Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott [1940], A Greek-English Lexicon; Machine readable text (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) [word count] [greatscott01].

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Preface 1925

More than eighty years have passed since the first edition of the famous Lexicon upon which the present work is based was published by the Clarendon Press. Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott—the latter a Craven and Ireland Scholar—were both placed in the First Class in the Oxford list of 1833, both having been born in 1811. In 1835 Scott became a Fellow of Balliol and in the following year Liddell was elected to a Studentship of Christ Church. It appears that Mr. Talboys, an Oxford bookseller and publisher, first approached Scott with a proposal that a Greek-English Lexicon, based on that of Franz Passow, should be compiled, and that Scott made his acceptance conditional on the consent of Liddell to join in the work; at any rate, it was Talboys who first undertook the publication, which was taken over after his retirement by the Clarendon Press. There is, however, some ground for thinking that William Sewell, who had been an examiner in the Schools of 1833, suggested the idea to Liddell and Scott; and Liddell mentions in his correspondence the encouragement which the project received from Dean Gaisford.

The Lexicon of Passow, which the Oxford scholars took as the basis of their work, was itself founded upon that of Johann Gottlob Schneider, the editor of Theophrastus, the first edition of which had appeared in 1797-8. Passow had laid down, in his Essay on Zweck, Anlage, und Ergänzung griechischer Wörerbücher, published in 1812, the canons by which the lexicographer should be guided, amongst which the most important was the requirement that citations should be chronologically arranged in order to exhibit the history of each word and its uses. In obedience to this principle, Passow based his work on a special study of the Early Epic vocabulary, and the relatively full treatment of Homeric usage is a legacy bequeathed by him to Liddell and Scott which has persisted throughout the successive editions of their work. The first edition of his Lexicon appeared in 1819, and his expressed intention was to expand the work gradually by incorporating successively the results of special studies of Early Lyric Poetry, the Ionic Prose of Herodotus and Hippocrates, the Attic dramatists, and the Attic Prose writers: but little change was made in his second and third editions (1825 and 1827), and the fourth (1831), in which the Early Lyric poets and Herodotus received fuller recognition, was the first in which he felt himself at liberty to omit the name of Schneider from his title-page and also the last to appear in his lifetime. He died in 1833 in his forty-seventh year.

In the meantime two attempts had been made to adapt the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae of Henri Estienne to modern uses. The first of these was the result of the activities of Abraham Valpy, and was largely the work of E. H. Barker of Trinity College, Cambridge. It was completed in nine folio volumes, published in 1819-28, and reproduced the text of Stephanus' Thesaurus, interlarded with a mass of copious but ill-digested information. The first volume met with vigorous and not undeserved criticism on the part of Bishop Blomfield in an article in the Quarterly Review (vol. xxii, pp. 302 ff.) which is marred by a lavish display of odium philologicum. The editors, however, profited by the Bishop's strictures, and his prophecy that a work in which 139 columns were devoted to the word

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ἄγαλμα would run to fifty volumes and attain to completion in 1889 was signally falsified. The work labours under the serious disadvantage of retaining the etymological arrangement of Stephanus,In 1812 Passow himself had advocated the retention of Stephanus' arrangement; but he fortunately abandoned it in favour of the alphabetical principle. which forces the reader to make a laborious search for any compound or derived word.

This mistake was avoided by the compilers of the Paris Thesaurus, the publication of which was begun in 1831 by Firmin-Didot, and was placed under the general editorship of Karl Benedict Hase. This enterprise was also subjected to criticism in the Quarterly Review (vol. li, pp. 144 ff.) by J. R. Fishlake (the translator of Buttmann's Lexilogus) on the ground of its unwieldy bulk; but the association of the brothers Wilhelm and Ludwig Dindorf at an early stage of the workTheir names appeared on the title-page of Part IV (containing β), which appeared concurrently with the second half of α. enabled it to be carried through in thirty-four years, and its vast collections of material, though often ill-arranged and unevenly treated, were largely drawn upon by Liddell and Scott in their successive editions.

