to page Now Karysto, on the south of the island, at the foot of Mount Ocha, upon which are supposed to have been its quarries of marble. There are but few remains of the ancient city. The historian Antigonus, the comic poet Apollodorus, and the physician Diocles, were natives of this place.

Note return to page Probably on the promontory of the same name. It was off this coast that the Greek fleet engaged that of Xerxes, B.C. 480.

Note return to page There were tame fish kept in this fountain; and its waters were sometimes disturbed by volcanic agency. Leake says that it has now totally disappeared.

Note return to page From the fact of its producing copper, and of its being in shape long and narrow.

Note return to page Strabo remarks, that Homer calls its inhabitants Abantes, while he gives to the island the name of Eubœa. The poets say that it took its name from the cow (βοῦς) Io, who gave birth to Epaphus on this island.

Note return to page Hardouin remarks here, that Pliny, Strabo, Mela, and Pausanias use the term "Myrtoan Sea," as meaning that portion of it which lies between Crete and Attica, while Ptolemy so calls the sea which lies off the coast of Caria.

Note return to page Now called Spitilus, and the group of Micronisia, or "Little Islands," according to Hardouin.

Note return to page From κύκλος, "a circle."

Note return to page Now Andro. It gives name to one of the comedies of Terence. The ruins of the ancient city were found by the German traveller Ross, who has published a hymn to Isis, in hexameter verse, which he discovered here. It was famous for its wines.

Note return to page Now Tino.

Note return to page From its abounding in snakes (ὄφεις) and scorpions.

Note return to page Now Mycono, south-east of Tenos and east of Delos. It was famous in ancient mythology as one of the places where Hercules was said to have defeated the Giants. It was also remarkable for the great proportion of bald persons among its inhabitants.

Note return to page So called from its resemblance to two breasts, μαζοι.

Note return to page Wheeler says that the distance is but three miles; Tournefort, six.

Note return to page Once famous for its gold and silver mines, but equally notorious for the bad character of its people. It is now called Siphno.

Note return to page Now Serpho, lying between Cythnos and Siphnus.

Note return to page Now Fermina, according to Hardouin.

Note return to page Between Ceos and Seriphus. It is now called Thermia. Cydias the painter was born here, and it was famous for its cheeses. Its modern name is derived from its hot springs, which are much frequented.

Note return to page Still called Delos; and, though so celebrated, nothing more than a mere rock, five miles in circumference.

Note return to page That is, according to Varro, whose statement is ridiculed by Seneca. Some of the editors, however, punctuate this passage differently, making it to mean, "the only island that has never experienced an earthquake. Mucianus however has informed us, that down to the time of M. Varro, it has been twice so visited."

Note return to page From its then becoming δῆλος, "plain," or "manifest." It was after the fall of Corinth that Delos became so famous for its commerce. Its bronze was in great request.

Note return to page From ὄρτυξ, "a quail"; the legend being, that Latona was changed into that bird by Jupiter, in order to effect her escape thither from the anger of Juno. Its name of Asteria was derived from ἄστρον, "a star," either in consequence of its being devoted to the worship of the great luminary Apollo, or of its being considered by the gods the star of the earth. It was also called Lagia, from λαγὼς, "a hare," that animal abounding there; and Cynæthus, from κύων, "a dog," it being famous for its hounds.

Note return to page A bare granite rock, not more than 500 feet in height. The island is now a mass of ruins; a great part of its remains having been carried away in the middle ages to Venice and Constantinople.

Note return to page Divided by a strait of four stadia in width from Delos. Nicias connected the two islands by a bridge. Its name of Celadussa was said to be derived from the noise of the waves, κέλαδος, and of Artemite, from Artemis, or Diana.

Note return to page Now Syra; famous for its wine and corn.

Note return to page Now Antiparos; famous for its stalactite grotto, which is not mentioned by the ancient writers.

Note return to page Now Paro; south of Delos and west of Naxos. The ruins of its town are still to be seen at the modern Paroikia. The Parian Chronicle, inscribed on marble, and containing a chronicle of Grecian history from Cecrops, B.C. 1582, to B.C. 264, was found here. It is preserved at Oxford.

Note return to page Chiefly obtained from a mountain called Marpessa.

Note return to page Now Naxia, famous both in ancient and modern times for its re- markable fertility.

Note return to page From στρογγύλος, "round," its shape being somewhat inclined to circular, though by Eustathius it is compared to the shape of a vine-leaf. It is commonly called Dia by the poets. Tournefort says that it is distant forty miles from Delos.

Note return to page From διόνυσος, or Bacchus, the god of wine.

Note return to page Or "Fine City." It took its other name from the fact of its rivalling the fertility of Sicily.

Note return to page According to Brotier, the Jesuit Babin, on visiting it, found its circumference estimated at thirty-six miles only.

Note return to page So called from lying scattered at random as it were, σπορὰς "scattered."

Note return to page Helene is supposed to be the modern Pira; Phacussa, Fecussa; Nicasia, Rachia; Schinussa, Schinusa; and Pholegandros, Policandro.

Note return to page Now Nikaria, to the west of Samos. According to tradition, it derived its name from Icarus, the son of Dædalus, who was believed to have fallen into the sea in its vicinity.

Note return to page Its length is not so great as is here mentioned by Pliny. Its towns were Drepanum, or Dracanum, Œnoë, and Isti.

Note return to page The first two names are from the Greek, in allusion to its long, narrow shape, and the last bears reference to the fact of its shores abounding in fish.

Note return to page Now Scyro, east of Eubœa, and one of the Sporades. Here Achilles was said to have been concealed by his mother Thetis, in woman's attire.

Note return to page Now Nio, one of the Sporades, inaccurately called by Stephanus one of the Cyclades. The modern town is built on the site of the ancient one, of which there are some remains. It was said that Homer died here, on his voyage from Smyrna to Athens, and that his mother, Clymene, was a native of this island. In 1773, Van Krienen, a Dutch nobleman, asserted that he had discovered the tomb of Homer here, with certain inscriptions relative to him; but they have been generally regarded by the learned as forgeries. Odia and Oletandros seem not to have been identified.

Note return to page Now called Gioura, or Jura. It was little better than a barren rock, though inhabited; but so notorious for its poverty, that its mice were said to be able to gnaw through iron. It was used as a place of banishment under the Roman emperors, whence the line of Juvenal, i. 73— "Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum." "Dare some deed deserving of the little Gyara and the gaol." It is now uninhabited, except by a few shepherds in the summer.

Note return to page Now Telos, or Piskopi, a small island in the Carpathian Sea, and one of the Sporades. It lies off the coast of Caria. Syrnos appears not to have been identified.

Note return to page Near Naxos. Virgil calls it 'viridis,' or 'green,' which Servius explains by the colour of its marble. Like Gyara, it was used as a place of banishment under the Roman Empire. In C. 22, Pliny has mentioned Cynæthus as one of the names of Delos.

Note return to page Now Patmo, one of the Sporades, and west of the Promontory of Posidium, in Caria. To this place St. John was banished, and here he wrote the Apocalypse.

Note return to page A group between Icaria and Samos. They are now called Phurni and Krusi.

Note return to page One of the Sporades, now Lebitha.

Note return to page Now Lero. Its inhabitants were of Milesian origin, and of indifferent character. In its temple of Artemis, the sisters of Meleager were said to have been changed into guinea-fowls. It was opposite the coast of Caria.

Note return to page Now Zinari, N.E. of Amorgos. The artichoke (called κίναρα in Greek) is said to have given name to it.

Note return to page Now Sikino; between Pholegandros and Ios.

Note return to page So called, according to Stephanus, from its cultivation of the vine and produce of wine, ονος. It was situate between Pholegandros and Ios. It was said to have had the name of Sicinus from a son of Thoas and Œnoë. Hieracia seems to be unknown.

Note return to page Still known by that name, and lying between Carpathus and Crete. The ruins of the ancient town of Casos are still to be seen at the village of Polin. It is mentioned by Homer.

Note return to page Now Kimoli, one of the Cyclades, between Siphnos and Melos. It took its name of Echinussa from the 'Echinus,' or Sea-urchin, of which various fossil specimens are still found on the coast; but nowhere else in these islands, except the opposite coast of Melos. There are considerable ruins of its ancient town.

Note return to page Now Milo, the most westerly of the Cyclades. It is remarkable for its extreme fertility. Its town, which, according to most authorities, was called Byblis, was situate on the north of the island.

Note return to page Ansart remarks, that our author is mistaken in this assertion, for not only are many others of these islands more circular in form, but even that of Kimolo, which stands next to it.

Note return to page Now Amorgo, S.E. of Naxos. It was the birth-place of the Iambic poet Simonides. It is noted for its fertility. Under the Roman emperors, it was used as a place of banishment.

Note return to page Now Polybos, or Antimelos, an uninhabited island near Melos. Phyle seems not to have been identified.

Note return to page Now Santorin, south of the island of Ios. The tradition was, that it was formed from a clod of earth, thrown from the ship Argo. It is evidently of volcanic origin, and is covered with pumice-stone. It was colonized by Lacedæmonians and Minyans of Lemnos, under the Spartan Theras, who gave his name to the island.

Note return to page A small island to the west of Thera, still known by the same name.

Note return to page In Lapie's map, Ascania is set down as the present Christiana.

Note return to page Now Anaphe, Namfi, or Namphio, one of the Sporades. It was celebrated for the temple of Apollo Ægletes, the foundation of which was ascribed to the Argonauts, and of which considerable remains still exist. It abounds in partridges, as it did also in ancient times.

Note return to page Now Astropalea, or Stamphalia. By Strabo it is called one of the Sporades, by Stephanus one of the Cyclades. It probably was favoured by the Romans for the excellence and importance of its harbours. From Hegesander we learn that it was famous for its hares, and Pliny tells us, in B. viii. c. 59, that its mussels were (as they still are) very celebrated.

Note return to page None of these islands can be now identified, except perhaps Chalcia, also mentioned by Strabo, and now known as Karki.

Note return to page Now Kalymno, the principal island of the group, by Homer called Calydne. According to most of the editions, Pliny mentions here Calydna and Calymna, making this island, which had those two names, into two islands. Although Pliny here mentions only the town of Coös, still, in B. v. c. 36, he speaks of three others, Notium, Nisyrus, and Mendeterus. There are still some remains of antiquity to be seen here.

Note return to page Or Carpathus, now Skarpanto. It gave name to the sea between Crete and Rhodes.

Note return to page It still preserves its ancient name, and presents some interesting remains of antiquity.

Note return to page Brotier says that the distance is really fifty-two miles.

Note return to page So called from the town of Petalia, on the mainland. Ansart says that their present name is Spili.

Note return to page Now Talanti, giving name to the Channel of Talanti.

Note return to page The present Gulf of Volo, mentioned in C. 15 of the present Book.

Note return to page Ansart suggests that this may possibly be the small island now called Agios Nicolaos.

Note return to page Now Trikeri.

Note return to page In the present Chapter.

Note return to page Now Seangero, or Skantzoura, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Now the Gulf of Saloniki, mentioned in C. 17. The islands here mentioned have apparently not been identified.

Note return to page Off the coast of Thessaly, now Piperi.

Note return to page Now Skiathos. It was famous for its wine.

Note return to page Now called Embro, or Imru. Both the island and city of Imbros are mentioned by Homer.

Note return to page This is double the actual circumference of the island.

Note return to page Now called Stalimene.

Note return to page Its site is now called Palæo Kastro. Hephæstia, or Vulcan's Town, stood near the modern Rapanidi. That god was said to have fallen into this island when thrown from heaven by Jupiter.

Note return to page Now Thaso, or Tasso. Its gold mines were in early periods very valuable.

Note return to page Mentioned in C. 17 of this Book.

Note return to page Ansart says that "forty-two" would be the correct reading here, that being also the distance between Samothrace and Thasos.

Note return to page Its modern name is Samothraki. It was the chief seat of the mysterious worship of the Cabiri.

Note return to page Only twelve, according to Ansart.

Note return to page Barely eighteen, according to Brotier.

Note return to page Now Monte Nettuno. Of course the height here mentioned by Pliny is erroneous; but Homer says that from this mountain Troy could be seen.

Note return to page Now called Skopelo, if it is the same island which is mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Scopelus. It exports wine in large quantities.

Note return to page Or the Fox Island, so called from its first settlers having been directed by an oracle to establish a colony where they should first meet a fox with its cub. Like many others of the islands here mentioned, it appears not to have been identified.

Note return to page See C. 18 of this Book.

Note return to page None of these islands appear to have been identified by modern geographers.

Note return to page Now generally known as the Palus Mæotis or Sea of Azof.

Note return to page The modern Caraboa, according to Brotier, stands on its site. Priapus was the tutelary divinity of Lampsacus in this vicinity.

Note return to page Or "entrance of Pontus"; now the Sea of Marmora.

Note return to page "Ox Ford," or "passage of the cow," Io being said to have crossed it in that form: now called the "Straits of Constantinople."

Note return to page Said to have been called ἄξενος or "inhospitable," from its frequent storms and the savage state of the people living on its shores. In later times, on the principle of Euphemism, or abstaining from words of ill omen, its name was changed to εὔξεινος "hospitable."

Note return to page This was a favourite comparison of the ancients; the north coast, between the Thracian Bosporus and the Phasis, formed the bow, and the southern shores the string. The Scythian bow somewhat resembled in form the figure ς, the capital Sigma of the Greeks.

Note return to page Now the Straits of Kaffa or Enikale.

Note return to page This town lay about the middle of the Tauric Chersonesus or Crimea, and was situate on a small peninsula, called the Smaller Chersonesus, to distinguish it from the larger one, of which it formed a part. It was founded by the inhabitants of the Pontic Heraclea, or Heracleium, the site of which is unknown. See note9 to p. 333.

Note return to page Now Kertsch, in the Crimea. It derived its name from the river Panticapes; and was founded by the Milesians about B.C. 541. It was the residence of the Greek kings of Bosporus, and hence it was sometimes so called.

Note return to page "Thirty-six" properly.

Note return to page The Tanais or Don does not rise in the Riphæan Mountains, or western branch of the Uralian chain, but on slightly elevated ground in the centre of European Russia.

Note return to page Chap. 18 of the present Book. Istropolis is supposed to be the present Istere, though some would make it to have stood on the site of the present Kostendsje, and Brotier identifies it with Kara-Kerman.

Note return to page Now called the Schwarzwald or Black Forest. The Danube or Ister rises on the eastern side at the spot called Donaueschingen.

Note return to page So called from the Raurici, a powerful people of Gallia Belgica, who possessed several towns, of which the most important were Augusta, now Augst, and Basilia, now Bâle.

Note return to page Only three of these are now considered of importance, as being the main branches of the river. It is looked upon as impossible by modern geographers to identify the accounts given by the ancients with the present channels, by name, as the Danube has undergone in lapse of time, very considerable changes at its mouth. Strabo mentions seven mouths, three being lesser ones.

Note return to page So called, as stated by Pliny, from the island of Peuce, now Piczina. Peuce appears to have been the most southerly of the mouths.

Note return to page Now called Kara-Sou, according to Brotier. Also called Rassefu in the maps.

Note return to page Now called Hazrali Bogasi, according to Brotier. It is called by Ptolemy the Narakian Mouth.

Note return to page Or the "Beautiful Mouth." Now Susie Bogasi, according to Brotier.

Note return to page Or the "False Mouth": now the Sulina Bogasi, the principal mouth of the Danube, so maltreated by its Russian guardians.

Note return to page Or the "Passage of the Gnats," so called from being the resort of swarms of mosquitoes, which were said at a certain time of the year to migrate to the Palus Mæotis. According to Brotier the present name of this island is Ilan Adasi, or Serpent Island.

Note return to page The "Northern Mouth ": near the town of Kilia.

Note return to page Or the "Narrow Mouth."

Note return to page Though Strabo distinguishes the Getæ from the Daci, most of the ancient writers, with Pliny, speak of them as identical. It is not known, however, why the Getæ in later times assumed the name of Daci.

Note return to page "Dwellers in waggons." These were a Sarmatian tribe who wandered with their waggons along the banks of the Volga. The chief seats of the Aorsi, who seem in reality to have been a distinct people from the Hamaxobii, was in the country between the Tanais, the Euxine, the Caspian, and the Caucasus.

Note return to page "Dwellers in Caves." This name appears to have been given to various savage races in different parts of the world.

Note return to page There were races of the Alani in Asia on the Caucasus, and in Europe on the Mæotis and the Euxine; but their precise geographical position is not clearly ascertained.

Note return to page The present Transylvania and Hungary.

Note return to page The name given in the age of Pliny to the range of mountains extending around Bohemia, and through Moravia into Hungary.

Note return to page Its ruins are still to be seen on the south bank of the Danube near Haimburg, between Deutsch-Altenburg and Petronell. The Roman fleet of the Danube, with the 14th legion, was originally established there.

Note return to page In Pliny's time this migratory tribe seems to have removed to the plains between the Lower Theiss and the mountains of Transylvania, from which places they had expelled the Dacians.

Note return to page The Lower Theiss.

Note return to page Now the river Mark, Maros, or Morava.

Note return to page The name of the two streams now known as the Dora Baltea and Dora Riparia, both of which fall into the Po. This passage appears to be in a mutilated state.

Note return to page A chief of the Quadi; who, as we learn from Tacitus, was made king of the Suevi by Germanicus, A.D. 19. Being afterwards expelled by his nephews Vangio and Sido, he received from the emperor Claudius a settlement in Pannonia. Tacitus gives the name of Suevia to the whole of the east of Germany from the Danube to the Baltic.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, Pliny here speaks of the other side of the mountainous district called Higher Hungary, facing the Danube and extending from the river Theiss to the Morava.

Note return to page This, according to Sillig, is the real meaning of a desertis here, the distance being measured from the Danube, and not between the Vistula and the wilds of Sarmatia. The reading "four thousand" is probably corrupt, but it seems more likely than that of 404 miles, adopted by Littre, in his French translation.

Note return to page Placed by Forbiger near Lake Burmasaka, or near Islama.

Note return to page The Dniester. The mountains of Macrocremnus, or the "Great Heights," seem not to have been identified.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern name of this island is Tandra.

Note return to page Now called the Teligul, east of the Tyra or Dniester.

Note return to page Now called Sasik Beregen, according to Brotier.

Note return to page The modern Gulf of Berezen, according to Brotier.

Note return to page Probably the modern Okzakow.

Note return to page The modern Dnieper. It also retains its ancient name of Borysthenes.

Note return to page We learn from Strabo that the name of this town was Olbia, and that from being founded by the Milesians, it received the name of Miletopolis. According to Brotier, the modern Zapurouski occupies its site, between the mouths of the river Buzuluk.

Note return to page This was adjacent to the strip of land called "Dromos Achilleos," or the 'race-course of Achilles.' It is identified by geographers with the little island of Zmievoi or Oulan Adassi, the 'Serpents Island.' It was said that it was to this spot that Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the shades of the blest, where Achilles and other heroes of fable were the judges of the dead.

Note return to page A narrow strip of land N.W. of the Crimea and south of the mouth of the Dnieper, running nearly due west and cast. It is now divided into two parts called Kosa Tendra and Kosa Djarilgatch. Achilles was said to have instituted games here.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the Siraci occupied a portion of the present Podolia and Ukraine, and the Tauri the modern Bessarabia.

Note return to page According to Herodotus, this region, called Hylæa, lay to the east of the Borysthenes. It seems uncertain whether there are now any traces of this ancient woodland; some of the old maps however give the name of the "Black Forest" to this district. From the statements of modern travellers, the woody country does not commence till the river Don has been reached. The district of Hylæa has been identified by geographers with the great plain of Janboylouk in the steppe of the Nogai.

Note return to page For Enœchadlæ, Hardouin suggests that we should read Inde Hylœ, "hence the inhabitants are called by the name of Hylæi."

Note return to page The Panticapes is usually identified with the modern Somara, but perhaps without sufficient grounds. It is more probably the Kouskawoda.

Note return to page The Nomades or wandering, from the Georgi or agricultural Scythians.

Note return to page The Acesinus does not appear to have been identified by modern geographers.

Note return to page Above called Olbiopolis or Miletopolis.

Note return to page The Bog or Bong. Flowing parallel with the Borysthenes or Dnieper, it discharged itself into the Euxine at the town of Olbia, at no great distance from the mouth of the Borysthenes.

Note return to page Probably meaning the mouth or point at which the river discharges itself into the sea.

Note return to page The modern Gulf of Negropoli or Perekop, on the west side of the Chersonesus Taurica or Crimea.

Note return to page Forming the present isthmus of Perekop, which divides the Sea of Perekop from the Sea of Azof.

Note return to page Called by Herodotus Hypacyris, and by later writers Carcinites. It is generally supposed to be the same as the small stream now known as the Kalantchak.

Note return to page Hardouin says that the city of Carcine has still retained its name, but changed its site. More modern geographers however are of opinion that nothing can be determined with certainty as to its site. Of the site also of Navarum nothing seems to be known.

Note return to page Or Buces or Byce. This is really a gulf, almost enclosed, at the end of the Sea of Azof. Strabo gives a more full description of it under the name of the Sapra Limnè "the Putrid Lake," by which name it is still called, in Russian, Sibaché or Sivaché Moré. It is a vast lagoon, covered with water when an east wind blows the water of the Sea of Azof into it, but at other times a tract of slime and mud, sending forth pestilential vapours.

Note return to page It is rather a ridge of sand, that almost separates it from the waters of the gulf.

Note return to page This river has not been identified by modern geographers.

Note return to page According to Herodotus the Gerrhus or Gerrus fell into the Hypacaris; which must be understood to be, not the Kalantchak, but the Outlook. It is probably now represented by the Moloschnijawoda, which forms a shallow lake or marsh at its mouth.

Note return to page It is most probable that the Pacyris, mentioned above, the Hypacaris, and the Carcinites, were various names for the same river, generally supposed, as stated above, to be the small stream of Kalantchak.

Note return to page Now the Crimea.

Note return to page It does not appear that the site of any of these cities has been identified. Charax was a general name for a fortified town.

Note return to page Mentioned again by Pliny in B. vi. c. 7. Solinus says that in order to repel avarice, the Satarchæ prohibited the use of gold and silver.

Note return to page On the site of the modern Perekop, more commonly called Orkapi.

Note return to page Or Chersonesus of the Heracleans. The town of Kosleve or Eupatoria is supposed to stand on its site.

Note return to page After the conquest of Mithridates, when the whole of these regions fell into the hands of the Romans.

Note return to page The modern Felenk-burun. So called from the Parthenos or Virgin Diana or Artemis, whose temple stood on its heights, in which human sacrifices were offered to the goddess.

Note return to page Supposed to be the same as the now-famed port of Balaklava.

Note return to page The modern Aia-burun, the great southern headland of the Crimea. According to Plutarch, it was called by the natives Brixaba, which, like the name Criumetopon, meant the "Rain's Head."

Note return to page Now Kerempi, a promontory of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor. Strabo considers this promontory and that of Criumetopon as dividing the Euxine into two seas.