The first of these appeared in 1843; it was a quarto volume of 1,583 pages, priced at 42s., and 6,000 copies were printed. A second, revised and enlarged, was called for in 1845, and the editors acknowledged their indebtedness to the German lexicon of Wilhelm Pape, which had appeared almost simultaneously with their own. In 1849 a third edition, corrected, but not substantially enlarged, was published, and six years later came the fourth, revised throughout. This marks a considerable advance on its predecessors, and much additional material was inserted; but the writers specially recognized were still chiefly those of the early classical period, including the Lyric poets, the authors of the Hippocratean writings, and the Attic orators. The editors now felt justified in omitting the name of Passow from their title-page. Eight thousand copies of this edition were printed, and the price was reduced to 30s. After another interval of six years the fifth edition, 'revised and augmented', appeared in 1861, and use was made of the greatly enlarged fifth edition of Passow, published by Valentin Rost and Friedrich Palm and completed in 1857, while the philological information was recast in the light of G. Curtius' Griechische Etymologie (1858). There were 10,000 copies of this edition, priced at 31s. 6d. The sixth is dated in 1869; it was again considerably augmented, the number of pages being increased from 1,644 to 1,865, and the verbal forms were more fully given with the aid of Veitch's Greek Verbs, irregular and defective (2nd ed., 1866). Of this edition 15,00000 copies were printed, and the price was raised to 36s. Fourteen years later appeared a seventh edition, revised by Liddell, whose Preface is dated October 1882; the page was enlarged, and this made a reduction in the number to 1,776 possible. Bonitz's Index to Aristotle (1870) and Roehl's Index to CIG (1877) were largely drawn upon, and help was received from American scholars-Professors Drisler, Goodwin, and Gildersleeve-especially in regard to the particles and the technical terms of Attic law. This edition was stereotyped, and from time to time reprinted. Finally, in 1897, there was published an eighth edition, in which such corrections were made as could be inserted without altering the pagination. This made it impossible to take full account of such new sources as the Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία, but there was a short list of Addenda, containing references to this work and to inscriptions published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. Liddell appears to have been engaged for some years after the publication of the seventh edition on a lexicographical study of inscriptions; Sir William Thiselton-Dyer has kindly placed at my disposal two volumes of an interleaved edition of the abridged Lexicon in which his collections of material, largely drawn from the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum and Roehl's Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, are contained; but he seems to have laid the work aside in his later years, and he died in 1898, at the age of 87, a few months after the appearance of the eighth edition.

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Some five years later the Delegates of the Clarendon Press were invited to consider the revision of the Lexicon with a view to the incorporation of the rapidly growing material supplied by newly discovered texts on stone and papyrus, for which room might be found by the adoption of more compendious methods of reference; and a conference took place in March 1903, for which Ingram Bywater prepared a memorandum on the projected revision, advice being sought from Henry Jackson, Sir Richard Jebb, J. E. B. Mayor, and Arthur Sidgwick. The Delegates received the project favourably and it was hoped that Mr. Sidgwick might be able to act as editor. Contributions were invited in his name and a fair amount of material was collected, including a large number of notes and suggestions by Professor Leeper of Melbourne. Amongst other English and American scholars whose contributions were of considerable extent may be named the Rev. M. A. Bayfield and Prof. C. J. Goodwin, and particularly Mr. Herbert W. Greene, of whose services to the Lexicon more will be said presently. Mr. Sidgwick was, however, prevented by his duties as a teacher and afterwards by the failure of his health from commencing the work of revision.

In the meantime two more ambitious schemes had been initiated. At the second general assembly of the International Association of Academies, held in London in May 1904, Sir Richard Jebb submitted on behalf of the British Academy a scheme for the compilation of a new Thesaurus of Ancient Greek up to the early part of the seventh century A.D.; and after a discussion in which the difficulty and magnitude of the enterprise were emphasizedKrumbacher was anxious to include Byzantine Greek in the ambit of the new Thesaurus. a Committee of Inquiry, consisting of Sir R. C. Jebb, Professors Diels, Gomperz, Heiberg, Krumbacher, Leo, and M. Perrot, with power to co-opt, was appointed to consider method, means, and preliminary questions in connexion with the proposal. In 1905 Prof. P. Kretschmer was added to the Committee, which drafted a memorandum on the question of establishing a periodical 'Archiv' and an office for the collection of slips. At the close of the year Jebb, who had acted as Chairman, died, and was replaced in 1906 by Gomperz, while Bywater was added to the Committee, which, at a meeting held at Vienna in May, decided to constitute itself a permanent and independent body.

The difficulties of the project had been incisively stated by Diels in an article published in the Neue Jahrbücher for 1905,p. 692; Diels had already expressed his views in his Elementum (1899), p. ix sqq. in the course of which he wrote as follows:

Any one who bears in mind the bulk of Greek literature, which is at least 10 times as great [as that of Latin], its dialectical variations, its incredible wealth of forms, the obstinate persistence of the classical speech for thousands of years down to the fall of Constantinople, or, if you will, until the present day: who knows, moreover, that the editions of almost all the Greek classics are entirely unsuited for the purposes of slipping, that for many important writers no critical editions whatever exist: and who considers the state of our collections of fragments and special Lexica, will see that at the present time all the bases upon which a Greek Thesaurus could be erected are lacking.

But even if we were to assume that we possessed such editions and collections from Homer down to Nonnus, or (as Krumbacher proposed in London) down to Apostolius, and further that they had all been worked over, slipped, or excerpted by a gigantic staff of scholars, and that a great house had preserved and stored the thousands of boxes, whence would come the time, money, and power to sift these millions of slips and to bring Νοῦς into this Chaos ? Since the proportion of Latin to Greek Literature is about 1:10, the office work of the Greek Thesaurus would occupy at least 100 scholars. At their head there would have to be a general editor, who, however, would be more of a general than an editor. And if this editorial cohort were really to perform its task punctually, and if the Association of Academies, which, as is well known, has not a penny of its own, were to raise the ten million marks necessary for the completion of (say) 120 volumes; and if scholars were to become so opulent that they could afford to purchase the Thesaurus Graecus for (say) 6,ooo marks-how could one read and use such a monstrosity?

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Diels's own solution was the compilation, not of one, but of ten Thesauri, representing the main branches of Greek Literature, Epic, Lyric, Tragic, Comic, Philosophical, Historical, Mathematical and Technical, Medical, Grammatical, and Jewish-Christian, each of which, he thought, would equal the Latin Thesaurus in bulk!A similar suggestion had been made more than half a century earlier by F. A. Wolf in his Vorlesungen über die Altertumswissenschaft i p. 187.

The majority of the members of the Committee, however, were still of the opinion that a foundation should be laid for the Thesaurus by the preparation of full slips for the whole of Greek literature on the method which had been adopted for the Latin Thesaurus, and made a recommendation in this sense to the third assembly of the International Association of Academies, held at Vienna in May 1907. The Association invited the British Academy (represented at Vienna by Bywater) to prepare a specimen for submission to the meeting which was to be held in 1910; but a Committee appointed by the Academy to consider this proposal, consisting of Bywater, H. Jackson, S. H. Butcher, and Sir F. Kenyon, reported in the following sense:

They (the Committee) are not convinced that the modus operandi suggested for the projected Greek Thesaurus is the best possible. They think (a) that the Latin Thesaurus would not provide a proper scale and model; (b) that the mechanical slipping of Greek texts, besides being as is confessed a huge undertaking, would not serve as a satisfactory basis, inasmuch as it would give results difficult to manipulate and of questionable value. Rather, as recommended by M. Paul Meyer at the discussion in May 1904, they would suggest as a more promising plan that of the New English Dictionary.

In the face of this report, the British Academy felt that it was useless to proceed with the scheme, and it was tacitly dropped.

At about the date when the project of a Thesaurus Graecus was finally abandoned, a proposal was made by a group of Greek scholars for the preparation of a Lexicon of the Greek language—Ancient, Medieval, and Modern-the publication of which should commence in 1921 as a memorial of the Centenary of Greek independence. The Greek Government took the scheme under its patronage, and in November 1908 a Commission was appointed by royal decree, at the head of which was the veteran scholar Kontos, who was succeeded on his death by Hatzidakis. Krumbacher, in one of his latest articles in the Byzantinische Zeitschrift,xviii (1909), 708 ff.; criticized the project, and advised the Greek scholars to confine themselves in the first instance to the Modern tongue; and though this recommendation was not, as it seems, formally adopted, the preliminary publications of the Commission consist mainly in a series of studies of the modern dialects, which appear as supplements to Ἀθηνᾶ, and it would appear that a Lexicon of Medieval and Modern Greek is contemplated in the first instance.