Note return to page According to Strabo, the sea-line of the Tauric Chersonesus, after leaving the port of the Symboli, extended 125 miles, as far as Theodosia. Pliny would here seem to make it rather greater.

Note return to page The modern Kaffa occupies its site. The sites of many of the places here mentioned appear not to be known at the present day.

Note return to page The modern Kertsch, situate on a hill at the very mouth of the Cimmerian Bosporus, or Straits of Enikale or Kaffa, opposite the town of Phanagoria in Asia.

Note return to page In C. 24 of the present Book. Clark identifies the town of Cimmerium with the modern Temruk, Forbiger with Eskikrimm. It is again mentioned in B. vi. c. 2.

Note return to page He alludes here, not to the Strait so called, but to the Peninsula bordering upon it, upon which the modern town of Kertsch is situate, and which projects from the larger Peninsula of the Crimea, as a sort of excrescence on its eastern side.

Note return to page Probably Hermes or Mercury was its tutelar divinity: its site appears to be unknown.

Note return to page Probably meaning the Straits or passage connecting the Lake Mæotis with the Euxine. The fertile district of the Cimmerian Bosporus was at one time the granary of Greece, especially Athens, which imported thence annually 400,000 medimni of corn.

Note return to page A town so called on the Isthmus of Perekop, from a τάφρος or trench, which was cut across the isthmus at this point.

Note return to page Lomonossov, in his History of Russia, says that these people were the same as the Sclavoni: but that one meaning of the name 'Slavane' being "a boaster," the Greeks gave them the corresponding appellation of Auchetæ, from the word αὐχὴ, which signifies "boasting."

Note return to page Of the Geloni, called by Virgil "picti," or "painted," nothing certain seems to be known: they are associated by Herodotus with the Budini, supposed to belong to the Slavic family by Schafarik. In B. iv. c. 108,109, of his History, Herodotus gives a very particular account of the Budini, who had a city built entirely of wood, the name of which was Gelonus. The same author also assigns to the Geloni a Greek origin.

Note return to page The Agathyrsi are placed by Herodotus near the upper course of the river Maris, in the S.E. of Dacia or the modern Transylvania. Pliny however seems here to assign them a different locality.

Note return to page Also called "Assedones" and "Issedones." It has been suggested by modern geographers that their locality must be assigned to the east of Ichim, on the steppe of the central horde of the Kirghiz, and that of the Arimaspi on the northern declivity of the chain of the Altaï.

Note return to page Now the Don.

Note return to page Most probably these mountains were a western branch of the Ura- lian chain.

Note return to page From the Greek πτεροφορὸς, "wing-bearing" or "feather-bearing."

Note return to page This legendary race was said to dwell in the regions beyond Boreas, or the northern wind, which issued from the Riphæan mountains, the name of which was derived from ριπαὶ or "hurricanes "issuing from a cavern, and which these heights warded off from the Hyperboreans and sent to more southern nations. Hence they never felt the northern blasts, and enjoyed a life of supreme happiness and undisturbed repose. "Here," says Humboldt, "are the first views of a natural science which explains the distribution of heat and the difference of climates by local causes—by the direction of the winds—the proximity of the sun, and the action of a moist or saline principle."—Asie Ceatrale, vol. i.

Note return to page Pindar says, in the "Pytha," x. 56, "The Muse is no stranger to their manners. The dances of girls and the sweet melody of the lyre and pipe resound on every side, and wreathing their locks with the glistening bay, they feast joyously. For this sacred race there is no doom of sickness or of disease; but they live apart from toil and battles, undisturbed by the exacting Nemesis."

Note return to page Hardouin remarks that Pomponius Mela, who asserts that the sun rises here at the vernal and sets at the autumnal equinox, is right in his position, and that Pliny is incorrect in his assertion. The same commentator thinks that Pliny can have hardly intended to censure Mela, to whose learning he had been so much indebted for his geographical information, by applying to him the epithet "imperitus," 'ignorant' or 'unskilled'; he therefore suggests that the proper reading here is, "ut non imperiti dixere," "as some by no means ignorant persons have asserted."

Note return to page The Attacori are also mentioned in B. vi. c. 20.

Note return to page Sillig omits the word "non" here, in which case the reading would be, "Those writers who place them anywhere but, &c.;" it is difficult to see with what meaning.

Note return to page Herodotus, B. iv., states to this effect, and after him, Pomponius Mela, B. iii. c. 5.

Note return to page These islands, or rather rocks, are now known as Fanari, and lie at the entrance of the Straits of Constantinople.

Note return to page From σὺν and πληγὴ, "a striking together." Tournefort has explained the ancient story of these islands running together, by remarking that each of them consists of one craggy island, but that when the sea is disturbed the water covers the lower parts, so as to make the different points of each resemble isolated rocks. They are united to the mainland by a kind of isthmus, and appear as islands only when it is inundated in stormy weather.

Note return to page Upon which the city of Apollonia (now Sizeboli), mentioned in C. 18 of the present Book, was situate.

Note return to page So called because it was dedicated by Lucullus in the Capitol. It was thirty cubits in height.

Note return to page In C. 24 of the present Book.

Note return to page Mentioned in the last Chapter as the "Island of Achilles."

Note return to page From the Greek μακαρῶν," (The island) of the Blest." It was also called the "Island of the Heroes."

Note return to page Meaning all the inland or Mediterranean seas.

Note return to page As the whole of Pliny's description of the northern shores of Europe is replete with difficulties and obscurities, we cannot do better than transcribe the learned remarks of M. Parisot, the Geographical Editor of Ajasson's Edition, in reference to this subject. He says, "Before entering on the discussion of this portion of Pliny's geography, let us here observe, once for all, that we shall not remark as worthy of our notice all those ridiculous hypotheses which could only take their rise in ignorance, precipitation, or a love of the marvellous. We shall decline then to recognize the Doffrefelds in the mountains of Sevo, the North Cape in the Promontory of Rubeas, and the Sea of Greenland in the Cronian Sea. The absurdity of these suppositions is proved by—I. The impossibility of the ancients ever making their way to these distant coasts without the aid of large vessels, the compass, and others of those appliances, aided by which European skill finds the greatest difficulty in navigating those distant seas. II. The immense lacune which would be found to exist in the descriptions of these distant seas and shores: for not a word do we find about those numerous archipelagos which are found scattered throughout the North Sea, not a word about Iceland, nor about the numberless seas and fiords on the coast of Norway. III. The absence of all remarks upon the local phænomena of these spots. The North Cape belongs to the second polar climate, the longest day there being two months and a half. Is it likely that navigators would have omitted to mention this remarkable phænomenon, well known to the Romans by virtue of their astronomical theories, but one with which practically they had never made themselves acquainted?—The only geographers who here merit our notice are those who are of opinion that in some of the coasts or islands here mentioned Pliny describes the Scandinavian Peninsula, and in others the Coast of Finland. The first question then is, to what point Pliny first carries us? It is evident that from the Black Sea he transports himself on a sudden to the shores of the Baltic, thus passing over at a single leap a considerable space filled with nations and unknown deserts. The question then is, what line has he followed? Supposing our author had had before his eyes a modern map, the imaginary line which he would have drawn in making this transition would have been from Odessa to the Kurisch- Haff. In this direction the breadth across Europe is contracted to a space, between the two seas, not more than 268 leagues in length. A very simple mode of reasoning will conclusively prove that Pliny has deviated little if anything from this route. If he fails to state in precise terms upon what point of the shores of the Baltic he alights after leaving the Riphæan mountains, his enumeration of the rivers which discharge themselves into that sea, and with which he concludes his account of Germany, will supply us with the requisite information, at all events in great part. In following his description of the coast, we find mention made of the following rivers, the Guttalus, the Vistula, the Elbe, the Weser, the Ems, the Rhine, and the Meuse. The five last mentioned follow in their natural order, from east to west, as was to be expected in a description starting from the east of Europe for its western extremity and the shores of Cadiz. We have a right to conclude then that the Guttalus was to the east of the Vistula. As we shall now endeavour to show, this river was no other than the Alle, a tributary of the Pregel, which the Romans probably, in advancing from west to east, considered as the principal stream, from the circumstance that they met with it, before coming to the larger river. The Pregel after being increased by the waters of the Alle or Guttalus falls into the Frisch-Haff, about one degree further west than the Kurisch-Haff. It may however be here remarked, Why not find a river more to the east, the Niemen, for instance, or the Duna, to be represented by the Guttalus? The Niemen in especial would suit in every respect equally well, because it discharges itself into the Kurisch-Haff. This conjecture however is incapable of support, when we reflect that the ancients were undoubtedly acquainted with some points of the coast to the east of the mouth of the Guttalus, but which, according to the system followed by our author, would form part of the Continent of Asia. These points are, 1st. The Cape Lytarinis (mentioned by Pliny, B. vi. c. 4). 2ndly. The mouth of the river Carambucis (similarly mentioned by him), and 3rdly, a little to the east of Cape Lytarmis, the mouth of the Tanais. The name of Cape Lytarmis suggests to us Lithuania, and probably represents Domess-Ness in Courland; the Carambucis can be no other than the Niemen; while the Tanais, upon which so many authors, ancient and modern, have exhausted their conjectures, from confounding it with the Southern Tanais which falls into the Sea of Azof, is evidently the same as the Dwina or Western Duna. This is established incontrovertibly both by its geographical position (the mouth of the Dwina being only fifty leagues to the east of Domess-Ness) and the identity evidently of the names Dwina and Tanais. Long since, Leibnitz was the first to remark the presence of the radical T. n, or D. n, either with or without a vowel, in the names of the great rivers of Eastern Europe; Danapris or Dnieper, Danaster or Dniester, Danube (in German Donau, in Hungarian Duna), Tanais or Don, for example; all which rivers however discharge themselves into the Black Sea. There can be little doubt then of the identity of the Duna with the Tanais, it being the only body of water in these vast countries which bears a name resembling the initial Tan, or Tn, and at the same time belongs to the basin of the Baltic. We are aware, it is true, that the White Sea receives a river Dwina, which is commonly called the Northern Dwina, but there can be no real necessity to be at the trouble of combating the opinion that this river is identical with the Northern Tanais. As the result then of our investigations, it is at the eastern extremity of the Frisch-Haff and near the mouth of the Pregel, that we would place the point at which Pliny sets out. As for the Riphæan mountains, they have never existed anywhere but in the head of the geographers from whom our author drew his materials. From the mountains of Ural and Poias, which Pliny could not possibly have in view, seeing that they lie in a meridian as eastern as the Caspian Sea, the traveller has to proceed 600 leagues to the south-west without meeting with any chains of mountains or indeed considerable elevations."

Note return to page It is pretty clear that he refers to the numerous islands scattered over the face of the Baltic Sea, such as Dago, Oesel, Gothland, and Aland.

Note return to page The old reading here was Bannomanna, which Dupinet would translate by the modern Bornholm. Parisot considers that the modern Runa, a calcareous rock covered with vegetable earth, in the vicinity of Domess- Ness, is the place indicated.

Note return to page It has been suggested by Brotier that Pliny here refers to the Icy Sea, but it is more probable that he refers to the north-eastern part of the Baltic, which was looked upon by the ancients as forming part of the open sea.

Note return to page With reference to these divisions of land and sea, a subject which is involved in the greatest obscurity, Parisot states it as his opinion that the Amalchian or Icy Sea is that portion of the Baltic which extends from Cape Rutt to Cape Grinea, while on the other hand the Cronian Sea comprehends all the gulfs which lie to the east of Cape Rutt, such as the Haff, the gulfs of Stettin and Danzic, the Frisch-Haff, and the Kurisch-Haff. He also thinks that the name of 'Cronian' originally belonged only to that portion of the Baltic which washes the coast of Courland, but that travellers gradually applied the term to the whole of the sea. He is also of opinion that the word "Cronium" owes its origin to the Teutonic and Danish adjective groen or "green." The extreme verdure which characterizes the islands of the Danish archipelago has given to the piece of water which separates the islands of Falster and Moen the name of Groensund, and it is far from improbable that the same epithet was given to the Pomeranian and Prussian Seas, which the Romans would be not unlikely to call 'Gronium' or 'Cronium fretum,' or 'Cronium mare.' In the name 'Parapanisus' he also discovers a resemblance to that of modern Pomerania.

Note return to page Upon this Parisot remarks that on leaving Cape Rutt, at a distance of about twenty-five leagues in a straight line, we come to the island of Funen or Fyen, commonly called Fionia, the most considerable of the Danish archipelago next to Zealand, and which lying between the two Belts, the Greater and the Smaller, may very probably from that circumstance have obtained the name of Baltia. Brotier takes Baltia to be no other than Nova Zembla—so conflicting are the opinions of commentators!

Note return to page Parisot suggests that under this name may possibly lie concealed that of the modern island of Zealand or Seeland, and that it may have borne on the side of it next to the Belt the name of Baltseeland, easily corrupted by the Greeks into Basilia.

Note return to page Brotier takes these to be the islands of Aloo, and Bieloi or Ostrow, at the mouth of the river Paropanisus, which he considers to be the same as the Obi. Parisot on the other hand is of opinion that islands of the Baltic are here referred to; that from the resemblance of the name Oönæ to the Greek ὠὸν, "an egg," the story that the natives subsisted on the eggs of birds was formed; that not improbably the group of the Hippopodes resembled the shape of a horse-shoe, from which the story men- tioned by Pliny took its rise; and that the Fanesii (or, as the reading here has it, the Panotii, "all-ears") wore their hair very short, from which circumstance their ears appeared to be of a larger size than usual.

Note return to page Tacitus speaks of three great groups of the German tribes, the Ingævones forming the first thereof, and consisting of those which dwelt on the margin of the ocean, the Hermiones in the interior, and the Istævones in the east and south of Germany. We shall presently find that Pliny adds two groups, the Vandili as the fourth, and the Peucini and Basternæ as the fifth. This classification however is thought to originate in a mistake, for Zeuss has satisfactorily shown that the Vandili belonged to the Hermiones, and that Peucini and Basternæ are only names of individual tribes and not of groups of tribes.

Note return to page Brotier and other geographers are of opinion that by this name the chain of the Doffrefeld mountains is meant; but this cannot be the case if we suppose with Parisot that Pliny here returns south from the Scandinavian islands and takes his departure from Cape Rutt in the territory of the Ingævones. Still, it is quite impossible to say what mountains he would designate under the name of Sevo. Parisot suggests that it is a form of the compound word "seevohner," "inhabitants of the sea," and that it is a general name for the elevated lands along the margin of the sea-shore.

Note return to page Parisot supposes that under this name the isle of Funen is meant, but it is more generally thought that Norway and Sweden are thus designated, as that peninsula was generally looked upon as an island by the ancients. The Codanian Gulf was the sea to the east of the Cimbrian Chersonesus or Jutland, filled with the islands which belong to the modern kingdom of Denmark. It was therefore the southern part of the Baltic.

Note return to page By Eningia Hardouin thinks that the country of modern Finland is meant. Poinsinet thinks that under the name are included Ingria, Livonia, and Courland; while Parisot seems inclined to be of opinion that under this name the island of Zealand is meant, a village of which, about three-fourths of a league from the western coast, according to him, still bears the name of Heinïnge.

Note return to page Parisot is of opinion that the Venedi, also called Vinidæ and Vindili, were of Sclavish origin, and situate on the shores of the Baltic. He remarks that this people, in the fifth century, founded in Pomerania, when quitted by the Goths, a kingdom, the chiefs of which styled themselves the Konjucs of Vinland. Their name is also to be found in Venden, a Russian town in the government of Riga, in Windenburg in Courland, and in Wenden in the circle of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Schwerin.

Note return to page Parisot remarks that these two peoples were probably only tribes of the Venedi.

Note return to page Parisot feels convinced that Pliny is speaking here of the Gulf of Travemunde, the island of Femeren, and then of the gulf which extends from that island to Kiel, where the Eider separates Holstein from Jutland. On the other hand, Hardouin thinks that by the Gulf of Cylipenus the Gulf of Riga is meant, and that Latris is the modern island of Oësel. But, as Parisot justly remarks, to put this construction on Pliny's language is to invert the order in which he has hitherto proceeded, evidently from east to west.

Note return to page The modern Cape of Skagen on the north of Jutland.

Note return to page When Drusus held the command in Germany, as we learn from Strabo, B. vii.

Note return to page It is generally agreed that this is the modern island of Borkhum, at the mouth of the river Amaiius or Ems.

Note return to page To a bean, from which (faba) the island had its name of Fabaria. In confirmation of this Hardouin states, that in his time there was a tower still standing there which was called by the natives Het boon huys, "the bean house."

Note return to page From the word gles or glas, which primarily means 'glass,' and then figuratively "amber." Probably Œland and Gothland. They will be found again mentioned in the Thirtieth Chapter of the present Book. See p. 351.

Note return to page Now the Scheldt.

Note return to page In a straight line, of course. Parisot is of opinion that in forming this estimate Agrippa began at the angle formed by the river Piave in lat. 46°4′, measuring thence to Cape Rubeas (now Rutt) in lat. 54°25′. This would give 8°21′, to which, if we add some twenty leagues for obliquity or difference of longitude, the total would make exactly the distance here mentioned.

Note return to page As Parisot remarks, it is totally impossible to conceive the source of such an erroneous conclusion as this. Some readings make the amount 248, others 268.

Note return to page As already mentioned, Zeuss has satisfactorily shown that the Vandili or Vindili properly belonged to the Hermiones. Tacitus mentions but three groups of the German nations; the Ingævones on the ocean, the Hermiones in the interior, and the Istævones in the east and south of Germany. The Vandili, a Gothic race, dwelt originally on the northern coast of Germany, but afterwards settled north of the Marcomanni on the Riesengebirge. They subsequently appeared in Dacia and Pannonia, and in the beginning of the fifth century invaded Spain. Under Genseric they passed over into Africa, and finally took and plundered Rome in A.D. 455. Their kingdom was finally destroyed by Belisarius.

Note return to page It is supposed that the Burgundiones were a Gothic people dwelling in the country between the rivers Viadus and Vistula, though Ammianus Marcellinus declares them to have been of pure Roman origin. How they came into the country of the Upper Maine in the south-west of Germany in A.D. 289, historians have found themselves at a loss to inform us. It is not improbable that the two peoples were not identical, and that the similarity of their name arose only from the circumstance that they both resided in "burgi" or burghs. See Gibbon, iii. 99. Bohn's Ed.

Note return to page The Varini dwelt on the right bank of the Albis or Elbe, north of the Langobardi. Ptolemy however, who seems to mention them as the Avarini, speaks of them as dwelling near the sources of the Vistula, on the site of the present Cracow. See Gibbon, iv. 225. Bohn's Ed.

Note return to page Nothing whatever is known of the locality of this people.

Note return to page They are also called in history Gothi, Gothones, Gotones and Gutæ. According to Pytheas of Marseilles (as mentioned by Pliny, B. xxxvii. c. 2), they dwelt on the coasts of the Baltic, in the vicinity of what is now called the Fritsch-Haff. Tacitus also refers to the same district, though he does not speak of them as inhabiting the coast. Ptolemy again speaks of them as dwelling on the east of the Vistula, and to the south of the Venedi. The later form of their name, Gothi, does not occur till the time of Caracalla. Their native name was Gutthinda. They are first spoken of as a powerful nation at the beginning of the third century, when we find them mentioned as 'Getæ,' from the circumstance of their having occupied the countries formerly inhabited by the Sarmatian Getæ. The formidable attacks made by this people, divided into the nations of the Ostrogoths and Visigoths, upon the Roman power during its decline, are too well known to every reader of Gibbon to require further notice.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Chersonesus Cimbrica, the modern peninsula of Jutland. It seems doubtful whether these Cimbri were a Germanic nation or a Celtic tribe, as also whether they were the same race whose numerous hordes successively defeated six Roman armies, and were finally conquered by C. Marius, B.C. 101, in the Campi Raudii. The more general impression, however, entertained by historians, is that they were a Celtic or Gallic and not a Germanic nation. The name is said to have signified "robbers." See Gibbon, i. 273, iii. 365. Bohn's Ed.

Note return to page The Teutoni or Teutones dwelt on the coasts of the Baltic, adjacent to the territory of the Cimbri. Their name, though belonging originally to a single nation or tribe, came to be afterwards applied collectively to the whole people of Germany. See Gibbon, iii. 139. Bohn's Ed.

Note return to page Also called Cauchi, Cauci, and Cayci, a German tribe to the east of the Frisians, between the rivers Ems and Elbe. The modern Oldenburg and Hanover are supposed to pretty nearly represent the country of the Chauci. In B. xvi. c. 1. 2, will be found a further account of them by Pliny, who had visited their country, at least that part of it which lay on the sea-coast. They are mentioned for the last time in the third century, when they had extended so far south and west that they are spoken of as living on the banks of the Rhine.

Note return to page Mentioned by Tacitus as dwelling in the east and south of Germany.

Note return to page It has been suggested by Titzius that the words "quorum Cimbri," "to whom the Cimbri belong," are an interpolation; which is not improbable, or at least that the word "Cimbri" has been substituted for some other name.

Note return to page This appears to be properly the collective name of a great number of the German tribes, who were of a migratory mode of life, and spoken of in opposition to the more settled tribes, who went under the general name of Ingævones. Cæsar speaks of them as dwelling east of the Ubii and Sygambri, and west of the Cherusci. Strabo makes them extend in an easterly direction beyond the Albis or Elbe, and southerly as far as the sources of the Danube. Tacitus gives the name of Suevia to the whole of the east of Germany, from the Danube to the Baltic. The name of the modern Suabia is derived from a body of adventurers from various German tribes, who assumed the name of Suevi in consequence of their not possessing any other appellation.

Note return to page A large and powerful tribe of Germany, which occupied the extensive tract of country between the mountains in the north-west of Bohemia and the Roman Wall in the south-west, which formed the boundary of the Agri Decumates. On the east they bordered on the Narisci, on the north-east on the Cherusci, and on the north-west on the Chatti. There is little doubt that they originally formed part of the Suevi. At a later period they spread in a north-easterly direction, taking possession of the north-western part of Bohemia and the country about the sources of the Maine and Saale, that is, the part of Franconia as far as Kissingen and the south-western part of the kingdom of Saxony. The name Hermunduri is thought by some to signify highlanders, and to be a compound of Her or Ar, "high," and Mund, "man."

Note return to page One of the great tribes of Germany, which rose to importance after the decay of the power of the Cherusci. It is thought by ethnographers that their name is still preserved in the word "Hessen." They formed the chief tribe of the Hermiones here mentioned, and are described by Cæsar as belonging to the Suevi, though Tacitus distinguishes them, and no German tribe in fact occupied more permanently its original locality than the Chatti. Their original abode seems to have extended from the Wester- wald in the west to the Saale in Franconia, and from the river Maine in the south as far as the sources of the Elison and the Weser, so that they occupied exactly the modern country of Hessen, including perhaps a portion of the north-west of Bavaria. See Gibbon, vol. iii. 99. Bohn's Ed.