When it became clear that Mr. Sidgwick would be unable to carry out the revision of the Lexicon, the Delegates of the Clarendon Press invited me to undertake the work which I did in the autumn of 1911, having been elected by Trinity College to a Research Fellowship which I continued to hold (except for a short period during the war) until my election to the Camden Professorship of Ancient History at the close of 1919. It was hoped at first that the preparation of a revised text might be completed in five years; but before the work had progressed very far it became clear that a more drastic revision than was suggested by a cursory examination would be necessary. Moreover, such large gaps (especially in technical subjects) remained to be filled if the new edition was to be adequate to the needs of modern scholarship—to say nothing of the large mass of new material awaiting incorporation-that the time allotted was evidently insufficient for more than a preliminary revision of Liddell and Scott's text, which would afterwards have to be worked up into a largely re-written Lexicon with the contributions of specialists and others whose help might be enlisted.

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Such assistance has been placed at my disposal with a generosity for which I cannot find words adequate to express my gratitude; nor would it be possible within the limits of this preface to enumerate all those who have supplied corrections of, or suggested improvements in, the text of the eighth edition. Mention, however, must be made of those who undertook special researches in aid of the revision.

Taking the more technical subjects first, the most laborious task was that of revising and amplifying the vocabulary of Medicine. It is interesting to recall the fact that many years ago the late Dr. Greenhill, of Trinity College, projected a Lexicon of Greek Medicine, for which he collected a certain amount of material in the shape of references arranged on slips and worked up a small portion of it in a series of articles in the Medico-Chirurgical Journal. He proposed to the Delegates that he should collaborate with M. Daremberg in preparing his Lexicon, but the suggestion did not meet with their approval, and Dr. Greenhill proceeded no further; his collection of slips passed after his death into the possession of the Royal College of Surgeons. It was clearly necessary that the field should be resurveyed, and I was fortunate enough to secure the services of Dr. E. T. Withington, who took up residence in Oxford and has worked untiringly on this difficult subject. He has read for lexicographical purposes the whole of the extant remains of Greek medical literature, and there is scarcely a page in the Lexicon which does not bear traces of his handiwork.Dr. Withington has also found time to deal with the Alchemists and Astrologers, including the extensive collections of the Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum.

For the subject of Botany, again, expert assistance was indispensable. Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., has for a long while been collecting material for a Glossary of Greek plants, and the publication of Max Wellmann's edition of Dioscorides, completed in 1914, has furnished a reliable critical text of the most important author in this branch of literature. Sir William Dyer has been most generous in placing the results of his study of Greek plant-names at my disposal, and his identifications are not likely to be disputed. A number of them had already been communicated to Sir Arthur Hort for use in his edition of Theophrastus' Historia Plantarum.Sir Arthur Hort has himself rendered aid in the difficult task of interpreting the Greek of Theophrastus.

The province of Greek Mathematics belongs in a special sense to Sir Thomas Heath, F.R.S., Whose History of Greek Mathematics and editions of Euclid, Apollonius of Perga, Aristarchus of Samos, and Diophantus mark him out as the first authority in this subject. He has found leisure to contribute a large number of notes of the greatest value on Greek mathematical terms. To take an obvious instance, it will be seen that the eighth edition of Liddell and Scott recognizes the word ἀσύμπτωτος only in a Medical sense illustrated by a quotation (not quite accurately translated) from Hippocrates; Sir Thomas Heath has supplied the materials for a history of the use from which the modern asymptote is derived.

In the domain of Natural History Professor D'Arcy Thompson's help has enabled me to correct a number of mistakes made by previous lexicographers. His Glossary of Greek Birds has been in constant use, and his version of the Historia Animalium in the Oxford translations of Aristotle to a large extent supplies the want of a glossary of the Animal Kingdom.

In the field of Astronomy and Astrology I have to thank Mr. Edmund J. Webb for reading the Almagest of Ptolemy and other astronomical writings, and thereby greatly increasing the accuracy of the Lexicon in these matters. For the Astrological vocabulary a glossary was drafted by the Rev. C. T. Harley Walker, and the ground has also (as above mentioned) been worked over by Dr. Withington; but in this thorny subject difficulties frequently arise, for which Professor A. E. Housman, when appealed to, never fails to provide a solution.

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Amongst technical writings must be classed those of the tacticians and military engineers. The first were studied for my purposes by the late Mr. C. D. Chambers; the latter group, whose works are often very difficult of interpretation, have been read (together with other authors) by Mr. F. W. Hall.

Besides these highly specialized branches of study, there were large tracts of literature which it was needful to explore, but which a single editor could not hope to cover unaided. In the matter of papyri, for example, he might be able to deal with the newly recovered literary texts such as the Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία, Bacchylides, Herodas, Cercidas, and the recently found fragments of the Early Lyric poets and Callimachus, but the great mass of non-literary papyri, especially those concerned with the technique of law and administration in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, required to be dealt with by those specially versed in the new science of papyrology. The Ptolemaic papyri were therefore read, partly by Mr. Edgar Lobel (who dealt with the Petrie collection) and partly by Professor Jouguet of Lille, those of the Roman period by Professor Martin of Geneva. Mr. H. Idris Bell of the British Museum has supplied valuable notes on recent papyrological publications and on unedited documents in the British Museum Collection.The first part of Preisigke's Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden appeared after the sheets of Part I had been printed off, but has been used for Addenda. For the vocabulary of the Inscriptions little could be done by the editor except to revise the existing references to Boeckh's Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum-no light task, seeing that so many of the stones have been re-examined and may be studied in improved texts-and to supplement these corrected citations by illustrations from collections such as those of DittenbergerThe appearance of a third edition of the Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, completed in 1924, has necessitated the alteration of a large number of references. The pitfalls which beset the path of the lexicographer may be exemplified by the fact that on the first revision the word ἀπόπλωσις was illustrated by SIG2929.127, and this was altered by the concordance-table to SIG3685.127: fortunately it was discovered in time that the word had disappeared in the later text! or Michel or the Griechische Dialektinschriften, with the aid of Herwerden's Lexicon Suppletorium, a work unfortunately marred by constant inaccuracy of reference, which it is charitable to ascribe to lack of the minute care required in lexicographical proofreading. I was therefore compelled to invoke the aid of Mr. M. N. Tod, to whom I owe an incalculable debt for his services in this field. Mr. Tod has for several years read with an eye to the improvement of the Lexicon every epigraphical publication which has appeared, such for example as the later volumes of the Inscriptiones Graecae, Cagnat's Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes, the Tituli Asiae Minoris, and the special publications of the inscriptions of Delphi, Ephesus, Magnesia, Miletus, and Priene, and has excerpted the whole of the periodical literature in which inscriptions are to be found, so that it is hard to believe that any new material of real importance which has accrued since 1911 can have escaped his methodical scrutiny. I have also received help in epigraphical matters from Professor M. Cary and Miss C. A. Hutton.

Turning to Literature proper, it soon became clear that while the references to Plato and Aristotle needed careful revision and some amplification,Bonitz's Index to Aristotle and Ast's Lexicon Platonicum are no longer all-sufficing guides. Such words as μορυχώτερον (which should be read in Arist. Metaph. 987a10) and τεράμων (which there is reason to think once stood in the text of Pl. Sph. 221a, though it is not mentioned by Burnet) are addenda. the terminology of the later schools of Philosophy had never been adequately treated by lexicographers. Neither Usener's Epicurea nor von Arnim's Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta possesses an index; and Mr. (now Professor) J. L. Stocks generously undertook to remedy this defect, and to supply me with a vocabulary of the important technical terms of the Stoic and Epicurean schools (including in his survey of the latter such later works as the tracts or other remains of Philodemus, Polystratus, Demetrius Lacon, Diogenianus, and Diogenes of Oenoanda). Unfortunately his work was interrupted by the Great War, and on his return from service Mr. Stocks found himself unable to work up the material which he had collected within the

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necessary limits of time. His notes on Stoic terminology were therefore transferred to Mr. A. C. Pearson, who carried the work a stage further, but found, after his appointment to the Regius Professorship of Greek at Cambridge, that he would not have time to complete it. Professor E. V. Arnold of Bangor, who is retiring from his post, hopes to find the leisure necessary for this much-needed work.