Note return to page The Cherusci were the most celebrated of all the German tribes, and are mentioned by Cæsar as of the same importance as the Suevi, from whom they were separated by the Silva Bacensis. There is some difficulty in stating their exact locality, but it is generally supposed that their country extended from the Visurgis or Weser in the west to the Albis or Elbe in the east, and from Melibocus in the north to the neighbourhood of the Sudeti in the south, so that the Chamavi and Langobardi were their northern neighbours, the Chatti the western, the Hermunduri the southern, and the Silingi and Semnones their eastern neighbours. This tribe, under their chief Arminius or Hermann, forming a confederation with many smaller tribes in A.D. 9, completely defeated the Romans in the famous battle of the Teutoburg Forest. In later times they were conquered by the Chatti, so that Ptolemy speaks of them only as a small tribe on the south of the Hartz mountain. Their name afterwards appears, in the beginning of the fourth century, in the con federation of the Franks.

Note return to page The Peucini are mentioned here, as also by Tacitus, as identical with the Basternæ. As already mentioned, supposing them to be names for distinct nations, they must be taken an only names of individual tribes, and not of groups of tribes. It is generally supposed that their first settlements in Sarmatia were in the highlands between the Theiss and the March, whence they passed onward to the lower Danube, as far as its mouth, where a portion of them, settling in the island of Peuce, obtained the name of Peucini. In the later geographers we find them settled between the Tyrus or Dniester, and the Borysthenes or Dnieper, the Peucini remaining at the mouth of the Danube.

Note return to page According to Parisot, the Guttalus is the same as the Alle, a tributary of the Pregel. Cluver thinks that it is the same as the Oder. Other writers again consider it the same as the Pregel.

Note return to page Or Elbe.

Note return to page Now the Weser.

Note return to page The modern Ems.

Note return to page The Meuse.

Note return to page The 'Hercynia Silva,' Hercynian Forest or Range, is very differently described by the writers of various ages. The earliest mention of it is by Aristotle. Judging from the accounts given by Cæsar, Pomponius Mela, and Strabo, the 'Hercynia Silva' appears to have been a general name for almost all the mountains of Southern and Central Germany, that is, from the sources of the Danube to Transylvania, comprising the Schwarzwald, Odenwald, Spessart, Rhön, Thuringer Wald, the Hartz mountain (which seems in a great measure to have retained the ancient name), Raube Alp, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, and Riesengebirge. At a later period when the mountains of Germany had become better known, the name was applied to the more limited range extending around Bohemia, and through Moravia into Hungary.

Note return to page This island appears to have been formed by the bifurcation of the Rhine, the northern branch of which enters the sea at Katwyck, a few miles north of Leyden, by the Waal and the course of the Maas, after it has received the Waal, and by the sea. The Waal or Vahalis seems to have undergone considerable changes, and the place of its junction with the Maas may have varied. Pliny makes the island nearly 100 miles in length, which is about the distance from the fort of Schenkenschanz, where the first separation of the Rhine takes place, to the mouth of the Maas. The name of Batavia was no doubt the genuine name, which is still preserved in Betuwe, the name of a district at the bifurcation of the Rhine and the Waal. The Canninefates, a people of the same race as the Batavi, also occupied the island, and as the Batavi seem to have been in the eastern part, it is supposed that the Canninefates occupied the western. They were subdued by Tiberius in the reign of Augustus.

Note return to page The Frisii or Frisones were one of the great tribes of north-western Germany, properly belonging to the group of the Ingævones. They in- habited the country about Lake Flevo and other lakes, between the Rhine and the Ems, so as to be bounded on the south by the Bructeri, and on the east by the Chauci. Tacitus distinguishes between the Frisii Majores and Minores, and it is supposed that the latter dwelt on the east of the canal of Drusus in the north of Holland, and the former between the rivers Flevus and Amisia, that is, in the country which still bears the name of Friesland. The Chauci have been previously mentioned.

Note return to page The Frisiabones or Frisævones are again mentioned in C. 31 of the present Book as a people of Gaul. In what locality they dwelt has not been ascertained by historians.

Note return to page The Sturii are supposed to have inhabited the modern South Holland, while the Marsacii probably inhabited the island which the Meuse forms at its junction with the Rhine, at the modern Dortrecht in Zealand.

Note return to page Supposed to be the site of the modern fortress of Briel, situate at the mouth of the Meuse.

Note return to page Probably the same as the modern Vlieland (thus partly retaining its ancient name), an island north of the Texel. The more ancient writers speak of two main arms, into which the Rhine was divided on entering the territory of the Batavi, of which the one on the east continued to bear the name of Rhenus, while that on the west into which the Masa, Maas or Meuse, flowed, was called Vahalis or Waal. After Drusus, B.C. 12, had connected the Flevo Lacus or Zuvder-Zee with the Rhine by means of a canal, in forming which he probably made use of the bed of the Yssel, we find mention made of three mouths of the Rhine. Of these the names, as given by Pliny, are, on the west, Helium (the Yahalis of other writers), in the centre Rhenus, and at the north Flevum; but at a later period we again find mention made of only two mouths.

Note return to page Britain was spoken of by some of the Greek writers as superior to all other islands in the world. Dionysius, in his Periegesis, says, "that no other islands whatsoever can claim equality with those of Britain."

Note return to page Said to have been so called from the whiteness of its cliffs opposite the coast of Gaul.

Note return to page Afterwards called Bononia, the modern Boulogne. As D'Anville remarks, the distance here given by Pliny is far too great, whether we measure to Dover or to Hythe; our author's measurement however is probably made to Rutupiæ (the modern Richborough), near Sandwich, where the Romans had a fortified post, which was their landing-place when crossing over from Gaul. This would make the distance given by Pliny nearer the truth, though still too much.

Note return to page Probably the Grampian range is here referred to.

Note return to page The people of South Wales.

Note return to page The Orkney islands were included under this name. Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy make them but thirty in number, while Solinus fixes their number at three only.

Note return to page Also called Æmodæ or Hæmodæ, most probably the islands now known as the Shetlands. Camden however and the older antiquarians refer the Hæmodæ to the Baltic sea, considering them different from the Acmodæ here mentioned, while Salmasius on the other hand considers the Acmodæ or Hæmodæ and the Hebrides as identical. Parisot remarks that off the West Cape of the Isle of Skye and the Isle of North Uist, the nearest of the Hebrides to the Shetland islands, there is a vast gulf filled with islands, which still bears the name of Mamaddy or Maddy, from which the Greeks may have easily derived the words αἱ μαδδαὶ, whence the Latin Hæmodæ.

Note return to page The Isle of Anglesea.

Note return to page Most probably the Isle of Man.

Note return to page Camden and Gosselin (Rech. sur la Géogr. des Anciens) consider that under this name is meant the island of Racklin, situate near the north-eastern extremity of Ireland. A Ricina is spoken of by Ptolemy, but that island is one of the Hebrides.

Note return to page This Vectis is considered by Gosselin to be the same as the small island of White-Horn, situate at the entrance of the Bay of Wigtown in Scotland. It must not be confounded with the more southern Vectis, or Isle of Wight.

Note return to page According to Gosselin this is the island of Dalkey, at the entrance of Dublin Bay.

Note return to page Camden thinks that this is the same as Bardsey Island, at the south of the island of Anglesea, while Mannert and Gosselin think that it is the island of Lambay.

Note return to page According to Brotier these islands belong to the coast of Britanny, being the modern isles of Sian and Ushant.

Note return to page As already mentioned, he probably speaks of the islands of Œland and Gothland, and Ameland, called Austeravia or Actania, in which glœsum or amber was found by the Roman soldiers. See p. 344.

Note return to page The opinions as to the identity of ancient Thule have been numerous in the extreme. We may here mention six:—1. The common, and apparently the best founded opinion, that Thule is the island of Iceland. 2. That it is either the Ferroe group, or one of those islands. 3. The notion of Ortelius, Farnaby, and Schœnning, that it is identical with Thylemark in Norway. 4. The opinion of Malte Brun, that the continental portion of Denmark is meant thereby, a part of which is to the present day called Thy or Thyland. 5. The opinion of Rudbeck and of Calstron, borrowed originally from Procopius, that this is a general name for the whole of Scandinavia. 6. That of Gosselin, who thinks that under this name Mainland, the principal of the Shetland Islands, is meant. It is by no means impossible that under the name of Thule two or more of these localities may have been meant, by different authors writing at distant periods and under different states of geographical knowledge. It is also pretty generally acknowledged, as Parisot remarks, that the Thule mentioned by Ptolemy is identical with Thylemark in Norway.

Note return to page B. ii. c. 77.

Note return to page Brotier thinks that under this name a part of Cornwall is meant, and that it was erroneously supposed to be an island. Parisot is of opinion that the copyists, or more probably Pliny himself, has made an error in transcribing Mictis for Vectis, the name of the Isle of Wight. It is not improbable however that the island of Mictis had only an imaginary existence.

Note return to page "White lead": not, however, the metallic substance which we understand by that name, but tin.

Note return to page Commonly known as "coracles," and used by the Welch in modern times. See B. vii. c. 57 of this work, and the Note.

Note return to page Brotier, with many other writers, takes these names to refer to various parts of the coast of Norway. Scandia he considers to be the same as Scania, Bergos the modern Bergen, and Nerigos the northern part of Norway. On the other hand, Gosselin is of opinion that under the name of Bergos the Scottish island of Barra is meant, and under that of Nerigos, the island of Lewis, the northern promontory of which is in the old maps designated by the name of Nary or Nery. Ptolemy makes mention of an island called Doumna in the vicinity of the Orcades.

Note return to page Transalpine Gaul, with the exception of that part of it called Narbonensis, was called Gallia Comata, from the custom of the people allowing their hair to grow to a great length.

Note return to page From the Scheldt to the Seine.

Note return to page From the Seine to the Garonne.

Note return to page Lyonese Gaul, from Lugdunum, the ancient name of the city of Lyons.

Note return to page Said by Camden to be derived from the Celtic words Ar - mor, "by the Sea."

Note return to page The provinces of Antwerp and North Brabant.

Note return to page Inhabiting Western Flanders.

Note return to page So called, it is supposed, from the Celtic word Mor, which means "the sea." Térouane and Boulogne are supposed to occupy the site of their towns, situate in the modern Pas de Calais.

Note return to page D'Anville places them between Calais and Gravellines, in the Pas de Calais, and on the spot now known as the Terre de Marck or Merk.

Note return to page Boulogne, previously mentioned.

Note return to page Cluver thinks that "Brianni" would be the correct reading here; but D'Anville places the Britanni on the southern bank of the stream called La Canche in the Pas de Calais.

Note return to page According to Parisot and Ansart they occupied the department of the Somme, with places on the site of Amiens (derived from their name) and Abbeville for their chief towns.

Note return to page They dwelt in the modern department of the Oise, with Beauvais (which still retains their name) for their chief town.

Note return to page D'Anville is of opinion that the place called Haiz or Hez in the diocese of Beauvais, received its name from this people, of whom nothing else is known. The name is omitted in several of the editions.

Note return to page D'Anville is of opinion that their chief town was situate at the modern Chaours, at the passage of the river Serre, not far from Vervins in the department of the Aisne.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy their chief town would be on the site of the modern Orchies in the department du Nord, but Cæsar makes it to be Nemetacum, the modern Arras, the capital of the department of the Pas de Calais.

Note return to page According to Ansart their chief town was Bavai, in the department du Nord. They are called "Liberi," or free, because they were left at liberty to enjoy their own laws and institutions.

Note return to page Their capital was Augusta Veromanduorum, and it has been suggested that the place called Vermand, in the department de l'Aisne, denotes its site; but according to Bellay and D'Anville the city of St. Quentin, which was formerly called Aouste, marks the spot.

Note return to page Nothing whatever is known of them, and it is suggested by the commentators that this is a corrupted form of the name of the Suessiones, which follows.

Note return to page They gave name to Soissons in the southern part of the department de l'Aisne.

Note return to page It has been suggested that these are the same as the Silvanectes, the inhabitants of Senlis in the department de l'Oise.

Note return to page The people of Tongres, in the provinces of Namur, Liège, and Limbourg.

Note return to page They are supposed to have dwelt in the eastern part of the province of Limbourg.

Note return to page They probably dwelt between the Sunuci and the Betasi.

Note return to page They are supposed to have dwelt in the western part of the province of Limbourg, on the confines of that province and South Brabant, in the vicinity probably of the place which still bears the name of Beetz, upon the river Gette, between Leau and Haclen, seven miles to the east of Louvain.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy the Leuci dwelt on the sites of Toul in the department of the Meurthe, and of Nais or Nays in that of the Meuse.

Note return to page From them Trèves or Trier, in the Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, takes its name.

Note return to page Their chief town was on the site of Langres, in the department of the Haute Marne.

Note return to page gave name to the city of Rheims in the department of the Marne.

Note return to page Their chief town stood on the site of the modern Metz, in the department of the Moselle.

Note return to page Besançon stands on the site of their chief town, in the department of the Doubs, extending as far as Bale.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the district called the Haut Rhin or Higher Rhine.

Note return to page The inhabitants of the west of Switzerland.

Note return to page Or the "Equestrian Colony," probably founded by the Roman Equites. It is not known where this colony was situate, but it is suggested by Cluver and Monetus that it may have been on the lake of Geneva, in the vicinity of the modern town of Nyon.

Note return to page Littré, in a note, remarks that Rauriaca is a barbarism, and that the reading properly is "Raurica."

Note return to page Spire was their chief city, in the province of the Rhine.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied Strasbourg, and the greater part of the department of the Lower Rhine.

Note return to page They dwelt in the modern Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt; Worms was their chief city.

Note return to page That is, nearer the mouths of the Rhine.

Note return to page They originally dwelt on the right bank of the Rhine, but were transported across the river by Agrippa in B.C. 37, at their own request, from a wish to escape the attacks of the Suevi.

Note return to page Now known as the city of Cologne. It took its name from Agrippina, the wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero, who was born there, and who, as Tacitus says, to show off her power to the allied nations, planted a colony of veteran soldiers in her native city, and gave to it her own name.

Note return to page Their district was in the modern circle of Clèves, in the province of Juliers-Berg-Clèves.

Note return to page Dwelling in the Insula Batavorum, mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

Note return to page He first speaks of the nations on the coast, and then of those more in the interior.

Note return to page Dwelling in the west of the department of Calvados, and the east of the department of the Eure. From them Lisieux takes its name.

Note return to page They occupied the department of the Lower Seine.

Note return to page They are supposed to have dwelt in the vicinity of Lillebonne, in the department of the Lower Seine.

Note return to page They gave name to the town of Vannes in the department of Morbihan.

Note return to page From them the city of Avranches, in the department of La Manche, derives its name.

Note return to page They occupied the modern department of Finisterre.

Note return to page The Loire.

Note return to page This spot is placed by D'Anville near the modern city of Saint Brieuc. He refers here to the peninsula of Brittany, which ends in Finisterre.

Note return to page Ansart remarks that the circuit of the peninsula from Saint Brieuc to the mouth of the river Vilaine is only 450 miles, but that if taken from the city of Avranches to the mouth of the Loire, it is 650.

Note return to page Ansart states that from Avranches to the mouth of the Loire, in a straight line, is twenty miles less than the distance here given by Pliny.

Note return to page Inhabitants of the department of the Lower Loire or Loire Inférieure.

Note return to page This extensive people inhabited the present departments of the Saone et Loire, Allier, Nievre, Rhone nord, and Loire nord. Autun and Chalonssur-Marne stand on the site of their ancient towns.

Note return to page They inhabited the departments of the Eure et Loire, and portions of those of the Seine et Oise, of the Loire et Cher, and of the Loiret. Chartres occupies the site of their town.

Note return to page They occupied a part of the department of the Allier. Moulins stands on the site of their chief town.

Note return to page Sens, in the department of the Yonne, stands on the site of their chief town.

Note return to page The chief town of the Aulerci Eburovices was on the site of the present Passy-sur-Eure, called by the inhabitants Old Evreux, in the department of the Eure.

Note return to page They dwelt in the vicinity of the city of Le Mans, in the department of the Sarthe.

Note return to page Meaux, in the department of the Seine et Marne, denotes the site of their principal town.

Note return to page Paris, anciently Lutetia, denotes their locality.

Note return to page The city of Troyes, in the department of the Aube, denotes their locality.

Note return to page Their chief town stood on the site of Angers, in the department of the Maine et Loire.

Note return to page D'Anville says that their chief town stood on the spot now known as Vieux, two leagues from Caen, in the department of Calvados.

Note return to page The reading here is not improbably "Vadicasses." If so, they were a people situate at a great distance from the other tribes here mentioned by Pliny. They dwelt in the department De l'Oise, in the district formerly known as Valois, their chief town or city occupying the site of Vez, not far from Villers Cotterets.

Note return to page D'Anville assigns to the Venelli, or Unelli, as some readings have it, the former district of Cotantin, now called the department of La Manche.

Note return to page According to D'Anville, Corseuil, two leagues from Dinan, in the department of the Côtes du Nord, denotes the site of their chief town. Hardouin takes Quimper to mark the locality.

Note return to page They are supposed by Ansart to have occupied that part of the department of La Mayenne where we find the village of Jublains, two leagues from the city of Mayenne.

Note return to page D'Anville assigns to them the greater part of the department of the Ile et Vilaine, and is of opinion that the city of Rennes occupies the site of Condate, their chief town.

Note return to page Tours, in the department of the Indre et Loire, marks the site of their chief town.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied a portion of the department of the Loire.

Note return to page They probably occupied a part of the department of the Loire, as also of that of the Rhone. Their town, Forum Secusianorum, stood on the site of the present Feurs, in the department of the Loire.

Note return to page The city of Lyons occupies the site of ancient Lugdunum. It is suggested by Hardouin, that the name Lugdunum is a corruption of "Lucudunum," a compound of the Latin word lucus, "a grove," and the Celtic dun, "a hill" or "mountain."

Note return to page They are mentioned by Cæsar (B. C. iii. 9), in conjunction with the Nannetes, Morini, and others, but nothing can be inferred as to the precise position they occupied.

Note return to page Their locality also is unknown, but it is supposed that they dwelt in the vicinity of the department of La Vendée.

Note return to page From them ancient Poitou received its name. They are supposed to have occupied the department of the Haute-Vienne, and portions of the departments of La Vendée, the Loire Inférieure, the Maine et Loire, the Deux-Sèvres, and La Vienne.

Note return to page They gave name to the former Saintonge, now the department of Charente and Charente Inférieure. The town of Saintes occupies the site of their chief town.

Note return to page They occupied the modern department of the Gironde. The city of Bordeaux occupies the site of their chief town.

Note return to page They gave name to Aquitaine, which became corrupted into Guyenne. Pliny is the only author that makes the Aquitani a distinct people of the province of Aquitanica. The Tarusates are supposed to have afterwards occupied the site here referred to by him, with Atures for their chief town, afterwards called Aire, in the department of the Landes.

Note return to page Their locality is unknown, but it has been suggested that they occupied the departments of the Basses Pyrénées, or Lower Pyrenees.

Note return to page So called from the Latin verb convenire, "to assemble" or "meet together." They are said to have received this name from the circumstance that Ptolemy, after the close of the Sertorian war, finding a pastoral people of predatory habits inhabiting the range of the Pyrenees, ordered them to unite together and form a community in a town or city. From them the present town of Saint Bertrand de Comminges, in the S.W. of the department of the Haute Garonne, derives its Latin name "Lugdunum Convenarum."

Note return to page By Cæsar called the Bigerriones. Their name was preserved in that of the district of Bigorre, now the department of the Hautes-Pyrénées. Their chief town was Turba, now Tarbes.

Note return to page By calling the Tarbelli Quatuorsignani, he seems to imply that their chief town was a place garrisoned by four maniples of soldiers, each with a signum or standard. Aquæ Tarbellicæ was their chief town, the modern Acqs or Dax, in the S.W. of the department of the Landes.

Note return to page Their chief town was probably garrisoned by six signa or maniples. Cocosa, or Coequosa, as it is written in the Antonine Itinerary, is the first place on a road from Aque Tarbellicse or Dax to Burdegala or Bordeaux, now called Marensin. Their locality was in the southern part of the department of the Landes, the inhabitants of which are still divided into two classes, the Bouges, those of the north, or of the Tête de Buch; and the Cousiots, those of the south.

Note return to page Their locality is unknown.

Note return to page D'Anville would read "Onobusates," and thinks that they dwelt in the district called Nébousan, in the department of the Hautes Pyrénées. He is also of opinion that their town stood on the site of the modern Cioutat, between the rivers Adour and Neste.

Note return to page They occupied the southern part of the department of the Gironde.

Note return to page From them Hardouin suggests that Moneins, in the department of the Basses Pyrénées, takes its name.

Note return to page D'Anville is of opinion that they inhabited and gave name to the Vallée d'Ossun, between the Pyrenees and the city of Oléron in the department of the Basses Pyrénées.

Note return to page D'Anville places them in the Vallée de Soule, in the department of the Basses Pyrénées.

Note return to page From them Campon, a place in the department of the Hautes Pyrénées, is supposed to have received its name.

Note return to page Biscarosse, not far from Tête de Buch in the department of the Landes, is supposed to derive its name from this tribe.

Note return to page Nothing whatever is known of them.

Note return to page The more general reading is "Sassumini." Ansart suggests that the town of Sarrum, between Cognac and Périgueux, in the department of the Dordogne, may have received its name from them.

Note return to page Ansart suggests that Rieumes, in the department of the Haute Garonne, occupies the site of Ryesium, their chief town, mentioned by Ptolemy.

Note return to page They are supposed to have given name to Tournay, in the department of the Hautes Pyrénées.

Note return to page Supposed to be the same as the Consuarini, mentioned in B. iii. c. 5.

Note return to page They probably gave name to Auch, in the department of Gers.

Note return to page Their chief town occupied the site of Euse or Eause, in the department of Gers.

Note return to page Their locality is marked by Soz, in the department of the Lot-et-Garonne.

Note return to page Or "Oscidates of the Plains." They probably gave name to Ossun, two miles from Tarbes, in the department of the Hautes Pyrénæes.

Note return to page From them the village of Cestas, three leagues from Bordeaux, in the department of the Gironde, is supposed to derive its name.

Note return to page The village of Tursan, in the department of the Landes, probably derived its name from this tribe.

Note return to page Their town was Cossio, afterwards Vasates, now Bazas, in the department of the Gironde.

Note return to page The site of the Vassei and the Sennates appears to be unknown.

Note return to page D'Anville is of opinion that this tribe gave name to Aisenay or Azenay, a village four leagues distant from Bourbon-Vendée, in the department of La Vendée.

Note return to page They occupied the district formerly known as Berry, but now the departments of the Indre, the Cher, and the west of the department of the Allier. Their chief town was Avaricum, now Bourges.

Note return to page They inhabited the district formerly known as the Limosin, now the departments of the Creuse, the Haute Vienne, and the Corrèeze. Their chief town was Augustoritum, afterwards Lemovices, now Limoges.

Note return to page They occupied the district formerly known as Auvergne, forming the present department of the Allier, and the southern part of the Puy de Dòme and the Cantal. Augustonemetum was their chief town, now Clermont.

Note return to page Situate in the district formerly known as Gevaudan, now the department of La Lozére. Their chief town stood on the site of the present small town of Javoulx, four leagues from Mende.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied the former district of Rouergue, now known as the department of Aveyron. Their chief town was Segodunum, afterwards Ruteni, now known as Rhodez.

Note return to page They occupied the former district of Querci, the present department of Lot and Lot-et-Garonne. Divona, afterwards Cadurci, now Cahors, was their principal town.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy their town was Aginnum, probably the modern Agen, in the present department of Lot-et-Garonne. "Antobroges," however, is the more common reading.

Note return to page They occupied the district formerly known as Périgord, in the department of the Dordogne; their town was Vesanna, afterwards Petrocori, now Périgueux.

Note return to page Ansart says they are about 200 in number, consisting of Belle Isle, Groaix, Houat, Hoedic, and others. Also probably Morbihan.

Note return to page The Isle of Oleron, the fountain-head of the maritime laws of Europe.

Note return to page He means to say that it gradually increases in breadth after leaving the narrow neck of the Pyrenees and approaching the confines of Lusitania.

Note return to page B. iii. c. 3.

Note return to page From Ruscino to Gades.

Note return to page In the province now known as Guipuzcoa.

Note return to page Supposed to be the present Cabo do la Higuera.

Note return to page Probably inhabiting the eastern part of the provinces of Biscay and Alava, the eastern portion of Navarre, and, perhaps, a part of the province of Guipuzcoa.

Note return to page According to Hardouin the modern San Sebastian occupies the site of their town.

Note return to page On the same site as the modern Bermeo, according to Mannert. Hardouin thinks, however, and with greater probability, that it was situate at the mouth of the river Orio.

Note return to page D'Anville considers this to be the site of the city of Bermeo.

Note return to page Poinsinet thinks that this is Flavio in Bilbao, D'Anville calls it Portugalette, and Mannert thinks that it is the same as Santander, with which opinion Ansart agrees.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy, the Cantabri possessed the western part of the province of La Montana, and the northern parts of the provinces of Palencia and Toro.

Note return to page Most probably the present Rio de Suancès, by Mannert called the Saya, into which the Besanga flows. Hardouin however calls it the Nervio.

Note return to page Ansart suggests that this is the modern San Vicente de la Barquera. If the river Sauga is the same with the Suancès, this cannot be the port of Santander, as has been suggested.

Note return to page Or Ebro.

Note return to page According to Ansart, this is either the modern Ensenada de Ballota or else the Puerta de Pô

Note return to page According to Ansart, the Orgenomesci occupied the same territory which Ptolemy has assigned to the Cantabri in general. See Note 10 above.

Note return to page Hardouin takes this to be Villaviciosa. Ansart thinks that Ria de Cella occupies its site.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied the greater part of the principality of the Asturias and the province of Leon.

Note return to page Hardouin and Mannert consider this to be identical with Navia or Nava, six miles to the east of Oviedo, an obscure place in the interior. Ansart however would identify it with Villaviciosa.

Note return to page No doubt the headland now known as the Cabo de Penas.

Note return to page Now Lugo in Gallicia.

Note return to page Supposed by Ansart to be the Rio Caneiro, into which the Rio Labio discharges itself.

Note return to page Supposed by Ansart to have dwelt in the vicinity of the Celtic promontory, now Cabo de Finisterra or Cape Finisterre. Of the Egovarri and Iadoni nothing whatever is known.

Note return to page Their towns are mentioned by Ptolemy as being situate on a bay near Nerium or the promontory of Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Mannert thinks that the Nelo is the same as the Rio Allones; the Florius seems not to have been identified.

Note return to page The inhabitants of Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Dwelling on the banks of the river which from them takes its modern name of Tambre.

Note return to page Mannert and Ansart are of opinion that this peninsula was probably the modern Cabo Taurinan or Cabo Villano, most probably the latter.

Note return to page On the occasion probably of his expedition against the Cantabri.

Note return to page Their towns, Iria Flavia and Lacus Augusti, lay in the interior, on the sites of the present Santiago de Compostella and Lugo.

Note return to page Probably the modern Noya.

Note return to page They are supposed to have occupied the district in which the warm springs are found, which are known as Caldas de Contis and Caldas deRey.

Note return to page It is suggested by Ansart that the islands here meant are those called Carreira, at the mouth of the river Ulla, and the Islas de Ons, at the mouth of the Tenario.

Note return to page See B. iii. c. 4.

Note return to page Inhabiting the vicinity of the modern Pontevedra.

Note return to page According to Ptolemy also their town was Tudse, the modern Tuy.

Note return to page The modern Islas de Scyas or of Bayona.

Note return to page The town of Bayona, about six leagues from the mouth of the river Minho.

Note return to page The Minho.

Note return to page They occupied the tract of country lying between the rivers, and known as Entre Douro y Minho.

Note return to page Now Braga on the Cavado.

Note return to page The Lima.

Note return to page The river Douro.

Note return to page See B. iii. c. 3.

Note return to page Both lead, properly so called, and tin.

Note return to page In a great degree corresponding with modern Portugal, except that the latter includes the tract of country between the Minho and Douro.

Note return to page To distinguish them from the nation of the same name sprung from them, and occupying the Farther Spain. (B. iii. c. 3.) The Pæsuri occupied the site of the present towns of Lamego and Arouca.

Note return to page The modern Vouga, which runs below the town of Aveiro, raised from the ruins of ancient Talabrica.

Note return to page Agueda, which, according to Hardouin, is the name of both the river and the town.

Note return to page Coimbra, formerly Condeja la Veja.

Note return to page Leiria is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern Ebora de Alcobaza, ten leagues from Leiria.

Note return to page The modern Cabo de la Roca, seven leagues from Lisbon.

Note return to page Pliny, in C. 34, places the Arrotrebæ, belonging to the Conventus of Lucus Augusti, about the Promontorium Celticum, which, if not the same as the Nerium (or Cape Finisterre) of the others, is evidently in its immediate neighbourhood; but he confuses the whole matter by a very curious error. He mentions a promontory called Artabrum as the headland at the N. W. extremity of Spain; the coast on the one side of it looking to the north and the Gallic Ocean, on the other to the west and the Atlantic Ocean. But he considers this promontory to be the west headland of the estuary of the Tagus, and adds, that some called it Magnum Promontorium, or the "Great Promontory," and others Olisiponense, from the city of Olisipo, or Lisbon. He assigns, in fact, all the west coast of Spain, down to the mouth of the Tagus, to the north coast, and, instead of being led to detect his error by the resemblance of name between his Artabrum Promontorium and his Arrotrebæ (the Artabri of his predecessors, Strabo and Mela), he perversely finds fault with those who had placed above the promontory Artabrum, a people of the same name who never were there.

Note return to page On the site of which the present city of Lisbon stands.

Note return to page See note 18 in the preceding page.

Note return to page See note18.

Note return to page See note13 in the preceding page.

Note return to page Among these is Pomponius Mela, who confounds the river Limia, mentioned in the last chapter, with the Æminius, or Agueda.

Note return to page Now the river Mondego.

Note return to page See B. xxxiii. c. 21.

Note return to page Now Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Pliny continues his error here, in taking part of the western side of Spain for the north, and part of the southern coast for the western.

Note return to page B. iii. c. 2.

Note return to page With the Vettones, situate in the province of the Alentejo. See B. iii. c. 3.

Note return to page In the present province of Algarve.

Note return to page Now Lisbon. Both Strabo, Solinus, and Martianus Capella make mention of a story that Ulysses came to Spain and founded this city.

Note return to page See B. viii. c. 67 of the present work.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, followed by D'Anville and Uckert, this place gives name to Alcazar do Sal, nearly midway between Evora and the sea-shore. Mannert says Setuval, which D'Anville however supposes to be the ancient Cetobriga.

Note return to page On its site stands Santiago de Cacem, nearly midway between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent.

Note return to page Or the "Wedge," generally supposed to be Cabo de Santa Maria. Ansart however thinks that it is the Punta de Sagres, near Cape St. Vincent. Pliny's words indeed seem to imply a closer proximity than that of Capes St. Vincent and Santa Maria.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, the modern Estombar; according to D'Anville, in the vicinity of Faro; but ten leagues from that place, according to Mannert.

Note return to page Hardouin and D'Anville are of opinion that Tavira occupies its site.

Note return to page Now Mertola, on the river Guadiana.

Note return to page Now Merida, on the Guadiana. A colony of veterans (Emeriti) was planted there by Augustus.

Note return to page Now Medellin, in the province of Estremadura.

Note return to page Pax Julia, or Pax Augusta, in the country of the Turduli, or Turdetani; now Beja, in the province of the Alentejo

Note return to page Now Alcantara, in the province of Estremadura.

Note return to page Now Truxillo, so called from Turis Julia.

Note return to page Now Caceres.

Note return to page Now called Santarem, from Saint Irene, the Virgin.

Note return to page "The Garrison of Julius."

Note return to page "The Success of Julius."

Note return to page Evora, between the Guadiana and the Tagus.

Note return to page "The Liberality of Julius."

Note return to page B. iii. c. 3.

Note return to page Hardouin takes Augustobriga to have stood on the site of Villar del Pedroso on the Tagus. Other writers think that it is represented by the present Ponte del Arcobispo.

Note return to page From Ammia, now Portalegre, on the frontier of Portugal. The sites of Arabrica and Balsa do not appear to have been ascertained.

Note return to page Capera stood on the site now called Las Ventas de Capara, between Alcantara and Coria. The site of Cæsarobrica has not been ascertained.

Note return to page Coria, in Estremadura, probably occupies the site of Caura.

Note return to page Hardouin suggests that the modern Tomar occupies the site of Concordia.

Note return to page Mannert is of opinion that the city of Lancia was situate in the north of Lusitania, on the river Durius, or Douro, near the modern Zamora.

Note return to page To distinguish them from the Mirobrigenses, surnamed Turduli, mentioned in B. iii. c. 3. Some writers think that this Mirobriga is the present Ciudad Rodrigo; but Ambrose Morales takes it to be the place called Malabriga, in the vicinity of that city.

Note return to page The name of Medubriga was afterwards Aramenha, of which Hardouin says the ruins only were to be seen. They were probably called Plumbarii, from lead mines in their vicinity.

Note return to page According to Hardouin, Ocelum was in the vicinity of the modern Capara.

Note return to page From Cape de Creuz to the Promontory between the cities of Fontarabia and Saint Sebastian.

Note return to page From the Greek κασσίτερος, "tin." It is generally supposed that the "Tin Islands" were the Scilly Isles, in the vicinity of Cornwall. At the same time the Greek and Roman geographers, borrowing their knowledge from the accounts probably of the Phoenician merchants, seem to have had a very indistinct notion of their precise locality, and to have thought them to be nearer to Spain than to Britain. Thus we find Strabo, in B. iii., saying, that "the Cassiterides are ten in number, lying near each other in the ocean, towards the north from the haven of the Artabri." From a comparison of the accounts, it would almost appear that the ancient geographers confused the Scilly Islands with the Azores, as those, who enter into any detail, attribute to the Cassiterides the characteristics almost as much of the Azores and the sea in their vicinity, as of the Scilly Islands.

Note return to page Cape Finisterre.

Note return to page Or the "Islands of the Blest." We cannot do better than quote a portion of the article on this subject in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Ancient Geography." "' Fortunatæ Insulæ' is one of those geographical names whose origin is lost in mythic darkness, but which afterwards came to have a specific application, so closely resembling the old mythical notion, as to make it almost impossible to doubt that that notion was based, in part at least, on some vague knowledge of the regions afterwards discovered. The earliest Greek poetry places the abode of the happy departed spirits far beyond the entrance of the Mediterranean, at the extremity of the earth, and upon the shores of the river Oceanus, or in islands in its midst; and Horner's poetical description of the place may be applied almost word for word to those islands in the Atlantic, off the west coast of Africa, to which the name was given in the historical period. (Od. iv. 1. 563, seq.) 'There the life of mortals is most easy; there is no snow, nor winter, nor much rain, but Ocean is ever sending up the shrill breathing breezes of Zephyrus to refresh men.' Their delicious climate, and their supposed identity of situation, marked out the Canary Islands, the Madeira group, and the Azores, as worthy to represent the Islands of the Blest. In the more specific sense, however, the name was applied to the two former groups; while, in its widest application, it may have even included the Cape de Verde Islands, its extension being in fact adapted to that of maritime discovery." Pliny gives a further description of them in B. vi. c. 37.

Note return to page The strait between the island and the mainland is now called the River of Saint Peter. The circuit of the island, as stated by Pliny, varies in the MSS. from fifteen to twenty-five miles, and this last is probably correct.

Note return to page Julius Cæsar, on his visit to the city of Gades, during the Civil War in Spain, B.C. 49, conferred the citizenship of Rome on all the citizens of Gades. Under Augustus it became a municipium, with the title of 'Augusta urbs Julia Gaditana.' The modern city of Cadiz is built upon its site.

Note return to page Or the Island of Venus.

Note return to page From the Greek word κότινος, "an olive-tree."

Note return to page If Gades was not the same as Tartessus (probably the Tarshish of Scripture), its exact locality is a question in dispute. Most ancient writers place it at the mouth of the river Bætis, while others identify it, and perhaps with more probability, with the city of Carteia, on Mount Calpe, the Rock of Gibraltar. The whole country west of Gibraltar was called Tartessis. See B. iii. c. 3.

Note return to page Or more properly 'Agadir,' or 'Hagadir.' It probably received this name, meaning a 'hedge,' or 'bulwark,' from the fact of its being the chief Phœnician colony outside of the Pillars of Hercules.

Note return to page Of Erythræ, or Erytheia. The monster Geryon, or Geryones, fabled to have had three bodies, lived in the fabulous Island of Erytheia, or the "Red Isle," so called because it lay under the rays of the setting sun in the west. It was originally said to be situate off the coast of Epirus, but was afterwards identified either with Gades or the Balearic islands, and was at all times believed to be in the distant west. Geryon was said to have been the son of Chrysaor, the wealthy king of Iberia.

Note return to page Alluding to B. iii. c. 6. From Rhegium to the Alps. But there the reading is 1020.

Note return to page Meaning Gessoriacum, the present Boulogne. He probably calls it Britannicum, from the circumstance that the Romans usually embarked there for the purpose of crossing over to Britain.

Note return to page The present Santen in the Duchy of Cleves.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page Ateius, surnamed Prœtextatus, and also Philologus, which last name he assumed to indicate his learning, was born at Athens, and was one of the most celebrated grammarians of Rome, in the latter part of the first century B.C. He was originally a freedman of the jurist Ateius Capito, by whom he was described as "a rhetorician among grammarians, and a grammarian among rhetoricians." He was on terms of intimacy with Sallust the historian, and Asinius Pollio. It is supposed that he assisted Sallust in the compilation of his history; but to what extent is not known. But few of his numerous commentaries were extant even in the time of Suetonius.

Note return to page A native of Megalopolis in Arcadia, born about B.C. 204. He was trained probably in political knowledge and the military art under Philopœmen, and was sent as a prisoner to Rome, with others, to answer the charge of not aiding the Romans in their war against Perseus. Here, by great good fortune, he secured the friendship of Scipio Africanus, with whom he was present at the destruction of Carthage. His history is one of the most valuable works that has come down to us from antiquity.

Note return to page Of Miletus, one of the earliest and most distinguished Greek historians and geographers. He lived about the 65th Olympiad, or B.C. 520. A few fragments, quoted, are all that are left of his historical and geographical works. There is little doubt that Herodotus extensively availed himself of this writer's works, though it is equally untrue that he has transcribed whole passages from him, as Porphyrius has ventured to assert.

Note return to page Of Mitylene, supposed to have flourished about B.C. 450. He appears to have written numerous geographical and historical works, which, with the exception of a considerable number of fragments, are lost.

Note return to page Of Sigæum, a Greek historian, contemporary with Herodotus. He wrote a history of Greece, and several other works, all of which, with a few unimportant exceptions, are lost.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page A Rhodian by birth. He was admiral of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who reigned from B.C. 285 to 247. He wrote a work "On Harbours," in ten books, which was copied by Eratosthenes, and is frequently quoted by ancient writers. Strabo also says that he composed poetry.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Of Cumæ, or Cymæ, in Ionia. He flourished about B.C. 408. He studied under Isocrates, and gained considerable fame as a historian. Though anxious to disclose the truth, he has been accused of sometimes forcing his authorities to suit his own views. Of his history of Greece, and his essays on various subjects, a few fragments only survive.

Note return to page A grammarian of Mallus, in Cilicia. He lived in the time of Ptolemy Philopater, and resided at Pergamus, under the patronage of Eumenes II. and Attalus II. In his grammatical system he made a strong distinction between criticism and grammar, the latter of which sciences he regarded as quite subordinate to the former. Of his learned commentaries on the Iliad and the Odyssey, only a few fragments have come down to us.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Of Cyrene, an Alexandrian grammarian and poet. He flourished at Alexandria, whither Ptolemy Philadelphus had invited him to a place in the Museum. Of his Hymns and Epigrams many are still extant. His Elegies, which were of considerable poetical merit, with the exception of a few fragments, have all perished. Of his numerous other works in prose, not one is extant in an entire state.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Probably Apollodorus of Artemita, in Mesopotamia. It is probably to him that a Treatise on Islands and Cities has been ascribed by Tzetzes, as also a History of the Parthians, and a History of Pontus.

Note return to page Probably the author of that name, who wrote the history of Cyzicus, is the person here referred to. He is called by Athenæus both a Babylonian and a Cyzican. His work is entirely lost; but it appears to have been extensively read, and is referred to by Cicero and other ancient writers.

Note return to page Of Neapolis. He wrote a History of Hannibal, and to him has been ascribed a Description of the Universe, of which a fragment still survives.

Note return to page Of Tauromenium, in Sicily; a celebrated historian, who flourished about the year B.C. 300. He was banished from Sicily by Agathocles, and passed his exile at Athens. He composed a History of Sicily, from the earliest times to the year B.C. 264. The value of his history has been gravely attacked by Polybius; but there is little doubt that it possessed very considerable merit. Of this, and other works of Timæus, only a few fragments survive.

Note return to page A Greek historian; a native of Lesbos. When he lived is unknown. Dionysius, of Halicarnassus, has borrowed from him a portion of his account of the Pelasgians. He is said to have been the author of the notion that the Tyrrhenians, in consequence of their wanderings after they left their original settlement, got the name of πελαργοὶ, or "storks." He is supposed to have written a History of Lesbos, as also a work called "Historical Paradoxes."

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page Of this author nothing whatever seems to be known.

Note return to page Of Miletus, born B.C. 610. One of the earliest philosophers of the Ionian school, and said to be a pupil of Thales. Unless Pherecydes of Scyros be an exception, he was the first author of a philosophical treatise in Greek prose. Other writings are ascribed to him by Suidas; but, no doubt, on insufficient grounds. Of his treatise, which seems to have contained summary statements of his opinions, no remains exist.

Note return to page Of this writer nothing whatever is known, beyond the fact that, from his name, he seems to have been a native of Mallus, in Cilicia.

Note return to page It seems impossible to say which, out of the vast number of the authors who bore this name, is the one here referred to. It is not improbable that Dionysius of Chalcis, a Greek historian who lived before the Christian era, is meant. He wrote a work on the Foundation of Towns, in five books, which is frequently referred to by the ancients. It is not probable that the author of the Periegesis, or "Description of the World," is referred to, as that book bears internal marks of having been compiled in the third or fourth century of the Christian era.

Note return to page Of Miletus. He was the author of the "Milesiaca," a romance of licentious character, which was translated into Latin by L. Cornelius Sisenna. He is looked upon as the inventor of the Greek romance, and the title of his work is supposed to have given rise to the term Milesian, as applied to works of fiction.

Note return to page A Greek author, of whom nothing is known, except that Pliny, and after him Solinus, refer to him as the authority for the statement that Eubœa was originally called Chalcis, from the fact of (χαλκὸς) copper being first discovered there.

Note return to page Probably Menæchmus of Sicyon, who wrote a book on Actors, a History of Alexander the Great, and a book on Sicyon. Suidas says that he flourished in the time of the successors of Alexander.

Note return to page When he flourished is unknown. He is said by Hyginus to have written a History of the Island of Naxos.

Note return to page He lived after the time of Alexander the Great; but his age is unknown. He wrote a book, περὶ νόστων, on the returns of the Greeks from their various expeditions, an account of Delos, a History of Alexander the Great, and other works, all of which have perished.

Note return to page Of Heraclæa, in Pontus. He was a pupil of Plato, and, after him, of Aristotle. His works upon philosophy, history, mathematics, and other subjects, were very numerous; but, unfortunately, they are nearly all of them lost. He wrote a Treatise upon Islands, and another upon the Origin of Cities.

Note return to page A geographical writer, of whom nothing further is known.

Note return to page The Greek historian, the disciple of Socrates, deservedly styled the "Attic Bee." His principal works are the Anabasis, or the History of the Expedition of the younger Cyrus and the Retreat of the Ten Thousand; the Hellenica, or History of Greece, from the time when that of Thucydides ends to the battle of Mantinea, B.C. 362; and the Cyropædia, or Education of Cyrus. The greater portion of his works is now lost.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page There were two physicians of this name, one of Catana, in Sicily, the other of Dyrrhachium, in Illyricum, who, like his namesake, was the author of numerous works. It is doubtful, however, whether Pliny here refers to either of those authors.

Note return to page A Greek historian, quoted by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. If the same person as the father of the historian Nymphis, he must have lived in the early part of the second century B.C. He wrote a work on Islands, and another entitled χρφνοι, or Chronicles.

Note return to page A Greek geographer, who seems to have written an account of Cyprus.

Note return to page He is quoted by Strabo, Athenæus, and the Scholiasts; but all that is known of him is, that he wrote a work on Thessaly, Æolia, Attica, and Arcadia.

Note return to page He wrote a work relative to Miletus; but nothing further is known of him.

Note return to page See end of B. iii.

Note return to page Probably a writer on geography, of whom no particulars are known.

Note return to page See end of B. ii.

Note return to page Not reckoning under that appellation the country of Egypt, which was more generally looked upon as forming part of Asia. Josephus informs us that Africa received its name from Ophir, great-grandson of Abraham and his second wife, Keturah.

Note return to page Castella,' fortified places, erected for the purpose of defence; not towns formed for the reception of social communities.

Note return to page The Emperor Caligula, who, in the year 41 A.D., reduced the two Mauritanias to Roman provinces, and had King Ptolemy, the son of Juba, put to death.

Note return to page Now Cape Spartel. By Scylax it is called Hermæum, and by Ptolemy and Strabo Cote, or Coteis. Pliny means "extreme," with reference to the sea-line of the Mediterranean, in a direction due west.