In dealing with the vocabulary of Epicurus and his school Mr. Stocks found that for an adequate treatment it would be necessary to obtain access to the transcripts of the fragments of the περὶ φύσεως and other writings made by Wilhelm Crönert and used by him in his revision of Passow's Lexicon, of which more will be said presently. Crönert (who had spent some time in England as a prisoner of war in 1917-19) very kindly acceded to a request which I made to him at the suggestion of von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and generously placed his transcripts at the disposal of Mr. Stocks, who visited him in Germany and made full use of this valuable material.

The peculiar vocabulary of the later Platonists has not hitherto received the attention which it deserves in Lexica; it is worthy of note that even in the seventh edition (1883) Liddell and Scott stated that the word μετεμψύχωσις (which is absent from the Paris Thesaurus and appears in Rost and Palm with the note ' Clem.Al. (?)') 'seems to be of no authority', though in the eighth edition an example of its use is cited from Proclus' Commentary on the Republic of Plato. As a matter of fact, this word can be quoted from ten authors besides Proclus.D. S. 10. 6, Gal. 4. 763, Alex. Aphr. de An. 27. 18, Porph. Abst. 4. 16, Herm. ap. Stob. 1. 49. 69 (tit.), Sallust. 20, Hieronym. Ep. 124. 4, Theol. Ar. 40, Serv. ad Verg. Aen. 3. 68, Sch. Iamb. Protr. 14. Professor Burnet, who in his edition of the Phaedo drew attention to some of these passages, added: ‘Hippolytus, Clement and other Christian writers say μετενσωμάτωσις (“reincarnation”) which is accurate but cumbrous’; but the implication that this word belongs to Patristic Greek is misleading. It is found in Plotinus and in later Platonists such as Hierocles and Proclus. Again, such a characteristic use as that of ἄτοπος in the philosophical sense of 'non-spatial' has escaped lexicographers. In dealing with this branch of literature I have received help from various scholars, notably Professor A. E. Taylor; and the late Mr. M. G. Davidson read the Enneads of Plotinus, the abstruse work of Damascius περὶ ἀρχῶν, and other treatises. The extant commentaries on the works of Aristotle of course belong to this school of thought, and Mr. W. D. Ross kindly undertook to supply notes on their vocabulary with the aid of the excellent indices of the Berlin edition and with the collaboration of certain of the Oxford translators;Two of these, Mr. Erwin Webster and Mr. Gibson, lost their lives in the Great War. the bulk of this work, however, fell upon his own shoulders.

Another branch of literature demanding special study was that of the magical and mystical writings-the Corpus Hermeticum, the magical papyri, the Tabellae Defixionum, and such like. This field was carefully worked over by Mr. Walter Scott, whose notes dealt very fully with the difficult words often found in these sources.

For the New Testament the intensive study of theologians has done great things in recent times, and the results of their labours are readily accessible; for the ordinary purposes of revision such Lexica as those of Ebeling and Zorell are generally sufficient; while for the illustration of Biblical usage from Hellenistic and later Greek we have a most valuable aid in Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary of the Greek Testament which (within its natural limits) may almost be regarded as a Lexicon of the κοινή as a whole. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to Professor Milligan for supplying advance proofs of the Vocabulary, the fifth part of which has just been published. Prof. A. H. McNeile and the Rev. A. Llewellyn Davies have advised me in matters relating to the LXX, Hexapla, etc.