Note return to page Mentioned again by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 6. Lissa was so called, according to Bochart, from the Hebrew or Phœnician word liss, 'a lion.' At the present day there is in this vicinity a headland called the 'Cape of the Lion.' Bochart thinks that the name 'Cotta,' or 'Cotte,' was derived from the Hebrew quothef, a 'vine-dresser.'

Note return to page The modern Tangier occupies its site. It was said to have derived its name from Tinge, the wife of Antæus, the giant, who was slain by Hercules. His tomb, which formed a hill, in the shape of a man stretched out at full length, was shown near the town of Tingis to a late period. It was also believed, that whenever a portion of the earth covering the body was taken away, it rained until the hole was filled up again. Sertorius is said to have dug away a portion of the hill; but, on discovering a skeleton sixty cubits in length, he was struck with horror, and had it immediately covered again. Procopius says, that the fortress of this place was built by the Canaanites, who were driven by the Jews out of Palestine.

Note return to page It has been supposed by Salmasius and others of the learned, that Pliny by mistake here attributes to Claudius the formation of a colony which was really established by either Julius Cæsar or Augustus. It is more probable, however, that Claudius, at a later period, ordered it to be called "Traducta Julia," or "the removed Colony of Julia," in remembrance of a colony having proceeded thence to Spain in the time of Julius Cæsar. Claudius himself, as stated in the text, established a colony here.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen at Belonia, or Bolonia, three Spanish miles west of the modern Tarifa.

Note return to page At this point Pliny begins his description of the western side of Africa.

Note return to page Now Arzilla, in the territory of Fez. Ptolemy places it at the mouth of the river Zileia. It is also mentioned by Strabo and Antoninus.

Note return to page Now El Araiche, or Larache, on the river Lucos.

Note return to page Mentioned again in B. ix. c. 4 and c. 5 of the present Book, where Pliny speaks of them as situate elsewhere. The story of Antæus is further enlarged upon by Solinus, B. xxiv.; Lucan, B. iv. 1. 589, et seq.; and Martianus Capella, B. vi.

Note return to page Now the Lucos.

Note return to page Hardouin is of opinion, that he here has a hit at Gabinius, a Roman author, who, in his Annals of Mauritania, as we learn from Strabo (B. xvii.), inserted numerous marvellous and incredible stories.

Note return to page When we find Pliny accusing other writers of credulity, we are strongly reminded of the proverb, 'Clodius accusat mœchos.'

Note return to page Or the "Julian Colony on the Plains." Marcus suggests that the word Babba may possibly have been derived from the Hebrew or Phœnician word beab or beaba, "situate in a thick forest." Poinsinet takes Babba to be the Beni-Tuedi of modern times. D'Anville thinks that it is Naranja.

Note return to page There is considerable difficulty about the site of Banasa. Moletius thinks that it is the modern Fanfara, or Pefenfia as Marmol calls it. D'Anville suggests that it may be Old Mahmora, on the coast; but, on the other hand, Ptolemy places it among the inland cities, assigning to it a longitude at some distance from the sea. Pliny also appears to make it inland, and makes its distance from Lixos seventy-five miles, while he makes the mouth of the Subur to be fifty miles from the same place.

Note return to page From both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. According to Poinsinet, Volubilis was the synonym of the African name Fez, signifying a 'band,' or 'swathe.' Mannert conjectures that it is the same as the modern Walili, or Qualili. D'Anville calls it Guulili, and says that there are some remains of antiquity there.

Note return to page The modern Subu, or Sebou. D'Anville is of opinion that this river has changed a part of its course since the time of Pliny.

Note return to page Most probably the modern Sallee stands on its site.

Note return to page Not in reference to the fact of its existence, but the wonderful stories which were told respecting it.

Note return to page Like others of the ancient writers, Pliny falls into the error of considering Atlas, not as an extensive chain of mountains, but as an isolated mountain, surrounded by sands. With reference to its height, the whole range declines considerably from west to east; the highest summits in Morocco reaching near 13,000 feet, in Tunis not 5000.

Note return to page Or "Goat-Pans;" probably another name for the Fauni, or Fauns. More usually, there is but one Ægipan mentioned,—the son, according to Hyginus, of Zeus or Jupiter, and a goat,—or of Zeus and Æga, the wife of Pan. As a foundation for one part of the stories here men- tioned, Brotier suggests the fact, that as the Kabyles, or mountain tribes, are in the habit of retiring to their dwellings and reposing during the heat of the day, it would not, consequently, be improbable that they would devote the night to their amusements, lighting up fires, and dancing to the music of drums and cymbals.

Note return to page Under his name we still possess a "Periplus," or account of a voyage round a part of Libya. The work was originally written in Punic, but what has come down to us is a Greek translation. We fail, however, to discover any means by which to identify him with any one of the many Carthaginians of the same name. Some writers call him king, and others dux, or imperator of the Carthaginians; from which we may infer, that he held the office of suffetes. This expedition has by some been placed as far back as the time of the Trojan war, or of Hesiod, while others again place it as late as the reign of Agathocles. Falconer, Bougainville, and Gail, place the time of Hanno at about B.C. 570, while other critics identify him with Hanno, the father or son of Hamilcar, who was killed at Himera, B.C. 480. Pliny often makes mention of him; more particularly see B. viii. c. 21.

Note return to page M. Gosselin thinks that the spot here indicated was at the south-western extremity of the Atlas range, and upon the northern frontier of the Desert of Zahara.

Note return to page Supposed by some geographers to be the same as that now called the Ommirabih, or the Om-Rabya. This is also thought by some to have been the same river as is called by Pliny, in p. 381, by the name of Asana; but the distances do not agree.

Note return to page Supposed by Gosselin to be the present bay of Al-cazar, on the African coast, in the Straits of Cadiz; though Hardouin takes it to be the κόλπος ἐμπορικὸς, or "Gulf of Commerce," of Strabo and Ptolemy. By first quoting from one, and then at a tangent from another, Pliny involves this subject in almost inextricable confusion.

Note return to page Probably the place called Thymiaterion in the Periplus of Hanno.

Note return to page The present Subu, and the river probably of Sallee, previously mentioned.

Note return to page The modern Mazagan, according to Gosselin.

Note return to page Cape Cantin, according to Gosselin; Cape Blanco, according to Marcus.

Note return to page Probably the Safi, Asafi, or Saffee of the present day.

Note return to page The river Tensift, which runs close to the city of Morocco, in the interior.

Note return to page The river Mogador of the present day.

Note return to page The modern river Sus, or Sous.

Note return to page The learned Gosselin has aptly remarked, that this cannot be other than an error, and that "ninety-six" is the correct reading, the Gulf of Sainte-Croix being evidently the one here referred to.

Note return to page Mount Barce seems to be here a name for the Atlas, or Daran chain.

Note return to page Supposed by Gosselin to be the present Cape Ger.

Note return to page The river Assa, according to Gosselin. There is also a river Suse placed here in the maps.

Note return to page These two tribes probably dwelt between the modern Capes Ger and Non.

Note return to page Marcus believes these to have been the ancestors of the present race of the Touaricks, while the Melanogætuli were the progenitors of the Tibbos, of a darker complexion, and more nearly resembling the negroes in bodily conformation.

Note return to page Supposed by Gosselin to be the present river Nun, or Non. According to Bochart, this river received its name from the Hebrew or Phoenician word behemoth or bamoth, the name by which Job (xl. 15) calls the crocodile [or rather the hippopotamus]. Bochart, however, with Mannert, Bougainville, De Rennet, and De Heeren, is of opinion, that by this name the modern river Senegal is meant. Marcus is of opinion that it is either the Non or the modern Sobi.

Note return to page Marcus here observes, that from Cape Alfach, below Cape Non, there are no mountains, but continual wastes of sand, bordering on the sea-shore. Indeed there is no headland, of any considerable height, between Cape Sobi and Cape Bajador.

Note return to page The Chariot of the Gods." Marcus is of opinion that it is the modern Cape Verde; while, on the other hand, Gosselin takes it to be Cape Non. Brotier calls it Cape Ledo.

Note return to page In B. vi. c. 36, Pliny speaks of this promontory as the "Hesperian Horn," and says that it is but four days' sail from the Theon Ochema. Brotier identifies this promontory with the modern Cape Roxo. Marcus is of opinion that it was the same as Cape Non ; but there is considerable difficulty in determining its identity.

Note return to page Alluding to Polybius; though, according to the reading which Sillig has adopted a few lines previously, Agrippa is the last author mentioned. Pliny has here mistaken the meaning of Polybius, who has placed Atlas midway between Carthage, from which he had set out, and the Promontory of Theon Ochema, which he reached.

Note return to page Ptolemy the son of Juba II. and Cleopatra, was summoned to Rome in the year A.D. 40, by Caligula, and shortly after put to death by him, his riches having excited the emperor's cupidity. Previously to this, he had been on terms of strict alliance with the Roman people, who had decreed him a toga picta and a sceptre, as a mark of their friendship.

Note return to page Ivory and citron-wood, or cedar, were used for the making and inlaying of the tables used by the Roman nobility. See B. xiii. c. 23.

Note return to page Supposed by some geographers to be the modern Wadi-Tensift. It has been also confounded with the Anatis (see note 1, p. 369); while others again identify it with the Anidus. It is more commonly spelt 'Asama.'

Note return to page Or Phuth. It does not appear to have been identified.

Note return to page The range is still called by the name of Daran.

Note return to page The same general who afterwards conquered the Britons under Boadicea or Bonduca. While Proprætor in Mauritania under the Emperor Claudius, in the year A.D. 42, he defeated the Mauri who had risen in revolt, and advanced, as Pliny here states, as far as Mount Atlas. It is not known from what point Paulinus made his advance towards the Atlas range. Mannert and Marcus are of opinion that he set out from Sala, the modern Sallee, while Latreille, Malte Brun, and Walkenaer think that his point of departure was the mouth of the river Lixos. Sala was the most southerly town on the western coast of Africa that in the time of Pliny had submitted to the Roman arms.

Note return to page Some of the editions read 'Niger' here. Marcus suggests that that river may have been called 'Niger' by the Phœnician or Punic colonists of the western Mauritania, and 'Ger' or' Gar' in another quarter. The same writer also suggests that the Sigilmessa was the river to which Paulinus penetrated on his march beyond Atlas.

Note return to page The Sigilmessa, according to Marmol, flows between several mountains which appear to be of a blackish hue.

Note return to page Bocchus however, the kinsman of Massinissa, had previously for some time reigned over both the Mauritanias, consisting of Mauritania Tingitana and Mauritania Cæsariana.

Note return to page See B. xxv. c. 7. 12, and B. xxvi. c. 8.

Note return to page Extending from the sea to the river Moluga, now called the Molucha and Molochath, or Malva and Malvana.

Note return to page From whom the Moors of the present day take their name. Marcus observes here, that though Pliny distinguishes the Mauri from the Gætuli, they essentially belonged to the same race and spoke the same language, the so-called Berber, and its dialects, the Schellou and the Schoviah.

Note return to page Maursii' was the Greek name, 'Mauri' the Latin, for this people. Marcus suggests that Mauri was a synonym only for the Greek word nomades, 'wanderers.'

Note return to page As Marcus observes, Pliny is here greatly in error. On the inroads of Paulinus, the Mauri had retreated into the interior and taken refuge in the deserts of Zahara, whence they had again emerged in the time of the geographer Ptolemy.

Note return to page From the time of the second Punic War this people had remained in undisputed possession of the country situate between the rivers Molochath or Moluga and Ampsaga, which formed the Cæsarian Mauritania. Ptolemy speaks of finding some remains of them at Siga, a town situate on a river of the same name, and at which King Syphax had formerly resided.

Note return to page While Pomponius Mela does not make any difference between the Mauri and the Gætuli, Pliny here speaks of them as being essentially different.

Note return to page Derived, according to Marcus, from the Arabic compound bani-our, 'child of nakedness,' as equivalent to the Greek word gymnetes, by which name Pliny and other ancient writers designate the wandering naked races of Western Africa.

Note return to page The Autololes or, as Ptolemy calls them, the Autolole, dwelt, it is supposed, on the western coast of Africa, between Cape Cantin and Cape Ger. Their city of Autolala or Autolalæ is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical observation, having the longest day thirteen hours and a half, being distant three hours and a half west of Alexandria, and having the sun vertical once a year, at the time of the winter solstice. Reichard takes it for the modern Agulon or Aquilon.

Note return to page The Æthiopian Daratitæ, Marcus says.

Note return to page The present Ceuta.

Note return to page They were so called from the circumstance, Marcus says, of their peaks being so numerous, and so strongly resembling each other. They are now called, according to D'Anville, 'Gebel Mousa,' which means "the Mountain of Apes," an animal by which they are now much frequented, instead of by elephants as in Pliny's time.

Note return to page Or Mediterranean.

Note return to page The modern Bedia, according to Olivarius, the Tasanel, according to Dupinet, and the Alamos or Kerkal, according to Ansart. Marcus says that it is called the Setuan, and is the largest stream on the northern shores of Western Africa.

Note return to page The modern Gomera according to Hardouin, the Nocor according to Mannert.

Note return to page The modern Melilla most probably.

Note return to page The modern Maluia. Antoninus calls it Malva, and Ptolemy Maloua.

Note return to page Its site is occupied by the modern Aresgol, according to Mariana, Guardia or Sereni according to Dupinet, Ned-Roma according to Mannert and D'Anville, and Tachumbrit according to Shaw. Marcus is inclined to be of the same opinion as the last-mentioned geographer.

Note return to page Now the city of Malaga.

Note return to page Mauritania Cæsariensis, or Cæsarian Mauritania, now forming the French province of Algiers.

Note return to page "Bogudiana;" from Bogud or Bogoas. The last king Bogud was deprived of his kingdom by Bocchus, king of Mauritania Cæsariensis, a warm partisan of Cæsar.

Note return to page Or the "Great Harbour," now Arzeu according to D'Anville, and Mars-el-Kebir according to Marcus.

Note return to page The same river probably as the Malva or Malvana previously mentioned, the word mulucha or malacha coming from the Greek μολόχη, "a marsh mallow," which malva, as a Latin word, also signifies. See p. 383.

Note return to page From the Greek word ξένος, "a stranger." Pomponius Mela and Antoninus call this place Guiza, and Ptolemy Quisa. D'Anville places it on the right side of the river Malvana or Mulucha, and Shaw says that it was situate in the vicinity of the modern town of Oran.

Note return to page Now Marz-Agolet, or situate in its vicinity, according to Hardouin and Ansart, and the present Arzen, according to Marcus, where numerous remains of antiquity are found.

Note return to page Now Tenez, according to D'Anville, and Mesgraïm, according to Mannert; with which last opinion Marcus agrees.

Note return to page Ptolemy and Antoninus place this colony to the east of the Promontory of Apollo, and not the west as Pliny does.

Note return to page The present Cape Mestagan.

Note return to page According to Dupinet and Mannert, the modern Tenez occupies its site, Zershell according to Hardouin and Shaw, Vacur according to D'Anville and Ansart, and Algiers according to others. It is suggested by Marcus that the name Iol is derived from the Arabic verb galla, "to be noble" or "famous." There is no doubt that the magnificent ruins at Zershell are those of Iol, and that its name is an abbreviation of Cæsarea Iol.

Note return to page Or New Town.

Note return to page Scylax calls it Thapsus; Ammianus Marcellinus, Tiposa. According to Mannert it was situate in the vicinity of the modern Damas.

Note return to page Or Icosium. It has been identified by inscriptions discovered by the French as standing on the same site as the modern Algiers. D'Anville, Mannert and others identify it with Scherchell or Zershell, thus placing it too far west. Mannert was evidently misled by an error in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast are, for a considerable distance, thrown too far to the west; the researches however which followed the French conquest of the country have revealed inscriptions which completely set the question at rest.

Note return to page According to Mannert, this was situate on the modern Cape Arbatel. Marcus thinks that the Hebrew ros, or Arab ras, "a rock," enters into the composition of the word.

Note return to page Now Hur according to D'Anville, Colcah according to Mannert.

Note return to page The modern Acor, according to Marcus.

Note return to page The modern Pedeles or Delys, according to Ortellius and Mannert, Tedles according to D'Anville.

Note return to page The modern Jigeli or Gigeri. It was probably in ancient times the emporium of the surrounding country.

Note return to page Destroyed, according to Hardouin, and probably by the incursions of the sea. At the mouth of the Ampsaga (now called the Wad-El-Kebir or Sufjimar, and higher up the Wadi Roumel) there is situate a small sea-port called Marsa Zeitoun.

Note return to page Near the present Mazuaa, according to Mannert.

Note return to page The modern Burgh, according to D'Anville and Mannert, but more probably considerably to the east of that place.

Note return to page The modern El-Herba, according to Mannert.

Note return to page Marcus suggests that this is the Chinalaph of Ptolemy, and probably the modern Schellif.

Note return to page The same that is called Savis by Ptolemy, who places Icosium on its banks.

Note return to page By Mela called the Vabar. Marcus supposes it to be the same as the modern Giffer.

Note return to page By Ptolemy called the Sisar; the Ajebbi of modern geographers, which falls into the Mediterranean, near the city of Budja.

Note return to page Brotier says that this reading is incorrect, and that 222 is the proper one, that being the true distance between the river Ampsaga or Wadel-Kebir and the city of Cæsarea, the modern Zershell.

Note return to page It was not only Numidia that bore this name, but all the northern coast of Africa from the frontiers of the kingdom of Carthage near Hippo Regius to the Columns of Hercules. It was thus called from the Greek metagonos, a "descendant" or "successor;" as the Carthaginians established a number of small towns and villages on the coast, which were thus posterior in their origin to the large cities already founded there.

Note return to page Hardouin says that the Moors in the interior still follow the same usage, carrying their houses from pasture to pasture on waggons.

Note return to page Now Chollum or Collo.

Note return to page The modern Sgigada or Stora, according to Mannert, D'Anville, and Shaw.

Note return to page The modern Constantina occupies its site. Numerous remains of the ancient town are still discovered. Sitius was an officer who served under Cæsar, and obtained a grant of this place after the defeat of Juba.

Note return to page Called Urbs, or Kaff, according to D'Anville and Shaw; the latter of whom found an inscription there with the words Ordo Siccensium.

Note return to page Or 'Royal Bulla'; which epithet shows that it was either a residence or a foundation of the kings of Numidia, and distinguishes it from a small place called Bulla Mensa, south of Carthage. Bulla Regia was four days' journey south-west of Carthage, on a tributary of the river Bagrada, the valley of which is still called Wad-el-Boul. This place was one of the points of Ptolemy's recorded astronomical observations, having its longest day fourteen hours and one-eighth, and being distant from Alexandria two hours to the west.

Note return to page The modern Tamseh, according to Shaw and Mannert, and Tagodet, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Its ruins are south of the modern Bona. It received the name of Regius or 'Royal' from being the residence of the Numidian kings. It was also famed as being the see of St. Augustine. It was a colony of Tyre, and stood on the bay now forming the Gulf of Bona. It was one of the most flourishing cities of Africa till it was destroyed by the Vandals A.D. 430.

Note return to page Now the Mafragg, according to Mannert.

Note return to page Still called Tabarca, according to Hardouin.

Note return to page Now the Zaina, according to Marcus.

Note return to page For the character of the Numidian marble, see Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 7.

Note return to page Extending from the river Tusca, or Zaina, to the northern frontiers of Byzacium. It corresponds with the Turkish province or beylik of Tunis.

Note return to page He says this not only to distinguish it from Africa, considered as one-third of the globe, but also in contradistinction to the proconsular province of the Roman empire of the same name, which contained not only the province of Zeugitana, but also those of Numidia, Byzacium, and Tripolis.

Note return to page Candidum: now Ras-el-Abiad.

Note return to page The references to this headland identify it with Cape Farina, or Ras Sidi Ali-al-Mekhi, and not, as some have thought, the more westerly Cape Zibeeb or Ras Sidi Bou-Shoushe. Shaw however applies the name of Zibeeb to the former.

Note return to page Now Cape Bon, or Ras-Addar.

Note return to page More properly called Hippo Diarrhytus or Zaritus, a Tyrian colony, situate on a large lake which communicated with the sea, and received the waters of another lake. Its situation exposed it to frequent inundations, whence, as the Greeks used to state, the epithet διάῤῥυτος. It seems more probable however that this is the remnant of some Phœnician title, as the ancients were not agreed on the true form of the name, and of this uncertainty we have a further proof in the Hippo Dirutus of our author.

Note return to page This is placed by Ptolemy to the south-east of Hippo, and near the southern extremity of Lake Sisar.

Note return to page This important city stood on the north part of the Carthaginian Gulf, west of the mouth of the Bagrada, and twenty-seven Roman miles N.W. of Carthage; but the site of its ruins at the modern Bou-Shater is now inland, in consequence of the changes made by the Bagrada in the coast-line. In the Third Punic war Utica took part with the Romans against Carthage, and was rewarded with the greater part of the Carthaginian territory.

Note return to page Now called the Mejerdah, and though of very inconsiderable size, the chief river of the Carthaginian territory. The main stream is formed by the union of two branches, the southern of which, the ancient Bagrada, is now called the Mellig, and in its upper course the Meskianah. The other branch is called the Hamiz.

Note return to page Or the "Cornelian Camp." The spot where Cornelius Scipio Africa- nus the Elder first encamped, on landing in Africa, B.C. 204. Cæsar describes this spot, in his description of Curio's operations against Utica, B. C. b. ii. c. 24, 25. This spot is now called Ghellah.

Note return to page This colony was first established by Caius Gracchus, who sent 6000 settlers to found on the site of Carthage the new city of Junonia. The Roman senate afterwards annulled this with the other acts of Gracchus. Under Augustus however the new city of Carthage was founded, which, when Strabo wrote, was as prosperous as any city in Africa. It was made, in place of Utica, which had favoured the Pompeian party, the seat of the proconsul of Old Africa. It stood on the peninsula terminated by Ras-Sidi-Bou-Said, Cape Carthage or Carthagena. As Gibbon has remarked, "The place might be unknown if some broken arches of an aqueduct did not guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller."

Note return to page The original city of Carthage was called 'Carthago Magna' to distinguish it from New Carthage and Old Carthage, colonies in Spain.

Note return to page Now Rhades, according to Marcus.

Note return to page Marcus identifies it with the modern Gurtos.

Note return to page By the Greeks called 'Aspis.' It derived its Greek and Roman names from its site on a hill of a shield-like shape. It was built by Agathocles, the Sicilian, B.C. 310. In the first Punic war it was the landing-place of Manlius and Regulus, whose first action was to take it, B.C. 256. Its site is still known as Kalebiah, and its ruins are peculiarly interesting. The site of Misua is occupied by Sidi-Doud, according to Shaw and D'Anville.

Note return to page Shaw informs us that an inscription found on the spot designates this place as a colony, not a free city or town. Its present name is Kurbah.