Turning to post-classical Greek literature in general, help was received from various scholars (amongst whom may be named Mr. Ronald Burn and Mr. C. E. Freeman, who excerpted several of the less familiar writers), but such merits as the new edition may

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possess in virtue of largely increased illustration and more accurate interpretation of the ancient texts will in the main be due to the self-effacing and monumental labours of Mr. Herbert W. Greene, sometime Fellow of Magdalen. Amongst the materials placed at my disposal when I began my editorial work in 1911 were twenty-four volumes of notes compiled by Mr. Greene as contributions to the Lexicography of authors mainly (though not by any means entirely) of post-Alexandrian date, including Lucian, the Anthology, all the later Epic poets, the Scriptores Erotici, Aelian, Philostratus, and others. From that time onwards Mr. Greene has not ceased to read and excerpt the remains of later Greek literature, including the works of practically every non-technical writer of importance from Polybius to Procopius. The twenty-four volumes have grown to nearly eighty, and many of the notes which they contain are elaborate dissertations constituting an important contribution to Classical Scholarship. Valuable aid has also been received from Professor W. A. Goligher, who read the minor Greek historians, Mr. J. M. Edmonds, who supplied a vocabulary of the Greek Lyric poets, Mr. J. H. A. Hart, who is compiling an index verborum to Philo, Professor A. W. Mair and Mr. M. T. Smiley, whose notes on Callimachus have been of great use, and other scholars, such as Professors J. A. Platt, A. Souter, R. L. Dunbabin, and W. L. Lorimer, Mr. T. W. Allen, Mr. A. H. Smith, Mr. G. Middleton, and the late Mr. G. E. Underhill, to all of whom special thanks are due. The advice of Mr. Edgar Lobel has been constantly sought and freely given, especially in regard to the remains of Early Lyric poetry and the ancient lexicographers.

The procedure of revision was briefly as follows. At the outset the Clarendon Press supplied a paste-up of the eighth edition in columns, and the first step was to note in the margin the essential alterations of the text and the most important additions. After this had been done, a second paste-up in columns was made, and the marginalia of the first were fused with newly accumulated material and recast in a form suitable for publication; but it was found that the copy thus produced would present great difficulties to the printer, and that a clean copy based on the use of short sections of Liddell and Scott's text treated as a proof was required. When I became Camden Professor at the beginning of 1920 it became necessary to provide me with assistance in my editorial work, and Mr. R. McKenzie of Trinity College (now Fereday Fellow of St. John's College) was appointed AssistantEditor by the Delegates of the Press. Apart from his arduous labour inputting my drafts into final shape and in arranging and working in a large mass of accumulated material, Mr. McKenzie has been able to render inestimable service to the Lexicon on the philological side. After careful consideration it was decided that etymological information should be reduced to a minimum. A glance at Boisacq's Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque will show that the speculations of etymologists are rarely free from conjecture; and the progress of comparative philology since the days of G. Curtius (whose Griechische Etymologie was the main source drawn upon by Liddell and Scott) has brought about the clearance of much rubbish but little solid construction. Some assured results, however, have been attained, and the etymologies presented in the text have in almost every case been approved by Mr. McKenzie.

The space required for the incorporation of new material without an excessive increase in the bulk of the Lexicon has been saved partly by abbreviations and compendious methods of printing, partly by certain limitations of scope. Liddell and Scott, though they originally intended their work to be a Lexicon of Classical Greek,This appears from letters written in 1877 by Dean Liddell to Mr. Falconer Madan (who kindly placed them at my disposal) with reference to J. E. B. Mayor's well-known articles on Greek Lexicography in the Journal of Philology. admitted a number of words from Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writers, for many of which no reference was given except the symbols Eccl.' and 'Byz.' After due consideration it has been decided to exclude both Patristic and Byzantine literature from the purview of the present edition. It would

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have manifestly been impossible to include more than a small and haphazard selection of words and quotations from these literatures, which would therefore have had to be treated quite differently from the remains of Classical Greek, where (it may be hoped) sufficient illustration has been given of the vocabulary and usage of all writers of importance, accompanied by precise and easily verifiable references. There is, moreover, in preparation a Lexicon of Patristic Greek (including Christian poetry and inscriptions) under the editorship of Dr. Darwell Stone, which will, it is hoped, be printed when the publication of the present work is concluded.Christian authors are of course frequently cited as the source of classical quotations, and such treatises as those of Porphyry and Julian Against the Christians are reconstructed from Patristic writings. For the Byzantine vocabulary we shall have to wait for the Modern Greek Lexicon to which allusion has already been made, but it will hardly be denied that some time-limit was called for, and this has been fixed roughly at A. D. 600 in order to include the historians and poets of the reign of Justinian, though such writers as the scholiasts, grammarians, and others who preserve the fragmentary remains of ancient scholarship must naturally be taken into account in their own province.

The present volume will not challenge comparison in scale with the revision of Passow's Wörterbuch der griechischen Sprache by Wilhelm Crönert, of which three parts, extending as far as ἀνά, appeared in 1912-14. This monument of Herculean toil will, if and when it is completed (a consummation for which all lovers of learning will devoutly pray), bulk about three times as large as Liddell and Scott; in fact, this estimate may be exceeded if Crönert is able to carry out the plan foreshadowed in the preface to his second part, where he looks forward to the gradual expansion of his work as it proceeds (after the manner of Passow) by means of a fuller treatment of post-Classical Greek. Cronert's work has been criticized by Kretschmer,In Glotta vi pp. 300 f. who regards it as too ambitious in scope and unlikely to be completed within a reasonable period of time, and would prefer a Lexicon on a somewhat smaller scale as a preliminary to the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae which must remain for a long while to come a pious aspiration. It may be hoped that the present work will do something to supply this need, and that it may be found to possess some compensating advantages denied to the larger Lexicon of Crönert, such as the provision of exact references for every word cited from an author and fuller and more representative quotations from the later literature, e.g. from such authors as Plotinus.A comparison of the art. ἀμφίβιος in Crönert-Passow with that of the present work will illustrate the difference of method. Crönert, on the other hand, gives the lexicographical tradition of the ancient grammarians very fully. For this it would not have been possible to find room; nor, indeed, has it yet been thoroughly sifted and critically edited. The deaths of Wentzel, Leopold Cohn, and Egenolff, and the migration of Bethe and Reitzenstein to more succulent pastures, have brought the two great enterprises of the firm of Teubner-the Corpus Grammaticorum Graecorum and that of the ancient Lexica—to a premature end. De Stefani's edition of the Etymologicum Gudianum is, however, in course of appearing, and it is understood that Drachmann is editing the remains of the Glossary of' Cyril' (see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie xii 175).

My best thanks are due to those scholars who are generously devoting their time to the reading of the proof-sheets and the verification of references, especially to the authors originally read by them for the purposes of the Lexicon. Some of these have already been named, such as Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer, Professors D'Arcy Thompson, A. E. Taylor, A. C. Pearson, and J. L. Stocks, Mr. Herbert Greene, Mr. Tod, Dr. Withington, Mr. Ross, and Mr. F. W. Hall. Lieut.-Col. Farquharson's scrutiny of the quotations from Plato and Aristotle is producing important results; and Messrs. C. and G. M. Cookson, Mr. W. W. How, and the Rev. W. Evans are doing valuable work in maintaining the standard of accuracy. The Editor's task is naturally heavy, especially in view of the fact that the progress of scholarship tends to make the text originally drafted for the Press out of date or to bring fresh material to light. Such publications as Ulrich Wilcken's Urkunden der

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Ptolemäerzeit furnish more accurate readings of Papyri and necessitate changes or deletions,For example, ἀντιπατάσσω was cited by me from PPar. 40, but the reference was deleted from the proof when it was found that in UPZ 12 Wilcken read ὠνηλάται ὄντες for ἀντιπατάσσοντες! and I must place on record my gratitude to Professor Wilcken for kindly undertaking to verify and correct references to documents in the yet unpublished portions of his work,This should cause little inconvenience to the user of the Lexicon, as Part I of UPZ contains concordance-tables for the whole work. as also to Mr. J. U. Powell for permitting me to use and refer to the proofs of his Collectanea Alexandrina, shortly about to appear. Professor J. Bidez and Mr. A. D. Knox kindly sent me advanced proofs of the editions of the Epistles of Julian and of Herodas in which they have collaborated. The care and accuracy shown by the Press readers have been altogether exceptional.

It has, I hope, been made abundantly clear that the new edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon is in reality the work of many hands, and represents a great sacrifice of leisure and an earnest devotion to Greek learning on the part of the present generation of scholars, and that not in this country alone. I would fain hope that in the world of science at least (which has, or should have, no frontiers) it may further in some small degree the restoration of the comity of nations.


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Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott [1940], A Greek-English Lexicon; Machine readable text (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) [word count] [greatscott01].
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