Note return to page The present Nabal, according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Zeugitana extended from the river Tusca to Horrea-Cælia, and Byzacium from this last place to Thenæ.

Note return to page As sprung partly from the Phœnician immigrants, and partly from the native Libyans or Africans.

Note return to page Pliny says, B. xvii. c. 3, "A hundred and fifty fold." From Shaw we learn that this fertility no longer exists, the fields producing not more than eight- or at most twelve-fold.

Note return to page The modern Lempta occupies its site.

Note return to page Originally a Phœnician colony, older than Carthage. It was the capital of Byzacium, and stood within the southern extremity of the Sinus Neapolitanus or Gulf of Hammamet. Trajan made it a colony, under the high-sounding name, as we gather from inscriptions, of Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetana, or, as set forth on coins, Colonia Concordia Julia Hadrumetana Pia. The epithet Frugifera refers to the fact that it was one of the chief sea-ports for the corn-producing country of Byzacium. It was destroyed by the Vandals, but restored by the Emperor Justinian under the name of Justiniana or Justinianopolis. The modern Sousa stands on its site; and but slight traces of the ancient city are to be found.

Note return to page Situate in the vicinity of the modern Monastir.

Note return to page Shaw discovered its ruins at the modern town of Demas.

Note return to page Now Taineh, according to D'Anville. This place formed the boundary between the proconsular province of Africa and the territory of the Numidian king Masinissa and his descendants.

Note return to page The present Mahometa, according to Marcus, El Mahres according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Now Cabès, according to D'Anville, giving name to the Gulf of Cabès. Marcus calls it Gaps.

Note return to page Now Tripoli Vecchio; also called Sabart according to D'Anville.

Note return to page Scipio Æmilianus, the son-in-law of Æmilius Paulus.

Note return to page Micipsa, the son of Masinissa, and his two legitimate brethren. Scipio having been left by Masinissa executor of his will, the sovereign power was divided by him between Micipsa and his two brethren Gulussa and Mastanabal. On this occasion also he separated Numidia from Zeugitana and Byzacium, by a long dyke drawn from Thenæ, due south, to the borders of the Great Desert, and thence in a north-westerly direction to the river Tusca.

Note return to page The Syrtes or 'Quicksands' are now called, the Lesser Syrtes the Gulf of Cabès, and the Greater the Gulf of Sydra. The country situate between the two Syrtes is called Tripoli, formerly Tripolis, a name which, according to Solinus, it owed to its three cities, Sabrata, Leptis, and Œa.

Note return to page Marcus observes with reference to this passage, that both Hardouin and Poinsinet have mistaken its meaning. They evidently think that Pliny is speaking here of a route to the Syrtes leading from the interior of Africa, whereas it is pretty clear that he is speaking of the dangers which attend those who approach it by the line of the sea-coast, as Cato did, on his march to Utica, so beautifully described by Lucan in his Ninth Book. This is no doubt the same route which was taken by the caravans on their passage from Lebida, the ancient Leptis, to Berenice in Cyrenaica.

Note return to page Those which we find at the middle of the coast bordering upon the Greater Syrtis, and which separate the mountains of Fezzan and Atlas from Cyrenaïca and Barca.

Note return to page In its widest sense this name is applied to all the Libyan tribes inhabiting the Oases on the eastern part of the Great Desert, as the Gætulians inhabited its western part, the boundary between the two nations being drawn at the sources of the Bagrada and the mountain Usargala. In the stricter sense however, and in which the term must be here understood, the name 'Garamantes' denoted the people of Phazania, the modern Fezzan, which forms by far the largest oasis in the Grand Desert of Zahara.

Note return to page Augylæ, now Aujelah, was an oasis in the desert of Barca, in the region of Cyrenaica, about 3 1/2° south of Cyrene. It has been remarked that Pliny, here and in the Eighth Chapter of the present Book, in abridging the account given by Herodotus of the tribes of Northern Africa, has transferred to the Augylæ what that author really says of the Nasamones. This oasis forms one of the chief stations on the caravan route from Cairo to Fezzan. It is placed by Rennell in 30°3′ North Lat. and 22°46′ East Long., 180 miles south-east of Barca, 180 west by north of Siwah, the ancient Ammonium, and 426 east by north of Mourzouk. Later authorities, however, place the village of Aujelah in 29°15′ North Lat. and 21°55′ East Long.

Note return to page For an account of the Psylli see B. vii. c. 2. They probably dwelt in the vicinity of the modern Cape Mesurata.

Note return to page Now Lake Lynxama, according to Marcus.

Note return to page Marcus observes that in order properly to understand this passage we must remember that the ancients considered Africa as terminating north of the Equator, and imagined that from the Straits of Hercules the western coast of Africa ran, not towards the south-west, but slanted in a southeasterly direction to the Straits of Babelmandel.

Note return to page The modern Tripoli.

Note return to page A flourishing city with a mixed population of Libyans and Sicilians. It was at this place that Apuleius made his eloquent and ingenious defence against the charge of sorcery brought against him by his step-sons. According to some writers the modern Tripoli is built on its site, while other accounts make it to have been situate six leagues from that city.

Note return to page Now called the Wady-el-Quaham.

Note return to page Mannert is of opinion that this was only another name for the city of Leptis Magna or the "Greater Leptis" here mentioned by Pliny. There is little doubt that his supposition is correct.

Note return to page The more common reading is Taphra or Taphara. D'Anville identifies it with the town of Sfakes.

Note return to page Scylax identifies it with Neapolis or Leptis, and it is generally looked upon as being the same place as Sabrata or Old Tripoli.

Note return to page Now called Lebida. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Septimius Severus. It was almost destroyed by an attack from a Libyan tribe A.D. 366, and its ruin was completed by the invasion of the Arabs. Its ruins are considerable.

Note return to page Men of sea complexion," is the meaning of this Greek name. According to Marcus they dwelt between the Greater Leptis and the Lake Tritonis, at the present day called Schibkah-el-Loudeah. For a further account of the Lotophagi, see B. xiii. c. 32.

Note return to page Two brothers, citizens of Carthage, who in a dispute as to their respective territories with the people of Cyrene, submitted to be buried alive in the sand, at the boundary-line between the two countries. Sallust (Jugurthine War) is the main authority for the story. It is also related by Pomponius Mela, B. i. c. 7, and Valerius Maximus, B. v. c. 6, but from the Greek name of the brothers, meaning "lovers of praise," it is doubtful whether the story is not of spurious origin.

Note return to page The Lake Tritonis mentioned in note11, p. 393.

Note return to page Now called El Hammah, according to Shaw.

Note return to page According to some accounts the goddess Pallas or Minerva was born on the banks of Lake Tritonis.

Note return to page The modern Cape of Tajuni.

Note return to page Now called Udina, according to Marcus.

Note return to page Now called Tabersole, according to Marcus.

Note return to page In the north of Byzacium, near the Bagrada and the confines of Numidia. It was the station of a Roman garrison, and considerable remains of it are still visible near the modern Zanfour.

Note return to page Called Cannopissæ by Ptolemy, who places it to the east of Tabraca.

Note return to page There is great doubt as to the correct orthography of these places, most of which can be no longer identified.

Note return to page According to Marcus the present Porto Tarina.

Note return to page Also called Achilla and Achulla, the ruins of which are to be seen at the modern El Aliah. It stood on the sea-coast of Byzacium, a little above the northern extremity of the Lesser Syrtis. It was a colony from the island of Melita, now Malta.

Note return to page Now called El-Jemma, according to Marcus.

Note return to page From it modern Tunis takes its name.

Note return to page The birth-place of St. Augustin. It was to the north-west of Hippo Regius.

Note return to page In the vicinity of this place, if it is the same as the Tigisis mentioned by Procopius, there were two columns to be seen in his day, upon which was written in the Phœnician language, "We fled from before the robber, Joshua the son of Nun."

Note return to page There were two towns of this name in the proconsular province of Africa. The first was situate in the country of Zeugitana, five days' journey west of Carthage, and it was here that Scipio defeated Hannibal. The other bore the surname of Regia or Royal, from being the frequent residence of the Numidian kings. It lay in the interior, and at the present day its site bears the name of 'Zowarin' or 'Zewarin.'

Note return to page The ruins of Capsa still bear the name of Cafsa or Ghafsah. It was an important city in the extreme south of Numidia, situate in an oasis, in the midst of an arid desert abounding in serpents. In the Jugurthine war it was the treasury of Jugurtha, and was taken and destroyed by Marius; but was afterwards rebuilt and made a colony.

Note return to page They dwelt between the river Ampsaga or Wady-El-Kebir and the Tusca or Wady-Zain, the western boundary of the Carthaginian territory.

Note return to page Dwelling to the east of the mountain Zalycus, now known as the Wanashrise, according to Shaw.

Note return to page The ancients called by the name of 'Gætulians' all the people of Africa who dwelt south of the Mauritanias and Numidia, as far as the line which, according to their ideas, separated Africa from Æthiopia.

Note return to page The Quorra most probably of modern geographers.

Note return to page So called, as mentioned below, from its five principal cities.

Note return to page Where Jupiter Ammon or Hammon was worshiped under the form of a ram, the form he was said to have assumed when the deities were dispersed in the war with the Giants. Ancient Ammonium is the present oasis of Siwah in the Libyan Desert.

Note return to page The same that has been already mentioned in B. ii. c. 106. It is mentioned by Herodotus and Pomponius Mela.

Note return to page Previously called Hesperis or Hesperides. It was the most westerly city of Cyrenaica, and stood just beyond the eastern extremity of the Greater Syrtis, on a promontory called Pseudopenias, and near the river Lethon. Its historical importance only dates from the times of the Ptolemies, when it was named Berenice, after the wife of Ptolemy III. or Euergetes. Having been greatly reduced, it was fortified anew by the Emperor Justinian. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Ben Ghazi.

Note return to page So called from Arsinoë, the sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Its earlier name was Taucheira or Teucheira, which name, according to Marcus, it still retains.

Note return to page Its ruins may still be seen at Tolmeita or Tolometa. It was situate on the N.W. coast of Cyrenaica, and originally bore the name of Barca. From which of the Ptolemies it took its name is not known. Its splendid ruins are not less than four miles in circumference.

Note return to page Its ruins are still to be seen, bespeaking its former splendour, at the modern Marsa Sousah. It was originally only the port of Cyrene, but under the Ptolemies it flourished to such an extent as to eclipse that city. It is pretty certain that it was the Sozusa of the later Greek writers. Eratosthenes was a native of this place.

Note return to page The chief city of Cyrenaica, and the most important Hellenic colony in Africa, the early settlers having extensively intermarried with wives of Libyan parentage. In its most prosperous times it maintained an extensive commerce with Greece and Egypt, especially in silphium or assafœtida, the plantations of which, as mentioned in the present chapter, extended for miles in its vicinity. Great quantities of this plant were also exported to Capua in Southern Italy, where it was extensively employed in the manufacture of perfumes. The scene of the 'Rudens,' the most picturesque (if we may use the term) of the plays of Plautus, is laid in the vicinity of Cyrene, and frequent reference is made in it to the extensive cultivation of silphium; a head of which plant also appears on the coins of the place. The philosophers Aristippus and Carneades were born here, as also the poet Callimachus. Its ruins, at the modern Ghrennah, are very extensive, and are indicative of its former splendour.

Note return to page In C. 1 of the present Book. It was only the poetical fancy of the Greeks that found the fabled gardens of the Hesperides in the fertile regions of Cyrenaica. Scylax distinctly mentions the gardens and the lake of the Hesperides in this vicinity, where we also find a people called Hesperidæ, or, as Herodotus names them, Euesperidæ. It was probably in consequence of this similarity of name, in a great degree, that the gardens of the Hesperidcs were assigned to this locality.

Note return to page Now called Ras-Sem or Ras-El-Kazat. It is situate a little to the west of Apollonia and N.W. of Cyrene.

Note return to page According to Ansart, 264 miles is the real distance between Capes Ras-Sem and Tænarum or Matapan.

Note return to page As already mentioned, Apollonia formed the harbour of Cyrene.

Note return to page This was called the Chersonesus Magna, being so named in contradistinction to the Chersonesus Parva, on the coast of Egypt, about thirty-five miles west of Alexandria. It is now called Ras-El-Tin, or more commonly Raxatin.

Note return to page So called from the peculiar features of the locality, the Greek word καταβαθμὸς, signifying "a descent." A deep valley, bounded east and west by ranges of high hills, runs from this spot to the frontiers of Egypt. It is again mentioned by Pliny at the end of the present Chapter. The spot is still known by a similar name, being called Marsa Sollern, or the "Port of the Ladder." In earlier times the Egyptian territory ended at the Gulf of Plinthinethes, now Lago Segio, and did not extend so far as Catabathmos.

Note return to page This name was unknown to Herodotus. As Marcus observes, it was probably of Phœnician origin, signifying "leading a wandering life," like the term "nomad," derived from the Greek.

Note return to page Now called El Bareton or Marsa-Labeit. This city was of considerable importance, and belonged properly to Marmaria, but was included politically in the Nomos Libya of Egypt. It stood near the promontory of Artos or Pythis, now Ras-El-Hazeit.

Note return to page So called from the words Matû-Ammon, "the tribe of Ammon," according to Bochart. The Nasamones were a powerful but savage people of Libya, who dwelt originally on the shores of the Greater Syrtis, but were driven inland by the Greek settlers of Cyrenaica, and afterwards by the Romans.

Note return to page From μεσὸς "the middle," and ἄμμος "sand."

Note return to page See note6 in p. 396.

Note return to page Herodotus places this nation to the west of the Nasamones and on the river Cinyps, now called the Wadi-Quaham.

Note return to page In most of the editions they are called 'Hammanientes.' It has been suggested that they were so called from the Greek word ἄμμος "sand."

Note return to page This story he borrows from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 158.

Note return to page From the Greek word τρωγλοδύται, "dwellers in caves." Pliny has used the term already (B. iv. c. 25) in reference to the nations on the banks of the Danube. It was a general name applied by the Greek geographers to various uncivilized races who had no abodes but caves, and more especially to the inhabitants of the western coasts of the Red Sea, along the shores of Upper Egypt and Æthiopia.

Note return to page At the beginning of C. 4.

Note return to page Which gives name to the modern Fezzan.

Note return to page Now called Tanet-Mellulen, or the station of Mellulen, on the route from Gadamez to Oserona.

Note return to page Zaouila or Zala, half way between Augyla and Mourzouk.

Note return to page Now Gadamez, which, according to Marcus, is situate almost under the same meridian as Old Tripoli, the ancient Sabrata.

Note return to page According to Marcus this range still bears the name of Gibel-Assoud, which in the Arabic language means the "Black Mountain."

Note return to page In a southerly direction. He alludes probably to the Desert of Bildulgerid.

Note return to page This spring is also mentioned by Pliny in B. ii. c. 106. Marcus suggests that the Debris of Pliny is the same as the Bedir of Ptolemy. He also remarks that the English traveller Oudney discovered caverns hewn out of the sides of the hills, evidently for the purposes of habitation, but of which the use is not known by the present people. These he considers to have been the abodes of the ancient Troglodytæ or "cave-dwellers." In the Tibesti range of mountains, however, we find a race called the Rock Tibboos, from the circumstance of their dwelling in caves.

Note return to page Cornelius Balbus Gaditanus the Younger, who, upon his victories over the Garamantes, obtained a triumph in the year B.C. 19.

Note return to page L. Cornelius Balbus the Elder, also at native of Gades. He obtained the consulship in B.C. 40, the first instance, as we find mentioned by Pliny, B. vii. c. 44, in which this honour had been conferred upon one who was not a Roman citizen.

Note return to page On the occasion of a triumph by a Roman general, boards were carried aloft on "fercula," on which were painted in large letters the names of vanquished nations and countries. Here too models were exhibited in ivory or wood of the cities and forts captured, and pictures of the mountains, rivers, and other great natural features of the subjugated region, with appropriate inscriptions. Marcus is of opinion that the names of the places here mentioned do not succeed in any geographical order, but solely according to their presumed importance as forming part of the conquest of Balbus. He also thinks that Balbus did not penetrate beyond the fifteenth degree of north latitude, and that his conquests did not extend so far south as the banks of Lake Tchad.

Note return to page The site of Garama still bears the name of 'Gherma,' and presents very considerable remains of antiquity. It is four days' journey north of Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan.

Note return to page Now Tibesti, according to Marcus.

Note return to page Marcus suggests that this is probably the Febabo of modem geographers, to the N.E. of Belma and Tibesti.

Note return to page Discera was the Im-Zerah of modern travellers, on the road from Sockna to Mourzouk, according to Marcus, who is of opinion that the places which follow were situate at the east and north-east of Thuben and the Black Mountain.

Note return to page Om-El-Abid, to the N.W. of Garama or Gherma, according to Marcus, and Oudney the traveller.

Note return to page The same, Marcus thinks, as the modem Tessava in Fezzan.

Note return to page Marcus suggests that this may be the modern Sana.

Note return to page The town of Winega mentioned by Oudney, was probably the ancient Pega, according to Marcus.

Note return to page The modern Missolat, according to Marcus, on the route from Tripoli to Murmuck.

Note return to page According to Marcus, this was the Mount Goriano of the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, where, confirming the statement here made by Pliny, they found quartz, jasper, onyx, agates, and cornelians.

Note return to page Mentioned by Tacitus, B. iv. c. 50. The town of Œa has been alluded to by Pliny in C. 4.

Note return to page Past the head of the rock." Marcus suggests that this is the Gibel-Gelat or Rock of Gelat spoken of by the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, forming a portion of the chain of Guriano or Gyr. He says, that at the foot of this mountain travellers have to pass from Old and New Tripoli on their road to Missolat, the Maxala of Pliny, and thence to Gerama or Gherma, the ancient capital of Fezzan.

Note return to page As Marcus observes, this would not make it to extend so far south as the sixteenth degree of north latitude.

Note return to page The Mareotis of the time of the Ptolemies extended from Alexandria to the Gulf of Plinthinethes; and Libya was properly that portion of territory which extended from that Gulf to Catabathmos. Pliny is in error here in confounding the two appellations, or rather, blending them into one. It includes the eastern portion of the modern Barca, and the western division of Lower Egypt. It most probably received its name from the Lake Mareotis, and not the lake from it.

Note return to page This was a seaport town on the northern coast of Africa, probably about eleven or twelve miles west of Parætonium, sometimes spoken of as belonging to Egypt, sometimes to Marmorica. Scylax places it at the western boundary of Egypt, on the frontier of the Marmaridæ. Ptolemy, like Pliny, speaks of it as being in the Libyan Nomos. The distances given in the MSS. of Pliny of this place from Parætonium are seventy-two, sixty-two, and twelve miles; the latter is probably the correct reading, as Strabc, B. xvii., makes the distance 100 stadia. It is extremely doubtful whether the Apis mentioned by Herodotus, B. ii. c. 18, can be the same place: but there is little doubt, from the words of Pliny here, that it was dedicated to the worship of the Egyptian god Apis, who was represented under the form of a bull.

Note return to page Now called Zerbi and Jerba, derived from the name of Girba, which even in the time of Aurelius Victor, had supplanted that of Meninx. It is situate in the Gulf of Cabes. According to Solinus, C. Marius lay in concealment here for some time. It was famous for its purple. See B. ix. c. 60.

Note return to page Now called Kerkéni, Karkenah, or Ramlah.

Note return to page Now Gherba. It was reckoned as a mere appendage to Cercina, to which it was joined by a mole, and which is found often mentioned in history.

Note return to page Still called Lampedusa, off the coast of Tunis. This island, with Gaulos and Galata, has been already mentioned among the islands off Sicily; see B. iii. c. 14.

Note return to page Now Pantellaria. See B. iii. c. 14.

Note return to page A lofty island surrounded by dangerous cliffs, now called Zowamour or Zembra.

Note return to page In the former editions the word "Aræ" is taken to refer to the Ægimuri, as meaning the same islands. Sillig is however of opinion that totally distinct groups are meant, and punctuates accordingly. The "Aræ" were probably mere rocks lying out at sea, which received their name from their fancied resemblance to altars. They are mentioned by Virgil in the Æneid, B. i. l. 113, upon which lines Servius says, that they were so called because there the Romans and the people of Africa on one occasion made a treaty.

Note return to page The greater portion of this Chapter is extracted almost verbatim from the account given by Mela. Ptolemy seems to place the Liby-Egyptians to the south of the Greater and Lesser Oasis, on the route thence to Darfour.

Note return to page Or "White Æthiopians," men though of dark complexion, not negroes. Marcus is of opinion that the words "intervenientibus desertis" refer to the tract of desert country lying between the Leucæthiopians and the Liby-Egyptians, and not to that between the Gætulians on the one hand and the Liby-Egyptians and the Leucæthiopians on the other.

Note return to page Meaning to the south and the south-east of these three nations, according to Marcus. Rennel takes the Leucæthiopians to be the present Mandingos of higher Senegambia: Marcus however thinks that they are the Azanaghis, who dwell on the edge of the Great Desert, and are not of so black a complexion as the Mandingos.

Note return to page Probably the people of the present Nigritia or Soudan.

Note return to page Marcus is of opinion that Pliny does not here refer to the Joliba of Park and other travellers, as other commentators have supposed; but that he speaks of the river called Zis by the modern geographers, and which Jackson speaks of as flowing from the south-east towards north-west. The whole subject of the Niger is however enwrapped in almost impenetrable obscurity, and as the most recent inquirers have not come to any conclusion on the subject, it would be little more than a waste of time and space to enter upon an investigation of the notions which Pliny and Mela entertained on the subject.

Note return to page From γυμνὸς, "naked."

Note return to page Mentioned in C. 1 of the present Book.

Note return to page 7 He refers to the words in the Odyssey, B. i. l. 23, 24.— αἰθίοπας τοὶ δίχθα δεδαιάται, ἔσχατοι ἄνδρων οἱ μὲν δυσομένου υπερίονος, οἱ δ ἀνιόντος. "The Æhiopians, the most remote of mankind, are divided into two parts, the one at the setting of Hyperion, the other at his rising."

Note return to page A tribe of Æthiopia, whose position varied considerably at different epochs of history. Their predatory and savage habits caused the most extraordinary reports to be spread of their appearance and ferocity. The more ancient geographers bring them as far westward as the region beyond the Libyan Desert, and into the vicinity of the Oases. In the time however of the Antonines, when Ptolemy was composing his description of Africa, they appear to the south and east of Egypt, in the wide and almost unknown tract which lay between the rivers Astapus and Astobores.

Note return to page Mela speaks of this race as situate farthest to the west. The description of them here given is from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 183–185, who speaks of them under the name of "Atarantes."

Note return to page The people who are visited by no dreams, are called Atlantes by Herodotus, the same name by which Pliny calls them. He says that their territory is ten days' journey from that of the Atarantes.

Note return to page This also is borrowed from Herodotus. As some confirmation of this account, it is worthy of remark, that the Rock Tibboos of the present day, who, like the ancient Troglodytæ, dwell in caves, have so peculiar a kind of speech, that it is compared by the people of Aujelah to nothing but the whistling of birds. The Troglodytæ of Fezzan are here referred to, not those of the coasts of the Red Sea.

Note return to page Mela says that they look upon the Manes or spirits of the departed as their only deities.

Note return to page This is said, in almost the same words, of the Garamantes, by Herodotus. The mistake was probably made by Mela in copying from Herodotus, and continued by Pliny when borrowing from him.

Note return to page So called from their supposed resemblance in form to the Satyrs of the ancient mythology, who were represented as little hairy men with horns, long ears, and tails. They were probably monkeys, which had been mistaken for men.

Note return to page Half goat, half man. See the Note relative to Ægipan, in C. 1 of the present Book, p. 378.

Note return to page Evidently intended to be derived from the Greek ἱμὰς "a thong," and πόδες "the feet." It is most probable that the name of a savage people in the interior bore a fancied resemblance to this word, upon which the marvellous story here stated was coined for the purpose of tallying with the name. From a statement in the Æthiopica of Heliodorus, B. x., Marcus suggests that the story as to the Blemmyee having no heads arose from the circumstance, that on the invasion of the Persians they were in the habit of falling on one knee and bowing the head to the breast, by which means, without injury to themselves, they afforded a passage to the horses of the enemy.

Note return to page It must be remembered, as already mentioned, that the ancients looked upon Egypt as forming part of Asia, not of Africa. It seems impossible to say how this supposition arose, when the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez form so natural and so palpable a frontier between Asia and Africa.

Note return to page It is not improbable that these numbers are incorrectly stated in the MSS. of our author.

Note return to page Parisot remarks that Pliny is in error in this statement. A considerable part of Lower Egypt lay both on the right and left of the Delta or island formed by the branches of the Nile. It must be remembered, however, that our author has already included a portion of what was strictly Egypt, in his description of Libya Mareotis.

Note return to page By reason of its triangular form, δ.

Note return to page The Ombite nome worshipped the crocodile as the emblem of Sebak. Its capital was Ombos.

Note return to page This nome destroyed the crocodile and worshipped the sun. Its capital was Apollinopolis Magna.

Note return to page It worshipped Osiris and his son Orus. The chief town was Thermonthis.

Note return to page Probably the original kingdom of Menes of This, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. It worshipped Osiris. Its capital was This, afterwards called Abydos.

Note return to page The nome of Thebes, which was its chief town.

Note return to page Its capital was Coptos.

Note return to page Its chief town was Tentyra. This nome worshipped Athor or Venus, Isis, and Typhon. It destroyed the crocodile.

Note return to page Perhaps the same as the Panopolite or Chemmite nome, which had for its chief town Chemmis or Panopolis. It paid divine honours to a deified hero.

Note return to page It probably worshipped Typhon. Its capital was Antæopolis.

Note return to page Probably an offshoot from a nome in the Heptanomis of similar name.

Note return to page Dedicated to the worship of the wolf. Its chief town was Lycopolis. It should be remarked that these names do not appear to be given by Pliny in their proper geographical order.

Note return to page Some of these nomes were inconsiderable and of little importance. The Bubastite nome worshipped Bubastis, Artemis, or Diana, of whom it contained a fine temple.

Note return to page Its chief town was Tanis. In this nome, according to tradition, Moses was born.

Note return to page Its capital was Athribis, where the shrew-mouse and crocodile were worshipped.

Note return to page The seat of the worship of the dog-headed deity Anubis. Its capital was Cynopolis; which is to be distinguished from the Deltic city and other places of that name, as this was a nome of the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt, to which also the Hammonian nome belonged.

Note return to page The border nome of Upper and Middle Egypt.

Note return to page Its capital was Pachnamunis. It worshipped a goddess corresponding to the Greek Leto, or the Latona of the Romans.

Note return to page Its capital was Busiris. It worshipped Isis, and at one period was said to have sacrificed the nomad tribes of Syria and Arabia.

Note return to page Its chief town was Onuphis.

Note return to page Its chief city was Sais, and it worshipped Neith or Athene, and contained the tomb and a sanctuary of Osiris.

Note return to page Its capital was Tava.

Note return to page Its chief town was Naucratis on the coast, the birth-place of Athenæus, the Deipnosophist. By some authors it is made part of the Saitic nome. The names given by Pliny vary very considerably from those found in others of the ancient writers.

Note return to page The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.

Note return to page The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.

Note return to page He probably means Arsinoë or Arsinoïtis, the chief town of the nome of that name, and the city so called at the northern extremity of the Heroöpolite Gulf in the Red Sea. The former is denoted by the modern district of El-Fayoom, the most fertile of ancient Egypt. At this place the crocodile was worshipped. The Labyrinth and Lake Mœris were in this nome. Extensive ruins at Medinet-el-Fayoom, or El-Fares, represent its site. The modern Ardscherud, a village near Suez, corresponds to Arsinoë on the Red Sea. There is some little doubt however whether this last Arsinoë is the one here meant by Pliny.

Note return to page Memphis was the chief city of this nome, which was situate in Middle Egypt, and was the capital of the whole country, and the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammetichus, B.C. 616. This nome rose in importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, but was afterwards eclipsed by the progress of Alexandria under the successors of Alexander the Great.

Note return to page At which Middle Egypt terminates.

Note return to page They are more generally looked upon as forming one nome only, and included under the name of Hammonium.

Note return to page Its chief town was Heroöpolis, a principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or destroying genius.

Note return to page The same as the nome of Arsinoïtes, the capital of which, Arsinoë, was originally called Crocodilopolis.

Note return to page Now known as Birket-el-Keroum. This was a vast lake on the western side of the Nile in Middle Egypt, used for the reception and subsequent distribution of a part of the overflow of the Nile. The supposition that it was formed by artificial means is now pretty generally exploded, and it is regarded as of natural formation. It was situate in the nome of Arsinoïtes or Crocodilopolites. Its length seems to be overstated by our author, as at the present day it is only thirty miles in length and five in breadth at the widest part.

Note return to page And it is generally supposed that they are so up to the present day. The ethnographer Jablonski is of opinion that this river derives its name from the Coptish word tneialei "to rise at stated times." Servius, the commentator on Virgil, says that it is derived from the two Greek words νέα ἰλὺς "fresh mud," in allusion to the fresh mud or slime which it leaves after each inundation. Singularly enough, Champollion prefers this silly etymology to that suggested by Jablonski.

Note return to page An interesting disquisition on the probable sources of the Nile, as viewed by the ancients, is to be found in the Ninth Book of Lucan's Pharsalia. The Indian word "nilas," "black," has also been suggested as its possible origin.

Note return to page What spot is meant under this name, if indeed it is anything more than the creation of fancy, it is impossible to ascertain with any degree of precision. It is possible however that the ancients may have had some knowledge of Lake Tchad, and the Mountains of the Moon, or Djebel-Kumri, though at the same time it is more than doubtful that the Nile has its source in either of those localities, the former especially.

Note return to page Perhaps a kind of river lamprey. As to the Coracinus, see B. ix. c. 24, 32, and B. xxxii. c. 19, 24, 34, 44, and 53; and as to the Silurus, B. ix. c. 17, 25, and B. xxxii. c. 31, 36, 40, 43, 44, &c.

Note return to page The modern Vacur in Northern Africa.

Note return to page A district which in reality was at least 1200 or 1500 miles distant from any part of the Nile, and probably near 3000 from its real source.

Note return to page Spargit." It is doubtful whether this word means here "waters," or "divides." Probably however the latter is its meaning.

Note return to page This is the third or eastern branch of the river, now known as the Tacazze. It rises in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long., and joins the main stream of the Nile, formed by the union of the Abiad and the Azrek, in 17°45′ north lat. and about 34°5′ east long.; the point of junction being the apex of the island of Meroë, here mentioned by Pliny.

Note return to page Possibly by this name he designates the Bahr-el-Abied, or White River, the main stream of the Nile, the sources of which have not been hitherto satisfactorily ascertained. The Astapus is supposed to have been really the name of the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Blue River, the third branch of the Nile, the sources of which are in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long.

Note return to page Or "side of the water that issues from the shades." As Hardouin says, this does not appear to be a very satisfactory explanation.

Note return to page Said by Tzetzes to have been derived from the Greek τρἱτος, "the third," because it had three times changed its name: having been called, first, the Ocean; secondly, Aëtus, or the Eagle; and thirdly, Ægyptus.

Note return to page Or the "Cataracts," for which it is the Greek name. The most northerly of these cataracts, called the First Cataract, is, and always has been, the southern boundary of Egypt. According to the most recent accounts, these Cataracts are devoid of any stupendous features, such as characterize the Falls of Niagara.

Note return to page The one now called the First Cataract.

Note return to page Seven mouths in ancient times, which have now dwindled down to two of any importance, the Damietta mouth on the east, and the Rosetta on the west.

Note return to page The Etesians are periodical winds, which blow steadily from one quarter for forty days each year, during the season of the Dog-days. The opinion here stated was that promulgated by Thales the philosopher. Seneca refutes it in B. iv. c. 2. of his Quæst. Nat.

Note return to page This was the opinion of Democritus of Abdera, and of Agatharchidas of Cnidos. It is combated by Diodorus Siculus, B. i., but it is the opinion most generally received at the present day. See the disquisition on the subject introduced in the Ninth book of Lucan's Pharsalia.

Note return to page And that the high tide or inundation would be consequently continuous as well.

Note return to page The principal well for this purpose was called the "Nilometer," or "Gauge for the Nile."

Note return to page On this subject see Pliny, B. xviii. c. 47, and B. xxxvi. c. 11.

Note return to page Seneca says that the Nile did not rise as usual in the tenth and eleventh years of the reign of Cleopatra, and that the circumstance was said to bode ruin to her and Antony.—Nat. Quæst. B. iv. c. 2.

Note return to page He means dense clouds, productive of rain, not thin mists. See what is said of the Borysthenes by our author, B. xxxi. c. 30.

Note return to page Syene was a city of Upper Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile just below the First Cataract, and was looked upon as the southern frontier city of Egypt against Æthiopia. It was an important point in the geography and astronomy of the ancients; for, lying just under the tropic of Cancer, it was chosen as the place through which they drew their chief parallel of latitude. The sun was vertical to Syene at the time of the summer solstice, and a well was shown there where the face of the sun was seen at noon at that time. Its present name is Assouan or Ossouan.

Note return to page If this word means the "Camp," it does not appear to be known what camp is meant. Most editions have "Cerastæ," in which case it would mean that at Syene the Cerastes or horned serpent is found.

Note return to page One of these (if indeed Philæ did consist of more than a single island, which seems doubtful) is now known as Djeziret-el-Birbe, the "Island of the Temple."

Note return to page This island was seated just below the Lesser Cataract, opposite Syene, and near the western bank of the Nile. At this point the river becomes navigable downward to its mouths, and the traveller from Meroë or Æthiopia enters Egypt Proper. The original name of this island was "Ebo," Eb being in the language of hieroglyphics the symbol of the elephant and ivory. It was remarkable for its fertility and verdure, and the Arabs of the present day designate the island as Djesiret-el-Sag, or "the Blooming."

Note return to page This is a mistake of Pliny's, for it was opposite to Syene. Brotier thinks that Pliny intended to write' Philæ,' but by mistake inserted Syene.

Note return to page Artemidorus, Juba, and Aristocreon.

Note return to page They were probably made of papyrus, or else of hides, like the British coracles.

Note return to page The last king of the line of Psammetichus, B.C. 569. He succeeded Apries, whom the Egyptians put to death. He died just before the invasion by Cambyses, having displayed great abilities as a ruler.

Note return to page There was the Greater Apollinopolis, the modem Edfoo, in the Thebaid, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 25° north, about thirteen miles below the lesser Cataract: its inhabitants were enemies of the crocodile and its worshippers. The remains of two temples there are considered second only to the temple of Denderah as specimens of the sacred structures of Egypt. A Lesser Apollinopolis was in Upper Egypt, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 27° north. Another Lesser Apollinopolis was a town of the Thebaid in the Coptite Nome, in lat. 26° north, situate between Thebes and Coptos. It was situate at the present Kuss.

Note return to page Its site is unknown. Hardouin suggests that it is the Eilethuia of Ptolemy, the modern El-Kab.

Note return to page City of Jupiter," the Greek name for Thebes, the No or No Ammon of Scripture. It stood in the centre of the Thebaid, on both banks of the Nile, above Coptos, and in the Nomos Coptites. Its ruins, which are the most magnificent in the world, enclose within their site the four villages of Carnac, Luxor, Medinet Abou, and Gournou.

Note return to page Its hieroglyphical name was Kobto, and its site is now occupied by the modern town of Kouft or Keft. It was situate in lat. 26° north, on the right bank of the Nile, about a mile from its banks. As a halting place or rather watering-place for the caravans, it was enriched by the commerce between Libya and Egypt on the one hand, and Arabia and India and Egypt on the other, the latter being carried on through the port of Berenice on the Red Sea, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, B.C. 266. In the seventh century of the Christian era, it bore for some time the name of Justinianopolis. There are a few remains of Roman buildings to be seen on its site.

Note return to page Also called Aphrodite or Aphroditopolis. Of this name there were several towns or cities in ancient Egypt. In Lower Egypt there was Atarbechis, thus named, and a town mentioned by Strabo in the nome of Leontopolites. In the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt there was the place, the ruins of which are called Aftyeh, on the east side of the Nile, and the capital of the nome of Aphroditopolites. In Upper Egypt or the Thebais there was the present Tachta, on the west side of the Nile, between Ptolemais and Panopolis, capital of another nome of Aphroditopolites, and that one the ruins of which are now called Deir, on the west bank of the Nile, higher up than the former, and, like it, some distance from the river. It was situate in the nome Hermonthites.

Note return to page Another Diospolis. Great Diospolis is mentioned in the preceding page.

Note return to page Or Tentyra. The modern Dendera of the Arabs, called Dendôri or Hidendôri by the ancient Egyptians.

Note return to page In ancient times called This, and in Coptic Ebôt, the ruins of which are now known as Arábat-el-Matfoon. It was the chief town of the Nomos Thinites, and was situate in lat. 26°10′ north and long. 32°3′ east. In the Thebaid it ranked next to Thebes itself. Here according to general belief was the burial-place of Osiris. In the time of Strabo it had sunk into a mere village. Its ruins, though nearly buried in the sand, are very extensive. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the exact identity of This with Abydus.

Note return to page The ruins of these places are still to be seen at Abydus.

Note return to page He calls the whole of the country on the western bank of the Nile by this name.

Note return to page Called Absou or Absaï by the Arabs, and Psoë by the ancient Egyptians. It has been suggested that it was the same place as This, more generally identified with Abydus.

Note return to page Its site is now called Ekhmin or Akhmin by the Arabs, Khmim being its ancient Egyptian name. It was the chief town of the nome of Panopolites, and the deity Phthah was worshipped there under the form of Priapus.

Note return to page Another Aphroditopolis, the present Tachta, mentioned above, in Note6 in the last page. Pliny distinguishes it from that now called Deir, mentioned above.

Note return to page Now known as Es-Siout.

Note return to page Or Hermopolis—the modern Esh-moon or Ash-mounion, on the eastern bank of the Nile, in lat. 27°54′ north. It was the capital of the Hermopolite nome in the Heptanomis. It was a place of great opulence and densely populated. The deities Typhon and Thoth were principally worshipped at this place. The latter, the inventor of the pen and letters, nearly corresponded with the Hermes of the Greeks (the Mercury of the Romans), from which the Hellenized name of the place. Its ruins are very extensive.

Note return to page This town was no doubt connected with the alabaster quarries of Mount Alabasternus, now Mount St. Anthony, and the hill of Alabastrites, now the Côteau Hessan.

Note return to page Or Cynopolis, the chief place of the Cynopolite nome. The Dog-headed deity Anubis was worshipped here. The modern Samallus occupies its site. This place was in the Heptanomis, but there were several other towns of the same name, one of which was situate in the Delta or Lower Egypt.

Note return to page In C. 9, when speaking of the nome of Heracleopolites; of which nome, this place, called Heracleopolis, was the capital. It was situate at the entrance of the valley of the Fayoum, on an island formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis it was probably the most important city north of the Thebaid. It furnished two dynasties of kings to Egypt. The ichneumon was worshipped here, from which it may be inferred that the people were hostile to the crocodile. Its ruins are inconsiderable; the village of Anasieh covers part of them.

Note return to page The capital of the nome of Arsinoites, seated on the western bank of the Nile, between the river and Lake Mœris, south-west of Memphis, in lat. 29° north. It was called under the Pharaohs, "the City of Crocodiles," from the reverence paid by the people to that animal. Its ruins are to be seen at Medinet-el-Fayoom or El-Fares.

Note return to page Its magnificent ruins, known by the name of Menf and Metrabenny, are to be seen about ten miles above the pyramids of Gizeh.

Note return to page This lay beyond Lake Mœris, or Birket-el-Keroun, at a short distance from the city of Arsinoë. It had 3000 apartments, 1500 of which were underground. The accounts given by modern travellers of its supposed ruins do not agree with what we have learned from the ancients respecting its architecture and site. The purposes for which it was built are unknown. Its supposed site is called Havara.

Note return to page If this is not an abbreviation or corruption for Crocodilon, as Hardouin suggests, it may probably mean the "town of Rams," from the worship perhaps of that animal there.

Note return to page Heliopolis or Rameses. In Scripture it is called by the names of On and No—Gen. xli. 45 and Ezek. xxx. 15. It stood on the eastern side of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile, near the right bank of the Great Canal which connected the river with the Red Sea, and close adjoining to the present overland route for travellers to India. It was one of the most ancient of the Egyptian cities; here the father-in-law of Joseph exercised the office of high-priest, and here the prophet Jeremiah is supposed to have written his Book of Lamentations. Its priests were the great depositaries of the theological and historical learning of Egypt. Solon, Thales, and Plato were reputed each to have visited its schools. According to Macrobius, Baalbec, the Syrian City of the Sun, was a colony from this place. It was the capital of the nome Heliopolites, and paid worship to the sun and the bull Mnevis, the rival of Apis. From Josephus we learn that after the dispersion and fall of the tribes of Judah and Israel, great numbers of the Jews took refuge at this place, forming almost one-half of its population. The ruins, which were extremely magnificent, occupied in the twelfth century an area nearly three miles in extent. Pliny speaks of the great obelisk there, which is still standing. (See B. xxxvi. c. 9.) The village of Matarieh occupies a part of its site, and besides the obelisk of red granite, there are a few remains of the Temple of the Sun.

Note return to page Now called Birk-el-Mariout.

Note return to page Or Dinocrates. He was the architect of the new temple of Diana at Ephesus, which was built after the destruction of the former one by Herostratus. It was this architect who formed a design for cutting Mount Athos into a statue of Alexander, with a city in the right hand and a reservoir of the mountain streams in the left.

Note return to page Holland seems to think that the word "laxitate" applies to chlamys.

Note return to page The chlamys was a scarf or cloak worn over the shoulders, and especially used by military persons of high rank. It did not reach lower than the knees, and was open in front, covering only the neck, back, and shoulders.

Note return to page Its real dimensions were something less than 300 stadia, or thirty geographical miles long, and rather more than 150 stadia wide.

Note return to page Or "Pseudostomata." These were crossed in small boats, as they were not navigable for ships of burden.

Note return to page In the Pharaonic times Canopus was the capital of the nome of Menelaïtes, and the principal harbour of the Delta. It probably owed its name to the god Canobus, a pitcher full of holes, with a human head, which was worshipped here with peculiar pomp. It was remarkable for the number of its festivals and the general dissoluteness of its morals. Traces of its ruins are to be seen about three miles from the modern Aboukir.

Note return to page Corresponding to the modern Raschid or Rosetta. It is supposed that this place was noted for its manufactory of chariots.

Note return to page The town of Sebennys or Sebennytum, now Samannoud, gave name to one of the nomes, and the Sebennytic Mouth of the Nile.

Note return to page Or the Pathinetic or Bucolic Mouth, said to be the same as the modern Damietta Mouth.

Note return to page The capital of the Mendesian nome, called by the Arabs Ochmoun. This mouth is now known as the Deibeh Mouth.

Note return to page Now called Szan or Tzan. The Tanitic Mouth, which is sometimes called the Saitic, is at the present day called Omm-Faredjé.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Tineh. This city in early times had the name of Abaris. It was situate on the eastern side of the most easterly mouth of the Nile, which, after it, was called the Pelusiac Mouth, about two miles from the sea, in the midst of morasses. Being the fiontier city towards Syria and Arabia it was strongly fortified. It was the birth-place of Ptolemy the geographer.

Note return to page Butos or Buto stood on the Sebennytic arm of the Nile near its mouth, on the southern shores of the Butic Lake. It was the chief seat of the worship of the goddess Buto, whom the Greeks identified with Leto or Latona. The modern Kem Kasir occupies its site.

Note return to page Called Harbait by the Arabs, and Farbait by the ancient Egyptians.

Note return to page In the Delta. It was the capital of the nome of Leontopolites, and probably of late foundation, as no writer previous to Pliny mentions it. Its site is uncertain, but Thall-Essabouah, the "Hill of the Lion," has been suggested.

Note return to page The chief town of the Athribitic nome in Lower Egypt. It stood on the eastern bank of the Tanitic branch of the Nile. This nome and town derived their name from the goddess Thriphis, whom the inscriptions there and at Panopolis designate as the "most great goddess." The ruins at Atrieb or Trieb, at the spot where the modern canal of Moueys turns off from the Nile, represent the ancient Athribis. They are very extensive, and among them are considerable remains of the Roman era.

Note return to page This was situate near the city or town of Busiris in the Delta. The modern village of Bahbeyt is supposed to cover the ruins of the temple of Isis.

Note return to page The modern Busyr or Abousir, where considerable ruins of the ancient city are still to be seen. It was the chief town of the nome of Busirites, and stood south of Sais, near the Phatnitic mouth, on the western bank of the Nile. This was also the name of a town in Middle Egypt, in the neighbourhood of Memphis, and represented by another village of the name of Abousir. Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 16, speaks of the Catacombs in its vicinity.

Note return to page The place of that name in the Delta is here meant.

Note return to page Probably the town of that name, otherwise called Aphroditopolis, in the nome of Leontopolites.

Note return to page The ruins of which are now called Sa-el-Hajjar. It was situate in the Delta, on the east side of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower Egypt and contained the palace and burial-place of the Pharaohs. It was the chief seat of the worship of the Egyptian goddess Neith, also known as Sais. It gave its name to the nome of Saïtes.

Note return to page It was situate in the Delta of Egypt and in the nome of Saïtes, on the eastern bank of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was a colony of the Milesians, founded probably in the reign of Amasis, about B.C. 550, and remained a pure Greek city. It was the only place in Egypt in which, in the time of the later Pharaohs, foreigners were permitted to settle and trade. In later times it was famous for the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, and rivalled Canopus in the dissoluteness of its manners.

Note return to page Ptolemy the geographer does this.

Note return to page Arabia Petræa; that part of Arabia which immediately joins up to Egypt.

Note return to page Called Arabia Felix to the present day.

Note return to page The part of Arabia which joins up to Egypt, Arabia Petræa namely.

Note return to page Strabo places this people as far south as the mouth of the Red Sea, i.e. on the east of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Forster (in his 'Arabia,' vol. ii.) takes this name to be merely an inversion of Beni Kahtan, the great tribe which mainly peoples, at the present day, central and southern Arabia.

Note return to page Probably the people of Esebon, the Heshbon of Scripture, spoken of by Jerome as being the city of Sihon, king of the Amorites.

Note return to page The "tent-people," from the Greek σκηνὴ, "a tent." This seems to have been a name common to the nomadic tribes of Arabia. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of them as being the same as the Saraceni or Saracens.

Note return to page The modern El Katieh or El Kas; which is the summit of a lofty range of sandstone hills on the borders of Egypt and Arabia Petræa, immediately south of the Sirbonian Lake and the Mediterranean Sea. On its western side was the tomb of Pompey the Great.

Note return to page The same as the Amalekites of Scripture, according to Hardouin. Bochart thinks that they are the same as the Chavilæi, who are mentioned as dwelling in the vicinity of Babylon.

Note return to page The position which Pliny assigns to this nation would correspond with the northern part of the modern district of the Hedjaz. Forster identifies them with the Cauraitæ, or Cadraitæ of Arrian, and the Darræ of Ptolemy, tracing their origin to the Cedar or Kedar, the son of Ishmael, mentioned in Genesis xxv. 13, and represented by the modern Harb nation and the modern town of Kedeyre. See Psalm cxx. 5: "Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar!"

Note return to page An Arabian people, said to have descended from the eldest son of Ishmael, who had their original abodes in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, east and south-east of the Moabites and Edomites. Extending their territory, we find the Nabatæi of Greek and Roman history occupying nearly the whole of Arabia Petræa, along the northeast coast of the Red Sea, on both sides of the Ælanitic Gulf, and on the Idumæan mountains, where they had their capital, Petra, hewn out of the rock.

Note return to page Now the Bahr-el-Soueys, or Gulf of Suez.

Note return to page The Bahr-el-Akabah, or Gulf of Akabah.

Note return to page Now Akabah, an Idumæan town of Arabia Petræa, situate at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was called after this town "Ælaniticus Sinus." It was annexed to the kingdom of Judah, with the other cities of Idumæa, by David, 2 Sam. viii. 14, and was one of the harbours on the Red Sea from which the ships of Solomon sailed for Ophir. See 1 Kings ix. 26 and 2 Chron. viii. 17. It was a place of commercial importance under the Romans and the head-quarters of the Tenth Legion. A fortress now occupies its site.

Note return to page Its site is now known as Guzzah. It was the last city on the south-west frontier of Palestine, and from the earliest times was a strongly fortified place. It was taken from the Philistines by the Jews more than once, but as often retaken. It was also taken by Cyrus the Great and Alexander, and afterwards by Ptolemy Lagus, who destroyed it. It afterwards recovered, and was again destroyed by Alexander Jannæus, B.C. 96, after which, it was rebuilt by Gabinius and ultimately united to the Roman province of Syria. In A.D. 65 it was again destroyed, but was rebuilt, and finally fell into the hands of the Arabs, in A.D. 634.

Note return to page Meaning the Mediterranean.

Note return to page The present Suez. See B. vi. c. 33.

Note return to page Or the "Hollow" Syria. This was properly the name given, after the Macedonian conquest, to the great valley between the two great ranges of Mount Lebanon, in the south of Syria, bordering upon Phœnicia on the west, and Palestine on the south. In the wars between the Ptolemies and the Seleucidæ, the name was applied to the whole of the southern portion of Syria, which became subject for some time to the kings of Egypt; but under the Romans, it was confined to Cœlesyria proper with the district east of Anti-Libanus, about Damascus, and a portion of Palestine east of Jordan.

Note return to page Or Ostracine, the northern point of Arabia.

Note return to page This was a great fortress of Syria founded by Seleucus B.C. 300, at the foot of Mount Pieria and overhanging the Mediterranean, four miles north of the Orontes and twelve miles west of Antioch. It had fallen entirely to decay in the sixth century of our era. There are considerable ruins of its harbour and mole, its walls and necropolis. They bear the name of Seleukeh or Kepse.

Note return to page From the Greek ζεῦγμα, "a junction ;" built by Seleucus Nicator on the borders of Commagene and Cyrrhestice, on the west bank of the Euphrates, where the river had been crossed by a bridge of boats constructed by Alexander the Great. The modern Rumkaleh is supposed to occupy its site.

Note return to page On this subject see B. vii. c. 57. The invention of letters and the first cultivation of the science of astronomy have been claimed for the Egyptians and other nations. The Tyrians were probably the first who applied the science of astronomy to the purposes of navigation. There is little doubt that warfare must have been studied as an art long before the existence of the Phœnician nation.

Note return to page Strabo places this between Mount Casius and Pelusium.

Note return to page See C. 12 of the present Book. Chabrias the Athenian aided Nectanebus II. against his revolted subjects.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen on the present Ras Straki.

Note return to page Now called the Sabakat Bardowal. It lay on the coast of Egypt, east of Mount Casius, and it is not improbable that the boundary-line between Egypt and Palæstina or Idumæa ran through the middle of its waters. It was strongly impregnated with asphaltus. A connection formerly existed between it and the Mediterranean, but this being stopped up, it gradually grew smaller by evaporation and is now nearly dry.

Note return to page The present Kulat-el-Arich or El Arish, situate at the mouth of the brook El-Arish, called by the Scriptures the "river of Egypt." Its name signifies in Greek, "cutting off of noses," and is probably derived from the fact of its having been the place of exile for criminals who had been so mutilated, under the Æthiopian kings of Egypt. Poinsinet suggests however that the name means the "town of the circumcised."

Note return to page The place on its site is still called Refah, but it was really situate on the coast. Gaza has been already mentioned in a Note to C. 12, p. 423.

Note return to page Anthedon was on the coast of Palestine, although Pliny says to the contrary. It was situate about three miles to the south-west of Gaza, and was destroyed by Alexander Jannæus. In the time of Julian it was addicted to the worship of Astarte, the Syrian Venus. According to Dupinet the present name of its site is Daron.

Note return to page Brotier says that this is the same as the Mount Gerizim of Scripture, but that was situate in Samaria, a considerable distance from the southern coast of Palæstina. Pliny is the only author that mentions it.

Note return to page The Ascalon of Scripture, one of the five cities of the Philistines, situate on the coast of the Mediterranean, between Gaza and Jamnia. In early times it was the seat of the worship of Derceto, a fish with a woman's head. The ruins, which still bear the name of Askulân, are very extensive, and indicative of great strength. The shalot or scallion was originally a native of this place, and thence derived its name.

Note return to page The Ashdod of Scripture. It was one of the five cities of the Philistines and the chief seat of the worship of Dagon. Herodotus states that it stood a siege of twenty-nine years from Psammetichus, king of Egypt. It was afterwards taken and retaken several times. It was situate between Ascalon and Jamnia, and its site is indicated by the modern village of Esdad, but no ruins of the ancient city are visible.

Note return to page One of these was a city of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the fifteenth Chapter of Joshua, 45, according to the Septuagint version, but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (where it is called Jabneh in the English version), as one of the cities of the Philistines taken and destroyed by King Uzziah. The place of this name that lay in the interior, is probably the one spoken of by Josephus as in that part of the tribe of Judah occupied by the children of Dan, as also in the 1 Maccabees, x. 69–71. The one was probably the port of the other. The ruins of the port still retain the name of Yebora, and are situate on an eminence about an hour's distance from the sea, on the banks of the river Rûbin.

Note return to page Or Joppa of Scripture, now called Yâfa or Jaffa. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second Temples was landed here. It was taken and retaken more than once during the wars of the Maccabees, and was finally annexed by Pompey to the Roman province of Syria. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament in connection with Saint Peter. In the Jewish war, having become a refuge for pirates, it was taken by Cestius and destroyed, and even the very ruins were demolished by Vespasian. It was afterwards rebuilt, and in the time of the Crusades was alternately in the hands of the Christians and the Moslems.

Note return to page To be devoured by the sea monster, from which she was delivered by Perseus, who had borrowed for the occasion the talaria or winged shoes of Mercury. In B. ix. c. 4, Pliny states that the skeleton of the monster was exhibited at Rome by M. Æmilius Scaurus, when he was Curule Ædile.

Note return to page Probably the same as Derceto or Atargatis, the fish-goddess with a woman's head, of the Syrians.

Note return to page Situate between Cæsarea and Joppa. It is probable that it owed its name to the Macedonian kings of either Egypt or Syria. Arsûf, a deserted village, but which itself was of considerable importance in the time of the Crusades, represents the ancient Apollonia.

Note return to page The site of the Turris Stratonis was afterwards occupied by Cæsarea, a city on the coast, founded by Herod the Great, and named Cæsarea in honour of Augustus Cæsar. It was renowned for the extent and magnificence of its harbour, which was secured by a breakwater of stupendous construction. For some time it was considered the principal city of Palestine and the chief seat of the Roman government. Although it again changed its name, as Pliny states, it still retained its name of Cæsarea as the Metropolitan See of the First Palestine. It was also of considerable importance during the occupation of the Holy Land by the Crusaders. Its ruins are still visible, but have served as a quarry for many generations, and Jaffa, Sidon, Acre and Beyrout have been supplied with stones from this site. Massive remains of its mole or break-water and its towers still exist.

Note return to page Or Phœnicia.

Note return to page By some regarded as the Scriptural town of Sichem, but by others as a distinct place, though in its immediate vicinity. Its present name is Naplous or Nabolos, situate between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim. Its proper name under the Romans was Flavia Neapolis. It was the birth-place of Justin Martyr.

Note return to page The city of Samaria, so called from Shemer, the owner of the hill which Omri, King of Israel, purchased, about B.C. 922, for its site. Herod greatly renovated this city, which he called Sebaste, in honour of his patron Augustus, in Greek "Sebastos." Its site is now occupied by a poor village, which bears the name of Sebustieh.

Note return to page A town of Palæstina, frequently mentioned by Josephus as remarkable for the strength of its fortifications, and situate on the Lake Tiberias, opposite to Tarichæa. After a spirited defence, it was taken by Vespasian, who slaughtered 4000 of the survivors, upon which 5000 threw themselves from the walls, and were dashed to pieces below. The site had been forgotten for nearly eighteen centuries, when Lord Lindsay discovered it on a lofty hill on the east of Lake Tiberias, and nearly opposite the town of that name. It is now called El-Hossn, and the ruins of the fortifications are very extensive.

Note return to page Antiochian Syria.

Note return to page Peræa was the general name of that part of Palæstina which lay east of the river Jordan; but more usually, in a restricted sense, it signified a part only of that region, namely the district between the rivers Hieromax on the north, and Arnon on the south.

Note return to page Jericho, so often mentioned in Scripture. It was celebrated for its palm-grove, which was presented by Antony to Cleopatra. A Bedouin encampment called Riha is all that now occupies its site.

Note return to page A city eight or ten miles from the village Emmaüs of the New Testament. It was called Nicopolis, in commemoration, it has been suggested, of the destruction of Jerusalem. Its site is still marked by a village called Ammious, on the road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.

Note return to page So often mentioned in the New Testament. This town lay to the S.E. of Joppa, and N.W. of Jerusalem, at the junction of several roads which lead from the sea-coast. It was destroyed by the Romans in the Jewish war, but was soon after rebuilt, and called Diospolis. A village called Lud occupies its site.

Note return to page So called from Acrabbim, its chief town, situate nine miles from Nicopolis. The toparchy of Acrabbim, which formerly formed part of Samaria, was the most northerly of those of Judæa.

Note return to page Situate in the country of Benjamin. Josephus reckons it second in importance only to Jerusalem, from which, according to Eusebius, it was distant fifteen miles, on the road to the modern Nablous. That author also identifies it with the Eshcol of Scripture. Its site is marked by a small Christian village, called by the natives Jufia.

Note return to page Like the two preceding ones, this toparchy for a long time belonged to Samaria. Thamna, or Thamnis, was the Timnath-Serah in Mount Ephraim, mentioned in Joshua xix. 50, and xxiv. 30, as the place where Joshua was buried.

Note return to page The toparchy of Bethleptepha of other authors. It appears to have been situate in the south of Judæa, and in that part which is by Josephus commonly called Idumæa. Reland has remarked, that the name resembles Beth-lebaoth, a city of the tribe of Simeon, mentioned in Joshua xix. 6.

Note return to page From the Greek, meaning the "mountain district," or the "hill country," as mentioned in Luke i. 39.

Note return to page Or "Sacred Solyma."

Note return to page A fortress of Palæstina, erected by Herod the Great, at a distance of about sixty stadia from Jerusalem, and not far from Tekoa. Its site has been identified by modern travellers with El-Furedis, or the Paradise; probably the same as the spot called the "Frank Mountain," on the top of which the ruined walls of the fortress are still to be seen.

Note return to page Called by the Arabs Bahr-el-Arden.

Note return to page Situate on Mount Panias, or Paneas, on the range of Anti-Libanus.

Note return to page In C 16 of the present Book.

Note return to page On the contrary, as Parisot observes, the Jordan runs in a straight line almost into the Dead Sea.

Note return to page The Lake of Sodom, or the Dead Sea, in which the Cities of the Plain were swallowed up.

Note return to page In Scripture also called the Lake Tiberias, and the Sea of Gennesareth, or Chinnereth. It is now called the Sea of Tabariah, or Tabarieh.

Note return to page The one of the two Bethsaidas, which was situate on the north of the Sea of Tiberias. It was enlarged by Philip the Tetrarch, who greatly beautified it, and changed its name to Julias, in honour of the daughter of Augustus, the wife of Tiberius. It is generally supposed by the learned world, that this was not the Bethsaida mentioned so often in the New Testament. Its ruins are probably those now seen on a hill called Et-Tell, on the north-western extremity of the lake.

Note return to page On the east of the lake. From it the district of Hippene took its name.

Note return to page Its ruins are to be seen at El-Kereh, on the south side of the lake. It was strongly fortified, and made a vigorous resistance against the Romans in the Jewish War. It received its name from the great quantities of fish which were salted there, τάριχοι.

Note return to page Now Tabariah, or Tabarieh, a miserable village. It was built by Herod Antipas, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. After the destruction of Jerusalem, it became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrim.

Note return to page These hot springs are by Josephus called Emmaüs, probably a form of the Hebrew name Hammath. Dr. Robinson, in his Biblical Researches, identifies this with the town of Hammath, of the tribe of Naphthali, mentioned in Joshua xix. 35.

Note return to page From the Greek ἄσφαλτος.

Note return to page This is an exaggeration, though it is the fact that many heavy substances, which in ordinary water would sink immediately, will float on the surface of this lake. It has been suggested, that the story here mentioned arose from the circumstance of the name of 'bulls,' or 'cows,' having been applied by the ancient Nabatæi to the large masses of asphaltum which floated on its surface.

Note return to page The country of the Arabian Scenitæ, or "tent people."

Note return to page It lay on the east of the Dead Sea, and not the south, as here mentioned by Pliny, being a border fortress in the south of Peræa, and on the confines of the Nabatæi. There was a tradition that it was at this place that John the Baptist was beheaded. The city now bears the name of Mascra.

Note return to page A Greek name, signifying the "Fine Stream." These were warm springs, situate on the eastern side of Jordan, to which Herod the Great resorted during his last illness, by the advice of his physicians. The valley of Callirhoë was visited by Captains Irby and Mangles in 1818, and an interesting account of it is to be found in their 'Travels,' pp. 467–469. The waters are sulphureous to the taste.

Note return to page The Essenes, or Hessenes. These properly formed one of the great sects into which the Jews were divided in the time of Christ. They are not mentioned by name in the New Testament, but it has been conjectured that they are alluded to in Matt. xix. 12, and Col. ii. 18, 23. As stated here by Pliny, they generally lived at a distance from large towns, in communities which bore a great resemblance to the monkish societies of later times. They sent gifts to the Temple at Jerusalem, but never offered sacrifices there. They were divided into four classes, according to the time of their initiation. Their origin is uncertain. Some writers look upon them as the same as the Assidians, or Chasidim, mentioned in 1 Maccabees, ii. 42, vii. 13. Their principal society was probably the one mentioned by Pliny, and from this other smaller ones proceeded, and spread over Palestine, Syria, and Egypt. The Essenes of Egypt were divided into two sects; the practical Essenes, whose mode of life was the same as those of Palestine; and the contemplative Essenes, who were called Therapeutœ. Both sects maintained the same doctrines; but the latter were distinguished by a more rigid mode of life. It has been suggested by Taylor, the editor of 'Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible,' that John the Baptist belonged to this sect.

Note return to page Or Engedi. Its ancient name was Hazezon-Tamar, when it was inhabited by the Amorites. See Gen. xiv. 7; 2 Chron. xx. 2. According to Josephus, it gave name to one of the fifteen toparchies of Judæa. It still retains its name, Ain-Jedey, or "Fountain of the Goats," and was so called from a spring which issued out of the limestone rock at the base of a lofty cliff.

Note return to page Its site is now known as Sebbeh, on the south-west of the Dead Sea.

Note return to page δεκὰ πολεῖς, the "Ten Cities." He alludes to the circumstance, that the number of cities varied from time to time in this district; one being destroyed in warfare, and others suddenly rising from its foundation.

Note return to page The capital city of Syria, both in ancient and modern times. It is now called Es-Sham. The only epithet given to it by the ancient poets is that of "ventosa," or "windy," found in the Pharsalia of Lucan, B. iii. 1. 215, which, it has been remarked, is anything but appropriately chosen.

Note return to page Or the "Golden River." It is uncertain whether this was the Abana or Pharpar, mentioned in 2 Kings v. 12. Strabo remarks, that the waters of the Chrysorroös "are almost entirely consumed in irrigation, as it waters a large extent of deep soil."

Note return to page The ancient Rabbath Ammon, a city of the Ammonites. It was afterwards called Astarte, and then Philadelphia, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus. According to D'Anville, the present name of its site is Amman.

Note return to page Thirty-three miles from Apamea. Its ruins are probably those mentioned by Abulfeda under the name of Rafaniat. William of Tyre says, that it was taken in the year 1125 by the Count of Tripoh.

Note return to page Previously called Beth-shan. It was the next city of the Decapolis in magnitude after Damascus. It was situate in the land of the tribe of Issachar, though it belonged to the Manasites. At this place the bodies of Saul and his sons were hung up by the Philistines; see 1 Sam. xxxi. 10–12. Reland suggests that it received the name of Scythopolis, not from a Scythian colony, but from the Succoth of Gen. xxxiii. 17, which appears to have been in its vicinity. Its ruins, which still bear the name of Baisan, are very extensive.

Note return to page Called by Josephus the capital of Peræa, and the chief place of the district of the Gadarenes of the Evangelists. Its ruins, about six miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, are very extensive.

Note return to page Still called the Yarmak, evidently from its ancient name. Hippo has been mentioned in the last Chapter.

Note return to page Or Dium, between Pella and Gadara. In later times, this place was included in Roman Arabia.

Note return to page Also called Butis. It was the most southerly of the ten cities which comprised the Decapolis, standing about five miles south of Scythopolis, or Beth-shan. Its exact site seems not to have been ascertained; but it has been suggested that it is the modern El-Bujeh. From the expression used by Pliny, it would appear to have had mineral waters in its vicinity.

Note return to page Of this place nothing is known; but it is most probable that the Gerasa of Ptolemy and Josephus is meant. According to the former writer, it was thirty-five miles from Pella. Its site is marked by extensive ruins, thirty-five miles east of the Jordan, known by the name of Gerash, and on the borders of the Great Desert of the Hauvan. According to Dr. Keith, the ruins bear extensive marks of splendour.

Note return to page Ptolemy mentions a city of this name in Cœlesyria.

Note return to page So called from having been originally groups of four principalities, held by princes who were vassals to the Roman emperors, or the kings of Syria.

Note return to page Containing the northern district of Palestine, beyond the Jordan, between Antilibanus and the mountains of Arabia. It was bounded on the north by the territory of Damascus, on the east by Auranitis, on the south by Ituræa, and on the west by Gaulanitis. It was so called from its ranges of rocky mountains, or τραχῶνες, the caves in which gave refuge to numerous bands of robbers.

Note return to page So called from the mountain of that name. Cæsarea Philippi also bore the name of Panias. It was situate at the south of Mount Hermon, on the Jordan, just below its source. It was built by Philip the Tetrarch, B.C. 3. King Agrippa called it Neronias; but it soon lost that name.

Note return to page In C. xiv. of the present Book, as that in which the Jordan takes its rise.

Note return to page A place of great strength in Cœle-Syria, now known as Nebi Abel, situate between Heliopolis and Damascus.

Note return to page Situate between Tripolis and Antaradus, at the north-west foot of Mount Libanus. It lay within a short distance of the sea, and was famous for the worship paid by its inhabitants to Astarte, the Syrian Aphrodite. A temple was erected here to Alexander the Great, in which Alexander Severus, the Roman Emperor, was born, his parents having resorted thither to celebrate a festival, A.D. 205. From this circumstance, its name was changed to Cæsarea. Burckhardt fixes its site at a hill called Tel-Arka.

Note return to page Of this place, which probably took its name from its numerous vines, nothing whatever is known.

Note return to page Called by Pliny, in B. xii. c. 41, Gabba. It was situate at the foot of Mount Carmel between Cæsarea and Ptolemais, sixteen miles from the former. No remains of it are to be seen. It must not be confounded with Gabala, in Galilee, fortified by Herod the Great.

Note return to page The town was situate between Cæsarea and Ptolemais. The river has been identified with the modern Nahl-el-Zerka, in which, according to Pococke, crocodiles have been found.

Note return to page Called Dor, before the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. See Joshua xvii. 11, and Judges i. 27. It afterwards belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh. Its site is now called Tortura.

Note return to page Its site is now called Atlik, according to D'Anville. Parisot suggests that it is the modern Keufah; others that it is Hepha, near Mount Carmel.

Note return to page Insignificant in height and extent, but celebrated in Scripture history. It still bears the name of Cape Carmel.

Note return to page It is not improbable that he means the town of Porphyrium, now Khaifa, at the foot of the mountain.

Note return to page Probably the Gitta of Polybius. Of it and Jeba, nothing is known.

Note return to page The Nahr-Naman, or Abou, on which Ptolemais was situate.

Note return to page Employed in the extensive manufacture of that article at Tyre and Sidon, to the north of this district.

Note return to page A corruption of Acco, the native name; from which the English name Acre, and the French St. Jean d'Acre. The earliest mention of it is in the Book of Judges, i. 31. It is supposed that it was Ptolemy I., the son of Lagus, who enlarged it and gave it the name of Ptolemais. Its citadel, however, still retained the name of Ace. Under the Romans, Ptolemais